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Python使用SMTP发送邮件

jopen 4年前

Python使用SMTP发送邮件

SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)即简单邮件传输协议,它是一组用于由源地址到目的地址传送邮件的规则,由它来控制信件的中转方式。

python的smtplib提供了一种很方便的途径发送电子邮件。它对smtp协议进行了简单的封装。

Python创建 SMTP 对象语法如下:

import smtplib    smtpObj = smtplib.SMTP( [host [, port [, local_hostname]]] )

参数说明:

  • host: SMTP 服务器主机。 你可以指定主机的ip地址或者域名如:w3cschool.cc,这个是可选参数。
  • port: 如果你提供了 host 参数, 你需要指定 SMTP 服务使用的端口号,一般情况下SMTP端口号为25。
  • local_hostname: 如果SMTP在你的本机上,你只需要指定服务器地址为 localhost 即可。

Python SMTP对象使用sendmail方法发送邮件,语法如下:

SMTP.sendmail(from_addr, to_addrs, msg[, mail_options, rcpt_options]

参数说明:

  • from_addr: 邮件发送者地址。
  • to_addrs: 字符串列表,邮件发送地址。
  • msg: 发送消息

这里要注意一下第三个参数,msg是字符串,表示邮件。我们知道邮件一般由标题,发信人,收件人,邮件内容,附件等构成,发送邮件的时候,要注意msg的格式。这个格式就是smtp协议中定义的格式。

实例

以下是一个使用Python发送邮件简单的实例:

#!/usr/bin/python    import smtplib    sender = 'from@fromdomain.com'  receivers = ['to@todomain.com']    message = """From: From Person <from@fromdomain.com>  To: To Person <to@todomain.com>  Subject: SMTP e-mail test    This is a test e-mail message.  """    try:     smtpObj = smtplib.SMTP('localhost')     smtpObj.sendmail(sender, receivers, message)              print "Successfully sent email"  except SMTPException:     print "Error: unable to send email"

使用Python发送HTML格式的邮件

Python发送HTML格式的邮件与发送纯文本消息的邮件不同之处就是将MIMEText中_subtype设置为html。具体代码如下:

import smtplib    from email.mime.text import MIMEText    mailto_list=["YYY@YYY.com"]   mail_host="smtp.XXX.com"  #设置服务器  mail_user="XXX"    #用户名  mail_pass="XXXX"   #口令   mail_postfix="XXX.com"  #发件箱的后缀      def send_mail(to_list,sub,content):  #to_list:收件人;sub:主题;content:邮件内容      me="hello"+"<"+mail_user+"@"+mail_postfix+">"   #这里的hello可以任意设置,收到信后,将按照设置显示      msg = MIMEText(content,_subtype='html',_charset='gb2312')    #创建一个实例,这里设置为html格式邮件      msg['Subject'] = sub    #设置主题      msg['From'] = me        msg['To'] = ";".join(to_list)        try:            s = smtplib.SMTP()            s.connect(mail_host)  #连接smtp服务器          s.login(mail_user,mail_pass)  #登陆服务器          s.sendmail(me, to_list, msg.as_string())  #发送邮件          s.close()            return True        except Exception, e:            print str(e)            return False    if __name__ == '__main__':        if send_mail(mailto_list,"hello","<a href='http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaowuyi'>小五义</a>"):            print "发送成功"        else:            print "发送失败"  

或者你也可以在消息体中指定Content-type为text/html,如下实例:

#!/usr/bin/python    import smtplib    message = """From: From Person <from@fromdomain.com>  To: To Person <to@todomain.com>  MIME-Version: 1.0  Content-type: text/html  Subject: SMTP HTML e-mail test    This is an e-mail message to be sent in HTML format    <b>This is HTML message.</b>  <h1>This is headline.</h1>  """    try:     smtpObj = smtplib.SMTP('localhost')     smtpObj.sendmail(sender, receivers, message)              print "Successfully sent email"  except SMTPException:     print "Error: unable to send email"

Python发送带附件的邮件

发送带附件的邮件,首先要创建MIMEMultipart()实例,然后构造附件,如果有多个附件,可依次构造,最后利用smtplib.smtp发送。

from email.mime.text import MIMEText  from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart  import smtplib    #创建一个带附件的实例  msg = MIMEMultipart()    #构造附件1  att1 = MIMEText(open('d:\\123.rar', 'rb').read(), 'base64', 'gb2312')  att1["Content-Type"] = 'application/octet-stream'  att1["Content-Disposition"] = 'attachment; filename="123.doc"'#这里的filename可以任意写,写什么名字,邮件中显示什么名字  msg.attach(att1)    #构造附件2  att2 = MIMEText(open('d:\\123.txt', 'rb').read(), 'base64', 'gb2312')  att2["Content-Type"] = 'application/octet-stream'  att2["Content-Disposition"] = 'attachment; filename="123.txt"'  msg.attach(att2)    #加邮件头  msg['to'] = 'YYY@YYY.com'  msg['from'] = 'XXX@XXX.com'  msg['subject'] = 'hello world'  #发送邮件  try:      server = smtplib.SMTP()      server.connect('smtp.XXX.com')      server.login('XXX','XXXXX')#XXX为用户名,XXXXX为密码      server.sendmail(msg['from'], msg['to'],msg.as_string())      server.quit()      print '发送成功'  except Exception, e:        print str(e) 

以下实例指定了Content-type header 为 multipart/mixed,并发送/tmp/test.txt 文本文件:

#!/usr/bin/python    import smtplib  import base64    filename = "/tmp/test.txt"    # 读取文件内容并使用 base64 编码  fo = open(filename, "rb")  filecontent = fo.read()  encodedcontent = base64.b64encode(filecontent)  # base64    sender = 'webmaster@tutorialpoint.com'  reciever = 'amrood.admin@gmail.com'    marker = "AUNIQUEMARKER"    body ="""  This is a test email to send an attachement.  """  # 定义头部信息  part1 = """From: From Person <me@fromdomain.net>  To: To Person <amrood.admin@gmail.com>  Subject: Sending Attachement  MIME-Version: 1.0  Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=%s  --%s  """ % (marker, marker)    # 定义消息动作  part2 = """Content-Type: text/plain  Content-Transfer-Encoding:8bit    %s  --%s  """ % (body,marker)    # 定义附近部分  part3 = """Content-Type: multipart/mixed; name=\"%s\"  Content-Transfer-Encoding:base64  Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=%s    %s  --%s--  """ %(filename, filename, encodedcontent, marker)  message = part1 + part2 + part3    try:     smtpObj = smtplib.SMTP('localhost')     smtpObj.sendmail(sender, reciever, message)     print "Successfully sent email"  except Exception:     print "Error: unable to send email"
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来自: http://blog.csdn.net/u011225629/article/details/50314231