Git Cheat Sheet

dfd7 4年前

  • Configure
    • git config –global user.name "[name]"
      • Sets the name you want attached to your commit transactions
    • git config –global user.email "[email address]"
      • Sets the email you want attached to your commit transactions
    • git config –global color.ui auto
      • Enables helpful colorization of command line output
    • git config –global push.default current
      • Update a branch with the same name as current branch if no refspec is given
    • git config –global core.editor [editor]
      • Which editor to use when commit and tag that lets you edit messages
    • git config –global diff.tool [tool]
      • Specify which command to invoke as the specified tool for git difftool

  • Create repositories
    • git init [project-name]
      • Creates a new local repository with the specified name
    • git clone [url]
      • Downloads a project nd its entire version history

  • Make changes
    • git status
      • Lists all new or modified files to be committed
    • git status -s
      • Short view of status
    • git diff
      • Shows file differences not yet staged
    • git add [file]
      • Snapshots the file in preparation for versioning
    • git add .
      • Add all modified files to be commited
    • git add '*.txt'
      • Add only certain files
    • git add –patch filename.x (or -p for short)
      • Snapshot only chunks of a file
    • git rm [file]
      • Tell git not to track the file anymore
    • git diff –staged
      • Show what has been added to the index via git add but not yet committed
    • git diff HEAD
      • Shows what has changed since the last commit.
    • git diff HEAD^
      • Shows what has changed since the commit before the latest commit
    • git diff [branch]
      • Compare current branch to some other branch
    • git difftool -d
      • Same as diff, but opens changes via difftool that you have configured
    • git difftool -d master..
      • See only changes made in the current branch
    • git diff –no-commit-id –name-only –no-merges origin/master…
      • See only the file names that has changed in current branch
    • git diff –stat
      • See statistics on what files have changed and how
    • git reset [file]
      • Unstages the file, but preserves its contents
    • git commit
      • Record changes to git. Default editor will open for a commit message
    • git commit -m "[descriptive message]"
      • Records file snapshots permanently in version history
    • git commit –amend
      • Changing the history, of the HEAD commit

  • Group changes
    • git branch
      • Lists all local branches in the current directory
    • git branch [branch-name]
      • Create a new branch
    • git checkout [branch-name]
      • Switches to the specified branch and updates the working directory
    • git checkout -b <name> <remote>/<branch>
      • Switches to a remote branch
    • git checkout [filename]
      • Return file to it's previous version, if it hasn’t been staged yet
    • git merge [branch]
      • Combines the specified branch's history into the current branch
    • git merge –no–ff [branch]
      • Merge branch without fast forwarding
    • git branch -a
      • See the full list of local and remote branches
    • git branch -d [branch]
      • Deletes the specified branch
    • git branch -D [branch]
      • Hard branch delete, will not complain
    • git branch -m <oldname> <newname>
      • Rename a branch

  • Refactor filenames
    • git rm [file]
      • Deletes the file from the working directory and stages the deletion
    • git rm –cached [file]
      • Removes the file from version control but preserves the file locally
    • git mv [file-original] [file-renamed]
      • Changes the file name and prepares it for commit

  • Suppress tracking
    • .gitignore
      • *.log
      • build/
      • temp-*
      • A text file named .gitignore suppresses accidental versioning of files and paths matching the specified patterns
    • git ls-files –other –ignored –exclude-standard
      • Lists all ignored files in this project

  • Save fragments
    • git stash
      • Temporarily stores all modified tracked files
    • git stash pop
      • Restores the most recently stashed files
    • git stash list
      • Lists all stashed changesets
    • git stash drop
      • Discards the most recently stashed changeset

  • Review history
    • git log
      • Lists version history for the current branch
    • git log –follow [file]
      • Lists version history for a file, including renames
    • git log –pretty=format:"%h %s" –graph
      • Pretty commit view, you can customize it as much as you want
    • git log –author='Name' –after={1.week.ago} –pretty=oneline –abbrev-commit
      • See what the author has worked on in the last week
    • git log –no-merges master..
      • See only changes in this branch
    • git diff [file-branch]…[second-branch]
      • Shows content differences between two branches
    • git show [commit]
      • Outputs metadata and content changes of the specified commit

  • Redo commits
    • git reset
      • Unstage pending changes, the changes will still remain on file system
    • git reset [commit/tag]
      • Undoes all commits after [commit], preserving changes locally
    • git reset –hard [commit]
      • Discards all history and changes back to the specified commit

  • Synchronize changes
    • git fetch [bookmark]
      • Downloads all history from the repository bookmark
    • git fetch -p
      • Update history of remote branches, you can fetch and purge
    • git merge [bookmark]/[branch]
      • Combines bookmark's branch into current local branch
    • git push
      • Push current branch to remote branch
    • git push [remote] [branch]
      • Manually specify remote and branch to use every time
    • git push -u origin master
      • If a remote branch is not set up as an upstream, you can make it so
    • git pull
      • Downloads bookmark history and incorporates changes
    • git pull [remote] [branch]
      • Specify to pull a specific branch
    • git remote
      • See list of remote repos available
    • git remote -v
      • Detailed view of remote repos available
    • git remote add [remote] [url]
      • Add a new remote