硬盘监控和分析工具:Smartctl

f824 7年前

Smartctl(S.M.A.R.T 自监控,分析和报告技术)是类Unix系统下实施SMART任务命令行套件或工具,它用于打印SMART自检错误日志,启用并禁用SMRAT自动检测,以及初始化设备自检。

Smartctl对于Linux物理服务器十分有用,在这些服务器上,可以对智能磁盘进行错误检查,并将与硬件RAID相关的磁盘信息摘录下来。

在本帖中,我们将讨论smartctl命令的一些实用样例。如果你的Linux上海没有安装smartctl,请按以下步骤来安装。

安装 Smartctl

对于 Ubuntu

$ sudo apt-get install smartmontools

对于 CentOS & RHEL

# yum install smartmontools

启动Smartctl服务

对于 Ubuntu

$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

对于 CentOS & RHEL

# service smartd start ; chkconfig smartd on

样例

样例:1 检查磁盘的 Smart 功能是否启用

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -i /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===  Model Family:     Seagate Momentus 5400.6  Device Model:     ST9320325AS  Serial Number:    5VD2V59T  LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 020a37ec4  Firmware Version: 0002BSM1  User Capacity:    320,072,933,376 bytes [320 GB]  Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical  Rotation Rate:    5400 rpm  Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]  ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4  SATA Version is:  SATA 2.6, 1.5 Gb/s  Local Time is:    Sun Nov 16 12:32:09 2014 IST  SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.  SMART support is: Enabled

这里‘/dev/sdb’是你的硬盘。上面输出中的最后两行显示了SMART功能已启用。

样例:2 启用磁盘的 Smart 功能

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -s on /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===  SMART Enabled.

样例:3 禁用磁盘的 Smart 功能

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -s off  /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===  SMART Disabled. Use option -s with argument 'on' to enable it.

样例:4 显示磁盘的详细 Smart 信息

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -a /dev/sdb              // For IDE drive  root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -a -d ata /dev/sdb       // For SATA drive

样例:5 显示磁盘总体健康状况

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -H  /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===  SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED  Warning: This result is based on an Attribute check.  Please note the following marginal Attributes:  ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE  190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   067   045   045    Old_age   Always   In_the_past 33 (Min/Max 25/33)

样例:6 使用long和short选项测试硬盘

Long测试

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===  Sending command: "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".  Drive command "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.  Testing has begun.  Please wait 102 minutes for test to complete.  Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 14:29:43 2014    Use smartctl -X to abort test.

或者,我们可以重定向测试输出到日志文件,就像下面这样

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb > /var/log/long.text

Short测试

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===  Sending command: "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".  Drive command "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.  Testing has begun.  Please wait 1 minutes for test to complete.  Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 12:51:45 2014    Use smartctl -X to abort test.

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb > /var/log/short.text

注意:short测试将花费最多2分钟,而在long测试中没有时间限制,因为它会读取并验证磁盘的每个段。

样例:7 查看驱动器的自检结果

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -l selftest /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===  SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1  Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error  # 1  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       492         210841222  # 2  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       90%       492         210841222

样例:8 计算测试时间估值

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -c  /dev/sdb  smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===  General SMART Values:  Offline data collection status:  (0x00)    Offline data collection activity                      was never started.                      Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.  Self-test execution status:      ( 121)    The previous self-test completed having                      the read element of the test failed.  Total time to complete Offline   data collection:         (    0) seconds.  Offline data collection  capabilities:              (0x73) SMART execute Offline immediate.                      Auto Offline data collection on/off support.                      Suspend Offline collection upon new                      command.                      No Offline surface scan supported.                      Self-test supported.                      Conveyance Self-test supported.                      Selective Self-test supported.  SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)    Saves SMART data before entering                      power-saving mode.                      Supports SMART auto save timer.  Error logging capability:        (0x01)    Error logging supported.                      General Purpose Logging supported.  Short self-test routine   recommended polling time:      (   1) minutes.  Extended self-test routine  recommended polling time:      ( 102) minutes.  Conveyance self-test routine  recommended polling time:      (   2) minutes.  SCT capabilities:            (0x103b)    SCT Status supported.                      SCT Error Recovery Control supported.                      SCT Feature Control supported.                      SCT Data Table supported.

样例:9 显示磁盘错误日志

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -l error  /dev/sdb    Sample Output    smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)  Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org    === START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===  SMART Error Log Version: 1  ATA Error Count: 5      CR = Command Register [HEX]      FR = Features Register [HEX]      SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]      SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]      CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]      CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]      DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]      DC = Device Command Register [HEX]      ER = Error register [HEX]      ST = Status register [HEX]  Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as  DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,  SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.    Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:    CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------    25 da 08 e7 e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.515  READ DMA EXT    25 da 08 df e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.514  READ DMA EXT    25 da 80 5f e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.502  READ DMA EXT    25 da f0 5f e6 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.496  READ DMA EXT    25 da 10 4f e6 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.383  READ DMA EXT

via: http://www.linuxtechi.com/smartctl-monitoring-analysis-tool-hard-drive/

作者:Pradeep Kumar 译者:GOLinux 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创翻译,Linux中国 荣誉推出