HttpClient工具类

jopen 7年前

HttpClient 是 Apache Jakarta Common 下的子项目,用来提供高效的、最新的、功能丰富的支持 HTTP 协议的客户端编程工具包,并且它支持 HTTP 协议最新的版本和建议。HttpClient 已经应用在很多的项目中,比如 Apache Jakarta 上很著名的另外两个开源项目 Cactus 和 HTMLUnit 都使用了 HttpClient。

HttpClient 提供的主要的功能,要知道更多详细的功能可以参见 HttpClient 的主页。

  • 实现了所有 HTTP 的方法(GET,POST,PUT,HEAD 等)
  • 支持自动转向
  • 支持 HTTPS 协议
  • 支持代理服务器等
import java.io.IOException;    import java.net.SocketTimeoutException;    import java.nio.charset.Charset;    import java.security.cert.CertificateException;    import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;    import java.util.ArrayList;    import java.util.List;    import java.util.Map;        import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;    import javax.net.ssl.SSLException;    import javax.net.ssl.SSLSession;    import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocket;    import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;    import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;        import org.apache.http.Header;    import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;    import org.apache.http.HttpResponse;    import org.apache.http.NameValuePair;    import org.apache.http.ParseException;    import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;    import org.apache.http.client.HttpClient;    import org.apache.http.client.entity.UrlEncodedFormEntity;    import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;    import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;    import org.apache.http.conn.ConnectTimeoutException;    import org.apache.http.conn.scheme.Scheme;    import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;    import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.X509HostnameVerifier;    import org.apache.http.entity.ContentType;    import org.apache.http.entity.StringEntity;    import org.apache.http.impl.client.DefaultHttpClient;    import org.apache.http.message.BasicNameValuePair;    import org.apache.http.params.CoreConnectionPNames;    import org.apache.http.protocol.HTTP;    import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;        /**    * 封装了采用HttpClient发送HTTP请求的方法    * @see 本工具所采用的是HttpComponents-Client-4.2.1    * @see ===================================================================================================    * @see 开发HTTPS应用时,时常会遇到两种情况    * @see 1、测试服务器没有有效的SSL证书,客户端连接时就会抛异常    * @see    javax.net.ssl.SSLPeerUnverifiedException: peer not authenticated    * @see 2、测试服务器有SSL证书,但可能由于各种不知名的原因,它还是会抛一堆烂码七糟的异常,诸如下面这两种    * @see    javax.net.ssl.SSLException: hostname in certificate didn't match: <123.125.97.66> != <123.125.97.241>    * @see    javax.net.ssl.SSLHandshakeException: sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target    * @see ===================================================================================================    * @see 这里使用的是HttpComponents-Client-4.2.1创建的连接,所以就要告诉它使用一个不同的TrustManager    * @see 由于SSL使用的模式是X.509,对于该模式,Java有一个特定的TrustManager,称为X509TrustManager    * @see TrustManager是一个用于检查给定的证书是否有效的类,所以我们自己创建一个X509TrustManager实例    * @see 而在X509TrustManager实例中,若证书无效,那么TrustManager在它的checkXXX()方法中将抛出CertificateException    * @see 既然我们要接受所有的证书,那么X509TrustManager里面的方法体中不抛出异常就行了    * @see 然后创建一个SSLContext并使用X509TrustManager实例来初始化之    * @see 接着通过SSLContext创建SSLSocketFactory,最后将SSLSocketFactory注册给HttpClient就可以了    * @see ===================================================================================================    * @version v1.7    * @history v1.0-->新建<code>sendGetRequest()</code>和<code>sendPostRequest()</code>方法    * @history v1.1-->新增<code>sendPostSSLRequest()</code>方法,用于发送HTTPS的POST请求    * @history v1.2-->新增<code>sendPostRequest()</code>方法,用于发送HTTP协议报文体为任意字符串的POST请求    * @history v1.3-->新增<code>java.net.HttpURLConnection</code>实现的<code>sendPostRequestByJava()</code>    * @history v1.4-->所有POST方法中增加连接超时限制和读取超时限制    * @history v1.5-->重组各方法,并补充自动获取HTTP响应文本编码的方式,移除<code>sendPostRequestByJava()</code>    * @history v1.6-->整理GET和POST请求方法,使之更为适用    * @history v1.7-->修正<code>sendPostRequest()</code>请求的CONTENT_TYPE头信息,并优化各方法参数及内部处理细节    * @create Feb 1, 2012 3:02:27 PM    * @update Jul 23, 2013 1:18:35 PM    * @author 玄玉<http://blog.csdn.net/jadyer>    */    public class HttpClientUtil {        private HttpClientUtil(){}                /**        * 发送HTTP_GET请求        * @see 1)该方法会自动关闭连接,释放资源        * @see 2)方法内设置了连接和读取超时时间,单位为毫秒,超时或发生其它异常时方法会自动返回"通信失败"字符串        * @see 3)请求参数含中文时,经测试可直接传入中文,HttpClient会自动编码发给Server,应用时应根据实际效果决定传入前是否转码        * @see 4)该方法会自动获取到响应消息头中[Content-Type:text/html; charset=GBK]的charset值作为响应报文的解码字符集        * @see   若响应消息头中无Content-Type属性,则会使用HttpClient内部默认的ISO-8859-1作为响应报文的解码字符集        * @param requestURL 请求地址(含参数)        * @return 远程主机响应正文        */        public static String sendGetRequest(String reqURL){            String respContent = "通信失败"; //响应内容            HttpClient httpClient = new DefaultHttpClient(); //创建默认的httpClient实例            //设置代理服务器            //httpClient.getParams().setParameter(ConnRoutePNames.DEFAULT_PROXY, new HttpHost("10.0.0.4", 8080));            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, 10000); //连接超时10s            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.SO_TIMEOUT, 20000);         //读取超时20s            HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(reqURL); //创建org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet            try{                HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet); //执行GET请求                HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();            //获取响应实体                if(null != entity){                    //respCharset=EntityUtils.getContentCharSet(entity)也可以获取响应编码,但从4.1.3开始不建议使用这种方式                    Charset respCharset = ContentType.getOrDefault(entity).getCharset();                    respContent = EntityUtils.toString(entity, respCharset);                    //Consume response content                    EntityUtils.consume(entity);                }                System.out.println("-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------");                StringBuilder respHeaderDatas = new StringBuilder();                for(Header header : response.getAllHeaders()){                    respHeaderDatas.append(header.toString()).append("\r\n");                }                String respStatusLine = response.getStatusLine().toString(); //HTTP应答状态行信息                String respHeaderMsg = respHeaderDatas.toString().trim();    //HTTP应答报文头信息                String respBodyMsg = respContent;                            //HTTP应答报文体信息                System.out.println("HTTP应答完整报文=[" + respStatusLine + "\r\n" + respHeaderMsg + "\r\n\r\n" + respBodyMsg + "]");                System.out.println("-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------");            } catch (ConnectTimeoutException cte){                //Should catch ConnectTimeoutException, and don`t catch org.apache.http.conn.HttpHostConnectException                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时连接超时,堆栈轨迹如下", cte);            } catch (SocketTimeoutException ste){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时读取超时,堆栈轨迹如下", ste);            }catch(ClientProtocolException cpe){                //该异常通常是协议错误导致:比如构造HttpGet对象时传入协议不对(将'http'写成'htp')or响应内容不符合HTTP协议要求等                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时协议异常,堆栈轨迹如下", cpe);            }catch(ParseException pe){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时解析异常,堆栈轨迹如下", pe);            }catch(IOException ioe){                //该异常通常是网络原因引起的,如HTTP服务器未启动等                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时网络异常,堆栈轨迹如下", ioe);            }catch (Exception e){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时偶遇异常,堆栈轨迹如下", e);            }finally{                //关闭连接,释放资源                httpClient.getConnectionManager().shutdown();            }            return respContent;        }                        /**        * 发送HTTP_POST请求        * @see 1)该方法允许自定义任何格式和内容的HTTP请求报文体        * @see 2)该方法会自动关闭连接,释放资源        * @see 3)方法内设置了连接和读取超时时间,单位为毫秒,超时或发生其它异常时方法会自动返回"通信失败"字符串        * @see 4)请求参数含中文等特殊字符时,可直接传入本方法,并指明其编码字符集encodeCharset参数,方法内部会自动对其转码        * @see 5)该方法在解码响应报文时所采用的编码,取自响应消息头中的[Content-Type:text/html; charset=GBK]的charset值        * @see   若响应消息头中未指定Content-Type属性,则会使用HttpClient内部默认的ISO-8859-1        * @param reqURL        请求地址        * @param reqData       请求参数,若有多个参数则应拼接为param11=value11&22=value22&33=value33的形式        * @param encodeCharset 编码字符集,编码请求数据时用之,此参数为必填项(不能为""或null)        * @return 远程主机响应正文        */        public static String sendPostRequest(String reqURL, String reqData, String encodeCharset){            String reseContent = "通信失败";            HttpClient httpClient = new DefaultHttpClient();            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, 10000);            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.SO_TIMEOUT, 20000);            HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(reqURL);            //由于下面使用的是new StringEntity(....),所以默认发出去的请求报文头中CONTENT_TYPE值为text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1            //这就有可能会导致服务端接收不到POST过去的参数,比如运行在Tomcat6.0.36中的Servlet,所以我们手工指定CONTENT_TYPE头消息            httpPost.setHeader(HTTP.CONTENT_TYPE, "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=" + encodeCharset);            try{                httpPost.setEntity(new StringEntity(reqData==null?"":reqData, encodeCharset));                HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);                HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();                if (null != entity) {                    reseContent = EntityUtils.toString(entity, ContentType.getOrDefault(entity).getCharset());                    EntityUtils.consume(entity);                }            } catch (ConnectTimeoutException cte){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时连接超时,堆栈轨迹如下", cte);            } catch (SocketTimeoutException ste){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时读取超时,堆栈轨迹如下", ste);            }catch(Exception e){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时偶遇异常,堆栈轨迹如下", e);            }finally{                httpClient.getConnectionManager().shutdown();            }            return reseContent;        }                        /**        * 发送HTTP_POST_SSL请求        * @see 1)该方法会自动关闭连接,释放资源        * @see 2)该方法亦可处理普通的HTTP_POST请求        * @see 3)当处理HTTP_POST_SSL请求时,默认请求的是对方443端口,除非reqURL参数中指明了SSL端口        * @see 4)方法内设置了连接和读取超时时间,单位为毫秒,超时或发生其它异常时方法会自动返回"通信失败"字符串        * @see 5)请求参数含中文等特殊字符时,可直接传入本方法,并指明其编码字符集encodeCharset参数,方法内部会自动对其转码        * @see 6)方法内部会自动注册443作为SSL端口,若实际使用中reqURL指定的SSL端口非443,可自行尝试更改方法内部注册的SSL端口        * @see 7)该方法在解码响应报文时所采用的编码,取自响应消息头中的[Content-Type:text/html; charset=GBK]的charset值        * @see   若响应消息头中未指定Content-Type属性,则会使用HttpClient内部默认的ISO-8859-1        * @param reqURL        请求地址        * @param params        请求参数        * @param encodeCharset 编码字符集,编码请求数据时用之,当其为null时,则取HttpClient内部默认的ISO-8859-1编码请求参数        * @return 远程主机响应正文        */        public static String sendPostSSLRequest(String reqURL, Map<String, String> params, String encodeCharset){            String responseContent = "通信失败";            HttpClient httpClient = new DefaultHttpClient();            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, 10000);            httpClient.getParams().setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.SO_TIMEOUT, 20000);            //创建TrustManager()            //用于解决javax.net.ssl.SSLPeerUnverifiedException: peer not authenticated            X509TrustManager trustManager = new X509TrustManager(){                @Override                public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {}                @Override                public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {}                @Override                public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {return null;}            };            //创建HostnameVerifier            //用于解决javax.net.ssl.SSLException: hostname in certificate didn't match: <123.125.97.66> != <123.125.97.241>            X509HostnameVerifier hostnameVerifier = new X509HostnameVerifier(){                @Override                public void verify(String host, SSLSocket ssl) throws IOException {}                @Override                public void verify(String host, X509Certificate cert) throws SSLException {}                @Override                public void verify(String host, String[] cns, String[] subjectAlts) throws SSLException {}                @Override                public boolean verify(String arg0, SSLSession arg1) {return true;}            };            try {                //TLS1.0与SSL3.0基本上没有太大的差别,可粗略理解为TLS是SSL的继承者,但它们使用的是相同的SSLContext                SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance(SSLSocketFactory.TLS);                //使用TrustManager来初始化该上下文,TrustManager只是被SSL的Socket所使用                sslContext.init(null, new TrustManager[]{trustManager}, null);                //创建SSLSocketFactory                SSLSocketFactory socketFactory = new SSLSocketFactory(sslContext, hostnameVerifier);                //通过SchemeRegistry将SSLSocketFactory注册到HttpClient上                httpClient.getConnectionManager().getSchemeRegistry().register(new Scheme("https", 443, socketFactory));                //创建HttpPost                HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(reqURL);                //由于下面使用的是new UrlEncodedFormEntity(....),所以这里不需要手工指定CONTENT_TYPE为application/x-www-form-urlencoded                //因为在查看了HttpClient的源码后发现,UrlEncodedFormEntity所采用的默认CONTENT_TYPE就是application/x-www-form-urlencoded                //httpPost.setHeader(HTTP.CONTENT_TYPE, "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=" + encodeCharset);                //构建POST请求的表单参数                if(null != params){                    List<NameValuePair> formParams = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();                    for(Map.Entry<String,String> entry : params.entrySet()){                        formParams.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));                    }                    httpPost.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(formParams, encodeCharset));                }                HttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);                HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();                if (null != entity) {                    responseContent = EntityUtils.toString(entity, ContentType.getOrDefault(entity).getCharset());                    EntityUtils.consume(entity);                }            } catch (ConnectTimeoutException cte){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时连接超时,堆栈轨迹如下", cte);            } catch (SocketTimeoutException ste){                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时读取超时,堆栈轨迹如下", ste);            } catch (Exception e) {                LogUtil.getLogger().error("请求通信[" + reqURL + "]时偶遇异常,堆栈轨迹如下", e);            } finally {                httpClient.getConnectionManager().shutdown();            }            return responseContent;        }    }  
下面是测试代码
    public static void main(String[] args) {            Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<String, String>();            params.put("merNo", "301100100001630");            params.put("signType", "MD5");            params.put("merBindAgrNo", "00003018007000006450000013866742");            params.put("interfaceVersion", "1.0.0.0");            params.put("amount", "1000");            params.put("orderDate", "20120823");            params.put("orderNo", "UDP1208230917531231111");            params.put("merReqTime", "20120823091802");            params.put("goodsDesc", "为号码交费充值元");            params.put("goodsName", "中国联通交费充值");            params.put("userIdeMark", "3");            params.put("bankAgrMode", "9");            params.put("signMsg", "3ced24a118461043901d47815e6905a9");            System.out.println(HttpClientUtil.sendPostSSLRequest("https://123.125.97.66:8085/pay/servlet/CreditPayReqServlte", params, "UTF-8"));        }  
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