- 1. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud1Virtualization and Cloud ComputingNorman Wilde
- 2. An opening caveat ...This talk is based on speeches at conferences, discussions with people in industry, and some experimentation.
A lot of people think they will make a lot of money – so there is lots of hype!
But there seems to be something fundamental going on.20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud2Some sun behind the clouds?
- 3. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud3Two Technologies for AgilityVirtualization:
The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources*
“The provisioning of services in a timely (near on instant), on-demand manner, to allow the scaling up and down of resources”*** VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview** Alan Williamson, quoted in Cloud BootCamp March 2009
- 4. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud4The Traditional Server ConceptWeb Server
- 5. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud5And if something goes wrong ...Web Server
- 6. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud6The Traditional Server ConceptSystem Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications.
Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc.
If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server.
- 7. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud7The Traditional Server ConceptUnless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down.
System Admins can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment.
- 8. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud8The Traditional Server ConceptPros
Easy to conceptualize
Fairly easy to deploy
Easy to backup
Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setupCons
Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware
Not very scalable
Difficult to replicate
Redundancy is difficult to implement
Vulnerable to hardware outages
In many cases, processor is under-utilized
- 9. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud9The Virtual Server ConceptVirtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware
- 10. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud10Close-up** adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 ArchitectureVMM (Virtual Machine Monitor)Server
Service ConsoleIntercepts hardware requests
- 11. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud11The Virtual Server ConceptVirtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware
This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server.
Servers end up as mere files stored on a physical box, or in enterprise storage.
A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server.
- 12. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud12The Virtual Server ConceptVirtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc.
If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host.
Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance.
- 13. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud13The Virtual Server ConceptVirtual servers can be scaled out easily.
If the administrators find that the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, they can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server
Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers
Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will.
- 14. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud14The Virtual Server ConceptPros
Rapidly deploy new servers
Easy to deploy
Reconfigurable while services are running
Optimizes physical resources by doing more with lessCons
Slightly harder to conceptualize
Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer)
- 15. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud15Virtualization StatusOfferings from many companies
e.g. VMware, Microsoft, Sun, ...
Fits well with the move to 64 bit (very large memories) multi-core (concurrency) processors.
Intel VT (Virtualization Technology) provides hardware to support the Virtual Machine Monitor layer
Virtualization is now a well-established technology
- 16. So what aboutCloud Computing?20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud16
- 17. Suppose you are Forbes.comYou offer on-line real time stock market dataWhy pay for capacity weekends, overnight?
20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud179 AM - 5 PM,
TIMESRate of Server Accesses
- 18. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud18Forbes' SolutionHost the web site in Amazon's EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud
Provision new servers every day, and deprovision them every night
Pay just $0.10* per server per hour
* more for higher capacity servers
Let Amazon worry about the hardware!
- 19. Cloud computing takes virtualization to the next stepYou don’t have to own the hardware
You “rent” it as needed from a cloud
There are public clouds
e.g. Amazon EC2, and now many others (Microsoft, IBM, Sun, and others ...)
A company can create a private one
With more control over security, etc.
- 20. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud20Goal 1 – Cost ControlCost
Many systems have variable demands
Batch processing (e.g. New York Times)
Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes)
Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program)
Don't need to buy hardware until you need it
- 21. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud21Goal 2 - Business AgilityMore than scalability - elasticity!
Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business
Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it!
Using EC2, about 5 minutes!
And they give it back when they are done!
Scaling back is as important as scaling up
- 22. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud22Goal 3 - Stick to Our BusinessMost companies don't WANT to do system administration
We are is a publishing company, not a software company
Do you really save much on sys admin?
You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS!
- 23. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud23How Cloud Computing WorksVarious providers let you create virtual servers
Set up an account, perhaps just with a credit card
You create virtual servers ("virtualization")
Choose the OS and software each "instance" will have
It will run on a large server farm located somewhere
You can instantiate more on a few minutes' notice
You can shut down instances in a minute or so
They send you a bill for what you use
- 24. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud24Any Nasty Details?(loads of them!)How do I pick a provider?
Am I locked in to a provider?
Where do I put my data?
What happens to my data when I shut down?
How do I log in to my server?
How do I keep others from logging in (security)?
How do I get an IP address?
- 25. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud25And One Really Important Caveat** Cloud BootCamp March 2009
- 26. (footnote)How come Amazon?Grew out of efforts to manage Amazon’s own services
(Each time you get a page from Amazon, over a hundred servers are involved)
See reference Amazon Architecture on their service design concepts
They got so good at it that they launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) as a product
- 27. Cloud Computing StatusSeems to be rapidly becoming a mainstream practice
Amazon EC2 imitators ...
Just about every major industry name
IBM, Sun, Microsoft, ...
Major buzz at industry meetings20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud27
- 28. So What’s the Take-Away?There seems to be a major revolution underway in how we manage hardware
Specify (machine per service or one big machine with many virtual servers
Purchase (own it yourself or rent from a public cloud)
Use (always-on, or flexible provisioning as needed ...)
We may need to rethink both our research and teaching
- 29. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud29For UWF:What About Research?The Eucalyptus Project
From University of California Santa Barbara
An open source collection of tools to build your own cloud
Linux using Xen for virtualization
An apparently open research area: handling data
Regular databases apparently don't scale well
Especially hard to make elastic (scale up / scale down)
- 30. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud30For UWF:What About Teaching?Our graduates should know about cloud computing / virtualization
It will be useful for some applications, though not for all
But what are the right learning objectives?
Awareness (its there ...)
Mechanics (here’s how to instantiate a server ...)
Design (how to make a scalable service ...)
- 31. For Fall 2009 ...Currently developing a Virtualization / Cloud Computing “module”
1 – 2 class sessions plus an exercise
Target courses (November):
COP 6990 – Multi-Process Computing (Simmons)
CTS 4817 – Web Server Administration (Owsnicki-Klewe)
Awareness and mechanics of EC220090909_VirtualizationAndCloud31
- 32. References(links are current as of September, 2009)VMware Inc., Virtualization Overview, http://www.vmware.com/pdf/virtualization.pdf
Todd Hoff, Amazon Architecture, http://highscalability.com/amazon-architecture, Sept. 18, 2007
Intel Corp., Technology brief: Understanding Intel® Virtualization Technology, http://download.intel.com/technology/virtualization/320426.pdf
aw2.0 Ltd, Cloud BootCamp March 2009, http://www.aw20.co.uk/help/cloudbootcamp_march2009.cfm20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud32
- 33. 20090909_VirtualizationAndCloud33Where do we go from here?Any ideas to keep us out of the rain?