Java socket 开发指南


Java sockets 101 Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Table of Contents If you're viewing this document online, you can click any of the topics below to link directly to that section. 1. Tutorial tips 2 2. Socket basics 3 3. An undercover socket 8 4. A simple example 11 5. A multithreaded example 18 6. A pooled example 21 7. Sockets in real life 27 8. Summary 31 9. Appendix 32 Java sockets 101 Page 1 Section 1. Tutorial tips Should I take this tutorial? Sockets, which provide a mechanism for communication between two computers, have been around since long before the Java language was a glimmer in James Gosling's eye. The language simply lets you use sockets effectively without having to know the details of the underlying operating system. Most books that focus on Java coding either fail to cover the topic, or leave a lot to the imagination. This tutorial will tell you what you really need to know to start using sockets effectively in your Java code. Specifically, we'll cover: * What sockets are * Where they fit into the structure of programs you're likely to write * The simplest sockets implementation that could possibly work -- to help you understand the basics * A detailed walkthrough of two additional examples that explore sockets in multithreaded and pooled environments * A brief discussion of an application for sockets in the real world If you can describe how to use the classes in the java.net package, this tutorial is probably a little basic for you, although it might be a good refresher. If you have been working with sockets on PCs and other platforms for years, the initial sections might bore you. But if you are new to sockets, and simply want to know what they are and how to use them effectively in your Java code, this tutorial is a great place to start. Getting help For questions about the content of this tutorial, contact the authors, Roy Miller (at rmiller@rolemodelsoft.com ) or Adam Williams (at awilliams@rolemodelsoft.com ). Roy Miller and Adam Williams are Software Developers at RoleModel Software, Inc. They have worked jointly to prototype a socket-based application for the TINI Java platform from Dallas Semiconductor. Roy and Adam are currently working on porting a COBOL financial transaction system to the Java platform, using sockets. Prior to joining RoleModel, Roy spent six years with Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) developing software and managing projects. He co-authored Extreme Programming Applied: Playing to Win (Addison-Wesley XP Series) scheduled for publication in October 2001. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 2 Section 2. Socket basics Introduction Most programmers, whether they're coding in the Java language or not, don't want to know much about low-level details of how applications on different computers communicate with each other. Programmers want to deal with higher-level abstractions that are easier to understand. Java programmers want objects that they can interact with via an intuitive interface, using the Java constructs with which they are familiar. Sockets live in both worlds -- the low-level details that we'd rather avoid and the abstract layer we'd rather deal with. This section will explore just enough of the low-level details to make the abstract application understandable. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 3 Computer networking 101 Computers operate and communicate with one another in a very simple way. Computer chips are a collection of on-off switches that store and transmit data in the form of 1s and 0s. When computers want to share data, all they need to do is stream a few million of these bits and bytes back and forth, while agreeing on speed, sequence, timing, and such. How would you like to worry about those details every time you wanted to communicate information between two applications? To avoid that, we need a set of packaged protocols that can do the job the same way every time. That would allow us to handle our application-level work without having to worry about the low-level networking details. These sets of packaged protocols are called stacks. The most common stack these days is TCP/IP. Most stacks (including TCP/IP) adhere roughly to the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect Reference Model (OSIRM). The OSIRM says that there are seven logical layers in a reliable framework for computer networking (see the diagram). Companies all over have contributed something that implements some of the layers in this model, from generating the electrical signals (pulses of light, radio frequency, and so on) to presenting the data to applications. TCP/IP maps to two layers in the OSI model, as shown in the diagram. We won't go into the details of the layers too much, but we want you to be aware of where sockets fit. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 4 Where sockets fit Sockets reside roughly at the Session Layer of the OSI model (see the diagram). The Session Layer is sandwiched between the application-oriented upper layers and the real-time data communication lower layers. The Session Layer provides services for managing and controlling data flow between two computers. As part of this layer, sockets provide an abstraction that hides the complexities of getting the bits and bytes on the wire for transmission. In other words, sockets allow us to transmit data by having our application indicate that it wants to send some bytes. Sockets mask the nuts and bolts of getting the job done. When you pick up your telephone, you provide sound waves to a sensor that converts your voice into electrically transmittable data. The phone is a human's interface to the telecommunications network. You aren't required to know the details of how your voice is transported, only the party to whom you would like to connect. In the same sense, a socket acts as a high-level interface that hides the complexities of transmitting 1s and 0s across unknown channels. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 5 Exposing sockets to an application When you write code that uses sockets, that code does work at the Presentation Layer. The Presentation Layer provides a common representation of information that the Application Layer can use. Say you are planning to connect your application to a legacy banking system that understands only EBCDIC. Your application domain objects store information in ASCII format. In this case, you are responsible for writing code at the Presentation Layer to convert data from EBCDIC to ASCII, and then (for example) to provide a domain object to your Application Layer. Your Application Layer can then do whatever it wants with the domain object. The socket-handling code you write lives only at the Presentation Layer. Your Application Layer doesn't have to know anything about how sockets work. What are sockets? Now that we know the role sockets play, the question remains: What is a socket? Bruce Eckel describes a socket this way in his book Thinking in Java: The socket is the software abstraction used to represent the "terminals" of a connection between two machines. For a given connection, there's a socket on each machine, and you can imagine a hypothetical "cable" running between the two machines with each end of the "cable" plugged into a socket. Of course, the physical hardware and cabling between machines is completely unknown. The whole point of the abstraction is that we don't have to know more than is necessary. In a nutshell, a socket on one computer that talks to a socket on another computer creates a communication channel. A programmer can use that channel to send data between the two machines. When you send data, each layer of the TCP/IP stack adds appropriate header information to wrap your data. These headers help the stack get your data to its destination. The good news is that the Java language hides all of this from you by providing the data to your code on streams, which is why they are sometimes called streaming sockets. Think of sockets as handsets on either side of a telephone call -- you and I talk and listen on our handsets on a dedicated channel. The conversation doesn't end until we decide to hang up (unless we're using cell phones). And until we hang up, our respective phone lines are busy. If you need to communicate between two computers without the overhead of higher-level mechanisms like ORBs (and CORBA, RMI, IIOP, and so on), sockets are for you. The low-level details of sockets get rather involved. Fortunately, the Java platform gives you Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 6 some simple yet powerful higher-level abstractions that make creating and using sockets easy. Types of sockets Generally speaking, sockets come in two flavors in the Java language: * TCP sockets (implemented by the Socket class, which we'll discuss later) * UDP sockets (implemented by the DatagramSocket class) TCP and UDP play the same role, but they do it differently. Both receive transport protocol packets and pass along their contents to the Presentation Layer. TCP divides messages into packets (datagrams) and reassembles them in the correct sequence at the receiving end. It also handles requesting retransmission of missing packets. With TCP, the upper-level layers have much less to worry about. UDP doesn't provide these assembly and retransmission requesting features. It simply passes packets along. The upper layers have to make sure that the message is complete and assembled in correct sequence. In general, UDP imposes lower performance overhead on your application, but only if your application doesn't exchange lots of data all at once and doesn't have to reassemble lots of datagrams to complete a message. Otherwise, TCP is the simplest and probably most efficient choice. Because most readers are more likely to use TCP than UDP, we'll limit our discussion to the TCP-oriented classes in the Java language. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 7 Section 3. An undercover socket Introduction The Java platform provides implementations of sockets in the java.net package. In this tutorial, we'll be working with the following three classes in java.net: * URLConnection * Socket * ServerSocket There are more classes in java.net, but these are the ones you'll run across the most often. Let's begin with URLConnection. This class provides a way to use sockets in your Java code without having to know any of the underlying socket details. Using sockets without even trying The URLConnection class is the abstract superclass of all classes that create a communications link between an application and a URL. URLConnections are most useful for getting documents on Web servers, but can be used to connect to any resource identified by a URL. Instances of this class can be used both to read from and to write to the resource. For example, you could connect to a servlet and send a well-formed XML String to the server for processing. Concrete subclasses of URLConnection (such as HttpURLConnection) provide extra features specific to their implementation. For our example, we're not doing anything special, so we'll make use of the default behaviors provided by URLConnection itself. Connecting to a URL involves several steps: * Create the URLConnection * Configure it using various setter methods * Connect to the URL * Interact with it using various getter methods Next, we'll look at some sample code that demonstrates how to use a URLConnection to request a document from a server. The URLClient class We'll begin with the structure for the URLClient class. import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class URLClient { protected URLConnection connection; public static void main(String[] args) { } public String getDocumentAt(String urlString) { } } Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 8 The first order of business is to import java.net and java.io. We give our class one instance variable to hold a URLConnection. Our class has a main() method that handles the logic flow of surfing for a document. Our class also has a getDocumentAt() method that connects to the server and asks it for the given document. We will go into the details of each of these methods next. Surfing for a document The main() method handles the logic flow of surfing for a document: public static void main(String[] args) { URLClient client = new URLClient(); String yahoo = client.getDocumentAt("http://www.yahoo.com"); System.out.println(yahoo); } Our main() method simply creates a new URLClient and calls getDocumentAt() with a valid URL String. When that call returns the document, we store it in a String and then print it out to the console. The real work, though, gets done in the getDocumentAt() method. Requesting a document from a server The getDocumentAt() method handles the real work of getting a document over the Web: public String getDocumentAt(String urlString) { StringBuffer document = new StringBuffer(); try { URL url = new URL(urlString); URLConnection conn = url.openConnection(); BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(conn.getInputStream())); String line = null; while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) document.append(line + "\n"); reader.close(); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { System.out.println("Unable to connect to URL: " + urlString); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("IOException when connecting to URL: " + urlString); } return document.toString(); } The getDocumentAt() method takes a String containing the URL of the document we want to get. We start by creating a StringBuffer to hold the lines of the document. Next, we create a new URL with the urlString we passed in. Then we create a URLConnection and open it: URLConnection conn = url.openConnection(); Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 9 Once we have a URLConnection, we get its InputStream and wrap it in an InputStreamReader, which we then wrap in a BufferedReader so that we can read lines of the document we're getting from the server. We'll use this wrapping technique often when dealing with sockets in Java code, but we won't always discuss it in detail. You should be familiar with it before we move on: BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(conn.getInputStream())); Having our BufferedReader makes reading the contents of our document easy. We call readLine() on reader in a while loop: String line = null; while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) document.append(line + "\n"); The call to readLine() is going to block until in reaches a line termination character (for example, a newline character) in the incoming bytes on the InputStream. If it doesn't get one, it will keep waiting. It will return null only when the connection is closed. In this case, once we get a line, we append it to the StringBuffer called document, along with a newline character. This preserves the format of the document that was read on the server side. When we're done reading lines, we close the BufferedReader: reader.close(); If the urlString supplied to a URL constructor is invalid, a MalformedURLException is thrown. If something else goes wrong, such as when getting the InputStream on the connection, an IOException is thrown. Wrapping up Beneath the covers, URLConnection uses a socket to read from the URL we specified (which just resolves to an IP address), but we don't have to know about it and we don't care. But there's more to the story; we'll get to that shortly. Before we move on, let's review the steps to create and use a URLConnection: 1. Instantiate a URL with a valid URL String of the resource you're connecting to (throws a MalformedURLException if there's a problem). 2. Open a connection on that URL. 3. Wrap the InputStream for that connection in a BufferedReader so you can read lines. 4. Read the document using your BufferedReader. 5. Close your BufferedReader. You can find the complete code listing for URLClient at Code listing for URLClient on page 32 . Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 10 Section 4. A simple example Background The example we'll cover in this section illustrates how you can use Socket and ServerSocket in your Java code. The client uses a Socket to connect to a server. The server listens on port 3000 with a ServerSocket. The client requests the contents of a file on the server's C: drive. For the sake of clarity, we split the example into the client side and the server side. At the end, we'll put it all together so you can see the entire picture. We developed this code in IBM VisualAge for Java 3.5, which uses JDK 1.2. To create this example for yourself, JDK 1.1.7 or greater should be fine. The client and the server will run on a single machine, so don't worry about having a network available. Creating the RemoteFileClient class Here is the structure for the RemoteFileClient class: import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class RemoteFileClient { protected String hostIp; protected int hostPort; protected BufferedReader socketReader; protected PrintWriter socketWriter; public RemoteFileClient(String aHostIp, int aHostPort) { hostIp = aHostIp; hostPort = aHostPort; } public static void main(String[] args) { } public void setUpConnection() { } public String getFile(String fileNameToGet) { } public void tearDownConnection() { } } First we import java.net and java.io. The java.net package gives you the socket tools you need. The java.io package gives you tools to read and write streams, which is the only way you can communicate with TCP sockets. We give our class instance variables to support reading from and writing to socket streams, and to store details of the remote host to which we will connect. The constructor for our class takes an IP address and a port number for a remote host and assigns them to instance variables. Our class has a main() method and three other methods. We'll go into the details of these methods later. For now, just know that setUpConnection() will connect to the remote server, getFile() will ask the remote server for the contents of fileNameToGet, and Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 11 tearDownConnection() will disconnect from the remote server. Implementing main() Here we implement the main() method, which will create the RemoteFileClient, use it to get the contents of a remote file, and then print the result: public static void main(String[] args) { RemoteFileClient remoteFileClient = new RemoteFileClient("127.0.0.1", 3000); remoteFileClient.setUpConnection(); String fileContents = remoteFileClient.getFile("C:\\WINNT\\Temp\\RemoteFile.txt"); remoteFileClient.tearDownConnection(); System.out.println(fileContents); } The main() method instantiates a new RemoteFileClient (the client) with an IP address and port number for the host. Then, we tell the client to set up a connection to the host (more on this later). Next, we tell the client to get the contents of a specified file on the host. Finally, we tell the client to tear down its connection to the host. We print out the contents of the file to the console, just to prove everything worked as planned. Setting up a connection Here we implement the setUpConnection() method, which will set up our Socket and give us access to its streams: public void setUpConnection() { try { Socket client = new Socket(hostIp, hostPort); socketReader = new BufferedReader( new InputStreamReader(client.getInputStream())); socketWriter = new PrintWriter(client.getOutputStream()); } catch (UnknownHostException e) { System.out.println("Error setting up socket connection: unknown host at " + hostIp + ":" + hostPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error setting up socket connection: " + e); } } The setUpConnection() method creates a Socket with the IP address and port number of the host: Socket client = new Socket(hostIp, hostPort); We wrap the Socket's InputStream in a BufferedReader so that we can read lines from the stream. Then, we wrap the Socket's OutputStream in a PrintWriter so that we can send our request for a file to the server: socketReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(client.getInputStream())); socketWriter = new PrintWriter(client.getOutputStream()); Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 12 Remember that our client and server simply pass bytes back and forth. Both the client and the server have to know what the other is going to be sending so that they can respond appropriately. In this case, the server knows that we'll be sending it a valid file path. When you instantiate a Socket, an UnknownHostException may be thrown. We don't do anything special to handle it here, but we print some information out to the console to tell us what went wrong. Likewise, if a general IOException is thrown when we try to get the InputStream or OutputStream on a Socket, we print out some information to the console. This is our general approach in this tutorial. In production code, we would be a little more sophisticated. Talking to the host Here we implement the getFile() method, which will tell the server what file we want and receive the contents from the server when it sends the contents back: public String getFile(String fileNameToGet) { StringBuffer fileLines = new StringBuffer(); try { socketWriter.println(fileNameToGet); socketWriter.flush(); String line = null; while ((line = socketReader.readLine()) != null) fileLines.append(line + "\n"); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error reading from file: " + fileNameToGet); } return fileLines.toString(); } A call to the getFile() method requires a valid file path String. It starts by creating the StringBuffer called fileLines for storing each of the lines that we read from the file on the server: StringBuffer fileLines = new StringBuffer(); In the try{}catch{} block, we send our request to the host using the PrintWriter that was established during connection setup: socketWriter.println(fileNameToGet); socketWriter.flush(); Note that we flush() the PrintWriter here instead of closing it. This forces data to be sent to the server without closing the Socket. Once we've written to the Socket, we are expecting some response. We have to wait for it on the Socket's InputStream, which we do by calling readLine() on our BufferedReader in a while loop. We append each returned line to the fileLines StringBuffer (with a newline character to preserve the lines): String line = null; while ((line = socketReader.readLine()) != null) fileLines.append(line + "\n"); Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 13 Tearing down a connection Here we implement the tearDownConnection() method, which will "clean up" after we're done using our connection: public void tearDownConnection() { try { socketWriter.close(); socketReader.close(); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error tearing down socket connection: " + e); } } The tearDownConnection() method simply closes the BufferedReader and PrintWriter we created on our Socket's InputStream and OutputStream, respectively. Doing this closes the underlying streams that we acquired from the Socket, so we have to catch the possible IOException. Wrapping up the client Our class is done. Before we move on to the server end of things, let's review the steps to create and use a Socket: 1. Instantiate a Socket with the IP address and port of the machine you're connecting to (throws an Exception if there's a problem). 2. Get the streams on that Socket for reading and writing. 3. Wrap the streams in instances of BufferedReader/PrintWriter, if that makes things easier. 4. Read from and write to the Socket. 5. Close your open streams. You can find the complete code listing for RemoteFileClient at Code listing for RemoteFileClient on page 32. Creating the RemoteFileServer class Here is the structure for the RemoteFileServer class: import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class RemoteFileServer { protected int listenPort = 3000; public static void main(String[] args) { } public void acceptConnections() { } public void handleConnection(Socket incomingConnection) { } } As with the client, we first import java.net and java.io. Next, we give our class an Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 14 instance variable to hold the port to listen to for incoming connections. By default, this is port 3000. Our class has a main() method and two other methods. We'll go into the details of these methods later. For now, just know that acceptConnections() will allow clients to connect to the server, and handleConnection() interacts with the client Socket to send the contents of the requested file to the client. Implementing main() Here we implement the main() method, which will create a RemoteFileServer and tell it to accept connections: public static void main(String[] args) { RemoteFileServer server = new RemoteFileServer(); server.acceptConnections(); } The main() method on the server side is even simpler than on the client side. We instantiate a new RemoteFileServer, which will listen for incoming connection requests on the default listen port. Then we call acceptConnections() to tell the server to listen. Accepting connections Here we implement the acceptConnections() method, which will set up a ServerSocket and wait for connection requests: public void acceptConnections() { try { ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(listenPort); Socket incomingConnection = null; while (true) { incomingConnection = server.accept(); handleConnection(incomingConnection); } } catch (BindException e) { System.out.println("Unable to bind to port " + listenPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Unable to instantiate a ServerSocket on port: " + listenPort); } } The acceptConnections() method creates a ServerSocket with the port number to listen to. We then tell the ServerSocket to start listening by calling accept() on it. The accept() method blocks until a connection request comes in. At that point, accept() returns a new Socket bound to a randomly assigned port on the server, which is passed to handleConnection(). Notice that this accepting of connections is in an infinite loop. No shutdown supported here. Whenever you create a ServerSocket, Java code may throw an error if it can't bind to the specified port (perhaps because something else already has control of that port). So we have to catch the possible BindException here. And just like on the client side, we have to catch an IOException that could be thrown when we try to accept connections on our ServerSocket. Note that you can set a timeout on the accept() call by calling Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 15 setSoTimeout() with number of milliseconds to avoid a really long wait. Calling setSoTimeout() will cause accept() to throw an IOException after the specified elapsed time. Handling connections Here we implement the handleConnection() method, which will use streams on a connection to receive input and write output: public void handleConnection(Socket incomingConnection) { try { OutputStream outputToSocket = incomingConnection.getOutputStream(); InputStream inputFromSocket = incomingConnection.getInputStream(); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputFromSocket)); FileReader fileReader = new FileReader(new File(streamReader.readLine())); BufferedReader bufferedFileReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader); PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(incomingConnection.getOutputStream()); String line = null; while ((line = bufferedFileReader.readLine()) != null) { streamWriter.println(line); } fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } As with the client, we get the streams associated with the Socket we just made, using getOutputStream() and getInputStream(). As on the client side, we wrap the InputStream in a BufferedReader and the OutputStream in a PrintWriter. On the server side, we need to add some code to read the target file and send the contents to the client line by line. Here's the important code: FileReader fileReader = new FileReader(new File(streamReader.readLine())); BufferedReader bufferedFileReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader); String line = null; while ((line = bufferedFileReader.readLine()) != null) { streamWriter.println(line); } This code deserves some detailed explanation. Let's look at it bit by bit: FileReader fileReader = new FileReader(new File(streamReader.readLine())); First, we make use of our BufferedReader on the Socket's InputStream. We should be getting a valid file path, so we construct a new File using that path name. We make a new FileReader to handle reading the file. BufferedReader bufferedFileReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader); Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 16 Here we wrap our FileReader in a BufferedReader to let us read the file line by line. Next, we call readLine() on our BufferedReader. This call will block until bytes come in. When we get some bytes, we put them in our local line variable, and then write them out to the client. When we're done reading and writing, we close the open streams. Note that we closed streamWriter and streamReader after we were done reading from the Socket. You might ask why we didn't close streamReader immediately after reading in the file name. The reason is that when you do that, your client won't get any data. If you close the streamReader before you close streamWriter, you can write to the Socket all you want but no data will make it across the channel (it's closed). Wrapping up the server Before we move on to another, more practical example, let's review the steps to create and use a ServerSocket: 1. Instantiate a ServerSocket with a port on which you want it to listen for incoming client connections (throws an Exception if there's a problem). 2. Call accept() on the ServerSocket to block while waiting for connection. 3. Get the streams on that underlying Socket for reading and writing. 4. Wrap the streams as necessary to simplify your life. 5. Read from and write to the Socket. 6. Close your open streams (and remember, never close your Reader before your Writer). You can find the complete code listing for RemoteFileServer at Code listing for RemoteFileServer on page 33. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 17 Section 5. A multithreaded example Introduction The previous example gives you the basics, but that won't take you very far. If you stopped here, you could handle only one client at a time. The reason is that handleConnection() is a blocking method. Only when it has completed its dealings with the current connection can the server accept another client. Most of the time, you will want (and need) a multithreaded server. There aren't too many changes you need to make to RemoteFileServer to begin handling multiple clients simultaneously. As a matter of fact, had we discussed backlogging earlier, we would have just one method to change, although we'll need to create something new to handle the incoming connections. We will show you here also how ServerSocket handles lots of clients waiting (backing up) to use our server. This example illustrates an inefficient use of threads, so be patient. Accepting (too many?) connections Here we implement the revised acceptConnections() method, which will create a ServerSocket that can handle a backlog of requests, and tell it to accept connections: public void acceptConnections() { try { ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(listenPort, 5); Socket incomingConnection = null; while (true) { incomingConnection = server.accept(); handleConnection(incomingConnection); } } catch (BindException e) { System.out.println("Unable to bind to port " + listenPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Unable to instantiate a ServerSocket on port: " + listenPort); } } Our new server still needs to acceptConnections() so this code is virtually identical. The highlighted line indicates the one significant difference. For this multithreaded version, we now specify the maximum number of client requests that can backlog when instantiating the ServerSocket. If we don't specify the max number of client requests, the default value of 50 is assumed. Here's how it works. Suppose we specify a backlog of 5 and that five clients request connections to our server. Our server will start processing the first connection, but it takes a long time to process that connection. Since our backlog is 5, we can have up to five requests in the queue at one time. We're processing one, so that means we can have five others waiting. That's a total of six either waiting or being processed. If a seventh client asks for a connection while our server is still busy accepting connection one (remember that 2-6 are still in queue), that seventh client will be refused. We will illustrate limiting the number of clients that can be connected simultaneously in our pooled server example. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 18 Handling connections: Part 1 Here we'll talk about the structure of the handleConnection() method, which spawns a new Thread to handle each connection. We'll discuss this in two parts. We'll focus on the method itself in this panel, and then examine the structure of the ConnectionHandler helper class used by this method in the next panel. public void handleConnection(Socket connectionToHandle) { new Thread(new ConnectionHandler(connectionToHandle)).start(); } This method represents the big change to our RemoteFileServer. We still call handleConnection() after the server accepts a connection, but now we pass that Socket to an instance of ConnectionHandler, which is Runnable. We create a new Thread with our ConnectionHandler and start it up. The ConnectionHandler's run() method contains the Socket reading/writing and File reading code that used to be in handleConnection() on RemoteFileServer. Handling connections: Part 2 Here is the structure for the ConnectionHandler class: import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class ConnectionHandler implements Runnable{ Socket socketToHandle; public ConnectionHandler(Socket aSocketToHandle) { socketToHandle = aSocketToHandle; } public void run() { } } This helper class is pretty simple. As with our other classes so far, we import java.net and java.io. The class has a single instance variable, socketToHandle, that holds the Socket handled by the instance. The constructor for our class takes a Socket instance and assigns it to socketToHandle. Notice that the class implements the Runnable interface. Classes that implement this interface must implement the run() method, which our class does. We'll go into the details of run() later. For now, just know that it will actually process the connection using code identical to what we saw before in our RemoteFileServer class. Implementing run() Here we implement the run() method, which will grab the streams on our connection, use them to read from and write to the connection, and close them when we are done: public void run() { Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 19 try { PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(socketToHandle.getOutputStream()); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socketToHandle.getInputStream())); String fileToRead = streamReader.readLine(); BufferedReader fileReader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(fileToRead)); String line = null; while ((line = fileReader.readLine()) != null) streamWriter.println(line); fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } The run() method on ConnectionHandler does what handleConnection() on RemoteFileServer did. First, we wrap the InputStream and OutputStream in a BufferedReader and a PrintWriter, respectively (using getOutputStream() and getInputStream() on the Socket). Then we read the target file line by line with this code: FileReader fileReader = new FileReader(new File(streamReader.readLine())); BufferedReader bufferedFileReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader); String line = null; while ((line = bufferedFileReader.readLine()) != null) { streamWriter.println(line); } Remember that we should be getting a valid file path from the client, so we construct a new File using that path name, wrap it in a FileReader to handle reading the file, and then wrap that in a BufferedReader to let us read the file line by line. We call readLine() on our BufferedReader in a while loop until we have no more lines to read. Remember that the call to readLine() will block until bytes come in. When we get some bytes, we put them in our local line variable, and then write them out to the client. When we're done reading and writing, we close the open streams. Wrapping up the multithreaded server Our multithreaded server is done. Before we move on to the pooled example, let's review the steps to create and use a multithreaded version of the server: 1. Modify acceptConnections() to instantiate a ServerSocket with a default 50-connection backlog (or whatever specific number you want, greater than 1). 2. Modify handleConnection() on the ServerSocket to spawn a new Thread with an instance of ConnectionHandler. 3. Implement the ConnectionHandler class, borrowing code from the handleConnection() method on RemoteFileServer. You can find the complete code listing for MultithreadedRemoteFileServer at Code listing for MultithreadedRemoteFileServer on page 34, and the complete code listing for ConnectionHandler at Code listing for ConnectionHandler on page 34. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 20 Section 6. A pooled example Introduction The MultithreadedServer we've got now simply creates a new ConnectionHandler in a new Thread each time a client asks for a connection. That means we have potentially a bunch of Threads lying around. Creating a Thread isn't trivial in terms of system overhead, either. If performance becomes an issue (and don't assume it will until it does), being more efficient about handling our server would be a good thing. So, how do we manage the server side more efficiently? We can maintain a pool of incoming connections that a limited number of ConnectionHandlers will service. This design provides the following benefits: * It limits the number of simultaneous connections allowed. * We only have to start up ConnectionHandler Threads one time. Fortunately, as with our multithreaded example, adding pooling to our code doesn't require an overhaul. In fact, the client side of the application isn't affected at all. On the server side, we create a set number of ConnectionHandlers when the server starts, place incoming connections into a pool and let the ConnectionHandlers take care of the rest. There are many possible tweaks to this design that we won't cover. For instance, we could refuse clients by limiting the number of connections we allow to build up in the pool. Note: We will not cover acceptConnections() again. This method is exactly the same as in earlier examples. It loops forever calling accept() on a ServerSocket and passes the connection to handleConnection(). Creating the PooledRemoteFileServer class Here is the structure for the PooledRemoteFileServer class: import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*; public class PooledRemoteFileServer { protected int maxConnections; protected int listenPort; protected ServerSocket serverSocket; public PooledRemoteFileServer(int aListenPort, int maxConnections) { listenPort = aListenPort; this.maxConnections = maxConnections; } public static void main(String[] args) { } public void setUpHandlers() { } public void acceptConnections() { } protected void handleConnection(Socket incomingConnection) { } } Note the import statements that should be familiar by now. We give our class the following instance variables to hold: Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 21 * The maximum number of simultaneous active client connections our server can handle * The port to listen to for incoming connections (we didn't assign a default value, but feel free to do that if you want) * The ServerSocket that will accept client connection requests The constructor for our class takes the port to listen to and the maximum number of connections. Our class has a main() method and three other methods. We'll go into the details of these methods later. For now, just know that setUpHandlers() creates a number of PooledConnectionHandler instances equal to maxConnections and the other two methods are like what we've seen before: acceptConnections() listens on the ServerSocket for incoming client connections, and handleConnection actually handles each client connection once it's established. Implementing main() Here we implement the revised main() method, which will create a PooledRemoteFileServer that can handle a given number of client connections, and tell it to accept connections: public static void main(String[] args) { PooledRemoteFileServer server = new PooledRemoteFileServer(3000, 3); server.setUpHandlers(); server.acceptConnections(); } Our main() method is straightforward. We instantiate a new PooledRemoteFileServer, which will set up three PooledConnectionHandlers by calling setUpHandlers(). Once the server is ready, we tell it to acceptConnections(). Setting up the connection handlers public void setUpHandlers() { for (int i = 0; i < maxConnections; i++) { PooledConnectionHandler currentHandler = new PooledConnectionHandler(); new Thread(currentHandler, "Handler " + i).start(); } } The setUpHandlers() method creates maxConnections worth of PooledConnectionHandlers (three) and fires them up in new Threads. Creating a Thread with an object that implements Runnable allows us to call start() on the Thread and expect run() to be called on the Runnable. In other words, our PooledConnectionHandlers will be waiting to handle incoming connections, each in its own Thread. We create only three Threads in our example, and this cannot change once the server is running. Handling connections Here we implement the revised handleConnections() method, which will delegate Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 22 handling a connection to a PooledConnectionHandler: protected void handleConnection(Socket connectionToHandle) { PooledConnectionHandler.processRequest(connectionToHandle); } We now ask our PooledConnectionHandlers to process all incoming connections processRequest() is a static method). Here is the structure for the PooledConnectionHandler class: import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*; public class PooledConnectionHandler implements Runnable { protected Socket connection; protected static List pool = new LinkedList(); public PooledConnectionHandler() { } public void handleConnection() { } public static void processRequest(Socket requestToHandle) { } public void run() { } } This helper class is very much like ConnectionHandler, but with a twist to handle connection pooling. The class has two single instance variables: * connection, the Socket that is currently being handled * A static LinkedList called pool that holds the connections that need to be handled Filling the connection pool Here we implement the processRequest() method on our , which will add incoming requests to the pool and tell other objects waiting on the pool that it now has some contents: public static void processRequest(Socket requestToHandle) { synchronized (pool) { pool.add(pool.size(), requestToHandle); pool.notifyAll(); } } This method requires some background on how the Java keyword synchronized works. We will attempt a short lesson on threading. First, some definitions: * Atomic method. Methods (or blocks of code) that cannot be interrupted mid-execution * Mutex lock. A single "lock" that must be obtained by a client wishing to execute an atomic method Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 23 So, when object A wants to use synchronized method doSomething() on object B, object A must first attempt to acquire the mutex from object B. Yes, this means that when object A has the mutex, no other object may call any other synchronized method on object B. A synchronized block is a slightly different animal. You can synchronize a block on any object, not just the object that has the block in one of its methods. In our example, our processRequest() method contains a block synchronized on the pool object (remember it's a LinkedList that holds the pool of connections to be handled). The reason we do this is to ensure that nobody else can modify the connection pool at the same time we are. Now that we've guaranteed that we're the only ones wading in the pool, we can add the incoming Socket to the end of our LinkedList. Once we've added the new connection, we notify other Threads waiting to access the pool that it's now available, using this code: pool.notifyAll(); All subclasses of Object inherit the notifyAll() method. This method, in conjunction with the wait() method that we'll discuss in the next panel, allows one Thread to let another Thread know that some condition has been met. That means that the second Thread must have been waiting for that condition to be satisfied. Getting connections from the pool Here we implement the revised run() method on PooledConnectionHandler, which will wait on the connection pool and handle the connection once the pool has one: public void run() { while (true) { synchronized (pool) { while (pool.isEmpty()) { try { pool.wait(); } catch (InterruptedException e) { return; } } connection = (Socket) pool.remove(0); } handleConnection(); } } Recall from the previous panel that a Thread is waiting to be notified that a condition on the connection pool has been satisfied. In our example, remember that we have three PooledConnectionHandlers waiting to use connections in the pool. Each of these PooledConnectionHandlers is running in its own Thread and is blocked on the call to pool.wait(). When our processRequest() method called notifyAll() on the connection pool, all of our waiting PooledConnectionHandlers were notified that the pool was available. Each one then continues past the call to pool.wait(), and rechecks the while(pool.isEmpty()) loop condition. The pool will be empty for all but one handler, so all but one handler will block again on the call to pool.wait(). The one that encounters a non-empty pool will break out of the while(pool.isEmpty()) loop and will grab the first connection from the pool: Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 24 connection = (Socket) pool.remove(0); Once it has a connection to use, it calls handleConnection() to handle it. In our example, the pool probably won't ever have more than one connection in it, simply because things execute so fast. If there were more than one connection in the pool, then the other handlers wouldn't have to wait for new connections to be added to the pool. When they checked the pool.isEmpty() condition, it would fail, and they would proceed to grab a connection from the pool and handle it. One other thing to note. How is the processRequest() method able to put connections in the pool when the run() method has a mutex lock on the pool? The answer is that the call to wait() on the pool releases the lock, and then grabs it again right before it returns. This allows other code synchronized on the pool object to acquire the lock. Handling connections: One more time Here we implement the revised handleConnection() method, which will grab the streams on a connection, use them, and clean them up when finished: public void handleConnection() { try { PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(connection.getOutputStream()); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream())); String fileToRead = streamReader.readLine(); BufferedReader fileReader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(fileToRead)); String line = null; while ((line = fileReader.readLine()) != null) streamWriter.println(line); fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { System.out.println("Could not find requested file on the server."); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } Unlike in our multithreaded server, our PooledConnectionHandler has a handleConnection() method. The code within this method is exactly the same as the code in the run() method on our non-pooled ConnectionHandler. First, we wrap the OutputStream and InputStream in a PrintWriter and a BufferedReader, respectively (using getOutputStream() and getInputStream() on the Socket). Then we read the target file line by line, just as we did in the multithreaded example. Again, when we get some bytes, we put them in our local line variable, and then write them out to the client. When we're done reading and writing, we close our FileReader and the open streams. Wrapping up the pooled server Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 25 Our pooled server is done. Let's review the steps to create and use a pooled version of the server: 1. Create a new kind of connection handler (we called it PooledConnectionHandler) to handle connections in a pool. 2. Modify the server to create and use a set of PooledConnectionHandlers. You can find the complete code listing for PooledRemoteFileServer at Code listing for PooledRemoteFileServer on page 35, and the complete code listing for PooledConnectionHandler at Code listing for PooledConnectionHandler on page 35. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 26 Section 7. Sockets in real life Introduction The examples we've talked about so far cover the mechanics of sockets in Java programming, but how would you use them on something "real?" Such a simple use of sockets, even with multithreading and pooling, would not be appropriate in most applications. Instead, it would probably be smart to use sockets within other classes that model your problem domain. We did this recently in porting an application from a mainframe/SNA environment to a TCP/IP environment. The application's job is to facilitate communication between a retail outlet (such as a hardware store) and financial institutions. Our application is the middleman. As such, it needs to communicate with the retail outlet on one side and the financial outlet on the other. We had to handle a client talking to a server via sockets, and we had to translate our domain objects into socket-ready stuff for transmission. We can't cover all the detail of this application in this tutorial, but let us take you on a tour of some of the high points. You can extrapolate from here to your own problem domain. The client side On the client side, the key players in our system were Socket, ClientSocketFacade, and StreamAdapter. The UML is shown in the following diagram: We created a ClientSocketFacade, which is Runnable and owns an instance of . Our application can instantiate a ClientSocketFacade with a particular host IP address and port number, and run it in a new Thread. The run() method on ClientSocketFacade calls connect(), which lazily initializes a Socket. With Socket instance in hand, our ClientSocketFacade calls receive() on itself, which blocks until the server sends some data over the Socket. Whenever the server sends some data, our ClientSocketFacade will wake up and handle the incoming data. Sending data is just as direct. Our application can simply tell its ClientSocketFacade to send data to its server by calling the send() method with a StreamObject. The only piece missing from the discussion above is StreamAdapter. When an application Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 27 tells the ClientSocketFacade to send data, the Facade delegates the operation to an instance of StreamAdapter. The ClientSocketFacade delegates receiving data to the same instance of StreamAdapter. A StreamAdapter handles the final formatting of messages to put on the Socket's OutputStream, and reverses the process for messages coming in on the Socket's InputStream. For example, perhaps your server needs to know the number of bytes in the message being sent. StreamAdapter could handle computing and prepending the length to the message before sending it. When the server receives it, the same StreamAdapter could handle stripping off the length and reading the correct number of bytes for building a StreamReadyObject. The server side The picture is similar on the server side: We wrapped our ServerSocket in a ServerSocketFacade, which is Runnable and owns an instance of a ServerSocket. Our applications can instantiate a ServerSocketFacade with a particular server-side port to listen to and a maximum number of client connections allowed (the default is 50). The application then runs the Facade in a new Thread to hide the ServerSocket interaction details. The run() method on ServerSocketFacade calls acceptConnections(), which makes a new ServerSocket and calls accept() on it to block until a client requests a connection. Each time that happens, our ServerSocketFacade wakes up and hands the new Socket returned by accept() to an instance of SocketHandler by calling handleSocket(). The SocketHandler does what it needs to do in order to handle the new channel from client to server. The business logic Once we had these Socket Facades in place, it became much easier to implement the business logic of our application. Our application used an instance of ClientSocketFacade to send data over the Socket to the server and to get responses back. The application was responsible for handling conversion of our domain objects into formats understood by ClientSocketFacade and for building domain objects from Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 28 responses. Sending messages to the server The following diagram shows the UML interaction diagram for sending a message in our application: For simplicity's sake, we didn't show the piece of the interaction where aClientSocketFacade asks its Socket instance for its OutputStream (using the getOutputStream() method). Once we had a reference to that OutputStream, we simply interacted with it as shown in the diagram. Notice that our ClientSocketFacade hid the low-level details of socket interaction from our application. Our application interacted with aClientSocketFacade, not with any of the lower-level classes that facilitate putting bytes on Socket OutputStreams. Receiving messages from the server The following diagram shows the UML interaction diagram for receiving a message in our application: Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 29 Notice that our application runs aClientSocketFacade in a Thread. When aClientSocketFacade starts up, it tells itself to receive() on its Socket instance's InputStream. The receive() method calls read(byte[]) on the InputStream itself. The read([]) method blocks until it receives data, and puts the bytes received on the InputStream into a byte array. When data comes in, aClientSocketFacade uses aStreamAdapter and aDomainAdapter to construct (ultimately) a domain object that our application can use. Then it hands that domain object back to the application. Again, our ClientSocketFacade hides the lower-level details from the application, simplifying the Application Layer. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 30 Section 8. Summary Wrapup The Java language simplifies using sockets in your applications. The basics are really the Socket and ServerSocket classes in the java.net package. Once you understand what's going on behind the scenes, these classes are easy to use. Using sockets in real life is simply a matter of using good OO design principles to preserve encapsulation within the various layers within your application. We showed you a few classes that can help. The structure of these classes hides the low-level details of Socket interaction from our application -- it can just use pluggable ClientSocketFacades and ServerSocketFacades. You still have to manage the somewhat messy byte details somewhere (within the Facades), but you can do it once and be done with it. Better still, you can reuse these lower-level helper classes on future projects. Resources * Download the source code for this article. * " Thinking in Java, 2nd Edition " (Prentice Hall, 2000) by Bruce Eckel provides an excellent approach for learning Java inside and out. * Sun has a good tutorial on Sockets . Just follow the "All About Sockets" link. * We used VisualAge for Java, version 3.5 to develop the code in this tutorial. Download your own copy of VisualAge for Java (now in release 4) or, if you already use VAJ, check out the VisualAge Developer Domain for a variety of technical assistance. * Now that you're up to speed with sockets programming with Java, this article on the Visual Age for Java Developer Domain will teach you to set up access to sockets through the company firewall . * Allen Holub's Java Toolbox column (on JavaWorld) provides an excellent series on Java Threads that is well worth reading. Start the series with " A Java programmer's guide to threading architectures ." One particularly good article, " Threads in an object-oriented world, thread pools, implementing socket 'accept' loops, " goes into rather deep detail about Thread pooling. We didn't go into quite so much detail in this tutorial, and we made our PooledRemoteFileServer and PooledConnectionHandler a little easier to follow, but the strategies Allen talks about would fit nicely. In fact, his treatment of ServerSocket via a Java implementation of a callback mechanism that supports a multi-purpose, configurable server is powerful. * For technical assistance with multithreading in your Java applications, visit the Multithreaded Java programming discussion forum on developerWorks, moderated by Java threading expert Brian Goetz. * Siva Visveswaran explains connection pooling in detail in "Connection pools" (developerWorks, October 2000). Your feedback Please let us know whether this tutorial was helpful to you and how we could make it better. We'd also like to hear about other tutorial topics you'd like to see covered. Thanks! Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 31 Section 9. Appendix Code listing for URLClient import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class URLClient { protected HttpURLConnection connection; public String getDocumentAt(String urlString) { StringBuffer document = new StringBuffer(); try { URL url = new URL(urlString); URLConnection conn = url.openConnection(); BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(conn.getInputStream())); String line = null; while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) document.append(line + "\n"); reader.close(); } catch (MalformedURLException e) { System.out.println("Unable to connect to URL: " + urlString); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("IOException when connecting to URL: " + urlString); } return document.toString(); } public static void main(String[] args) { URLClient client = new URLClient(); String yahoo = client.getDocumentAt("http://www.yahoo.com"); System.out.println(yahoo); } } Code listing for RemoteFileClient import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class RemoteFileClient { protected BufferedReader socketReader; protected PrintWriter socketWriter; protected String hostIp; protected int hostPort; public RemoteFileClient(String aHostIp, int aHostPort) { hostIp = aHostIp; hostPort = aHostPort; } public String getFile(String fileNameToGet) { StringBuffer fileLines = new StringBuffer(); try { socketWriter.println(fileNameToGet); socketWriter.flush(); String line = null; while ((line = socketReader.readLine()) != null) fileLines.append(line + "\n"); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error reading from file: " + fileNameToGet); } return fileLines.toString(); } Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 32 public static void main(String[] args) { RemoteFileClient remoteFileClient = new RemoteFileClient("127.0.0.1", 3000); remoteFileClient.setUpConnection(); String fileContents = remoteFileClient.getFile("C:\\WINNT\\Temp\\RemoteFile.txt"); remoteFileClient.tearDownConnection(); System.out.println(fileContents); } public void setUpConnection() { try { Socket client = new Socket(hostIp, hostPort); socketReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(client.getInputStream())); socketWriter = new PrintWriter(client.getOutputStream()); } catch (UnknownHostException e) { System.out.println("Error setting up socket connection: unknown host at " + hostIp + ":" + hostPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error setting up socket connection: " + e); } } public void tearDownConnection() { try { socketWriter.close(); socketReader.close(); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error tearing down socket connection: " + e); } } } Code listing for RemoteFileServer import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class RemoteFileServer { int listenPort; public RemoteFileServer(int aListenPort) { listenPort = aListenPort; } public void acceptConnections() { try { ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(listenPort); Socket incomingConnection = null; while (true) { incomingConnection = server.accept(); handleConnection(incomingConnection); } } catch (BindException e) { System.out.println("Unable to bind to port " + listenPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Unable to instantiate a ServerSocket on port: " + listenPort); } } public void handleConnection(Socket incomingConnection) { try { OutputStream outputToSocket = incomingConnection.getOutputStream(); InputStream inputFromSocket = incomingConnection.getInputStream(); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputFromSocket)); FileReader fileReader = new FileReader(new File(streamReader.readLine())); BufferedReader bufferedFileReader = new BufferedReader(fileReader); PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(incomingConnection.getOutputStream()); String line = null; while ((line = bufferedFileReader.readLine()) != null) { streamWriter.println(line); } Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 33 fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } public static void main(String[] args) { RemoteFileServer server = new RemoteFileServer(3000); server.acceptConnections(); } } Code listing for MultithreadedRemoteFileServer import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class MultithreadedRemoteFileServer { protected int listenPort; public MultithreadedRemoteFileServer(int aListenPort) { listenPort = aListenPort; } public void acceptConnections() { try { ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(listenPort, 5); Socket incomingConnection = null; while (true) { incomingConnection = server.accept(); handleConnection(incomingConnection); } } catch (BindException e) { System.out.println("Unable to bind to port " + listenPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Unable to instantiate a ServerSocket on port: " + listenPort); } } public void handleConnection(Socket connectionToHandle) { new Thread(new ConnectionHandler(connectionToHandle)).start(); } public static void main(String[] args) { MultithreadedRemoteFileServer server = new MultithreadedRemoteFileServer(3000); server.acceptConnections(); } } Code listing for ConnectionHandler import java.io.*; import java.net.*; public class ConnectionHandler implements Runnable { protected Socket socketToHandle; public ConnectionHandler(Socket aSocketToHandle) { socketToHandle = aSocketToHandle; } public void run() { try { PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(socketToHandle.getOutputStream()); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socketToHandle.getInputStream())); String fileToRead = streamReader.readLine(); BufferedReader fileReader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(fileToRead)); String line = null; while ((line = fileReader.readLine()) != null) streamWriter.println(line); Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 34 fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } } Code listing for PooledRemoteFileServer import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*; public class PooledRemoteFileServer { protected int maxConnections; protected int listenPort; protected ServerSocket serverSocket; public PooledRemoteFileServer(int aListenPort, int maxConnections) { listenPort = aListenPort; this.maxConnections = maxConnections; } public void acceptConnections() { try { ServerSocket server = new ServerSocket(listenPort, 5); Socket incomingConnection = null; while (true) { incomingConnection = server.accept(); handleConnection(incomingConnection); } } catch (BindException e) { System.out.println("Unable to bind to port " + listenPort); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Unable to instantiate a ServerSocket on port: " + listenPort); } } protected void handleConnection(Socket connectionToHandle) { PooledConnectionHandler.processRequest(connectionToHandle); } public static void main(String[] args) { PooledRemoteFileServer server = new PooledRemoteFileServer(3000, 3); server.setUpHandlers(); server.acceptConnections(); } public void setUpHandlers() { for (int i = 0; i < maxConnections; i++) { PooledConnectionHandler currentHandler = new PooledConnectionHandler(); new Thread(currentHandler, "Handler " + i).start(); } } } Code listing for PooledConnectionHandler import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*; public class PooledConnectionHandler implements Runnable { protected Socket connection; protected static List pool = new LinkedList(); public PooledConnectionHandler() { } public void handleConnection() { try { Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 35 PrintWriter streamWriter = new PrintWriter(connection.getOutputStream()); BufferedReader streamReader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream())); String fileToRead = streamReader.readLine(); BufferedReader fileReader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(fileToRead)); String line = null; while ((line = fileReader.readLine()) != null) streamWriter.println(line); fileReader.close(); streamWriter.close(); streamReader.close(); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { System.out.println("Could not find requested file on the server."); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println("Error handling a client: " + e); } } public static void processRequest(Socket requestToHandle) { synchronized (pool) { pool.add(pool.size(), requestToHandle); pool.notifyAll(); } } public void run() { while (true) { synchronized (pool) { while (pool.isEmpty()) { try { pool.wait(); } catch (InterruptedException e) { return; } } connection = (Socket) pool.remove(0); } handleConnection(); } } } Colophon This tutorial was written entirely in XML, using the developerWorks Toot-O-Matic tutorial generator. The Toot-O-Matic tool is a short Java program that uses XSLT stylesheets to convert the XML source into a number of HTML pages, a zip file, JPEG heading graphics, and PDF files. Our ability to generate multiple text and binary formats from a single source file illustrates the power and flexibility of XML. Presented by developerWorks, your source for great tutorials ibm.com/developerWorks Java sockets 101 Page 36
还剩35页未读

继续阅读

下载pdf到电脑,查找使用更方便

pdf的实际排版效果,会与网站的显示效果略有不同!!

需要 5 金币 [ 分享pdf获得金币 ] 2 人已下载

下载pdf

pdf贡献者

l798643435

贡献于2013-05-17

下载需要 5 金币 [金币充值 ]
亲,您也可以通过 分享原创pdf 来获得金币奖励!
下载pdf