Data Structures and Algorithms in Java 4th Edition


Data Structures and Algorithms in Java Michael T. Goodrich Department of Computer Science University of California, Irvine 1 Roberto Tamassia Department of Computer Science Brown University 0-471-73884-0 Fourth Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Dan Sayre MARKETING DIRECTOR Frank Lyman EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Bridget Morrisey SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Ken Santor COVER DESIGNER Hope Miller COVER PHOTO RESEARCHER Lisa Gee COVER PHOTO Ralph A. Clevenger/Corbis This book was set in by the authors and printed and bound by R.R. Donnelley - Crawfordsville. The cover was printed by Phoenix Color, Inc. Front Matter To Karen, Paul, Anna, and Jack -Michael T. Goodrich 2 To Isabel -Roberto Tamassia Preface to the Fourth Edition This fourth edition is designed to provide an introduction to data structures and algorithms, including their design, analysis, and implementation. In terms of curricula based on the IEEE/ACM 2001 Computing Curriculum, this book is appropriate for use in the courses CS102 (I/O/B versions), CS103 (I/O/B versions), CS111 (A version), and CS112 (A/I/O/F/H versions). We discuss its use for such courses in more detail later in this preface. The major changes, with respect to the third edition, are the following: • Added new chapter on arrays, linked lists, and recursion. • Added new chapter on memory management. • Full integration with Java 5.0. • Better integration with the Java Collections Framework. • Better coverage of iterators. • Increased coverage of array lists, including the replacement of uses of the class java.util.Vector with java.util.ArrayList. • Update of all Java APIs to use generic types. • Simplified list, binary tree, and priority queue ADTs. • Further streamlining of mathematics to the seven most used functions. • Expanded and revised exercises, bringing the total number of reinforcement, creativity, and project exercises to 670. Added exercises include new projects on maintaining a game's high-score list, evaluating postfix and infix expressions, minimax game-tree evaluation, processing stock buy and sell orders, scheduling CPU jobs, n-body simulation, computing DNA-strand edit distance, and creating and solving mazes. This book is related to the following books: • M.T. Goodrich, R. Tamassia, and D.M. Mount, Data Structures and Algorithms in C++, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004. This book has a similar overall structure to the present book, but uses C++ as the underlying language (with some modest, but necessary pedagogical differences required by this approach). Thus, it could make 3 for a handy companion book in a curriculum that allows for either a Java or C++ track in the introductory courses. • M.T. Goodrich and R. Tamassia, Algorithm Design: Foundations, Analysis, and Internet Examples, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002. This is a textbook for a more advanced algorithms and data structures course, such as CS210 (T/W/C/S versions) in the IEEE/ACM 2001 curriculum. Use as a Textbook The design and analysis of efficient data structures has long been recognized as a vital subject in computing, for the study of data structures is part of the core of every collegiate computer science and computer engineering major program we are familiar with. Typically, the introductory courses are presented as a two- or three- course sequence. Elementary data structures are often briefly introduced in the first programming or introduction to computer science course and this is followed by a more in-depth introduction to data structures in the following course(s). Furthermore, this course sequence is typically followed at a later point in the curriculum by a more in-depth study of data structures and algorithms. We feel that the central role of data structure design and analysis in the curriculum is fully justified, given the importance of efficient data structures in most software systems, including the Web, operating systems, databases, compilers, and scientific simulation systems. With the emergence of the object-oriented paradigm as the framework of choice for building robust and reusable software, we have tried to take a consistent objectoriented viewpoint throughout this text. One of the main ideas of the object- oriented approach is that data should be presented as being encapsulated with the methods that access and modify them. That is, rather than simply viewing data as a collection of bytes and addresses, we think of data as instances of an abstract data type (ADT) that include a repertory of methods for performing operations on the data. Likewise, object-oriented solutions are often organized utilizing common design patterns, which facilitate software reuse and robustness. Thus, we present each data structure using ADTs and their respective implementations and we introduce important design patterns as means to organize those implementations into classes, methods, and objects. For each ADT presented in this book, we provide an associated Java interface. Also, concrete data structures realizing the ADTs are provided as Java classes implementing the interfaces above. We also give Java implementations of fundamental algorithms (such as sorting and graph traversals) and of sample applications of data structures (such as HTML tag matching and a photo album). Due to space limitations, we sometimes show only code fragments in the book and make additional source code available on the companion Web site, http://java.datastructures.net. 4 The Java code implementing fundamental data structures in this book is organized in a single Java package, net.datastructures. This package forms a coherent library of data structures and algorithms in Java specifically designed for educational purposes in a way that is complementary with the Java Collections Framework. Web Added-Value Education This book is accompanied by an extensive Web site: http://java.datastructures.net. Students are encouraged to use this site along with the book, to help with exercises and increase understanding of the subject. Instructors are likewise welcome to use the site to help plan, organize, and present their course materials. For the Student for all readers, and specifically for students, we include: • All the Java source code presented in this book. • The student version of the net.datastructures package. • Slide handouts (four-per-page) in PDF format. • A database of hints to all exercises, indexed by problem number. • Java animations and interactive applets for data structures and algorithms. • Hyperlinks to other data structures and algorithms resources. We feel that the Java animations and interactive applets should be of particular interest, since they allow readers to interactively "play" with different data structures, which leads to better understanding of the different ADTs. In addition, the hints should be of considerable use to anyone needing a little help getting started on certain exercises. For the Instructor For instructors using this book, we include the following additional teaching aids: • Solutions to over two hundred of the book's exercises. • A keyword-searchable database of additional exercises. • The complete net.datastructures package. 5 • Additional Java source code. • Slides in Powerpoint and PDF (one-per-page) format. • Self-contained special-topic supplements, including discussions on convex hulls, range trees, and orthogonal segment intersection. The slides are fully editable, so as to allow an instructor using this book full freedom in customizing his or her presentations. A Resource for Teaching Data Structures and Algorithms This book contains many Java-code and pseudo-code fragments, and over 670 exercises, which are divided into roughly 40% reinforcement exercises, 40% creativity exercises, and 20% programming projects. This book can be used for courses CS102 (I/O/B versions), CS103 (I/O/B versions), CS111 (A version), and/or CS112 (A/I/O/F/H versions) in the IEEE/ACM 2001 Computing Curriculum, with instructional units as outlined in Table 0.1. Table 0.1: Material for Units in the IEEE/ACM 2001 Computing Curriculum. Instructional Unit Relevant Material PL1. Overview of Programming Languages Chapters 1 & 2 PL2. Virtual Machines Sections 14.1.1, 14.1.2, & 14.1.3 PL3. Introduction to Language Translation Section 1.9 PL4. Declarations and Types Sections 1.1, 2.4, & 2.5 PL5. Abstraction Mechanisms Sections 2.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.3, 7.1, 7.3.1, 8.1, 9.1, 9.3, 11.6, & 13.1 6 PL6. Object-Oriented Programming Chapters 1 & 2 and Sections 6.2.2, 6.3, 7.3.7, 8.1.2, & 13.3.1 PF1. Fundamental Programming Constructs Chapters 1 & 2 PF2. Algorithms and Problem-Solving Sections 1.9 & 4.2 PF3. Fundamental Data Structures Sections 3.1, 5.1-3.2, 5.3, , 6.1-6.4, 7.1, 7.3, 8.1, 8.3, 9.1-9.4, 10.1, & 13.1 PF4. Recursion Section 3.5 SE1. Software Design Chapter 2 and Sections 6.2.2, 6.3, 7.3.7, 8.1.2, & 13.3.1 SE2. Using APIs Sections 2.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.3, 7.1, 7.3.1, 8.1, 9.1, 9.3, 11.6, & 13.1 AL1. Basic Algorithmic Analysis Chapter 4 AL2. Algorithmic Strategies Sections 11.1.1, 11.7.1, 12.2.1, 12.4.2, & 12.5.2 AL3. Fundamental Computing Algorithms Sections 8.1.4, 8.2.3, 8.3.5, 9.2, & 9.3.3, and Chapters 11, 12, & 13 DS1. Functions, Relations, and Sets Sections 4.1, 8.1, & 11.6 DS3. Proof Techniques Sections 4.3, 6.1.4, 7.3.3, 8.3, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 11.2.1, 11.3, 11.6.2, 13.1, 13.3.1, 13.4, & 13.5 7 DS4. Basics of Counting Sections 2.2.3 & 11.1.5 DS5. Graphs and Trees Chapters 7, 8, 10, & 13 DS6. Discrete Probability Appendix A and Sections 9.2.2, 9.4.2, 11.2.1, & 11.7 Chapter Listing The chapters for this course are organized to provide a pedagogical path that starts with the basics of Java programming and object-oriented design, moves to concrete structures like arrays and linked lists, adds foundational techniques like recursion and algorithm analysis, and then presents the fundamental data structures and algorithms, concluding with a discussion of memory management (that is, the architectural underpinnings of data structures). Specifically, the chapters for this book are organized as follows: 1. Java Programming Basics 2. Object-Oriented Design 3. Arrays, Linked Lists, and Recursion 4. Analysis Tools 5. Stacks and Queues 6. Lists and Iterators 7. Trees 8. Priority Queues 9. Maps and Dictionaries 10. Search Trees 11. Sorting, Sets, and Selection 12. Text Processing 13. Graphs 8 14. Memory A. Useful Mathematical Facts Prerequisites We have written this book assuming that the reader comes to it with certain knowledge.That is, we assume that the reader is at least vaguely familiar with a high-level programming language, such as C, C++, or Java, and that he or she understands the main constructs from such a high-level language, including: • Variables and expressions. • Methods (also known as functions or procedures). • Decision structures (such as if-statements and switch-statements). • Iteration structures (for-loops and while-loops). For readers who are familiar with these concepts, but not with how they are expressed in Java, we provide a primer on the Java language in Chapter 1. Still, this book is primarily a data structures book, not a Java book; hence, it does not provide a comprehensive treatment of Java. Nevertheless, we do not assume that the reader is necessarily familiar with object-oriented design or with linked structures, such as linked lists, for these topics are covered in the core chapters of this book. In terms of mathematical background, we assume the reader is somewhat familiar with topics from high-school mathematics. Even so, in Chapter 4, we discuss the seven most-important functions for algorithm analysis. In fact, sections that use something other than one of these seven functions are considered optional, and are indicated with a star (). We give a summary of other useful mathematical facts, including elementary probability, in Appendix A. About the Authors Professors Goodrich and Tamassia are well-recognized researchers in algorithms and data structures, having published many papers in this field, with applications to Internet computing, information visualization, computer security, and geometric computing. They have served as principal investigators in several joint projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Army Research Office, and the 9 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. They are also active in educational technology research, with special emphasis on algorithm visualization systems. Michael Goodrich received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from Purdue University in 1987. He is currently a professor in the Department of Computer Science at University of California, Irvine. Previously, he was a professor at Johns Hopkins University. He is an editor for the International Journal of Computational Geometry & Applications and Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications. Roberto Tamassia received his Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1988. He is currently a professor in the Department of Computer Science at Brown University. He is editor-in-chief for the Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications and an editor for Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications. He previously served on the editorial board of IEEE Transactions on Computers. In addition to their research accomplishments, the authors also have extensive experience in the classroom. For example, Dr. Goodrich has taught data structures and algorithms courses, including Data Structures as a freshman-sophomore level course and Introduction to Algorithms as an upper level course. He has earned several teaching awards in this capacity. His teaching style is to involve the students in lively interactive classroom sessions that bring out the intuition and insights behind data structuring and algorithmic techniques. Dr. Tamassia has taught Data Structures and Algorithms as an introductory freshman-level course since 1988. One thing that has set his teaching style apart is his effective use of interactive hypermedia presentations integrated with the Web. The instructional Web sites, datastructures.net and algorithmdesign.net, supported by Drs. Goodrich and Tamassia, are used as reference material by students, teachers, and professionals worldwide. Acknowledgments There are a number of individuals who have made contributions to this book. We are grateful to all our research collaborators and teaching assistants, who provided feedback on early drafts of chapters and have helped us in developing exercises, programming assignments, and algorithm animation systems.In particular, we would like to thank Jeff Achter, Vesselin Arnaudov, James Baker, Ryan Baker,Benjamin Boer, Mike Boilen, Devin Borland, Lubomir Bourdev, Stina Bridgeman, Bryan Cantrill, Yi-Jen Chiang, Robert Cohen, David Ellis, David Emory, Jody Fanto, Ben Finkel, Ashim Garg, Natasha Gelfand, Mark Handy, Michael Horn, Beno^it Hudson, Jovanna Ignatowicz, Seth Padowitz, James Piechota, Dan Polivy, Seth Proctor, Susannah Raub, Haru Sakai, Andy Schwerin, Michael Shapiro, MikeShim, Michael Shin, Galina Shubina, Christian Straub, Ye 10 Sun, Nikos Triandopoulos, Luca Vismara, Danfeng Yao, Jason Ye, and Eric Zamore. Lubomir Bourdev, Mike Demmer, Mark Handy, Michael Horn, and Scott Speigler developed a basic Java tutorial, which ultimately led to Chapter 1, Java Programming. Special thanks go to Eric Zamore, who contributed to the development of the Java code examples in this book and to the initial design, implementation, and testing of the net.datastructures library of data structures and algorithms in Java. We are also grateful to Vesselin Arnaudov and ike Shim for testing the current version of net.datastructures Many students and instructors have used the two previous editions of this book and their experiences and responses have helped shape this fourth edition. There have been a number of friends and colleagues whose comments have lead to improvements in the text. We are particularly thankful to Karen Goodrich, Art Moorshead, David Mount, Scott Smith, and Ioannis Tollis for their insightful comments. In addition, contributions by David Mount to Section 3.5 and to several figures are gratefully acknowledged. We are also truly indebted to the outside reviewers and readers for their copious comments, emails, and constructive criticism, which were extremely useful in writing the fourth edition. We specifically thank the following reviewers for their comments and suggestions: Divy Agarwal, University of California, Santa Barbara; Terry Andres, University of Manitoba; Bobby Blumofe, University of Texas, Austin; Michael Clancy, University of California, Berkeley; Larry Davis, University of Maryland; Scott Drysdale, Dartmouth College; Arup Guha, University of Central Florida; Chris Ingram, University of Waterloo; Stan Kwasny, Washington University; Calvin Lin, University of Texas at Austin; John Mark Mercer, McGill University; Laurent Michel, University of Connecticut; Leonard Myers, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; David Naumann, Stevens Institute of Technology; Robert Pastel, Michigan Technological University; Bina Ramamurthy, SUNY Buffalo; Ken Slonneger, University of Iowa; C.V. Ravishankar, University of Michigan; Val Tannen, University of Pennsylvania; Paul Van Arragon, Messiah College; and Christopher Wilson, University of Oregon. The team at Wiley has been great. Many thanks go to Lilian Brady, Paul Crockett, Simon Durkin, Lisa Gee, Frank Lyman, Madelyn Lesure, Hope Miller, Bridget Morrisey, Ken Santor, Dan Sayre, Bruce Spatz, Dawn Stanley, Jeri Warner, and Bill Zobrist. The computing systems and excellent technical support staff in the departments of computer science at Brown University and University of California, Irvine gave us reliable working environments. This manuscript was prepared primarily with the 11 typesetting package for the text and Adobe FrameMaker® and Microsoft Visio® for the figures. Finally, we would like to warmly thank Isabel Cruz, Karen Goodrich, Giuseppe Di Battista, Franco Preparata, Ioannis Tollis, and our parents for providing advice, encouragement, and support at various stages of the preparation of this book. We also thank them for reminding us that there are things in life beyond writing books. Michael T. Goodrich Roberto Tamassia Chapter 1 Java Programming Basics Contents 1.1 12 Getting Started: Classes, Types, and Objects... 2 1.1.1 Base Types......................................................... .. 5 1.1.2 Objects....................................................... ....... 7 1.1.3 Enum Types......................................................... . 14 1.2 Methods....................................... 15 1.3 Expressions................................... 20 1.3.1 Literals...................................................... ...... 20 1.3.2 Operators..................................................... ...... 21 1.3.3 13 Casting and Autoboxing/Unboxing in Expressions...................... 25 1.4 Control Flow................................... 27 1.4.1 The If and Switch Statements........................................ 27 1.4.2 Loops......................................................... ...... 29 1.4.3 Explicit Control-Flow Statements.................................... 32 1.5 Arrays......................................... 34 1.5.1 Declaring Arrays.................................................... 36 1.5.2 Arrays are Objects.................................................. 37 1.6 Simple Input and Output........................ 14 39 1.7 An Example Program............................. 42 1.8 Nested Classes and Packages.................... 45 1.9 Writing a Java Program......................... 47 1.9.1 Design........................................................ ...... 47 1.9.2 Pseudo- Code......................................................... 48 1.9.3 Coding........................................................ ...... 49 1.9.4 Testing and Debugging............................................... 53 1.10 Exercises..................................... 55 java.datastructures.net 15 1.1 Getting Started: Classes, Types, and Objects Building data structures and algorithms requires that we communicate detailed instructions to a computer, and an excellent way to perform such communication is using a high-level computer language, such as Java. In this chapter, we give a brief overview of the Java programming language, assuming the reader is somewhat familiar with an existing high-level language. This book does not provide a complete description of the Java language, however. There are major aspects of the language that are not directly relevant to data structure design, which are not included here, such as threads and sockets. For the reader interested in learning more about Java, please see the notes at the end of this chapter. We begin with a program that prints "Hello Universe!" on the screen, which is shown in a dissected form in Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1: A "Hello Universe!" program. 16 The main "actors" in a Java program are objects. Objects store data and provide methods for accessing and modifying this data. Every object is an instance of a class, which defines the type of the object, as well as the kinds of operations that it performs. The critical members of a class in Java are the following (classes can also contain inner class definitions, but let us defer discussing this concept for now): • Data of Java objects are stored in instance variables (also called fields). Therefore, if an object from some class is to store data, its class must specify the instance variables for such objects. Instance variables can either come from base types (such as integers, floating-point numbers, or Booleans) or they can refer to objects of other classes. • The operations that can act on data, expressing the "messages" objects respond to, are called methods, and these consist of constructors, procedures, and functions. They define the behavior of objects from that class. How Classes Are Declared In short, an object is a specific combination of data and the methods that can process and communicate that data. Classes define the types for objects; hence, objects are sometimes referred to as instances of their defining class, because they take on the name of that class as their type. An example definition of a Java class is shown in Code Fragment 1.1. Code Fragment 1.1: A Counter class for a simple counter, which can be accessed, incremented, and decremented. 17 In this example, notice that the class definition is delimited by braces, that is, it begins with a "{" and ends with a "} ". In Java, any set of statements between the braces "{" and "}" define a program block. As with the Universe class, the Counter class is public, which means that any other class can create and use a Counter object. The Counter has one instance variable— an integer called count. This variable is initialized to 0 in the constructor method, Counter, which is called when we wish to create a new Counter object (this method always has the same name as the class it belongs to). This class also has one accessor method, getCount, which returns the current value of the counter. Finally, this class has two update methods—a method, incrementCount, which increments the counter, and a method, decrementCount, which decrements the counter. Admittedly, this is a pretty boring class, but at least it shows us the syntax and structure of a Java class. It also shows us that a Java class does not have to have a main method (but such a class can do nothing by itself). The name of a class, method, or variable in Java is called an identifier, which can be any string of characters as long as it begins with a letter and consists of letters, numbers, and underscore characters (where "letter" and "number" can be from any written language defined in the Unicode character set). We list the exceptions to this general rule for Java identifiers in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: A listing of the reserved words in Java. These names cannot be used as method or variable names in Java. Reserved Words abstract 18 else interface switch boolean extends long synchronized break false native this byte final new throw case finally null throws catch float package transient char for 19 private true class goto protected try const if public void continue implements return volatile default import short while do instanceof static double int super Class Modifiers 20 Class modifiers are optional keywords that precede the class keyword. We have already seen examples that use the public keyword. In general, the different class modifiers and their meaning is as follows: • The abstract class modifier describes a class that has abstract methods. Abstract methods are declared with the abstract keyword and are empty (that is, they have no block defining a body of code for this method). A class that has nothing but abstract methods and no instance variables is more properly called an interface (see Section 2.4), so an abstract class usually has a mixture of abstract methods and actual methods. (We discuss abstract classes and their uses in Section 2.4.) • The final class modifier describes a class that can have no subclasses. (We will discuss this concept in the next chapter.) • The public class modifier describes a class that can be instantiated or extended by anything in the same package or by anything that imports the class. (This is explained in more detail in Section 1.8.) Public classes are declared in their own separate file called classname. java, where "classname" is the name of the class. • If the public class modifier is not used, the class is considered friendly. This means that it can be used and instantiated by all classes in the same package. This is the default class modifier. 1.1.1 Base Types The types of objects are determined by the class they come from. For the sake of efficiency and simplicity, Java also has the following base types (also called primitive types), which are not objects: boolean Boolean value: true or false char 16-bit Unicode character byte 8-bit signed two's complement integer short 16-bit signed two's complement integer 21 int 32-bit signed two's complement integer long 64-bit signed two's complement integer float 32-bit floating-point number (IEEE 754-1985) double 64-bit floating-point number (IEEE 754-1985) A variable declared to have one of these types simply stores a value of that type, rather than a reference to some object. Integer constants, like 14 or 195, are of type int, unless followed immediately by an 'L' or 'l', in which case they are of type long. Floating-point constants, like 3.1415 or 2.158e5, are of type double, unless followed immediately by an 'F' or 'f', in which case they are of type float. We show a simple class in Code Fragment 1.2 that defines a number of base types as local variables for the main method. Code Fragment 1.2: A Base class showing example uses of base types. 22 Comments Note the use of comments in this and other examples. These comments are annotations provided for human readers and are not processed by a Java compiler. Java allows for two kinds of comments-block comments and inline comments- which define text ignored by the compiler. Java uses a /* to begin a block comment and a */ to close it. Of particular note is a comment that begins with /**, for such comments have a special format that allows a program called Javadoc to read these comments and automatically generate documentation for Java programs. We discuss the syntax and interpretation of Javadoc comments in Section 1.9.3. In addition to block comments, Java uses a // to begin inline comments and ignores everything else on the line. All comments shown in this book will be colored blue, so that they are not confused with executable code. For example: /* * This is a block comment. */ 23 // This is an inline comment. Output from the Base Class Output from an execution of the Base class (main method) is shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2: Output from the Base class. Even though they themselves do not refer to objects, base-type variables are useful in the context of objects, for they often make up the instance variables (or fields) inside an object. For example, the Counter class (Code Fragment 1.1) had a single instance variable that was of type int. Another nice feature of base types in Java is that base-type instance variables are always given an initial value when an object containing them is created (either zero, false, or a null character, depending on the type). 1.1.2 Objects In Java, a new object is created from a defined class by using the new operator. The new operator creates a new object from a specified class and returns a reference to that object. In order to create a new object of a certain type, we must immediately follow our use of the new operator by a call to a constructor for that type of object. We can use any constructor that is included in the class definition, including the default constructor (which has no arguments between the parentheses). In Figure 1.3, we show a number of dissected example uses of the new operator, both to simply create new objects and to assign the reference to these objects to a variable. Figure 1.3: Example uses of the new operator. 24 Calling the new operator on a class type causes three events to occur: • A new object is dynamically allocated in memory, and all instance variables are initialized to standard default values. The default values are null for object variables and 0 for all base types except boolean variables (which are false by default). • The constructor for the new object is called with the parameters specified. The constructor fills in meaningful values for the instance variables and performs any additional computations that must be done to create this object. • After the constructor returns, the new operator returns a reference (that is, a memory address) to the newly created object. If the expression is in the form of an assignment statement, then this address is stored in the object variable, so the object variable refers to this newly created object. Number Objects We sometimes want to store numbers as objects, but base type numbers are not themselves objects, as we have noted. To get around this obstacle, Java defines a wrapper class for each numeric base type. We call these classes number classes. In Table 1.2, we show the numeric base types and their corresponding number class, along with examples of how number objects are created and accessed. Since Java 5.0, a creation operation is performed automatically any time we pass a base number to a method expecting a corresponding object. Likewise, the 25 corresponding access method is performed automatically any time we wish to assign the value of a corresponding Number object to a base number type. Table 1.2: Java number classes. Each class is given with its corresponding base type and example expressions for creating and accessing such objects. For each row, we assume the variable n is declared with the corresponding class name. Base Type Class Name Creation Example Access Example byte Byte n = new Byte((byte)34); n.byteValue( ) short Short n = new Short((short)100); n.shortValue( ) int Integer n = new Integer(1045); n.intValue( ) long Long n = new Long(10849L); 26 n.longValue( ) float Float n = new Float(3.934F); n.floatValue( ) double Double n = new Double(3.934); n.doubleValue( ) String Objects A string is a sequence of characters that comes from some alphabet (the set of all possible characters). Each character c that makes up a string s can be referenced by its index in the string, which is equal to the number of characters that come before c in s (so the first character is at index 0). In Java, the alphabet used to define strings is the Unicode international character set, a 16-bit character encoding that covers most used written languages. Other programming languages tend to use the smaller ASCII character set (which is a proper subset of the Unicode alphabet based on a 7-bit encoding). In addition, Java defines a special built-in class of objects called String objects. For example, a string P could be "hogs and dogs", which has length 13 and could have come from someone's Web page. In this case, the character at index 2 is 'g' and the character at index 5 is 'a'. Alternately, P could be the string "CGTAATAGTTAATCCG", which has length 16 and could have come from a scientific application for DNA sequencing, where the alphabet is {G, C, A, T}. Concatenation String processing involves dealing with strings. The primary operation for combining strings is called concatenation, which takes a string P and a string Q combines them into a new string, denoted P + Q, which consists of all the characters of P followed by all the characters of Q. In Java, the "+" operation 27 works exactly like this when acting on two strings. Thus, it is legal (and even useful) in Java to write an assignment statement like Strings = "kilo" + "meters"; This statement defines a variable s that references objects of the String class, and assigns it the string "kilometers". (We will discuss assignment statements and expressions such as that above in more detail later in this chapter.) Every object in Java is assumed to have a built-in method toString() that returns a string associated with the object. This description of the String class should be sufficient for most uses. We discuss the String class and its "relative" the StringBuffer class in more detail in Section 12.1. Object References As mentioned above, creating a new object involves the use of the new operator to allocate the object's memory space and use the object's constructor to initialize this space. The location, or address, of this space is then typically assigned to a reference variable. Therefore, a reference variable can be viewed as a "pointer" to some object. It is as if the variable is a holder for a remote control that can be used to control the newly created object (the device). That is, the variable has a way of pointing at the object and asking it to do things or give us access to its data. We illustrate this concept in Figure 1.4. Figure 1.4: Illustrating the relationship between objects and object reference variables. When we assign an object reference (that is, memory address) to a reference variable, it is as if we are storing that object's remote control at that variable. 28 The Dot Operator Every object reference variable must refer to some object, unless it is null, in which case it points to nothing. Using the remote control analogy, a null reference is a remote control holder that is empty. Initially, unless we assign an object variable to point to something, it is null. There can, in fact, be many references to the same object, and each reference to a specific object can be used to call methods on that object. Such a situation would correspond to our having many remote controls that all work on the same device. Any of the remotes can be used to make a change to the device (like changing a channel on a television). Note that if one remote control is used to change the device, then the (single) object pointed to by all the remotes changes. Likewise, if we use one object reference variable to change the state of the object, then its state changes for all the references to it. This behavior comes from the fact that there are many references, but they all point to the same object. One of the primary uses of an object reference variable is to access the members of the class for this object, an instance of its class. That is, an object reference variable is useful for accessing the methods and instance variables associated with an object. This access is performed with the dot (".") operator. We call a method associated with an object by using the reference variable name, following that by the dot operator and then the method name and its parameters. This calls the method with the specified name for the object referred to by this object reference. It can optionally be passed multiple parameters. If there are several methods with this same name defined for this object, then the Java runtime system uses the one that matches the number of parameters and most closely matches their respective types. A method's name combined with the number and types of its parameters is called a method's signature, for it takes all 29 of these parts to determine the actual method to perform for a certain method call. Consider the following examples: oven.cookDinner(); oven.cookDinner(food); oven.cookDinner(food, seasoning); Each of these method calls is actually referring to a different method with the same name defined in the class that oven belongs to. Note, however, that the signature of a method in Java does not include the type that the method returns, so Java does not allow two methods with the same signature to return different types. Instance Variables Java classes can define instance variables, which are also called fields. These variables represent the data associated with the objects of a class. Instance variables must have a type, which can either be a base type (such as int, float, double) or a reference type (as in our remote control analogy), that is, a class, such as String an interface (see Section 2.4), or an array (see Section 1.5). A base-type instance variable stores the value of that base type, whereas an instance variable declared with a class name stores a reference to an object of that class. Continuing our analogy of visualizing object references as remote controls, instance variables are like device parameters that can be read or set from the remote control (such as the volume and channel controls on a television remote control). Given a reference variable v, which points to some object o, we can access any of the instance variables for o that the access rules allow. For example, public instance variables are accessible by everyone. Using the dot operator we can get the value of any such instance variable, i, just by using v.i in an arithmetic expression. Likewise, we can set the value of any such instance variable,i, by writing v.i on the left-hand side of the assignment operator ("="). (See Figure 1.5.) For example, if gnome refers to a Gnome object that has public instance variables name and age, then the following statements are allowed: gnome.name = "Professor Smythe"; gnome.age = 132; Also, an object reference does not have to only be a reference variable. It can also be any expression that returns an object reference. Figure 1.5: Illustrating the way an object reference can be used to get and set instance variables in an 30 object (assuming we are allowed access to those variables). Variable Modifiers In some cases, we may not be allowed to directly access some of the instance variables for an object. For example, an instance variable declared as private in some class is only accessible by the methods defined inside that class. Such instance variables are similar to device parameters that cannot be accessed directly from a remote control. For example, some devices have internal parameters that can only be read or assigned by a factory technician (and a user is not allowed to change those parameters without violating the device's warranty). When we declare an instance variable, we can optionally define such a variable modifier, follow that by the variable's type and the identifier we are going to use for that variable. Additionally, we can optionally assign an initial value to the variable (using the assignment operator ("="). The rules for a variable name are the same as any other Java identifier. The variable type parameter can be either a base type, indicating that this variable stores values of this type, or a class name, indicating that this variable is a reference to an object from this class. Finally, the optional initial value we might assign to an instance variable must match the variable's type. For example, we could define a Gnome class, which contains several definitions of instance variables, shown in in Code Fragment 1.3. 31 The scope (or visibility) of instance variables can be controlled through the use of the following variable modifiers: • public: Anyone can access public instance variables. • protected: Only methods of the same package or of its subclasses can access protected instance variables. • private: Only methods of the same class (not methods of a subclass) can access private instance variables. • If none of the above modifiers are used, the instance variable is considered friendly. Friendly instance variables can be accessed by any class in the same package. Packages are discussed in more detail in Section 1.8. In addition to scope variable modifiers, there are also the following usage modifiers: • static: The static keyword is used to declare a variable that is associated with the class, not with individual instances of that class. Static variables are used to store "global" information about a class (for example, a static variable could be used to maintain the total number of Gnome objects created). Static variables exist even if no instance of their class is created. • final: A final instance variable is one that must be assigned an initial value, and then can never be assigned a new value after that. If it is a base type, then it is a constant (like the MAX_HEIGHT constant in the Gnome class). If an object variable is final, then it will always refer to the same object (even if that object changes its internal state). Code Fragment 1.3: The Gnome class. 32 Note the uses of instance variables in the Gnome example. The variables age, magical, and height are base types, the variable name is a reference to an instance of the built-in class String, and the variable gnomeBuddy is a reference to an object of the class we are now defining. Our declaration of the instance variable MAX_HEIGHT in the Gnome class is taking advantage of these two modifiers to 33 define a "variable" that has a fixed constant value. Indeed, constant values associated with a class should always be declared to be both static and final. 1.1.3 Enum Types Since 5.0, Java supports enumerated types, called enums. These are types that are only allowed to take on values that come from a specified set of names. They are declared inside of a class as follows: modifier enum name { value_name0, value_name1, …, value_namen−1 }; where the modifier can be blank, public, protected, or private. The name of this enum, name, can be any legal Java identifier. Each of the value identifiers, valuenamei, is the name of a possible value that variables of this enum type can take on. Each of these name values can also be any legal Java identifier, but the Java convention is that these should usually be capitalized words. For example, the following enumerated type definition might be useful in a program that must deal with dates: public enum Day { MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT, SUN }; Once defined, we can use an enum type, such as this, to define other variables, much like a class name. But since Java knows all the value names for an enumerated type, if we use an enum type in a string expression, Java will automatically use its name. Enum types also have a few built-in methods, including a method valueOf, which returns the enum value that is the same as a given string. We show an example use of an enum type in Code Fragment 1.4. Code Fragment 1.4: An example use of an enum type. 34 1.2 Methods Methods in Java are conceptually similar to functions and procedures in other highlevel languages. In general, they are "chunks" of code that can be called on a particular object (from some class). Methods can accept parameters as arguments, and their behavior depends on the object they belong to and the values of any parameters that are passed. Every method in Java is specified in the body of some class. A method definition has two parts: the signature, which defines the and parameters for a method, and the body, which defines what the method does. A method allows a programmer to send a message to an object. The method signature specifies how such a message should look and the method body specifies what the object will do when it receives such a message. Declaring Methods The syntax for defining a method is as follows: modifiers type name(type0 parameter0, …, typen−1 parametern−1) { // method body … } 35 Each of the pieces of this declaration have important uses, which we describe in detail in this section. The modifiers part includes the same kinds of scope modifiers that can be used for variables, such as public, protected, and static, with similar meanings. The type part of the declaration defines the return type of the method. The name is the name of the method, which can be any valid Java identifier. The list of parameters and their types declares the local variables that correspond to the values that are to be passed as arguments to this method. Each type declaration typei can be any Java type name and each parameteri can be any Java identifier. This list of parameters and their types can be empty, which signifies that there are no values to be passed to this method when it is invoked. These parameter variables, as well as the instance variables of the class, can be used inside the body of the method. Likewise, other methods of this class can be called from inside the body of a method. When a method of a class is called, it is invoked on a specific instance of that class and can change the state of that object (except for a static method, which is associated with the class itself). For example, invoking the following method on particular gnome changes its name. public void renameGnome (String s) { name = s; // Reassign the name instance variable of this gnome. } Method Modifiers As with instance variables, method modifiers can restrict the scope of a method: • public: Anyone can call public methods. • protected: Only methods of the same package or of subclasses can call a protected method. • private: Only methods of the same class (not methods of a subclass) can call a private method. • If none of the modifiers above are used, then the method is friendly. Friendly methods can only be called by objects of classes in the same package. The above modifiers may be preceded by additional modifiers: • abstract: A method declared as abstract has no code. The signature of such a method is followed by a semicolon with no method body. For example: public abstract void setHeight (double newHeight); 36 Abstract methods may only appear within an abstract class. We discuss the usefulness of this construct in Section 2.4. • final: This is a method that cannot be overridden by a subclass. • static: This is a method that is associated with the class itself, and not with a particular instance of the class. Static methods can also be used to change the state of static variables associated with a class (provided these variables are not declared to be final). Return Types A method definition must specify the type of value the method will return. If the method does not return a value, then the keyword void must be used. If the return type is void, the method is called a procedure; otherwise, it is called a function. To return a value in Java, a method must use the return keyword (and the type returned must match the return type of the method). Here is an example of a method (from inside the Gnome class) that is a function: public booleanisMagical () { returnmagical; } As soon as a return is performed in a Java function, the method ends. Java functions can return only one value. To return multiple values in Java, we should instead combine all the values we wish to return in a compound object, whose instance variables include all the values we want to return, and then return a reference to that compound object. In addition, we can change the internal state of an object that is passed to a method as another way of "returning" multiple results. Parameters A method's parameters are defined in a comma-separated list enclosed in parentheses after the name of the method. A parameter consists of two parts, the parameter type and the parameter name. If a method has no parameters, then only an empty pair of parentheses is used. All parameters in Java are passed by value, that is, any time we pass a parameter to a method, a copy of that parameter is made for use within the method body. So if we pass an int variable to a method, then that variable's integer value is copied. The method can change the copy but not the original. If we pass an object reference as a parameter to a method, then the reference is copied as well. Remember that we can have many different variables that all refer to the same object. Changing the 37 internal reference inside a method will not change the reference that was passed in. For example, if we pass a Gnome reference g to a method that calls this parameter h, then this method can change the reference h to point to a different object, but g will still refer to the same object as before. Of course, the method can use the reference h to change the internal state of the object, and this will change g's object as well (since g and h are currently referring to the same object). Constructors A constructor is a special kind of method that is used to initialize newly created objects. Java has a special way to declare the constructor and a special way to invoke the constructor. First, let's look at the syntax for declaring a constructor: modifiers name(type0 parameter0, …, typen−1 parametern−1) { // constructor body … } Thus, its syntax is essentially the same as that of any other method, but there are some important differences. The name of the constructor, name, must be the same as the name of the class it constructs. So, if the class is called Fish, the constructor must be called Fish as well. In addition, we don't specify a return type for a constructor—its return type is implicitly the same as its name (which is also the name of the class). Constructor modifiers, shown above as modifiers, follow the same rules as normal methods, except that an abstract, static, or final constructor is not allowed. Here is an example: publicFish (intw, String n) { weight = w; name = n,; } Constructor Definition and Invocation The body of a constructor is like a normal method's body, with a couple of minor exceptions. The first difference involves a concept known as constructor chaining, which is a topic discussed in Section 2.2.3 and is not critical at this point. The second difference between a constructor body and that of a regular method is that return statements are not allowed in a constructor body. A constructor's body 38 is intended to be used to initialize the data associated with objects of this class so that they may be in a stable initial state when first created. Constructors are invoked in a unique way: they must be called using the new operator. So, upon invocation, a new instance of this class is automatically created and its constructor is then called to initialize its instance variables and perform other setup tasks. For example, consider the following constructor invocation (which is also a declaration for the myFish variable): Fish myFish = new Fish (7, "Wally"); A class can have many constructors, but each must have a different signature, that is, each must be distinguished by the type and number of the parameters it takes. The main Method Some Java classes are meant to be used by other classes, others are meant to be stand-alone programs. Classes that define stand-alone programs must contain one other special kind of method for a class—the main method. When we wish to execute a stand-alone Java program, we reference the name of the class that defines this program by issuing the following command (in a Windows, Linux, or UNIX shell): java Aquarium In this case, the Java run-time system looks for a compiled version of the Aquarium class, and then invokes the special main method in that class. This method must be declared as follows: public static voidmain(String[] args){ // main method body … } The arguments passed as the parameter args to the main method are the commandline arguments given when the program is called. The args variable is an array of String objects, that is, a collection of indexed strings, with the first string being args[0], the second being args[1], and so on. (We say more about arrays in Section 1.5.) Calling a Java Program from the Command Line Java programs can be called from the command line using the java command, followed by the name of the Java class whose main method we wish to run, plus 39 any optional arguments. For example, we may have defined the Aquarium program to take an optional argument that specifies the number of fish in the aquarium. We could then invoke the program by typing the following in a shell window: java Aquarium 45 to specify that we want an aquarium with 45 fish in it. In this case, args[0] would refer to the string "45". One nice feature of the main method in a class definition is that it allows each class to define a stand-alone program, and one of the uses for this method is to test all the other methods in a class. Thus, thorough use of the main method is an effective tool for debugging collections of Java classes. Statement Blocks and Local Variables The body of a method is a statement block, which is a sequence of statements and declarations to be performed between the braces "{" and "}". Method bodies and other statement blocks can themselves have statement blocks nested inside of them. In addition to statements that perform some action, like calling the method of some object, statement blocks can contain declarations of local variables. These variables are declared inside the statement body, usually at the beginning (but between the braces "{" and "}"). Local variables are similar to instance variables, but they only exist while the statement block is being executed. As soon as control flow exits out of that block, all local variables inside it can no longer be referenced. A local variable can either be a base type (such as int, float, double) or a reference to an instance of some class. Single statements and declarations in Java are always terminated by a semicolon, that is, a ";". There are two ways of declaring local variables: type name; type name = initial_value; The first declaration simply defines the identifier, name, to be of the specified type. The second declaration defines the identifier, its type, and also initializes this variable to the specified value. Here are some examples of local variable declarations: { double r; Point p1 = new Point (3, 4); Point p2 = new Point (8, 2); 40 int i = 512; double e = 2.71828; } 1.3 Expressions Variables and constants are used in expressions to define new values and to modify variables. In this section, we discuss how expressions work in Java in more detail. Expressions involve the use of literals, variables, and operators. Since we have already discussed variables, let us briefly focus on literals and then discuss operators in some detail. 1.3.1 Literals A literal is any "constant" value that can be used in an assignment or other expression. Java allows the following kinds of literals: • The null object reference (this is the only object literal, and it is defined to be from the general Object class). • Boolean: true and false. • Integer: The default for an integer like 176, or -52 is that it is of type int, which is a 32-bit integer. A long integer literal must end with an "L" or "l," for example, 176L or −52l, and defines a 64-bit integer. • Floating Point: The default for floating- numbers, such as 3.1415 and 10035.23, is that they are double. To specify that a literal is a float, it must end with an "F" or "f." Floating-point literals in exponential notation are also allowed, such as 3.14E2 or .19e10; the base is assumed to be 10. • Character: In Java, character constants are assumed to be taken from the Unicode alphabet. Typically, a character is defined as an individual symbol enclosed in single quotes. For example, 'a' and '?' are character constants. In addition, Java defines the following special character constants: '\n' (newline) '\t' (tab) '\b' (backspace) '\r' (return) 41 '\f' (formfeed) '\\' (backslash) '\'' (single quote) '\"' (double quote). • String Lieral: A string literal is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes, for example, the following is a string literal: "dogs cannot climb trees" 1.3.2 Operators Java expressions involve composing literals and variables with operators. We survey the operators in Java in this section. The Assignment Operator The standard assignment operator in Java is "=". It is used to assign a value to an instance variable or local variable. Its syntax is as follows: variable = expression where variable refers to a variable that is allowed to be referenced by the statement block containing this expression. The value of an assignment operation is the value of the expression that was assigned. Thus, if i and j are both declared as type int, it is correct to have an assignment statement like the following: i = j = 25;// works because '=' operators are evaluated right-to-left Arithmetic Operators The following are binary arithmetic operators in Java: + addition − subtraction * multiplication / division 42 % the modulo operator This last operator, modulo, is also known as the "remainder" operator, because it is the remainder left after an integer division. We often use "mod" to denote the modulo operator, and we define it formally as n mod m = r, such that n = mq + r, for an integer q and 0 ≤ r < n. Java also provides a unary minus (−), which can be placed in front of an arithm etic expression to invert its sign. Parentheses can be used in any expression to define the order of evaluation. Java also uses a fairly intuitive operator precedence rule to determine the order of evaluation when parentheses are not used. Unlike C++, Java does not allow operator overloading. Increment and Decrement Operators Like C and C++, Java provides increment and decrement operators. Specifically, it provides the plus-one increment (++) and decrement (−−) operators. If such an operator is used in front of a variable reference, then 1 is added to (or subtracted from) the variable and its value is read into the expression. If it is used after a variable reference, then the value is first read and then the variable is incremented or decremented by 1. So, for example, the code fragment int i = 8; int j = i++; int k = ++i; int m = i−−; int n = 9 + i++; assigns 8 to j, 10 to k, 10 to m, 18 to n, and leaves i with value 10. Logical Operators Java allows for the standard comparison operators between numbers: < less than 43 <= less than or equal to == equal to != not equal to >= greater than or equal to > greater than The operators == and != can also be used for object references. The type of the result of a comparison is a boolean. Operators that operate on boolean values are the following: ! not (prefix) && conditional and  conditional or The Boolean operators && and  will not evaluate the second operand (to the right) in their expression if it is not needed to determine the value of the expression. This feature is useful, for example, for constructing Boolean expressions where we first test that a certain condition holds (such as a reference not being null), and then test a condition that could have otherwise generated an error condition had the prior test not succeeded. Bitwise Operators Java also provides the following bitwise operators for integers and Booleans:  bitwise complement (prefix unary operator) & bitwise and | bitwise or ^ bitwise exclusive-or < < shift bits left, filling in with zeros > > shift bits right, filling in with sign bit 44 >>> shift bits right, filling in with zeros Operational Assignment Operators Besides the standard assignment operator (=), Java also provides a number of other assignment operators that have operational side effects. These other kinds of operators are of the following form: variable op = expression where op is any binary operator. The above expression is equivalent to variable = variable op expression except that if variable contains an expression (for example, an array index), the expression is evaluated only once. Thus, the code fragment a [5] = 10; i = 5; a[i++] += 2; leaves a [5] with value 12 and i with value 6. String Concatenation Strings can be composed using the concatenation operator (+), so that the code String rug = "carpet"; String dog = "spot"; String mess = rug + dog; String answer = mess + " will cost me " + 5 + " dollars!"; would have the effect of making answer refer to the string "carpetspot will cost me 5 dollars!" This example also shows how Java converts nonstring constants into strings, when they are involved in a string concatenation operation. 45 Operator Precedence Operators in Java are given preferences, or precedence, that determine the order in which operations are performed when the absence of parentheses brings up evaluation ambiguities. For example, we need a way of deciding if the expression, "5+2*3," has value 21 or 11 (Java says it is 11). We show the precedence of the operators in Java (which, incidentally, is the same as in C) in Table 1.3. Table 1.3: The Java precedence rules. Operators in Java are evaluated according to the above ordering, if parentheses are not used to determine the order of evaluation. Operators on the same line are evaluated in left-to-right order (except for assignment and prefix operations, which are evaluated right-to-left), subject to the conditional evaluation rule for Boolean and and or operations. The operations are listed from highest to lowest precedence (we use exp to denote an atomic or parenthesized expression). Without parenthesization, higher precedence operators are performed before lower precedence operators. Operator Precedence Type Symbols 1 postfix ops prefix ops cast exp ++ exp −− ++exp −−exp +exp −exp ∼exp !exp (type) exp 2 mult./div. * / % 46 3 add./subt. + − 4 shift << >> >>> 5 comparison < <= > >= instanceof 6 equality == != 7 bitwise-and & 8 bitwise-xor ^ 9 bitwise-or | 10 and && 11 47 or  12 conditional boolean_expression? value_if_true: value_if_false 13 assignment = += −= *= /= %= >>= <<= >>>=&= ^= | = We have now discussed almost all of the operators listed in Table 1.3. A notable exception is the conditional operator, which involves evaluating a Boolean expression and then taking on the appropriate value depending on whether this Boolean expression is true or false. (We discuss the use of the instanceof operator in the next chapter.) 1.3.3 Casting and Autoboxing/Unboxing in Expressions Casting is an operation that allows us to change the type of a variable. In essence, we can take a variable of one type and cast it into an equivalent variable of another type. Casting can be useful for doing certain numerical and input/output operations. The syntax for casting an expression to a desired type is as follows: (type) exp where type is the type that we would like the expression exp to have. There are two fundamental types of casting that can be done in Java. We can either cast with respect to the base numerical types or we can cast with respect to objects. here, we discuss how to perform casting of numerical and string types, and we discuss object casting in Section 2.5.1. For instance, it might be helpful to cast an int to a double in order to perform operations like division. Ordinary Casting When casting from a double to an int, we may lose precision. This means that the resulting double value will be rounded down. But we can cast an int to a double without this worry. For example, consider the following: 48 double d1 = 3.2; double d2 = 3.9999; int i1 = (int)d1; // i1 has value 3 int i2 = (int)d2; // i2 has value 3 double d3 = (double)i2; // d3 has value 3.0 Casting with Operators Certain binary operators, like division, will have different results depending on the variable types they are used with. We must take care to make sure operations perform their computations on values of the intended type. When used with integers, division does not keep track of the fractional part, for example. When used with doubles, division keeps this part, as is illustrated in the following example: int i1 = 3; int i2 = 6; dresult = (double)i1 / (double)i2;// dresult has value 0.5 dresult = i1 / i2; // dresult has value 0.0 Notice that when i1 and i2 were cast to doubles, regular division for real numbers was performed. When i1 and i2 were not cast, the " /" operator performed an integer division and the result of i1 / i2 was the int 0. Then, JavaJava then did an implicit cast to assign an int value to the double result. We discuss implicit casting next. Implicit Casting and Autoboxing/Unboxing There are cases where Java will perform an implicit cast, according to the type of the assignment variable, provided there is no loss of precision. For example: int iresult, i = 3; double dresult, d = 3.2; dresult = i / d; // dresult is 0.9375. i was cast to a double 49 iresult = i / d; // loss of precision −> this is a compilation error iresult = (int) i / d; // iresult is 0, since the fractional part is lost Note that since Java will not perform implicit casts where precision is lost, the explicit cast in the last line above is required. Since Java 5.0, there is a new kind of implicit cast, for going between Number objects, like Integer and Float, and their related base types, like int and float. Any time a Number object is expected as a parameter to a method, the corresponding base type can be passed. In this case, Java will perform an implicit cast, called autoboxing, which will convert the base type to its corresponding Number object. Likewise, any time a base type is expected in an expression involving a Number reference, that Number object is changed to the corresponding base type, in an operation called unboxing. There are few caveats regarding autoboxing and unboxing, however. One is that if a Number reference is null, then trying to unbox it will generate an error, called NullPointerException. Second, the operator, "==", is used both to test the equality of base type values as well as whether two Number references are pointing to the same object. So when testing for equality, try to avoid the implicit casts done by autoboxing and unboxing. Finally, implicit casts, of any kind, take time, so we should try to minimize our reliance on them if performance is an issue. Incidentally, there is one situation in Java when only implicit casting is allowed, and that is in string concatenation. Any time a string is concatenated with any object or base type, that object or base type is automatically converted to a string. Explicit casting of an object or base type to a string is not allowed, however. Thus, the following assignments are incorrect: String s = (String) 4.5; ; // this is wrong! String t = "Value = " + (String) 13;// this is wrong! String u = 22; // this is wrong! To perform a conversion to a string, we must instead use the appropriate toString method or perform an implicit cast via the concatenation operation. Thus, the following statements are correct: 50 String s = " " + 4.5; // correct, but poor style String t = "Value = " + 13; // this is good String u = Integer.toString(22); // this is good 1.4 Control Flow Control flow in Java is similar to that of other high-level languages. We review the basic structure and syntax of control flow in Java in this section, including method returns, if statements, switch statements, loops, and restricted forms of "jumps" (the break and continue statements). 1.4.1 The If and Switch Statements In Java, conditionals work similarly to the way they work in other languages. They provide a way to make a decision and then execute one or more different statement blocks based on the outcome of that decision. The If Statement The syntax of a simple if statement is as follows: if (boolean_exp) true_statement else false_statement where boolean_exp is a Boolean expression and true_statement and false_statement are each either a single statment or a block of statements enclosed in braces ("{" and "}"). Note that, unlike some similar languages, the value tested by an if statement in Java must be a Boolean expression. In particular, it is definitely not an integer expression. Nevertheless, as in other similar languages, the else part (and its associated statement) in a Java if statement is optional. There is also a way to group a number of Boolean tests, as follows: if (first_boolean_exp) true_statement 51 else if (second_boolean_exp) second_true_statement else false_statement If the first Boolean expression is false, the second Boolean expression will be tested, and so on. An if statement can have an arbitrary number of else if parts. For example, the following is a correct if statement. if (snowLevel < 2) { goToClass(); comeHome(); } else if (snowLevel < 5) { goSledding(); haveSnowballFight(); } else stayAtHome(); Switch Statements Java provides for multiple-value control flow using the switch statement, which is especially useful with enum types. The following is an indicative example (based on a variable d of the Day enum type of Section 1.1.3). switch (d) { case MON: 52 System.out.println("This is tough."); break; case TUE: System.out.println("This is getting better."); break; case WED: System.out.println("Half way there."); break; case THU: System.out.println("I can see the light."); break; case FRI: System.out.println("Now we are talking."); break; default: System.out.println("Day off ! "); break; } The switch statement evaluates an integer or enum expression and causes control flow to jump to the code location labeled with the value of this expression. If there is no matching label, then control flow jumps to the location labeled "default." This is the only explicit jump performed by the switch statement, however, so flow of control "falls through" to other cases if the code for each case is not ended with a break statement (which causes control flow to jump to the next line after the switch statement). 1.4.2 Loops 53 Another important control flow mechanism in a programming language is looping. Java provides for three types of loops. While Loops The simplest kind of loop in Java is a while loop. Such a loop tests that a certain condition is satisfied and will perform the body of the loop each time this condition is evaluated to be true. The syntax for such a conditional test before a loop body is executed is as follows: while (boolean_exp) loop_statement At the beginning of each iteration, the loop tests the expression, boolean exp, and then executes the loop body, loop_statement, only if this Boolean expression evaluates to true. The loop body statement can also be a block of statements. Consider, for example, a gnome that is trying to water all of the carrots in his carrot patch, which he does as long as his watering can is not empty. Since his can might be empty to begin with, we would write the code to perform this task as follows: public void waterCarrots () { Carrot current = garden.findNextCarrot (); while (!waterCan.isEmpty ()) { water (current, waterCan); current = garden.findNextCarrot (); } } Recall that "!" in Java is the "not" operator. For Loops Another kind of loop is thefor loop. In their simplest form, for loops provide for repeated code based on an integer index. In Java, we can do that and much more. The functionality of a for loop is significantly more flexible. In particular, the usage of a for loop is split into four sections: the initialization, the condition, the increment, and the body. 54 Defining a For Loop Here is the syntax for a Java for loop: for (initialization; condition; increment) loop_statement where each of the sections initialization, condition, and increment can be empty. In the initialization section, we can declare an index variable that will only exist in the scope of the for loop. For example, if we want a loop that indexes on a counter, and we have no need for the counter variable outside of the for loop, then declaring something like the following for (int counter = 0; condition; increment) loop_statement will declare a variable counter whose scope is the loop body only. In the condition section, we specify the repeat (while) condition of the loop. This must be a Boolean expression. The body of the for loop will be executed each time the condition is true when evaluated at the beginning of a potential iteration. As soon as condition evaluates to false, then the loop body is not executed, and, instead, the program executes the next statement after the for loop. In the increment section, we declare the incrementing statement for the loop. The incrementing statement can be any legal statement, allowing for significant flexibility in coding. Thus, the syntax of a for loop is equivalent to the following: initialization; while (condition) { loop_statement; increment; } except that, in Java, a while loop cannot have an empty Boolean condition, whereas a for loop can. The following example shows a simple for loop in Java: 55 public void eatApples (Apples apples) { numApples = apples.getNumApples (); for (int x = 0; × < numApples; ×++) { eatApple (apples.getApple (×)); spitOutCore (); } } In the Java example above, the loop variable x was declared as int x = 0. Before each iteration, the loop tests the condition " x < numApples" and executes the loop body only if this is true. Finally, at the end of each iteration the loop uses the statement x++ to increment the loop variable x before again testing the condition. Incidentally, since 5.0, Java also includes a for-each loop, which we discuss in Section 6.3.2. Do-While Loops Java has yet another kind of loop besides the for loop and the standard while loop—the do-while loop. The former loops tests a condition before performing an iteration of the loop body, the do-while loop tests a condition after the loop body. The syntax for a do-while loop is as shown below: do loop_statement while (boolean_exp) Again, the loop body statement, loop_statement, can be a single statement or a block of statements, and the conditional, boolean_exp, must be a Boolean expression. In a do-while loop, we repeat the loop body for as long as the condition is true each time it is evaluated. Consider, for example, that we want to prompt the user for input and then do something useful with that input. (We discuss Java input and output in more detail in Section 1.6.) A possible condition, in this case, for exiting the loop is when the user enters an empty string. However, even in this case, we may want to handle 56 that input and inform the user that he or she has quit. The following example illustrates this case: public void getUserInput() { String input; do { input = getInputString(); handleInput(input); } while (input.length()>0); } Notice the exit condition for the above example. Specifically, it is written to be consistent with the rule in Java that do-while loops exit when the condition is not true (unlike the repeat-until construct used in other languages). 1.4.3 Explicit Control-Flow Statements Java also provides statements that allow for explicit change in the flow of control of a program. Returning from a Method If a Java method is declared with a return type of void, then flow of control returns when it reaches the last line of code in the method or when it encounters a return statement with no argument. If a method is declared with a return type, however, the method is a function and it must exit by returning the function's value as an argument to a return statement. The following (correct) example illustrates returning from a function: // Check for a specific birthday public boolean checkBDay (int date) { if (date == Birthdays.MIKES_BDAY) { return true; } return false; 57 } It follows that the return statement must be the last statement executed in a function, as the rest of the code will never be reached. Note that there is a significant difference between a statement being the last line of code that is executed in a method and the last line of code in the method itself. In the example above, the line return true; is clearly not the last line of code that is written in the function, but it may be the last line that is executed (if the condition involving date is true). Such a statement explicitly interrupts the flow of control in the method. There are two other such explicit control-flow statements, which are used in conjunction with loops and switch statements. The break Statement The typical use of a break statement has the following simple syntax: break; It is used to "break" out of the innermost switch, for, while, or do- while statement body. When it is executed, a break statement causes the flow of control to jump to the next line after the loop or switch to the body containing the break. The break statement can also be used in a labeled form to jump out of an outernested loop or switch statement. In this case, it has the syntax break label; where label is a Java identifier that is used to label a loop or switch statement. Such a label can only appear at the beginning of the declaration of a loop. There are no other kinds of "go to" statements in Java. We illustrate the use of a label with a break statement in the following simple example: public static boolean hasZeroEntry (int[][] a) { boolean foundFlag = false; zeroSearch: for (int i=0; i= 0) && (i < a.length) && (a[i] > 2) ) × = a[i]; 61 for the comparison "a[i] > 0.5" will only be performed if the first two comparisons succeed. 1.5.1 Declaring Arrays One way to declare and initialize an array is as follows: element_type[] array_name = {init_val_0,init_val_1,…,init_val_N−1}; The element_type can be any Java base type or class name, and array_name can be any value Java identifier. The initial values must be of the same type as the array. For example, consider the following declaration of an array that is initialized to contain the first ten prime numbers: int[] primes = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29}; In addition to creating an array and defining all its initial values when we declare it, we can declare an array variable without initializing it. The form of this declaration is as follows: element_type[] array_name; An array created in this way is initialized with all zeros if the array type is a number type. Arrays of objects are initialized to all null references. Once we have declared an array in this way, we can create the collection of cells for an array later using the following syntax: new element_type[length] where length is a positive integer denoting the length of the array created. Typically this expression appears in an assignment statement with an array name on the left hand side of the assignment operator. So, for example, the following statement defines an array variable named a, and later assigns it an array of 10 cells, each of type double, which it then initializes: double[] a; //… various steps … a = new double[10]; for (int k=0; k < a.length; k++) { a[k] = 1.0; } 62 The cells of this new array, "a," are indexed using the integer set {0,1,2,… ,9} (recall that arrays in Java always start indexing at 0), and, like every array in Java, all the cells in this array are of the same type—double. 1.5.2 Arrays are Objects Arrays in Java are special kinds of objects. In fact, this is the reason we can use the new operator to create a new instance of an array. An array can be used just like any general object in Java, but we have a special syntax (using square brackets, "[" and "]") to refer to its members. An array in Java can do everything that a general object can. Since an array is an object, though, the name of an array in Java is actually a reference to the place in memory where the array is stored. Thus, there is nothing too special about using the dot operator and the instance variable, length, to refer to the length of an array, for example, as "a.length." The name, a, in this case is just a reference, or pointer, to the underlying array object. The fact that arrays in Java are objects has an important implication when it comes to using array names in assignment statements. For when we write something like b = a; in a Java program, we really mean that b and a now both refer to the same array. So, if we then write something like b[3] = 5; then we will also be setting the number a [3] to 5. We illustrate this crucial point in Figure 1.7. Figure 1.7: An illustration of an assignment of array objects. We show the result of setting "b[3] = 5;" after previously setting "b = a;". 63 Cloning an Array If instead, we wanted to create an exact copy of the array, a, and assign that array to the array variable, b, we should write b = a.clone(); which copies all of the cells of a into a new array and assigns b to point to that new array. In fact, the clone method is a built-in method of every Java object, which makes an exact copy of that object. In this case, if we then write b[3] = 5; then the new (copied) array will have its cell at index 3, assigned the value 5, but a[3] will remain unchanged. We illustrate this point in Figure 1.8. Figure 1.8: An illustration of cloning of array objects. We show the result of setting "b[3] = 5;" after previously setting "b = a.clone();". We should stress that the cells of an array are copied when we clone it. If the cells are a base type, like int, their values are copied. But if the cells are object references, then those references are copied. This means that there are now two 64 ways to reference such an object. We explore the consequences of this fact in Exercise R-1.1. 1.6 Simple Input and Output Java provides a rich set of classes and methods for performing input and output within a program. There are classes in Java for doing graphical user interface design, complete with pop-up windows and pull-down menus, as well as methods for the display and input of text and numbers. Java also provides methods for dealing with graphical objects, images, sounds, Web pages, and mouse events (such as clicks, mouse overs, and dragging). Moreover, many of these input and output methods can be used in either stand-alone programs or in applets. Unfortunately, going into the details on how all of the methods work for constructing sophisticated graphical user interfaces is beyond the scope of this book. Still, for the sake of completeness, we describe how simple input and output can be done in Java in this section. Simple input and output in Java occurs within the Java console window. Depending on the Java environment we are using, this window is either a special pop-up window that can be used for displaying and inputting text, or a window used to issue commands to the operating system (such windows are referred to as shell windows, DOS windows, or terminal windows). Simple Output Methods Java provides a built-in static object, called System.out, that performs output to the "standard output" device. Most operating system shells allow users to redirect standard output to files or even as input to other programs, but the default output is to the Java console window. The System.out object is an instance of the java.io.PrintStream class. This class defines methods for a buffered output stream, meaning that characters are put in a temporary location, called a buffer, which is then emptied when the console window is ready to print characters. Specifically, the java.io.PrintStream class provides the following methods for performing simple output (we use base_type here to refer to any of the possible base types): print(Object o): Print the object o using its toString method. print(String s): Print the string s. print(base_type b): Print the base type value b. println(String s): Print the string s, followed by the newline character. 65 An Output Example Consider, for example, the following code fragment: System.out.print("Java values: "); System.out.print(3.1415); System.out.print(','); System.out.print(15); System.out.println(" (double,char,int) ."); When executed, this fragment will output the following in the Java console window: Java values: 3.1415,15 (double,char,int). Simple Input Using the java.util.Scanner Class Just as there is a special object for performing output to the Java console window, there is also a special object, called System.in, for performing input from the Java console window. Technically, the input is actually coming from the "standard input" device, which by default is the computer keyboard echoing its characters in the Java console. The System.in object is an object associated with the standard input device. A simple way of reading input with this object is to use it to create a Scanner object, using the expression new Scanner(System.in) The Scanner class has a number of convenient included methods that read from the given input stream. For example, the following program uses a Scanner object to process input: import java.io.*; import java.util.Scanner; public class InputExample { public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { Scanner s = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter your height in centimeters: "); 66 float height = s.nextFloat(); System.out.print("Enter your weight in kilograms: "); float weight = s.nextFloat(); float bmi = weight/(height*height)*10000; System.out.println("Your body mass index is " + bmi + "."); } } When executed, this program could produce the following on the Java console: Enter your height in centimeters:180 Enter your weight in kilograms: 80.5 Your body mass index is 24.84568. java.util.Scanner Methods The Scanner class reads the input stream and divides it into tokens, which are contiguous strings of characters separated by delimiters, which are special separating characters. The default delimiter is whitespace, that is, tokens are separated by strings of spaces, tabs, and newlines, by default. Tokens can either be read immediately as strings or a Scanner object can convert a token to a base type, if the token is in the right syntax. Specifically, the Scanner class includes the following methods for dealing with tokens: hasNext(): Return true if and only if there is another token in the input stream. next(): Return the next token string in the input stream; generate an error if there are no more tokens left. hasNextType(): Return true if and only if there is another token in the input stream and it can be interpreted as the corresponding base type, Type, where Type can be Boolean, Byte, Double, Float, Int, Long, or Short. nextType(): Return the next token in the input stream, returned as the base type corresponding to Type; generate an error if there are no more tokens left or if the next token cannot be interpreted as a base type corresponding to Type. 67 Additionally, Scanner objects can process input line by line, ignoring delimiters, and even look for patterns within lines while doing so. The methods for processing input in this way include the following: hasNextLine(): Returns true if and only if the input stream has another line of text. nextLine(): Advances the input past the current line ending and returns the input that was skipped. findInLine(String s): Attempts to find a string matching the (regular expression) pattern s in the current line. If the pattern is found, it is returned and the scanner advances to the first character after this match. If the pattern is not found, the scanner returns null and doesn't advance. These methods can be used with those above, as well, as in the following: Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Please enter an integer: "); while (!input.hasNextInt()) { input. nextLine(); System.out.print("That' s not an integer; please enter an integer: "); } int i = input.nextInt(); 1.7 An Example Program In this section, we describe a simple example Java program that illustrates many of the constructs defined above. Our example consists of two classes, one, CreditCard, that defines credit card objects, and another, Test, that tests the functionality of CreditCard class. The credit card objects defined by the CreditCard class are simplified versions of traditional credit cards. They have identifying numbers, identifying information about their owners and their issuing bank, and information about their current balance and credit limit. They do not charge interest or late payments, however, but they do restrict charges that would cause a card's balance to go over its spending limit. The CreditCard Class 68 We show the CreditCard class in Code Fragment 1.5. Note that the CreditCard class defines five instance variables, all of which are private to the class, and it provides a simple constructor that initializes these instance variables. It also defines five accessor methods that provide access to the current values of these instance variables. Of course, we could have alternatively defined the instance variables as being public, which would have made the accessor methods moot. The disadvantage with this direct approach, however, is that it allows users to modify an object's instance variables directly, whereas in many cases such as this, we prefer to restrict the modification of instance variables to special update methods. We include two such update methods, chargeIt and makePayment in Code Fragment 1.5. In addition, it is often convenient to include action methods, which define specific actions for that object's behavior. To demonstrate, we have defined such an action method, the printCard method, as a static method, which is also included in Code Fragment 1.5. The Test Class We test the CreditCard class in a Test class. Note the use of an array, wallet, of CreditCard objects here, and how we are using iteration to make charges and payments. We show the complete code for the Test class in Code Fragment 1.6. For simplicity's sake, the Test class does not do any fancy graphical output, but simply sends its output to the Java console. We show this output in Code Fragment 1.7. Note the difference between the way we utilize the nonstatic chargeIt and make-Payment methods and the static printCard method. Code Fragment 1.5: The CreditCard class. 69 Code Fragment 1.6: The Test class. 70 Code Fragment 1.7: Output from the Test class. 71 1.8 Nested Classes and Packages The Java language takes a general and useful approach to the organization of classes into programs. Every stand-alone public class defined in Java must be given in a separate file. The file name is the name of the class with a .java extension. So a class, public class SmartBoard, is defined in a file, SmartBoard.java. In this section, we describe two ways that Java allows multiple classes to be organized in meaningful ways. Nested Classes Java allows class definitions to be placed inside, that is, nested inside the definitions of other classes. This is a useful construct, which we will exploit several times in this book in the implementation of data structures. The main use for such nested classes is to define a class that is strongly affiliated with another class. For example, 72 a text editor class may wish to define a related cursor class. Defining the cursor class as a nested class inside the definition of the text editor class keeps these two highly related classes together in the same file. Moreover, it also allows each of them to access nonpublic methods of the other. One technical point regarding nested classes is that the nested class should be declared as static. This declaration implies that the nested class is associated with the outer class, not an instance of the outer class, that is, a specific object. Packages A set of classes, all defined in a common subdirectory, can be a Java package. Every file in a package starts with the line: package package_name; The subdirectory containing the package must be named the same as the package. We can also define a package in a single file that contains several class definitions, but when it is compiled, all the classes will be compiled into separate files in the same subdirectory. In Java, we can use classes that are defined in other packages by prefixing class names with dots (that is, using the '.' character) that correspond to the other packages' directory structures. public boolean Temperature(TA.Measures.Thermometer thermometer, int temperature) { //… } The function Temperature takes a class Thermometer as a parameter. Thermometer is defined in the TA package in a subpackage called Measures. The dots in TA.Measures.Thermometer correspond directly to the directory structure in the TA package. All the extra typing needed to refer to a class outside of the current package can get tiring. In Java, we can use the import keyword to include external classes or entire packages in the current file. To import an individual class from a specific package, we type the following at the beginning of the file: import packageName.classNames; For example, we could type 73 package Project; import TA.Measures.Thermometer; import TA.Measures.Scale; at the beginning of a Project package to indicate that we are importing the classes named TA.Measures.Thermometer and TA.Measures.Scale. The Java run-time environment will now search these classes to match identifiers to classes, methods, and instance variables that we use in our program. We can also import an entire package, by using the following syntax: import .*; For example: package student; import TA.Measures.*; public boolean Temperature(Thermometer thermometer, int temperature) { // … } In the case where two packages have classes of the same name, we must specifically reference the package that contains a class. For example, suppose both the package Gnomes and package Cooking have a class named Mushroom. If we provide an import statement for both packages, then we must specify which class we mean as follows: Gnomes.Mushroom shroom = new Gnomes.Mushroom ("purple"); Cooking.Mushroom topping = new Cooking.Mushroom (); If we do not specify the package (that is, in the previous example we just use a variable of type Mushroom), the compiler will give an "ambiguous class" error. To sum up the structure of a Java program, we can have instance variables and methods inside a class, and classes inside a package. 1.9 Writing a Java Program 74 The process of writing a Java program involves three fundamental steps: 1. Design 2. Coding 3. Testing and Debugging. We briefly discuss each of these steps in this section. 1.9.1 Design The design step is perhaps the most important step in the process of writing a program. For it is in the design step that we decide how to divide the workings of our program into classes, we decide how these classes will interact, what data each will store, and what actions each will perform. Indeed, one of the main challenges that beginning Java programmers face is deciding what classes to define to do the work of their program. While general prescriptions are hard to come by, there are some general rules of thumb that we can apply when determining how to define our classes: • Responsibilities: Divide the work into different actors, each with a different responsibility. Try to describe responsibilities using action verbs. These actors will form the classes for the program. • Independence: Define the work for each class to be as independent from other classes as possible. Subdivide responsibilities between classes so that each class has autonomy over some aspect of the program. Give data (as instance variables) to the class that has jurisdiction over the actions that require access to this data. • Behaviors: So that the consequences of each action performed by a class will be well understood by other classes that interact with it, define the behaviors for each class carefully and precisely. These behaviors will define the methods that this class performs. The set of behaviors for a class is sometimes referred to as a protocol, for we expect the behaviors for a class to hold together as a cohesive unit. Defining the classes, together with their instance variables and methods, determines the design of a Java program. A good programmer will naturally develop greater skill in performing these tasks over time, as experience teaches him or her to notice patterns in the requirements of a program that match patterns that he or she has seen before. 1.9.2 Pseudo-Code 75 Programmers are often asked to describe algorithms in a way that is intended for human eyes only, prior to writing actual code. Such descriptions are called pseudo- code. Pseudo-code is not a computer program, but is more structured than usual prose. Pseudo-code is a mixture of natural language and high-level programming constructs that describe the main ideas behind a generic implementation of a data structure or algorithm. There really is no precise definition ofthe pseudo-code language, however, because of its reliance on natural language. At the same time, to help achieve clarity, pseudo-code mixes natural language with standard programming language constructs. The programming language constructs we choose are those consistent with modern high-level languages such as C, C++, and Java. These constructs include the following: • Expressions: We use standard mathematical symbols to express numeric and Boolean expressions. We use the left arrow sign (←) as the assignment operator in assignment statements (equivalent to the = operator in Java) and we use the equal sign (=) as the equality relation in Boolean expressions (equivalent to the "==" relation in Java). • Method declarations: Algorithm name(param1, par am2,…) declares a new method "name" and its parameters. • Decision structures: if condition then true-actions [else false-actions]. We use indentation to indicate what actions should be included in the true-actions and false-actions. • While-loops: while condition do actions. We use indentation to indicate what actions should be included in the loop actions. • Repeat-loops: repeat actions until condition. We use indentation to indicate what actions should be included in the loop actions. • For-loops: for variable-increment-definition do actions. We use indentation to indicate what actions should be included among the loop actions. • Array indexing: A[i] represents the ith cell in the array A. The cells of an n-celled array A are indexed from A[0] to A[n − 1] (consistent with Java). • Method calls: object.method(args) (object is optional if it is understood). • Method returns: return value. This operation returns the value specified to the method that called this one. • Comments: { Comment goes here. }. We enclose comments in braces. When we write pseudo-code, we must keep in mind that we are writing for a human reader, not a computer. Thus, we should strive to communicate high-level ideas, not 76 low-level implementation details. At the same time, we should not gloss over important steps. Like many forms of human communication, finding the right balance is an important skill that is refined through practice. 1.9.3 Coding As mentioned above, one of the key steps in coding up an object-oriented program is coding up the descriptions of classes and their respective data and methods. In order to accelerate the development of this skill, we discuss various design patterns for designing object-oriented programs (see Section 2.1.3) at various points throughout this text. These patterns provide templates for defining classes and the interactions between these classes. Many programmers do their initial coding not on a computer, but by using CRC cards. Component-responsibility-collaborator, or CRC cards, are simple index cards that subdivide the work required of a program. The main idea behind this tool is to have each card represent a component, which will ultimately become a class in our program. We write the name of each component on the top of an index card. On the left-hand side of the card, we begin writing the responsibilities for this component. On the right-hand side, we list the collaborators for this component, that is, the other components that this component will have to interact with to perform its duties. The design process iterates through an action/actor cycle, where we first identify an action (that is, a responsibility), and we then determine an actor (that is, a component) that is best suited to perform that action. The design is complete when we have assigned all actions to actors. By the way, in using index cards to begin our coding, we are assuming that each component will have a small set of responsibilities and collaborators. This assumption is no accident, for it helps keep our programs manageable. An alternative to CRC cards is the use of UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagrams to express the organization of a Program, and the use of pseudo-code to describe the algorithms. UML diagrams are a standard visual notation to express object-oriented software designs. Several computer-aided tools are available to build UML diagrams. Describing algorithms in pseudo-code, on the other hand, is a technique that we utilize throughout this book. Once we have decided on the classes for our program and their responsibilities, we are ready to begin the actual coding on a computer. We create the actual code for the classes in our program by using either an independent text editor (such as emacs, WordPad, or vi), or the editor embedded in an integrated development environment (IDE), such as Eclipse or Borland JBuilder. Once we have completed coding for a class (or package), we compile this file into working code by invoking a compiler. If we are not using an IDE, then we compile our program by calling a program, such as javac, on our file. If we are using an 77 IDE, then we compile our program by clicking the appropriate compilation button. If we are fortunate, and our program has no syntax errors, then this compilation process will create files with a ".class" extension. If our program contains syntax errors, then these will be identified, and we will have to go back into our editor to fix the offending lines of code. Once we have eliminated all syntax errors, and created the appropriate compiled code, we can run our program by either invoking a command, such as "java" (outside an IDE), or by clicking on the appropriate "run" button (within an IDE). When a Java program is run in this way, the run-time environment locates the directories containing the named class and any other classes that are referenced from this class according to a special operating system environment variable. This variable is named "CLASSPATH," and the ordering of directories to search in is given as a list of directories, which are separated by colons in Unix/Linux or semicolons in DOS/Windows. An example CLASSPATH assignment in the DOS/Windows operating system could be the following: SET CLASSPATH= . ;C:\java;C:\Program Files\Java\ Whereas an example CLASSPATH assignment in the Unix/Linux operating system could be the following: setenv CLASSPATH ".:/usr/local/java/lib:/usr/netscape/classes" In both cases, the dot (".") refers to the current directory in which the run-time environment is invoked. Javadoc In order to encourage good use of block comments and the automatic production of documentation, the Java programming environment comes with a documentation production program called javadoc. This program takes a collection of Java source files that have been commented using certain keywords, called tags, and it produces a series of HTML documents that describe the classes, methods, variables, and constants contained in these files. For space reasons, we have not used javadocstyle comments in all the example programs included in this book, but we include a javadoc example in Code Fragment 1.8 as well as other examples at the Web site that accompanies this book. Each javadoc comment is a block comment that starts with "/**" and ends with "*/," and each line between these two can begin with a single asterisk, "*," which is ignored. The block comment is assumed to start with a descriptive sentence, followed by a blank line, which is followed by special lines that begin with javadoc tags. A block comment that comes just before a class definition, instance 78 variable declaration, or method definition, is processed by javadoc into a comment about that class, variable, or method. Code Fragment 1.8: An example class definition using javadoc-style comments. Note that this class includes two instance variables, one constructor, and two accessor methods. 79 The primary javadoc tags are the following: • @author text: Identifies each author (one per line) for a class. 80 • @exception exception-name description: Identifies an error condition that is signaled by this method (see Section 2.3). • @param parameter-name description: Identifies a parameter accepted by this method. • @return description: Describes the return type and its range of values for a method. There are other tags as well; the interested reader is referred to on-line documentation for javadoc for further discussion. Readability and Style Programs should be made easy to read and understand. Good programmers should therefore be mindful of their coding style, and develop a style that communicates the important aspects of a program's design for both humans and computers. Much has been written about good coding style, with some of the main principles being the following: • Use meaningful names for identifiers. Try to choose names that can be read aloud, and choose names that reflect the action, responsibility, or data each identifier is naming. The tradition in most Java circles is to capitalize the first letter of each word in an identifier, except for the first word in an identifier for a variable or method. So, in this tradition, "Date," "Vector," "DeviceManager" would identify classes, and 'isFull()," "insertItem()," "studentName," and "studentHeight" would respectively identify methods and variables. • Use named constants or enum types instead of literals. Readability, robustness, and modifiability are enhanced if we include a series of definitions of named constant values in a class definition. These can then be used within this class and others to refer to special values for this class. The tradition in Java is to fully capitalize such constants, as shown below: public class Student { public static final int MINCREDITS = 12; // min. credits in a term public static final int MAXCREDITS = 24; // max. credits in a term public static final int FRESHMAN = 1; // code for freshman 81 public static final int SOPHOMORE = 2; // code for sophomore public static final int JUNIOR = 3; // code for junior public static final int SENIOR = 4; // code for senior // Instance variables, constructors, and method definitions go here… } • Indent statement blocks. Typically programmers indent each statement block by 4 spaces; in this book we typically use 2 spaces, however, to avoid having our code overrun the book's margins. • Organize each class in the following order: 1. Constants 2. Instance variables 3. Constructors 4. Methods. We note that some Java programmers prefer to put instance variable definitions last. We put them earlier so that we can read each class sequentially and understand the data each method is working with. • Use comments that add meaning to a program and explain ambiguous or confusing constructs. In-line comments are good for quick explanations and do not need to be sentences. Block comments are good for explaining the purpose of a method and complex code sections. 1.9.4 Testing and Debugging Testing is the process of experimentally checking the correctness of a program, while debugging is the process of tracking the execution of a program and discovering the errors in it. Testing and debugging are often the most time- consuming activity in the development of a program. Testing 82 A careful testing plan is an essential part of writing a program. While verifying the correctness of a program over all possible inputs is usually infeasible, we should aim at executing the program on a representative subset of inputs. At the very minimum, we should make sure that every method in the program is tested at least once (method coverage). Even better, each code statement in the program should be executed at least once (statement coverage). Programs often tend to fail on special cases of the input. Such cases need to be carefully identified and tested. For example, when testing a method that sorts (that is, puts in order) an array of integers, we should consider the following inputs: • The array has zero length (no elements) • The array has one element • All the elements of the array are the same • The array is already sorted • The array is reverse sorted. In addition to special inputs to the program, we should also consider special conditions for the structures used by the program. For example, if we use an array to store data, we should make sure that boundary cases, such as inserting/removing at the beginning or end of the subarray holding data, are properly handled. While it is essential to use hand-crafted test suites, it is also advantageous to run the program on a large collection of randomly generated inputs. The Random class in the java.util package provides several methods to generate random numbers. There is a hierarchy among the classes and methods of a program induced by the caller-callee relationship. Namely, a method A is above a method B in the hierarchy if A calls B. There are two main testing strategies, top-down and bottom-up, which differ in the order in which methods are tested. Bottom-up testing proceeds from lower-level methods to higher-level methods. Namely, bottom-level methods, which do not invoke other methods, are tested first, followed by methods that call only bottom-level methods, and so on. This strategy ensures that errors found in a method are not likely to be caused by lower-level methods nested within it. Top-down testing proceeds from the top to the bottom of the method hierarchy. It is typically used in conjunction with stubbing, a boot-strapping technique that replaces a lower-level method with a stub, a replacement for the method that simulates the output of the original method. For example, if method A calls 83 method B to get the first line of a file, when testing A we can replace B with a stub that returns a fixed string. Debugging The simplest debugging technique consists of using print statements (using method System.out.println(string)) to track the values of variables during the execution of the program. A problem with this approach is that the print statements need to be eventually removed or commented out before the software is finally released. A better approach is to run the program within a debugger, which is a specialized environment for controlling and monitoring the execution of a program. The basic functionality provided by a debugger is the insertion of breakpoints within the code. When the program is executed within the debugger, it stops at each breakpoint. While the program is stopped, the current value of variables can be inspected. In addition to fixed breakpoints, advanced debuggers allow for specification of conditional breakpoints, which are triggered only if a given expression is satisfied. The standard Java tools include a basic debugger called jdb, which is commandline oriented. IDEs for Java programming provide advanced debugging environments with graphical user interfaces. 1.10 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-1.1 Suppose that we create an array A of GameEntry objects, which has an integer scores field, and we clone A and store the result in an array B. If we then immediately set A [4].score equal to 550, what is the score value of the GameEntry object referenced by B[4]? R-1.2 84 Modify the CreditCard class from Code Fragment 1.5 to charge interest on each payment. R-1.3 Modify the CreditCard class from Code Fragment 1.5 to charge a late fee for any payment that is past its due date. R-1.4 Modify the CreditCard class from Code Fragment 1.5 to include modifier methods, which allow a user to modify internal variables in a CreditCard class in a controlled manner. R-1.5 Modify the declaration of the first for loop in the Test class in Code Fragment 1.6 so that its charges will eventually cause exactly one of the three credit cards to go over its credit limit. Which credit card is it? R-1.6 Write a short Java function, inputAllBaseTypes, that inputs a different value of each base type from the standard input device and prints it back to the standard output device. R-1.7 Write a Java class, Flower, that has three instance variables of type String, int, and float, which respectively represent the name of the flower, its number of pedals, and price. Your class must include a constructor method that initializes each variable to an appropriate value, and your class should include methods for setting the value of each type, and getting the value of each type. R-1.8 Write a short Java function, isMultiple, that takes two long values, n and m, and returns true if and only if n is a multiple of m, that is, n = mi for some integer i. R-1.9 Write a short Java function, isOdd, that takes an int i and returns true if and only if i is odd. Your function cannot use the multiplication, modulus, or division operators, however. R-1.10 85 Write a short Java function that takes an integer n and returns the sum of all the integers smaller than n. R-1.11 Write a short Java function that takes an integer n and returns the sum of all the odd integers smaller than n. Creativity C-1.1 Write a short Java function that takes an array of int values and determines if there is a pair of numbers in the array whose product is odd. C-1.2 Write a Java method that takes an array of int values and determines if all the numbers are different from each other (that is, they are distinct). C-1.3 Write a Java method that takes an array containing the set of all integers in the range 1 to 52 and shuffles it into random order. Your method should output each possible order with equal probability. C-1.4 Write a short Java program that outputs all possible strings formed by using the characters 'c', 'a', 'r', ' b', ' o', and 'n' exactly once. C-1.5 Write a short Java program that takes all the lines input to standard input and writes them to standard output in reverse order. That is, each line is output in the correct order, but the ordering of the lines is reversed. C-1.6 Write a short Java program that takes two arrays a and b of length n storing int values, and returns the dot product of a and b. That is, it returns an array c of length n such that c[i] = a[i] · b[i], for i = 0,… ,n − 1. Projects P-1.1 86 A common punishment for school children is to write out a sentence multiple times. Write a Java stand-alone program that will write out the following sentence one hundred times: "I will never spam my friends again." Your program should number each of the sentences and it should make eight different random-looking typos. P-1.2 (For those who know Java graphical user interface methods) Define a GraphicalTest class that tests the functionality of the CreditCard class from Code Fragment 1.5 using text fields and buttons. P-1.3 The birthday paradox says that the probability that two people in a room will have the same birthday is more than half as long as n, the number of people in the room, is more than 23. This property is not really a paradox, but many people find it surprising. Design a Java program that can test this paradox by a series of experiments on randomly generated birthdays, which test this paradox for n = 5,10,15,20,…, 100. Chapter Notes For more detailed information about the Java programming language, we refer the reader to some of the fine books about Java, including the books by Arnold and Gosling [7], Cam-pione and Walrath [19], Cornell and Horstmann [26], Flanagan [34], and Horstmann [51], as well as Sun's Java Web site (http://www.java.sun.com). 87 Chapter 2 Object-Oriented Design Contents 2.1 Goals, Principles, and Patterns...................... 58 2.1.1 Object-Oriented Design Goals............ 58 2.1.2 88 Object-Oriented Design Principles ............ 59 2.1.3 Design Patterns................. 62 2.2 Inheritance and Polymorphism................ 63 2.2.1 Inheritance................... 63 2.2.2 Polymorphism................... 65 2.2.3 Using Inheritance in Java.................. 66 2.3 Exceptions....................... 76 2.3.1 Throwing Exceptions................. 76 2.3.2 Catching Exceptions...................... 89 78 2.4 Interfaces and Abstract Classes.......................... 80 2.4.1 Implementing Interfaces.................... 80 2.4.2 Multiple Inheritance in Interfaces............... 83 2.4.3 Abstract Classes and Strong Typing.............. 84 2.5 Casting and Generics......................... 85 2.5.1 Casting........................... 85 2.5.2 Generics.......................... 89 2.6 Exercises......................... 91 90 java.datastructures.net 2.1 Goals, Principles, and Patterns As the name implies, the main "actors" in the object-oriented design paradigm are called objects. An object comes from a class, which is a specification of the data fields, also called instance variables, that the object contains, as well as the methods (operations) that the object can execute. Each class presents to the outside world a concise and consistent view of the objects that are instances of this class, without going into too much unnecessary detail or giving others access to the inner workings of the objects. This view of computing is intended to fulfill several goals and incorporate several design principles, which we discuss in this chapter. 2.1.1 Object-Oriented Design Goals Software implementations should achieve robustness, adaptability, and reusability. (See Figure 2.1.) Figure 2.1: Goals of object-oriented design. Robustness Every good programmer wants to develop software that is correct, which means that a program produces the right output for all the anticipated inputs in the program's application. In addition, we want software to be robust, that is, capable of handling unexpected inputs that are not explicitly defined for its application. For example, if a program is expecting a positive integer (for example, representing the price of an item) and instead is given a negative integer, then the program should be able to recover gracefully from this error. More importantly, in life-critical applications, where a software error can lead to injury or loss of life, software that is not robust could be deadly. This point was driven home in the late 1980s in accidents involving Therac-25, a radiation-therapy machine, which 91 severely overdosed six patients between 1985 and 1987, some of whom died from complications resulting from their radiation overdose. All six accidents were traced to software errors. Adaptability Modern software applications, such as Web browsers and Internet search engines, typically involve large programs that are used for many years. Software, therefore, needs to be able to evolve over time in response to changing conditions in its environment. Thus, another important goal of quality software is that it achieves adaptability (also called evolvability). Related to this concept is portability, which is the ability of software to run with minimal change on different hardware and operating system platforms. An advantage of writing software in Java is the portability provided by the language itself. Reusability Going hand in hand with adaptability is the desire that software be reusable, that is, the same code should be usable as a component of different systems in various applications. Developing quality software can be an expensive enterprise, and its cost can be offset somewhat if the software is designed in a way that makes it easily reusable in future applications. Such reuse should be done with care, however, for one of the major sources of software errors in the Therac-25 came from inappropriate reuse of software from the Therac-20 (which was not object- oriented and not designed for the hardware platform used with the Therac-25). 2.1.2 Object-Oriented Design Principles Chief among the principles of the object-oriented approach, which are intended to facilitate the goals outlined above, are the following (see Figure 2.2): • Abstraction • Encapsulation • Modularity. Figure 2.2 : Principles of object-oriented design. 92 Abstraction The notion of abstraction is to distill a complicated system down to its most fundamental parts and describe these parts in a simple, precise language. Typically, describing the parts of a system involves naming them and explaining their functionality. Applying the abstraction paradigm to the design of data structures gives rise to abstract data types (ADTs). An ADT is a mathematical model of a data structure that specifies the type of data stored, the operations supported on them, and the types of parameters of the operations. An ADT specifies what each operation does, but not how it does it. In Java, an ADT can be expressed by an interface, which is simply a list of method declarations, where each method has an empty body. (We say more about Java interfaces in Section 2.4.) An ADT is realized by a concrete data structure, which is modeled in Java by a class. A class defines the data being stored and the operations supported by the objects that are instances of the class. Also, unlike interfaces, classes specify how the operations are performed in the body of each method. A Java class is said to implement an interface if its methods include all the methods declared in the interface, thus providing a body for them. However, a class can have more methods than those of the interface. Encapsulation Another important principle of object-oriented design is the concept of encapsulation, which states that different components of a software system should not reveal the internal details of their respective implementations. One of the main advantages of encapsulation is that it gives the programmer freedom in implementing the details of a system. The only constraint on the programmer is to maintain the abstract interface that outsiders see. 93 Modularity In addition to abstraction and encapsulation, a fundamental principle of object oriented design is modularity. Modern software systems typically consist of several different components that must interact correctly in order for the entire system to work properly. Keeping these interactions straight requires that these different components be well organized. In object-oriented design, this code structuring approach centers around the concept of modularity. Modularity refers to an organizing principle for code in which different components of a software system are divided into separate functional units. Hierarchical Organization The structure imposed by modularity helps to enable software reusability. If software modules are written in an abstract way to solve general problems, then modules can be reused when instances of these same general problems arise in other contexts. For example, the structural definition of a wall is the same from house to house, typically being defined in terms of 2- by 4-inch studs, spaced a certain distance apart, etc. Thus, an organized architect can reuse his or her wall definitions from one house to another. In reusing such a definition, some parts may require redefinition, for example, a wall in a commercial building may be similar to that of a house, but the electrical system and stud material might be different. A natural way to organize various structural components of a software package is in a hierarchical fashion, which groups similar abstract definitions together in a level-by-level manner that goes from specific to more general as one traverses up the hierarchy. A common use of such hierarchies is in an organizational chart, where each link going up can be read as "is a," as in "a ranch is a house is a building." This kind of hierarchy is useful in software design, for it groups together common functionality at the most general level, and views specialized behavior as an extension of the general one. Figure 2.3: An example of an "is a" hierarchy involving architectural buildings. 94 2.1.3 Design Patterns One of the advantages of object-oriented design is that it facilitates reusable, robust, and adaptable software. Designing good code takes more than simply understanding object-oriented methodologies, however. It requires the effective use of object- oriented design techniques. Computing researchers and practitioners have developed a variety of organizational concepts and methodologies for designing quality object-oriented software that is concise, correct, and reusable. Of special relevance to this book is the concept of a design pattern, which describes a solution to a "typical" software design problem. A pattern provides a general template for a solution that can be applied in many different situations. It describes the main elements of a solution in an abstract way that can be specialized for a specific problem at hand. It consists of a name, which identifies the pattern, a context, which describes the scenarios for which this pattern can be applied, a template, which describes how the pattern is applied, and a result, which describes and analyzes what the pattern produces. We present several design patterns in this book, and we show how they can be consistently applied to implementations of data structures and algorithms. These design patterns fall into two groups—patterns for solving algorithm design problems and patterns for solving software engineering problems. Some of the algorithm design patterns we discuss include the following: • Recursion (Section 3.5) • Amortization (Section 6.1.4) 95 • Divide-and-conquer (Section 11.1.1) • Prune-and-search, also known as decrease-and-conquer (Section 11.7.1) • Brute force (Section 12.2.1) • The greedy method (Section 12.4.2) • Dynamic programming (Section 12.5.2). Likewise, some of the software engineering design patterns we discuss include: • Position (Section 6.2.2) • Adapter (Section 6.1.2) • Iterator (Section 6.3) • Template method (Sections 7.3.7, 11.6, and 13.3.2) • Composition (Section 8.1.2) • Comparator (Section 8.1.2) • Decorator (Section 13.3.1). Rather than explain each of these concepts here, however, we introduce them throughout the text as noted above. For each pattern, be it for algorithm engineering or software engineering, we explain its general use and we illustrate it with at least one concrete example. 2.2 Inheritance and Polymorphism To take advantage of hierarchical relationships, which are common in software projects, the object-oriented design approach provides ways of reusing code. 2.2.1 Inheritance The object-oriented paradigm provides a modular and hierarchical organizing structure for reusing code, through a technique called inheritance. This technique allows the design of general classes that can be specialized to more particular classes, with the specialized classes reusing the code from the general class. The general class, which is also known as a base class or superclass, can define standard instance variables and methods that apply in a multitude of situations. A class that specializes, or extends, or inherits from, a superclass need not give new implementations for the general methods, for it inherits them. It should only define those methods that are specialized for this particular subclass. 96 Example 2.1: Consider a class S that defines objects with a field, x, and three methods, a(), b(), and c(). Suppose we were to define a classT that extendsS and includes an additional field, y, and two methods, d() ande(). The classT would theninherit the instance variablex and the methodsa(), b(), andc() fromS. We illustrate the relationships between the classS and the classT in aclass inheritance diagram in Figure 2.4. Each box in such a diagram denotes a class, with its name, fields (or instance variables), and methods included as subrectangles. Figure 2.4: A class inheritance diagram. Each box denotes a class, with its name, fields, and methods, and an arrow between boxes denotes an inheritance relation. Object Creation and Referencing When an object o is created, memory is allocated for its data fields, and these same fields are initialized to specific beginning values. Typically, one associates the new object o with a variable, which serves as a "link" to object o, and is said to reference o. When we wish to access object o (for the purpose of getting at its fields or executing its methods), we can either request the execution of one of o's methods (defined by the class that o belongs to), or look up one of the fields of o. Indeed, the primary way that an object p interacts with another object o is for p to 97 send a "message" to o that invokes one of o's methods, for example, for o to print a description of itself, for o to convert itself to a string, or for o to return the value of one of its data fields. The secondary way that p can interact with o is for p to access one of o's fields directly, but only if o has given other objects like p permission to do so. For example, an instance of the Java class Integer stores, as an instance variable, an integer, and it provides several operations for accessing this data, including methods for converting it into other number types, for converting it to a string of digits, and for converting strings of digits to a number. It does not allow for direct access of its instance variable, however, for such details are hidden. Dynamic Dispatch When a program wishes to invoke a certain method a() of some object o, it sends a message to o, which is usually denoted, using the dot-operator syntax (Section 1.3.2), as "o.a()." In the compiled version of this program, the code corresponding to this invocation directs the run-time environment to examine o's class T to determine if the class T supports an a() method, and, if so, to execute it. Specifically, the run-time environment examines the class T to see if it defines an a() method itself. If it does, then this method is executed. If T does not define an a() method, then the run-time environment examines the superclass S of T. If S defines a(), then this method is executed. If S does not define a(), on the other hand, then the run-time environment repeats the search at the superclass of S. This search continues up the hierarchy of classes until it either finds an a() method, which is then executed, or it reaches a topmost class (for example, the Object class in Java) without an a() method, which generates a run-time error. The algorithm that processes the message o.a() to find the specific method to invoke is called the dynamic dispatch (or dynamic binding) algorithm, which provides an effective mechanism for locating reused software. It also allows for another powerful technique of object-oriented programming—polymorphism. 2.2.2 Polymorphism Literally, "polymorphism" means "many forms." In the context of object-oriented design, it refers to the ability of an object variable to take different forms. Object- oriented languages, such as Java, address objects using reference variables. The reference variable o must define which class of objects it is allowed to refer to, in terms of some class S. But this implies that o can also refer to any object belonging to a class T that extends S. Now consider what happens if S defines an a() method and T also defines an a() method. The dynamic dispatch algorithm for method invocation always starts its search from the most restrictive class that applies. When o refers to an object from class T, then it will use T's a() method when asked for o.a(), not S's. In this case, T is said to override method a() from S. Alternatively, when o refers to an object from class S (that is not also a T object), it will execute 98 S's a() method when asked for o.a(). Polymorphism such as this is useful because the caller of o.a() does not have to know whether the object o refers to an instance of T or S in order to get the a() method to execute correctly. Thus, the object variable o can be polymorphic, or take many forms, depending on the specific class of the objects it is referring to. This kind of functionality allows a specialized class T to extend a class S, inherit the standard methods from S, and redefine other methods from S to account for specific properties of objects of T. Some object-oriented languages, such as Java, also provide a useful technique related to polymorphism, which is called method overloading. Overloading occurs when a single class T has multiple methods with the same name, provided each one has a different signature. The signature of a method is a combination of its name and the type and number of arguments that are passed to it. Thus, even though multiple methods in a class can have the same name, they can be distinguished by a compiler, provided they have different signatures, that is, are different in actuality. In languages that allow for method overloading, the run-time environment determines which actual method to invoke for a specific method call by searching up the class hierarchy to find the first method with a signature matching the method being invoked. For example, suppose a class T, which defines a method a(), extends a class U, which defines a method a(x,y). If an object o from class T receives the message "o.a(x,y)," then it is U's version of method a that is invoked (with the two parameters x and y). Thus, true polymorphism applies only to methods that have the same signature, but are defined in different classes. Inheritance, polymorphism, and method overloading support the development of reusable software. We can define classes that inherit the standard instance variables and methods and can then define new more-specific instance variables and methods that deal with special aspects of objects of the new class. 2.2.3 Using Inheritance in Java There are two primary ways of using inheritance of classes in Java, specialization and extension. Specialization In using specialization we are specializing a general class to particular subclasses. Such subclasses typically possess an "is a" relationship to their superclass. A subclass then inherits all the methods of the superclass. For each inherited method, if that method operates correctly independent of whether it is operating for a specialization, no additional work is needed. If, on the other hand, a general method of the superclass would not work correctly on the subclass, then we should override the method to have the correct functionality for the subclass. For example, we could have a general class, Dog, which has a method drink and a method sniff. Specializing this class to a Bloodhound class would probably not 99 require that we override the drink method, as all dogs drink pretty much the same way. But it could require that we override the sniff method, as a Bloodhound has a much more sensitive sense of smell than a standard dog. In this way, the Bloodhound class specializes the methods of its superclass, Dog. Extension In using extension, on the other hand, we utilize inheritance to reuse the code written for methods of the superclass, but we then add new methods that are not present in the superclass, so as to extend its functionality. For example, returning to our Dog class, we might wish to create a subclass, BorderCollie, which inherits all the standard methods of the Dog class, but then adds a new method, herd, since Border Collies have a herding instinct that is not present in standard dogs. By adding the new method, we are extending the functionality of a standard dog. In Java, each class can extend exactly one other class. Even if a class definition makes no explicit use of the extends clause, it still inherits from exactly one other class, which in this case is class java.lang.Object. Because of this property, Java is said to allow only for single inheritance among classes. Types of Method Overriding Inside the declaration of a new class, Java uses two kinds of method overriding, refinement and replacement. In the replacement type of overriding, a method completely replaces the method of the superclass that it is overriding (as in the sniff method of Bloodhound mentioned above). In Java, all regular methods of a class utilize this type of overriding behavior. In the refinement type of overriding, however, a method does not replace the method of its superclass, but instead adds additional code to that of its superclass. In Java, all constructors utilize the refinement type of overriding, a scheme called constructor chaining. Namely, a constructor begins its execution by calling a constructor of the superclass. This call can be made explicitly or implicitly. To call a constructor of the superclass explicitly, we use the keyword super to refer to the superclass. (For example, super() calls the constructor of the superclass with no arguments.) If no explicit call is made in the body of a constructor, however, the compiler automatically inserts, as the first line of the constructor, a call to super(). (There is an exception to this general rule, which is discussed in the next section.) Summarizing, in Java, constructors use the refinement type of method overriding whereas regular methods use replacement. The Keyword this 100 Sometimes, in a Java class, it is convenient to reference the current instance of that class. Java provides a keyword, called this, for such a reference. Reference this is useful, for example, if we would like to pass the current object as a parameter to some method. Another application of this is to reference a field inside the current object that has a name clash with a variable defined in the current block, as shown in the program given in Code Fragment 2.1. Code Fragment 2.1: Sample program illustrating the use of reference this to disambiguate between a field of the current object and a local variable with the same name. When this program is executed, it prints the following: The dog local variable =5.0 The dog field = 2 An Illustration of Inheritance in Java To make some of the notions above about inheritance and polymorphism more concrete, let us consider some simple examples in Java. In particular, we consider a series of several classes for stepping through and printing out numeric progressions. A numeric progression is a sequence of numbers, where each number depends on one or more of the previous numbers. For example, an arithmetic progression determines the next number by addition and a geometric progression determines the next number by multiplication. In 101 any case, a progression requires a way of defining its first value and it needs a way of identifying the current value as well. We begin by defining a class, Progression, shown in Code Fragment 2.2, which defines the standard fields and methods of a numeric progression. Specifically, it defines the following two long-integer fields: • first: first value of the progression; • cur: current value of the progression; and the following three methods: firstValue(): Reset the progression to the first value, and return that value. nextValue(): Step the progression to the next value and return that value. printProgression(n): Reset the progression and print the first n values of the progression. We say that the method printProgression has no output in the sense that it does not return any value, whereas the methods firstValue and nextValue both return long-integer values. That is, firstValue and nextValue are functions, and printProgression is a procedure. The Progression class also includes a method Progression(), which is a constructor. Recall that constructors set up all the instance variables at the time an object of this class is created. The Progression class is meant to be a general superclass from which specialized classes inherit, so this constructor is code that will be included in the constructors for each class that extends the Progression class. Code Fragment 2.2: General numeric progression class. 102 103 An Arithmetic Progression Class Next, we consider the class ArithProgression, which we present in Code Fragment 2.3. This class defines an arithmetic progression, where the next value is determined by adding a fixed increment, inc, to the previous value. ArithProgression inherits fields first and cur and methods firstValue() and printProgression(n) from the Progression class. It adds a new field, inc, to store the increment, and two constructors for setting the increment. Finally, it overrides the nextValue() method to conform to the way we get the next value for an arithmetic progression. Polymorphism is at work here. When a Progression reference is pointing to an Arith Progression object, then it is the ArithProgression methods firstValue() and nextValue() that will be used. This polymorphism is also true inside the inherited version of printProgression(n), because the calls to the firstValue() and nextValue() methods here are implicit for the "current" object (called this in Java), which in this case will be of the Arith Progression class. Example Constructors and the Keyword this In the definition of the Arith Progression class, we have added two constructors, a default one, which takes no parameters, and a parametric one, which takes an integer parameter as the increment for the progression. The default constructor actually calls the parametric one, using the keyword this and passing 1 as the value of the increment parameter. These two constructors illustrate method overloading (where a method name can have multiple versions inside the same class), since a method is actually specified by its name, the class of the object that calls it, and the types of arguments that are passed to it—its signature. In this case, the overloading is for constructors (a default constructor and a parametric constructor). The call this(1) to the parametric constructor as the first statement of the default constructor triggers an exception to the general constructor chaining rule discussed in Section 2.2.3. Namely, whenever the first statement of a constructor C ′ calls another constructor C ″ of the same class using the this reference, the superclass constructor is not implicitly called for C. Note that a superclass constructor will eventually be called along the chain, either explicitly or implicitly. In particular, for our ArithProgression class, the default constructor of the superclass (Progression) is implicitly called as the first statement of the parametric constructor of Arith Progression. We discuss constructors in more detail in Section 1.2. 104 Code Fragment 2.3: Class for arithmetic progressions, which inherits from the general progression class shown in Code Fragment 2.2. A Geometric Progression Class Let us next define a class, GeomProgression, shown in Code Fragment 2.4, which steps through and prints out a geometric progression, where the next value is determined by multiplying the previous value by a fixed base, base. A 105 geometric progression is like a general progression, except for the way we determine the next value. Hence, Geom Progression is declared as a subclass of the Progression class. As with the Arith Progression class, the GeomProgression class inherits the fields first and cur, and the methods firstValue and printProgression from Progression. Code Fragment 2.4: Class for geometric progressions. 106 A Fibonacci Progression Class As a further example, we define a FibonacciProgression class that represents another kind of progression, the Fibonacci progression, where the next value is defined as the sum of the current and previous values. We show class FibonacciProgression in Code Fragment 2.5. Note our use of a 107 parameterized constructor in the FibonacciProgression class to provide a different way of starting the progression. Code Fragment 2.5: Class for the Fibonacci progression. In order to visualize how the three different progression classes are derived from the general Progression class, we give their inheritance diagram in Figure 2.5. 108 Figure 2.5 : Inheritance diagram for class Progression and its subclasses. To complete our example, we define a class TestProgression, shown in Code Fragment 2.6, which performs a simple test of each of the three classes. In this class, variable prog is polymorphic during the execution of the main method, since it references objects of class ArithProgression, GeomProgression, and FibonacciProgression in turn. When the main method of the TestProgression class is invoked by the Java run-time system, the output shown in Code Fragment 2.7 is produced. The example presented in this section is admittedly small, but it provides a simple illustration of inheritance in Java. The Progression class, its subclasses, and the tester program have a number of shortcomings, however, which might not be immediately apparent. One problem is that the geometric and Fibonacci progressions grow quickly, and there is no provision for handling the inevitable overflow of the long integers involved. For example, since 340 > 263, a geometric progression with base b = 3 will overflow a long integer after 40 iterations. Likewise, the 94th Fibonacci number is greater than 263; hence, the Fibonacci progression will overflow a long integer after 94 iterations. Another problem is that we may not allow arbitrary starting values for a Fibonacci progression. For example, do we allow a Fibonacci progression starting with 0 and −1 ? Dealing with input errors or error conditions that occur during the running of a Java program requires that we have some mechanism for handling them. We discuss this topic next. 109 Code Fragment 2.6: Program for testing the progression classes. Code Fragment 2.7: Output of the TestProgression program shown in Code Fragment 2.6. 110 2.3 Exceptions Exceptions are unexpected events that occur during the execution of a program. An exception can be the result of an error condition or simply an unanticipated input. In any case, in an object-oriented language, such as Java, exceptions can be thought of as being objects themselves. 2.3.1 Throwing Exceptions In Java, exceptions are objects that are thrown by code that encounters some sort of unexpected condition. They can also be thrown by the Java run-time environment should it encounter an unexpected condition, like running out of object memory. A thrown exception is caught by other code that "handles" the exception somehow, or the program is terminated unexpectedly. (We will say more about catching exceptions shortly.) Exceptions originate when a piece of Java code finds some sort of problem during execution and throws an exception object. It is convenient to give a descriptive name to the class of the exception object. For instance, if we try to delete the tenth element from a sequence that has only five elements, the code may throw a BoundaryViolationException. This action could be done, for example, using the following code fragment: if (insertIndex >= A.length) { throw new BoundaryViolationException("No element at index " + insertIndex); 111 } It is often convenient to instantiate an exception object at the time the exception has to be thrown. Thus, a throw statement is typically written as follows: throw new exception_type(param0, param1, …, paramn−1); where exception_type is the type of the exception and the parami's form the list of parameters for a constructor for this exception. Exceptions are also thrown by the Java run-time environment itself. For example, the counterpart to the example above is ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException. If we have a six-element array and ask for the ninth element, then this exception will be thrown by the Java run-time system. The Throws Clause When a method is declared, it is appropriate to specify the exceptions it might throw. This convention has both a functional and courteous purpose. For one, it lets users know what to expect. It also lets the Java compiler know which exceptions to prepare for. The following is an example of such a method definition: public void goShopping() throws ShoppingListTooSmallException, OutOfMoneyException { // method body… } By specifying all the exceptions that might be thrown by a method, we prepare others to be able to handle all of the exceptional cases that might arise from using this method. Another benefit of declaring exceptions is that we do not need to catch those exceptions in our method. Sometimes this is appropriate in the case where other code is responsible for causing the circumstances leading up to the exception. The following illustrates an exception that is "passed through": public void getReadyForClass() throws ShoppingListTooSmallException, OutOfMoneyException { 112 goShopping(); // I don't have to try or catch the exceptions // which goShopping() might throw because // getReadyForClass() will just pass these along. makeCookiesForTA(); } A function can declare that it throws as many exceptions as it likes. Such a listing can be simplified somewhat if all exceptions that can be thrown are subclasses of the same exception. In this case, we only have to declare that a method throws the appropriate superclass. Kinds of Throwables Java defines classes Exception and Error as subclasses of Throwable, which denotes any object that can be thrown and caught. Also, it defines class RuntimeException as a subclass of Exception. The Error class is used for abnormal conditions occurring in the run-time environment, such as running out of memory. Errors can be caught, but they probably should not be, because they usually signal problems that cannot be handled gracefully. An error message or a sudden program termination is about as much grace as we can expect. The Exception class is the root of the exception hierarchy. Specialized exceptions (for example, BoundaryViolationException) should be defined by subclassing from either Exception or RuntimeException. Note that exceptions that are not subclasses of RuntimeException must be declared in the throws clause of any method that can throw them. 2.3.2 Catching Exceptions When an exception is thrown, it must be caught or the program will terminate. In any particular method, an exception in that method can be passed through to the calling method or it can be caught in that method. When an exception is caught, it can be analyzed and dealt with. The general methodology for dealing with exceptions is to "try" to execute some fragment of code that might throw an exception. If it does throw an exception, then that exception is caught by having the flow of control jump to a predefined catch block that contains the code dealing with the exception. The general syntax for a try-catch block in Java is as follows: 113 try main_block_of_statements catch (exception_type1 variable1) block_of_statements1 catch (exception_type2 variable2) block_of_statements2 … finally block_of_statementsn where there must be at least one catch part, but the finally part is optional. Each exception_typei is the type of some exception, and each variablei is a valid Java variable name. The Java run-time environment begins performing a try-catch block such as this by executing the block of statements, main_block_of_statements. If this execution generates no exceptions, then the flow of control continues with the first statement after the last line of the entire try-catch block, unless it includes an optional finally part. The finally part, if it exists, is executed regardless of whether any exceptions are thrown or caught. Thus, in this case, if no exception is thrown, execution progresses through the try-catch block, jumps to the finally part, and then continues with the first statement after the last line of the try-catch block. If, on the other hand, the block, main_block_of_statements, generates an exception, then execution in the try-catch block terminates at that point and execution jumps to the catch block whose exception_type most closely matches the exception thrown. The variable for this catch statement references the exception object itself, which can be used in the block of the matching catch statement. Once execution of that catch block completes, control flow is passed to the optional finally block, if it exists, or immediately to the first statement after the last line of the entire try-catch block if there is no finally block. Otherwise, if there is no catch block matching the exception thrown, then control is passed to the optional finally block, if it exists, and then the exception is thrown back to the calling method. Consider the following example code fragment: int index = Integer.MAX_VALUE; // 2.14 Billion 114 try // This code might have a problem… { String toBuy = shoppingList[index]; } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException aioobx) { System.out.println("The index "+index+" is outside the array."); } If this code does not catch a thrown exception, the flow of control will immediately exit the method and return to the code that called our method. There, the Java run- time environment will look again for a catch block. If there is no catch block in the code that called this method, the flow of control will jump to the code that called this, and so on. Eventually, if no code catches the exception, the Java run-time system (the origin of our program's flow of control) will catch the exception. At this point, an error message and a stack trace is printed to the screen and the program is terminated. The following is an actual run-time error message: java.lang.NullPointerException: Returned a null locator at java.awt.Component.handleEvent(Component.java:900) at java.awt.Component.postEvent(Component.java:838) at java.awt.Component.postEvent(Component.java:845) at sun.awt.motif.MButtonPeer.action(MButtonPeer.java:39) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java) Once an exception is caught, there are several things a programmer might want to do. One possibility is to print out an error message and terminate the program. There are also some interesting cases in which the best way to handle an exception is to ignore it (this can be done by having an empty catch block). 115 Ignoring an exception is usually done, for example, when the programmer does not care whether there was an exception or not. Another legitimate way of handling exceptions is to create and throw another exception, possibly one that specifies the exceptional condition more precisely. The following is an example of this approach: catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException aioobx) { throw new ShoppingListTooSmallException( "Product index is not in the shopping list"); } Perhaps the best way to handle an exception (although this is not always possible) is to find the problem, fix it, and continue execution. 2.4 Interfaces and Abstract Classes In order for two objects to interact, they must "know" about the various messages that each will accept, that is, the methods each object supports. To enforce this "knowledge," the object-oriented design paradigm asks that classes specify the application programming interface (API), or simply interface, that their objects present to other objects. In the ADT-based approach (see Section 2.1.2) to data structures followed in this book, an interface defining an ADT is specified as a type definition and a collection of methods for this type, with the arguments for each method being of specified types. This specification is, in turn, enforced by the compiler or run-time system, which requires that the types of parameters that are actually passed to methods rigidly conform with the type specified in the interface.This requirement is known as strong typing. Having to define interfaces and then having those definitions enforced by strong typing admittedly places a burden on the programmer, but this burden is offset by the rewards it provides, for it enforces the encapsulation principle and often catches programming errors that would otherwise go unnoticed. 2.4.1 Implementing Interfaces The main structural element in Java that enforces an API is the interface. An interface is a collection of method declarations with no data and no bodies. That is, the methods of an interface are always empty (that is, they are simply method signatures). When a class implements an interface, it must implement all of the methods declared in the interface. In this way, interfaces enforce requirements that an implementing class has methods with certain specified signatures. Suppose, for example, that we want to create an inventory of antiques we own, categorized as objects of various types and with various properties. We might, for 116 instance, wish to identify some of our objects as sellable, in which case they could implement the Sellable interface shown in Code Fragment 2.8. We can then define a concrete class, Photograph, shown in Code Fragment 2.9, that implements the Sellable interface, indicating that we would be willing to sell any of our Photograph objects: This class defines an object that implements each of the methods of the Sellable interface, as required. In addition, it adds a method, isColor, which is specialized for Photograph objects. Another kind of object in our collection might be something we could transport. For such objects, we define the interface shown in Code Fragment 2.10. Code Fragment 2.8: Interface Sellable. Code Fragment 2.9 : Class Photograph implementing the Sellable interface. 117 Code Fragment 2.10: Interface Transportable. We could then define the class BoxedItem, shown in Code Fragment 2.11, for miscellaneous antiques that we can sell, pack, and ship. Thus, the class BoxedItem implements the methods of the Sellable interface and the Transportable interface, while also adding specialized methods to set an insured value for a boxed shipment and to set the dimensions of a box for shipment. Code Fragment 2.11 : Class BoxedItem. 118 The class BoxedItem shows another feature of classes and interfaces in Java, as well—a class can implement multiple interfaces—which allows us a great deal of flexibility when defining classes that should conform to multiple APIs. For, while a class in Java can extend only one other class, it can nevertheless implement many interfaces. 2.4.2 Multiple Inheritance in Interfaces 119 The ability of extending from more than one class is known as multiple inheritance. In Java, multiple inheritance is allowed for interfaces but not for classes. The reason for this rule is that the methods of an interface never have bodies, while methods in a class always do. Thus, if Java were to allow for multiple inheritance for classes, there could be a confusion if a class tried to extend from two classes that contained methods with the same signatures. This confusion does not exist for interfaces, however, since their methods are empty. So, since no confusion is involved, and there are times when multiple inheritance of interfaces is useful, Java allows for interfaces to use multiple inheritance. One use for multiple inheritance of interfaces is to approximate a multiple inheritance technique called the mixin. Unlike Java, some object-oriented languages, such as Smalltalk and C++, allow for multiple inheritance of concrete classes, not just interfaces. In such languages, it is common to define classes, called mixin classes, that are never intended to be created as stand-alone objects, but are instead meant to provide additional functionality to existing classes. Such inheritance is not allowed in Java, however, so programmers must approximate it with interfaces. In particular, we can use multiple inheritance of interfaces as a mechanism for "mixing" the methods from two or more unrelated interfaces to define an interface that combines their functionality, possibly adding more methods of its own. Returning to our example of the antique objects, we could define an interface for insurable items as follows: public interface InsurableItem extends Transportable, Sellable { /** Returns insured Value in cents */ public int insuredValue(); } This interface mixes the methods of the Transportable interface with the methods of the Sellable interface, and adds an extra method, insuredValue. Such an interface could allow us to define the BoxedItem alternately as follows: public class BoxedItem2 implements InsurableItem { // … same code as class BoxedItem } In this case, note that the method insuredValue is not optional, whereas it was optional in the declaration of BoxedItem given previously. Java interfaces that approximate the mixin include java.lang.Cloneable, which adds a copy feature to a class, java.lang.Comparable, which adds a 120 comparability feature to a class (imposing a natural order on its instances), and java.util.Observer, which adds an update feature to a class that wishes to be notified when certain "observable" objects change state. 2.4.3 Abstract Classes and Strong Typing An abstract class is a class that contains empty method declarations (that is, declarations of methods without bodies) as well as concrete definitions of methods and/or instance variables. Thus, an abstract class lies between an interface and a complete concrete class. Like an interface, an abstract class may not be instantiated, that is, no object can be created from an abstract class. A subclass of an abstract class must provide an implementation for the abstract methods of its superclass, unless it is itself abstract. But, like a concrete class, an abstract class A can extend another abstract class, and abstract and concrete classes can further extend A, as well. Ultimately, we must define a new class that is not abstract and extends (subclasses) the abstract superclass, and this new class must fill in code for all abstract methods. Thus, an abstract class uses the specification style of inheritance, but also allows for the specialization and extension styles as well (see Section 2.2.3. The java.lang.Number Class It turns out that we have already seen an example of an abstract class. Namely, the Java number classes (shown in Table 1.2) specialize an abstract class called java.lang.Number. Each concrete number class, such as java.lang.Integer and java.lang.Double, extends the java.lang.Number class and fills in the details for the abstract methods of the superclass. In particular, the methods intValue, floatValue, doubleValue, and longValue are all abstract in java.lang.Number. Each concrete number class must specify the details of these methods. Strong Typing In Java, an object can be viewed as being of various types. The primary type of an object o is the class C specified at the time o was instantiated. In addition, o is of type S for each superclass S of C and is of type I for each interface I implemented byC. However, a variable can be declared as being of only one type (either a class or an interface), which determines how the variable is used and how certain methods will act on it. Similarly, a method has a unique return type. In general, an expression has a unique type. By enforcing that all variables be typed and that methods declare the types they expect and return, Java uses the technique of strong typing to help prevent bugs. But with rigid requirements on types, it is sometimes necessary to change, or 121 convert, a type into another type. Such conversions may have to be specified by an explicit cast operator. We have already discussed (Section 1.3.3) how conversions and casting work for base types. Next, we discuss how they work for reference variables. 2.5 Casting and Generics In this section, we discuss casting among reference variables, as well as a technique, called generics, which allow us to avoid explicit casting in many cases. 2.5.1 Casting We begin our discussion with methods for type conversions for objects. Widening Conversions A widening conversion occurs when a type T is converted into a "wider" type U. The following are common cases of widening conversions: • T and U are class types and U is a superclass of T • T and U are interface types and U is a superinterface of T • T is a class that implements interface U. Widening conversions are automatically performed to store the result of an expression into a variable, without the need for an explicit cast. Thus, we can directly assign the result of an expression of type T into a variable v of type U when the conversion from T to U is a widening conversion. The example code fragment below shows that an expression of type Integer (a newly constructed Integer object) can be assigned to a variable of type Number. Integer i = new Integer(3); Number n = i; // widening conversion from Integer to Number The correctness of a widening conversion can be checked by the compiler and its validity does not require testing by the Java run-time environment during program execution. Narrowing Conversions A narrowing conversion occurs when a type T is converted into a "narrower" type S. The following are common cases of narrowing conversions: 122 • T and S are class types and S is a subclass of T • T and S are interface types and S is a subinterface of T • T is an interface implemented by class S. In general, a narrowing conversion of reference types requires an explicit cast. Also, the correctness of a narrowing conversion may not be verifiable by the compiler. Thus, its validity should be tested by the Java run-time environment during program execution. The example code fragment below shows how to use a cast to perform a narrowing conversion from type Number to type Integer. Number n = new Integer(2); // widening conversion from Integer to Number Integer i = (Integer) n; // narrowing conversion from Number to Integer In the first statement, a new object of class Integer is created and assigned to a variable n of type Number. Thus, a widening conversion occurs in this assignment and no cast is required. In the second statement, we assign n to a variable i of type Integer using a cast. This assignment is possible because n refers to an object of type Integer. However, since variable n is of type Number, a narrowing conversion occurs and the cast is necessary. Casting Exceptions In Java, we can cast an object reference o of type T into a type S, provided the object o is referring to is actually of type S. If, on the other hand, object o is not also of type S, then attempting to cast o to type S will throw an exception called ClassCastException. We illustrate this rule in the following code fragment: Number n; Integer i; n = new Integer(3); i = (Integer) n; // This is legal n = new Double(3.1415); i = (Integer) n; // This is illegal! 123 To avoid problems such as this and to avoid peppering our code with try- catch blocks every time we perform a cast, Java provides a way to make sure an object cast will be correct. Namely, it provides an operator, instanceof, that allows us to test whether an object variable is referring to an object of a certain class (or implementing a certain interface). The syntax for using this operator is object referenceinstanceof reference_type, where object_reference is an expression that evaluates to an object reference and reference_type is the name of some existing class, interface, or enum (Section 1.1.3). If object_reference is indeed an instance of reference_type, then the expression above returns true. Otherwise, it returns false. Thus, we can avoid a ClassCastException from being thrown in the code fragment above by modifying it as follows: Number n; Integer i; n = new Integer(3); if (n instanceof Integer) i = (Integer) n; // This is legal n = new Double(3.1415); if (n instanceof Integer) i = (Integer) n; // This will not be attempted Casting with Interfaces Interfaces allow us to enforce that objects implement certain methods, but using interface variables with concrete objects sometimes requires casting. Suppose we declare a Person interface as shown in Code Fragment 2.12. Note that method equalTo of the Person interface takes one parameter of type Person. Thus, we can pass an object of any class implementing the Person interface to this method. Code Fragment 2.12 : Interface Person. 124 We show in Code Fragment 2.13 a class, Student, that implements Person. The method equalTo assumes that the argument (declared of type Person) is also of type Student and performs a narrowing conversion from type Person (an interface) to type Student (a class) using a cast. The conversion is allowed in this case, because it is a narrowing conversion from class T to interface U, where we have an object taken from T such that T extends S (or T = S) and S implements U. Code Fragment 2.13 : Class Student implementing interface Person. Because of the assumption above in the implementation of method equalTo, we have to make sure that an application using objects of class Student will not attempt the comparison of Student objects with other types of objects, or otherwise, the cast in method equalTo will fail. For example, if our application manages a directory of Student objects and uses no other types of Person objects, the assumption will be satisfied. 125 The ability of performing narrowing conversions from interface types to class types allows us to write general kinds of data structures that only make minimal assumptions about the elements they store. In Code Fragment 2.14, we sketch how to build a directory storing pairs of objects implementing the Person interface. The remove method performs a search on the directory contents and removes the specified person pair, if it exists, and, like the findOther method, it uses the equalTo method to do this. Code Fragment 2.14 : Sketch of class PersonPairDirectory. Now, suppose we have filled a directory, myDirectory, with pairs of Student objects that represent roommate pairs. In order to find the roommate of a given Student object, smart_one, we may try to do the following (which is wrong): Student cute_one = myDirectory.findOther(smart_one); // wrong! The statement above causes an "explicit-cast-required" compilation error. The problem here is that we are trying to perform a narrowing conversion without an explicit cast. Namely, the value returned by method findOther is of type Person while the variable cute_one, to which it is assigned, is of the narrower type Student, a class implementing interface Person. Thus, we use a cast to convert type Person to type Student, as follows: Student cute_one = (Student) myDirectory.findOther(smart_one); Casting the value of type Person returned by method findOther to type Student works fine as long as we are sure that the call to myDirectory.findOther is really giving us a Student object. In general, interfaces can be a valuable tool for the design of general data structures, which can then be specialized by other programmers through the use of casting. 2.5.2 Generics 126 Starting with 5.0, Java includes a generics framework for using abstract types in a way that avoids many explicit casts. A generic type is a type that is not defined at compilation time, but becomes fully specified at run time. The generics framework allows us to define a class in terms of a set of formal type parameters, with could be used, for example, to abstract the types of some internal variables of the class. Angle brackets are used to enclose the list of formal type parameters. Although any valid identifier can be used for a formal type parameter, single-letter uppercase names are conventionally used. Given a class that has been defined with such parameterized types, we instantiate an object of this class by using actual type parameters to indicate the concrete types to be used. In Code Fragment 2.15, we show a class Pair storing key-value pairs, where the types of the key and value are specified by parameters K and V, respectively. The main method creates two instances of this class, one for a String-Integer pair (for example, to store a dimension and its value), and the other for a Student- Double pair (for example, to store the grade given to a student). Code Fragment 2.15: Example using the Student class from Code Fragment 2.13. 127 The output of the execution of this method is shown below: [height, 36] [Student(ID: A5976, Name: Sue, Age: 19), 9.5] In the previous example, the actual type parameter can be an arbitrary type. To restrict the type of an actual parameter, we can use an extends clause, as shown below, where class PersonPairDirectoryGeneric is defined in terms of a generic type parameter P, partially specified by stating that it extends class Person. public class PersonPairDirectoryGeneric

{ //… instance variables would go here … public PersonPairDirectoryGeneric() { /* default constructor goes here */ } 128 public void insert (P person, P other) { /* insert code goes here */ } public P findOther (P person) { return null; } // stub for find public void remove (P person, P other) { /* remove code goes here */ } } This class should be compared with class PersonPairDirectory in Code Fragment 2.14. Given the class above, we can declare a variable referring to an instance of PersonPairDirectoryGeneric, that stores pairs of objects of type Student: PersonPairDirectoryGeneric myStudentDirectory; For such an instance, method findOther returns a value of type Student. Thus, the following statement, which does not use a cast, is correct: Student cute_one = myStudentDirectory.findOther(smart_one); The generics framework allows us to define generic versions of methods. In this case, we can include the generic definition among the method modifiers. For example, we show below the definition of a method that can compare the keys from any two Pair objects, provided that their keys implement the Comparable interface: public static int comparePairs(Pair p, Pair q) { return p.getKey().compareTo(q.getKey()); // p's key implements compare To } There is an important caveat related to generic types, namely, that the elements stored in array cannot be a type variable or a parameterized type. Java allows for an array to be defined with a parameterized type, but it doesn't allow a parameterized type to be used to create a new array. Fortunately, it allows for an array defined with a parameterized type to be initialized with a newly created, nonparametric array. Even so, this latter mechanism causes the Java compiler to issue a warning, because it is not 100% type-safe. We illustrate this point in the following: 129 public static void main(String[] args) { Pair[] a = new Pair[10]; // right, but gives a warning Pair[] b = new Pair[10]; // wrong a[0] = new Pair(); // this is completely right a[0].set("Dog",10); // this and the next statement are right too System.out.println("First pair is "+a[0].getKey()+", "+a[0].getValue()); } 2.6 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-2.1 Can two interfaces extend each other? Why or why not? R-2.2 Give three examples of life-critical software applications. R-2.3 Give an example of a software application where adaptability can mean the difference between a prolonged sales lifetime and bankruptcy. R-2.4 Describe a component from a text-editor GUI (other than an "edit" menu) and the methods that it encapsulates. R-2.5 Draw a class inheritance diagram for the following set of classes: 130 • Class Goat extends Object and adds an instance variable tail and methods milk() and jump(). • Class Pig extends Object and adds an instance variable nose and methods eat() and wallow(). • Class Horse extends Object and adds instance variables height and color, and methods run() and jump(). • Class Racer extends Horse and adds a method race(). • Class Equestrian extends Horse and adds an instance variable weight and methods trot() and is Trained(). R-2.6 Give a short fragment of Java code that uses the progression classes from Section 2.2.3 to find the 8th value of a Fibonacci progression that starts with 2 and 2 as its first two values. R-2.7 If we choose inc = 128, how many calls to the nextValue method from the ArithProgression class of Section 2.2.3 can we make before we cause a long-integer overflow? R-2.8 Suppose we have an instance variable p that is declared of type Progression, using the classes of Section 2.2.3. Suppose further that p actually refers to an instance of the class Geom Progression that was created with the default constructor. If we cast p to type Progression and call p.firstValue(), what will be returned? Why? R-2.9 131 Consider the inheritance of classes from Exercise R-2.5, and let d be an object variable of type Horse. If d refers to an actual object of type Equestrian, can it be cast to the class Racer? Why or why not? R-2.10 Give an example of a Java code fragment that performs an array reference that is possibly out of bounds, and if it is out of bounds, the program catches that exception and prints the following error message: "Don't try buffer overflow attacks in Java!" R-2.11 Consider the following code fragment, taken from some package: public class Maryland extends State { Maryland() { /* null constructor */ } public void printMe() { System.out.println("Read it."); } public static void main(String[] args) { Region mid = new State(); State md = new Maryland(); Object obj = new Place(); Place usa = new Region(); md.printMe(); mid.printMe(); ((Place) obj).printMe(); obj = md; ((Maryland) obj).printMe(); obj = usa; ((Place) obj).printMe(); usa = md; 132 ((Place) usa).printMe(); } } class State extends Region { State() { /* null constructor */ } public void printMe() { System.out.println("Ship it."); } } class Region extends Place { Region() { /* null constructor */ } public void printMe() { System.out.println("Box it."); } } class Place extends Object { Place() { /* null constructor */ } public void printMe() { System.out.println("Buy it."); } } What is the output from calling the main() method of the Maryland class? R-2.12 Write a short Java method that counts the number of vowels in a given character string. R-2.13 Write a short Java method that removes all the punctuation from a string s storing a sentence. For example, this operation would transform the string "Let's try, Mike." to "Lets try Mike". R-2.14 133 Write a short program that takes as input three integers, a, b, and c, from the Java console and determines if they can be used in a correct arithmetic formula (in the given order), like "a + b = c," "a = b − c," or "a*b = c." R-2.15 Write a short Java program that creates a Pair class that can store two objects declared as generic types. Demonstrate this program by creating and printing Pair objects that contain five different kinds of pairs, such as and . R-2.16 Generic parameters are not included in the signature of a method declaration, so you cannot have different methods in the same class that have different generic parameters but otherwise have the same names and the types and number of their parameters. How can you change the signatures of the conflicting methods to get around this restriction? Creativity C-2.1 Explain why the Java dynamic dispatch algorithm, which looks for the method to invoke for a call o.a(), will never get into an infinite loop. C-2.2 Write a Java class that extends the Progression class so that each value in the progression is the absolute value of the difference between the previ- ous two values. You should include a default constructor that starts with 2 and 200 as the first two values and a parametric constructor that starts with a specified pair of numbers as the first two values. C-2.3 Write a Java class that extends the Progression class so that each value in the progression is the square root of the previous value. (Note that you can no longer represent each value with an integer.) You should include a default constructor that has 65,536 as the first value and a parametric constructor that starts with a specified (double) number as the first value. C-2.4 Rewrite all the classes in the Progression hierarchy so that all values are from the BigInteger class, in order to avoid overflows all together. 134 C-2.5 Write a program that consists of three classes, A, B, and C, such that B extends A and C extends B. Each class should define an instance variable named "x" (that is, each has its own variable named x). Describe a way for a method in C to access and set A's version of x to a given value, without changing B or C's version. C-2.6 Write a set of Java classes that can simulate an Internet application, where one party, Alice, is periodically creating a set of packets that she wants to send to Bob. An Internet process is continually checking if Alice has any packets to send, and if so, it delivers them to Bob's computer, and Bob is periodically checking if his computer has a packet from Alice, and, if so, he reads and deletes it. Projects P-2.1 Write a Java program that inputs a document and then outputs a bar-chart plot of the frequencies of each alphabet character that appears in that document. P-2.2 Write a Java program that simulates a handheld calculator. Your program should be able process input, either in a GUI or from the Java console, forthe buttons that are pushed, and then output the contents of the screen after each operation is performed. Minimally, your calculator should be able to process the basic arithmetic operations and a reset/clear operation. P-2.3 Fill in code for the PersonPairDirectory class of Code Fragment 2.14, assuming person pairs are stored in an array with capacity 1,000. The directory should keep track of how many person pairs are actually in it. P-2.4 Write a Java program that can take a positive integer greater than 2 as input and write out the number of times one must repeatedly divide this number by 2 before getting a value less than 2. P-2.5 135 Write a Java program that can "make change." Your program should take two numbers as input, one that is a monetary amount charged and the other that is a monetary amount given. It should then return the number of each kind of bill and coin to give back as change for the difference between the amount given and the amount charged. The values assigned to the bills and coins can be based on the monetary system of any current or former government. Try to design your program so that it returns the fewest number of bills and coins as possible. Chapter Notes For a broad overview of developments in computer science and engineering, we refer the reader to The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook [92]. For more information about the Therac-25 incident, please see the paper by Leveson and Turner [66]. The reader interested in studying object-oriented programming further, is referred to the books by Booch [14], Budd [17], and Liskov and Guttag [69]. Liskov and Guttag [69] also provide a nice discussion of abstract data types, as does the survey paper by Cardelli and Wegner [20] and the book chapter by Demurjian [28] in the The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook [92]. Design patterns are described in the book by Gamma, et al. [38]. The class inheritance diagram notation we use is derived from the book by Gamma, et al. 136 Chapter 3 Arrays, Linked Lists, and Recursion Contents 3.1 Using Arrays....................... 96 3.1.1 Storing Game Entries in an Array........... 96 3.1.2 Sorting an Array.................... 103 3.1.3 java.util Methods for Arrays and Random Numbers. 106 3.1.4 Simple Cryptography with Strings and Character Arrays 137 108 3.1.5 Two-Dimensional Arrays and Positional Games... 111 3.2 Singly Linked Lists.................... 115 3.2.1 Insertion in a Singly Linked List........... 117 3.2.2 Removing an Element in a Singly Linked List.... 119 3.3 Doubly Linked Lists................... 120 3.3.1 Insertion in the Middle of a Doubly Linked List... 123 3.3.2 Removal in the Middle of a Doubly Linked List... 124 3.3.3 An Implementation of a Doubly Linked List..... 125 138 3.4 Circularly Linked Lists and Linked-List Sorting.... 128 3.4.1 Circularly Linked Lists and Duck, Duck, Goose... 128 3.4.2 Sorting a Linked List................. 133 3.5 Recursion......................... 134 3.5.1 Linear Recursion.................... 140 3.5.2 Binary Recursion ................... 144 3.5.3 Multiple Recursion.................. 147 3.6 Exercises......................... 149 java.datastructures.net 139 3.1 Using Arrays In this section, we explore a few applications of arrays, which were introduced in Section 1.5. 3.1.1 Storing Game Entries in an Array The first application we study is for storing entries in an array—in particular, high score entries for a video game. Storing entries in arrays is a common use for arrays, and we could just as easily have chosen to store records for patients in a hospital or the names of students in a data structures class. But instead, we have decided to store high score entries, which is a simple application that presents some important data structuring concepts that we will use for other implementations in this book. We should begin by asking ourselves what we want to include in a high score entry. Obviously, one component we should include is an integer representing the score itself, which we will call score. Another nice feature would be to include the name of the person earning this score, which we will simply call name. We could go on from here adding fields representing the date the score was earned or game statistics that led to that score. Let us keep our example simple, however, and just have two fields, score and name. We show a Java class, GameEntry, representing a game entry in Code Fragment 3.1. Code Fragment 3.1: Java code for a simple GameEntry class. Note that we include methods for returning the name and score for a game entry object, as well as a method for return a string representation of this entry. 140 A Class for High Scores Suppose we have some high scores that we want to store in an array named entries. The number of scores we want to store could be 10, 20, or 50, so let us use a symbolic name, maxEntries, which represents the number of scores we want to store. We must set this variable to a specific value, of course, but by using this variable throughout our code, we can make it easy to change its value later if we need to. We can then define the array, entries, to be an array of length maxEntries. Initially, this array stores only nullentries, but as users play our video game, we will fill in the entries array with entries, but as users play our video game, we will fill in the entries array with references to new GameEntry objects. So we will eventually have to define methods for updating the GameEntry references in the entries array. The way we keep the entries array organized is simple—we store our set of GameEntry objects ordered by their integer score values, highest to lowest. If the number of GameEntry objects is less than maxEntries, then we let the end of the entries array store null references. This approach prevents having any empty cells, or "holes," in the continuous series of cells of array entries that store the game entries from index 0 onward. We illustrate an instance of the data structure in Figure 3.1 and we give Java code for such a data structure in Code Fragment 3.2. In an exercise (C-3.1), we explore how game entry addition might be simplified for the case when we don't need to preserve relative orders. 141 Figure 3.1: An illustration of an array of length ten storing references to six GameEntry objects in the cells from index 0 to 5, with the rest being null references. Code Fragment 3.2: Class for maintaining a set of scores as GameEntry objects. 142 Note that we include a method, toString(), which produces a string representation of the high scores in the entries array. This method is quite useful for debugging purposes. In this case, the string will be a comma-separated listing of the GameEntry objects in the entries array. We produce this listing with a simple for-loop, which adds a comma just before each entry that comes after the first one. With such a string representation, we can print out the state of the entries array during debugging, for testing how things look before and after we make updates. Insertion One of the most common updates we might want to make to the entries array of high scores is to add a new game entry. So suppose we want to insert a new GameEntry object, e. In particular, let us consider how we might perform the following update operation on an instance of the Scores class: add(e): Insert game entry e into the collection of high scores. If the collection is full, then e is added only if its score is higher than the lowest score in the set, and in this case, e replaces the entry with the lowest score. The main challenge in implementing this operation is figuring out where e should go in the entries array and making room for e. 143 Visualizing Game Entry Insertion To visualize this insertion process, imagine that we store in array entries remote controls representing references to the nonnull GameEntry objects, listed left-to-right from the one with highest score to the one with the lowest. Given the new game entry, e, we need to figure out where it belongs. We start this search at the end of the entries array. If the last reference in this array is not null and its score is bigger than e's score, then we can stop immediately. For, in this case, e is not a high score—it doesn't belong in the entries array at all. Otherwise, we know that e belongs in the array, and we also know that the last thing in the entries array no longer belongs there. Next, we go to the second to the last reference in the array. If this reference is null or it points to a GameEntry object whose score is less thane's, this reference needs to be moved one cell to the right in the entries array. Moreover, if we move this reference, then we need to repeat this comparison with the next one, provided we haven't reached the beginning of the entries array. We continue comparing and shifting references to game entries until we either reach the beginning of the entries array or we compare e's score with a game entry with a higher score. In either case, we will have identified the place where e belongs. (See Figure 3.2.) Figure 3.2: Preparing to add a new GameEntry object to the entries array. In order to make room for the new reference, we have to shift the references to game entries with smaller scores than the new one to the right by one cell. 144 Once we have identified the place in the entries array where the new game entry, e, belongs, we add a reference to e at this position. That is, continuing our visualization of object references as remote controls, we add a remote control designed especially for e to this location in the entries array. (See Figure 3.3.) Figure 3.3: Adding a reference to a new GameEntry object to the entries array. The reference can now be inserted at index 2, since we have shifted all references to GameEntry objects with scores less than the new one to the right. 145 The details of our algorithm for adding the new game entry e to the entries array are similar to this informal description, and are given in Java in Code Fragment 3.3. Note that we use a loop to move references out of the way. The number of times we perform this loop depends on the number of references we have to move to make room for a reference to the new game entry. If there are 0, 1, or even just a few references to move over, this add method will be pretty fast. But if there are a lot to move, then this method could be fairly slow. Also note that if the array is full and we perform an add on it, then we will either remove the reference to the current last game entry or we will fail to add a reference to the new game entry, e. Code Fragment 3.3: Java code for inserting a GameEntry object. 146 Object Removal Suppose some hot shot plays our video game and gets his or her name on our high score list. In this case, we might want to have a method that lets us remove a game entry from the list of high scores. Therefore, let us consider how we might remove a reference to a GameEntry object from the entries array. That is, let us consider how we might implement the following operation: remove(i): Remove and return the game entry e at index i in the entries array. If index i is outside the bounds of the entries array, then this method throws an exception; otherwise, the entries array will be updated to remove the object at index i and all objects previously stored at indices higher than i are "moved over" to fill in for the removed object. Our implementation for remove will be much like performing our algorithm for object addition, but in reverse. Again, we can visualize the entries array as an array of remote controls pointing to GameEntry objects. To remove the reference to the object at index i, we start at index i and move all the references at indices higher than i one cell to the left. (See Figure 3.4.) Figure 3.4: An illustration of a removal at index 3 in an array storing references to GameEntry objects. 147 Some Subtle Points About Entry Removal The details for doing the remove operation contain a few subtle points. The first is that, in order to remove and return the game entry (let's call it e) at index i in our array, we must first save e in a temporary variable. We will use this variable to return e when we are done removing it. The second subtle point is that, in moving references higher than i one cell to the left, we don't go all the way to the end of the array—we stop at the second to last reference. We stop just before the end, because the last reference does not have any reference to its right (hence, there is no reference to move into the last place in the entries array). For the last reference in the entries array, it is enough that we simply null it out. We conclude by returning a reference to the removed entry (which no longer has any reference pointing to it in the entries array). See Code Fragment 3.4. Code Fragment 3.4: Java code for performing the remove operation. 148 These methods for adding and removing objects in an array of high scores are simple. Nevertheless, they form the basis of techniques that are used repeatedly to build more sophisticated data structures. These other structures may be more general than the array structure above, of course, and often they will have a lot more operations that they can perform than just add and remove. But studying the concrete array data structure, as we are doing now, is a great starting point to understanding these other structures, since every data structure has to be implemented using concrete means. In fact, later in this book, we will study a Java Collections Class, ArrayList, which is more general than the array structure we are studying here. The ArrayList has methods to do a lot of the things we will want to do with an array, while also eliminating the error that occurs when adding an object to a full array. The ArrayList eliminates this error by automatically copying the objects into a larger array if necessary. Rather than discuss this process here, however, we will say more about how this is done when we discuss the ArrayList in detail. 3.1.2 Sorting an Array In the previous section, we worked hard to show how we can add or remove objects at a certain index i in an array while keeping the previous order of the objects intact. In this section, we study a way of starting with an array with objects that are out of order and putting them in order. This is known as the sorting problem. A Simple Insertion-Sort Algorithm We study several sorting algorithms in this book, most of which appear in Chapter 11. As a warm up, we describe in this section a nice, simple sorting algorithm called insertion–sort. In this case, we describe a specific version of the algorithm where the input is an array of comparable elements. We consider more general kinds of sorting algorithms later in this book. 149 This simple insertion–sort algorithm goes as follows. We start with the first character in the array. One character by itself is already sorted. Then we consider the next character in the array. If it is smaller than the first, we swap them. Next we consider the third character in the array. We swap it leftward until it is in its proper order with the first two characters. We then consider the fourth character, and swap it leftward until it is in the proper order with the first three. We continue in this manner with the fifth integer, the sixth, and so on, until the whole array is sorted. Mixing this informal description with programming constructs, we can express the insertion-sort algorithm as shown in Code Fragment 3.5. Code Fragment 3.5: High-level description of the insertion-sort algorithm. This is a nice, high-level description of insertion-sort. It also demonstrates why this algorithm is called "insertion-sort"—because each iteration of the main inserts the next element into the sorted part of the array that comes before it. Before we can code this description up, however, we need to work out more of the details of how we do this insertion task. Diving into those details a bit more, let us rewrite our description so that we now use two nested loops. The outer loop will consider each element in the array in turn and the inner loop will move that element to its proper location with the (sorted) subarray of characters that are to its left. Refining the Details for Insertion-Sort Refining the details, then, we can describe our algorithm as shown in Code Fragment 3.6. Code Fragment 3.6: Intermediate-level description of the insertion-sort algorithm. 150 This description is much closer to actual code, since it is a better explanation of how to insert the element A [i] into the subarray that comes before it. It still uses an informal description of moving elements if they are out of order, but this is not a terribly difficult thing to do. A Java Description of Insertion-Sort Now we are ready to give Java code for this simple version of the insertion-sort algorithm. We give such a description in Code Fragment 3.7 for the special case when A is an array of characters, a. Code Fragment 3.7: Java code for performing insertion-sort on an array of characters. We illustrate an example run of the insertion-sort algorithm in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5: Execution of the insertion-sort algorithm on an array of eight characters. We show the 151 completed (sorted) part of the array in white, and we color the next element that is being inserted into the sorted part of the array with light blue. We also highlight that character on the left, since it is stored in the cur variable. Each row corresponds to an iteration of the outer loop, and each copy of the array in a row corresponds to an iteration of the inner loop. Each comparison is shown with an arc. In addition, we indicate whether that comparison resulted in a move or not. An interesting thing happens in the insertion-sort algorithm if the array is already sorted. In this case, the inner loop does only one comparison, determines that 152 there is no swap needed, and returns back to the outer loop. That is, we perform only one iteration of the inner loop for each iteration of the outer loop. Thus, in this case, we perform a minimum number of comparisons. Of course, we might have to do a lot more work than this if the input array is extremely out of order. In fact, we will have to do the most work if the input array is in decreasing order. 3.1.3 java.util Methods for Arrays and Random Numbers Because arrays are so important, Java provides a number of built-in methods for performing common tasks on arrays. These methods appear as static methods in the java.util.Arrays class. That is, they are associated with the class, java.util.Arrays itself, and not with a particular instance of this class. Describing some of these methods will have to wait, however, until later in this book (when we discuss the concept that these methods are based on). Some Simple Methods of java.util.Arrays We list below some simple methods of class java.util.Arrays that need no further explanation: equals(A, B): Returns true if and only if the array A and the array B are equal. Two arrays are considered equal if they have the same number of elements and every corresponding pair of elements in the two arrays are equal. That is, A and B have the same elements in the same order. fill(A,x): Stores element x into every cell of array A. sort(A): Sorts the array A using the natural ordering of its elements. toString(A): Returns a String representation of the array A. For example, the following string would be returned by the method toString called on an array of integers A = [4,5,2,3,5,7,10]: [4, 5, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10] Note that, from the list above, Java has a built-in sorting algorithm. This is not the insertion-sort algorithm we presented above, however. It is an algorithm called quick-sort, which usually runs much faster than insertion—sort. We discuss the quick-sort algorithm in Section 11.2. An Example Using Pseudo-Random Numbers 153 We show in Code Fragment 3.8 a short (but complete) Java program that uses the methods above. Code Fragment 3.8: Test program ArrayTest that uses various built-in methods of the Arrays class. Program ArrayTest uses another feature in Java—the ability to generate pseudorandomnumbers, that is, numbers that are statistically random (but not truly random). In particular, it uses a java.util.Random object, which is a pseudo-random number generator, that is, an object that computes, or "generates," a sequence of numbers that are statistically random. Such a generator needs a place to start, however,which is its seed. The sequence of numbers generated for a given seed will always be the same. In our program, we set the seed to the current time in milliseconds since January 1, 1970 (using the method System.currentTimeMillis), which will be different each time we run our program. Once we have set the seed, we can repeatedly get a random number between 0 and 99 by calling the nextInt method with argument 100. We show a sample output of this program below: arrays equal before sort: true arrays equal after sort: false old = [41,38,48,12,28,46,33,19,10,58] 154 num = [10,12,19,28,33,38,41,46,48,58] By the way, there is a slight chance that the old and num arrays will remain equal even after num is sorted, namely, if num is already sorted before it is cloned. But the odds of this occurring are less than one in four million. 3.1.4 Simple Cryptography with Strings and Character Arrays One of the primary applications of arrays is the representation of strings of characters.That is, string objects are usually stored internally as an array of characters. Even if strings may be represented in some other way, there is a natural relationship between strings and character arrays—both use indices to refer to their characters. Because of this relationship, Java makes it easy for us to create string objects from character arrays and vice versa. Specifically, to create an object of class String from a character array A, we simply use the expression, new String(A) That is, one of the constructors for the String class takes a character array as its argument and returns a string having the same characters in the same order as the array. For example, the string we would construct from the array A = [a, c, a, t] is acat. Likewise, given a string S, we can create a character array representation of S by using the expression, S.toCharArray() That is, the String class has a method, toCharArray, which returns an array (of type char[]) with the same characters as S. For example, if we call toCharArray on the string adog, we would get the array B = [a, d, o, g]. The Caesar Cipher One area where being able to switch from string to character array and back again is useful is in cryptography, the science of secret messages and their applications. This field studies ways of performing encryption, which takes a message, called the plaintext, and converts it into a scrambled message, called the ciphertext. Likewise, cryptography also studies corresponding ways of performing decryption, which takes a ciphertext and turns it back into its original plaintext. Arguably the earliest encryption scheme is the Caesar cipher, which is named after Julius Caesar, who used this scheme to protect important military messages. (All of Caesar's messages were written in Latin, of course, which already makes them unreadable for most of us!) The Caesar cipher is a simple way to obscure a message written in a language that forms words with an alphabet. 155 The Caesar cipher involves replacing each letter in a message with the letter that is three letters after it in the alphabet for that language. So, in an English message, we would replace each A with D, each B with E, each C with F, and so on. We continue this approach all the way up to W, which is replaced with Z. Then, we let the substitution pattern wrap around, so that we replace X with A, Y with B, and Z with C. Using Characters as Array Indices If we were to number our letters like array indices, so that A is 0, B is 1, C is 2, and so on, then we can write the Caesar cipher as a simple formula: Replace each letter i with the letter (i + 3) mod 26, where mod is the modulus operator, which returns the remainder after performing an integer division. This operator is denoted %in Java, and it is exactly the operator we need to easily perform the wrap around at the end of the alphabet. For 26 mod 26 is 0, 27 mod 26 is 1, and 28 mod 26 is 2. The decryption algorithm for the Caesar cipher is just the opposite—we replace each letter with the one three places before it, with wrap around for A, B, and C. We can capture this replacement rule using arrays for encryption and decryption. Since every character in Java is actually stored as a number—its Unicode value— we can use letters as array indices. For an uppercase character c, for example, we can use c as an array index by taking the Unicode value for c and subtracting A. Of course, this only works for uppercase letters, so we will require our secret messages to be uppercase. We can then use an array, encrypt, that represents the encryption replacement rule, so that encrypt [i] is the letter that replaces letter number i (which is c — A for an uppercase character c in Unicode). This usage is illustrated in Figure 3.6. Likewise, an array, decrypt, can represent the decryption replacement rule, so that decrypt[i] is the letter that replaces letter number i. Figure 3.6: Illustrating the use of uppercase characters as array indices, in this case to perform the replacement rule for Caesar cipher encryption. 156 In Code Fragment 3.9, we give a simple, complete Java class for performing the Caesar cipher, which uses the approach above and also makes use of conversions between strings and character arrays. When we run this program (to perform a simple test), we get the following output: Encryption order = DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC Decryption order = XYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW WKH HDJOH LV LQ SODB; PHHW DW MRH'V. THE EAGLE IS IN PLAY; MEET AT JOE'S. Code Fragment 3.9: A simple, complete Java class for the Caesar cipher. 157 3.1.5 Two-Dimensional Arrays and Positional Games 158 Many computer games, be they strategy games, simulation games, or first-person conflict games, use a two-dimensional "board." Programs that deal with such positional games need a way of representing objects in a two-dimensional space. A natural way to do this is with a two-dimensional array, where we use two indices, say i and j, to refer to the cells in the array. The first index usually refers to a row number and the second to a column number. Given such an array we can then maintain two-dimensional game boards, as well as perform other kinds of computations involving data that is stored in rows and columns. Arrays in Java are one-dimensional; we use a single index to access each cell of an array. Nevertheless, there is a way we can define two-dimensional arrays in Java— we can create a two-dimensional array as an array of arrays. That is, we can define a two—dimensional array to be an array with each of its cells being another array. Such a two—dimensional array is sometimes also called a matrix. In Java, we declare a two—dimensional array as follows: int[][] Y = new int[8][10]; This statement creates a two-dimensional "array of arrays," Y, which is 8 × 10, having 8 rows and 10 columns. That is, Y is an array of length 8 such that each element of Y is an array of length 10 of integers. (See Figure 3.7.) The following would then be valid uses of array Y and int variables i and j: Y[i][i+1] = Y[i][i] + 3; i = a.length; j = Y[4].length; Two-dimensional arrays have many applications to numerical analysis. Rather than going into the details of such applications, however, we explore an application of two-dimensional arrays for implementing a simple positional game. Figure 3.7: Illustration of a two-dimensional integer array, Y, which has 8 rows and 10 columns. The value of Y[3][5] is 100 and the value of Y[6][2] is 632. 159 Tic-Tac-Toe As most school children know, tic-tac-toe is a game played in a three-by-three board. Two players—X and O—alternate in placing their respective marks in the cells of this board, starting with player X. If either player succeeds in getting three of his or her marks in a row, column, or diagonal, then that player wins. This is admittedly not a sophisticated positional game, and it's not even that much fun to play, since a good player O can always force a tie. Tic-tac-toe's saving grace is that it is a nice, simple example showing how two-dimensional arrays can be used for positional games. Software for more sophisticated positional games, such as checkers, chess, or the popular simulation games, are all based on the same approach we illustrate here for using a two-dimensional array for tic—tac— toe. (See Exercise P-7.8.) The basic idea is to use a two-dimensional array, board, to maintain the game board. Cells in this array store values that indicate if that cell is empty or stores an X or O. That is, board is a three-by-three matrix, whose middle row consists of the cells board[1][0], board[1][1], and board[1][2]. In our case, we choose to make the cells in the board array be integers, with a 0 indicating an empty cell, a 1 indicating an X, and a −1 indicating O. This encoding allows us to have a simple way of testing if a given board configuration is a win for X or O, namely, if the values of a row, column, or diagonal add up to −3 or 3. We illustrate this approach in Figure 3.8. Figure 3.8: An illustration of a tic-tac-toe board and the two-dimensional integer array, board, representing it. 160 We give a complete Java class for maintaining a Tic-Tac-Toe board for two players in Code Fragments 3.10 and 3.11. We show a sample output in Figure 3.9. Note that this code is just for maintaining the tic-tac-toe board and registering moves; it doesn't perform any strategy or allow someone to play tic-tac-toe against the computer. Such a program would make a good project in a class on Artificial Intelligence. Code Fragment 3.10: A simple, complete Java class for playing Tic-Tac-Toe between two players. (Continues in Code Fragment 3.11.) 161 162 Code Fragment 3.11: A simple, complete Java class for playing Tic-Tac-Toe between two players. (Continued from Code Fragment 3.10.) 163 Figure 3.9: Sample output of a Tic-Tac-Toe game. 3.2 Singly Linked Lists In the previous sections, we presented the array data structure and discussed some of its applications. Arrays are nice and simple for storing things in a certain order, but they have the drawback of not being very adaptable, since we have to fix the size N of the array in advance. There are other ways to store a sequence of elements, however, that do not have this drawback. In this section, we explore an important alternate implementation, which is known as the singly linked list. A linked list, in its simplest form, is a collection of nodes that together form a linear ordering. The ordering is determined as in the children's game "Follow the Leader," in that each node is an object that stores a reference to an element and a reference, called next, to another node. (See Figure 3.10.) Figure 3.10: Example of a singly linked list whose elements are strings indicating airport codes. The next pointers of each node are shown as arrows. The null object is denoted as . It might seem strange to have a node reference another node, but such a scheme easily works. The next reference inside a node can be viewed as a link or pointer to another node. Likewise, moving from one node to another by following a next reference is known as link hopping or pointer hopping. The first and last node of a linked list usually are called the head and tail of the list, respectively. Thus, we can link hop through the list starting at the head and ending at the tail. We can identify the tail as the node having a null next reference, which indicates the end of the list. A linked list defined in this way is known as a singly linked list. 164 Like an array, a singly linked list keeps its elements in a certain order. This order is determined by the chain of next links going from each node to its successor in the list. Unlike an array, a singly linked list does not have a predetermined fixed size, and uses space proportional to the number of its elements. Likewise, we do not keep track of any index numbers for the nodes in a linked list. So we cannot tell just by examining a node if it is the second, fifth, or twentieth node in the list. Implementing a Singly Linked List To implement a singly linked list, we define a Node class, as shown in Code Fragment 3.12, which specifies the type of objects stored at the nodes of the list. Here we assume elements are character strings. In Chapter 5, we describe how to define nodes that can store arbitrary types of elements. Given the Node class, we can define a class, SLinkedList, shown in Code Fragment 3.13, defining the actual linked list. This class keeps a reference to the head node and a variable counting the total number of nodes. Code Fragment 3.12: Implementation of a node of a singly linked list. Code Fragment 3.13: Partial implementation of the class for a singly linked list. 165 3.2.1 Insertion in a Singly Linked List When using a singly linked list, we can easily insert an element at the head of the list, as shown in Figure 3.11 and Code Fragment 3.14. The main idea is that we create a new node, set its next link to refer to the same object as head, and then set head to point to the new node. Figure 3.11: Insertion of an element at the head of a singly linked list: (a) before the insertion; (b) creation of a new node; (c) after the insertion. 166 Code Fragment 3.14: Inserting a new node v at the beginning of a singly linked list. Note that this method works even if the list is empty. Note that we set the next pointer for the new node v before we make variable head point to v. Inserting an Element at the Tail of a Singly Linked List We can also easily insert an element at the tail of the list, provided we keep a reference to the tail node, as shown in Figure 3.12. In this case, we create a new node, assign its next reference to point to the null object, set the next reference of the tail to point to this new object, and then assign the tail reference itself to this new node. We give the details in Code Fragment 3.15. 167 Figure 3.12: Insertion at the tail of a singly linked list: (a) before the insertion; (b) creation of a new node; (c) after the insertion. Note that we set the next link for the tail in (b) before we assign the tail variable to point to the new node in (c). Code Fragment 3.15: Inserting a new node at the end of a singly linked list. This method works also if the list is empty. Note that we set the next pointer for the old tail node before we make variable tail point to the new node. 3.2.2 Removing an Element in a Singly Linked List 168 The reverse operation of inserting a new element at the head of a linked list remove an element at the head. This operation is illustrated in is to Figure 3.13 and given in detail in Code Fragment 3.16. Figure 3.13: Removal of an element at the head of a singly linked list: (a) before the removal; (b) "linking out" the old new node; (c) after the removal. Code Fragment 3.16: Removing the node at the beginning of a singly linked list. Unfortunately, we cannot easily delete the tail node of a singly linked list. Even if we have a tail reference directly to the last node of the list, we must be able to t access the node before the last node in order to remove the last node. But we canno reach the node before the tail by following next links from the tail. The only way to 169 access this node is to start from the head of the list and search all the way through the list. But such a sequence of link hopping operations could take a long time. .3 Doubly Linked Lists 3 g an element at the tail of a singly linked list is not easy. Indeed, it is time consuming to remove any node other than the head directions—forward and reverse—in a linked list. It is the doubly linked list. Such lists allow for a great nd , a node of a doubly linked list is shown in Code Fragment As we saw in the previous section, removin in a singly linked list, since we do not have a quick way of accessing the node in front of the one we want to remove. Indeed, there are many applications where we do not have quick access to such a predecessor node. For such applications, it would be nice to have a way of going both directions in a linked list. There is a type of linked list that allows us to go in both variety of quick update operations, including insertion and removal at both ends, a in the middle. A node in a doubly linked list stores two references—a next link which points to the next node in the list, and a prev link, which points to the previous node in the list. A Java implementation of 3.17, where we assume that elements are character strings. In Chapter 5, we discuss how to define nodes for arbitrary element types. Code Fragment 3.17: Java class DNode representing a node of a doubly linked list that stores a character string. 170 Header and Trailer Sentinels To simplify programming, it is convenient to add special nodes at both ends of a doubly linked list: a header node just before the head of the list, and a trailer node just after the tail of the list. These "dummy" or sentinel nodes do not store any elements. The header has a valid next reference but a null prev reference, while the trailer has a valid prev reference but a null next reference. A doubly linked list with these sentinels is shown in Figure 3.14. Note that a linked list object would simply need to store references to these two sentinels and a size counter that keeps track of the number of elements (not counting sentinels) in the list. Figure 3.14: A doubly linked list with sentinels, header and trailer, marking the ends of the list. An empty list would have these sentinels pointing to each other. We do not show the null prev pointer for the 171 header nor do we show the null next pointer for the trailer. Inserting or removing elements at either end of a doubly linked list is straight- forward to do. Indeed, the prev links eliminate the need to traverse the list to get to the node just before the tail. We show the removal at the tail of a doubly linked list in Figure 3.15 and the details for this operation in Code Fragment 3.18. Figure 3.15: Removing the node at the end of a a doubly linked list with header and trailer sentinels: (a) before deleting at the tail; (b) deleting at the tail; (c) after the deletion. Code Fragment 3.18: Removing the last node of a doubly linked list. Variable size keeps track of the current number of elements in the list. Note that this method works also if the list has size one. 172 Likewise, we can easily perform an insertion of a new element at the beginning of a doubly linked list, as shown in Figure 3.16 and Code Fragment 3.19. Figure 3.16: Adding an element at the front: (a) during; (b) after. Code Fragment 3.19: Inserting a new node v at the beginning of a doubly linked list. Variable size keeps track of the current number of elements in the list. Note that this method works also on an empty list. 173 3.3.1 Insertion in the Middle of a Doubly Linked List Doubly linked lists are useful for more than just inserting and removing elements at the head and tail of the list, however. They also are convenient for maintaining a list of elements while allowing for insertion and removal in the middle of the list. Given a node v of a doubly linked list (which could be possibly the header but not the trailer), we can easily insert a new node z immediately after v. Specifically, let w the be node following v. We execute the following steps: 1. make z's prev link refer to v 2. make z's next link refer to w 3. make w's prev link refer to z 4. make v's next link refer to z This method is given in detail in Code Fragment 3.20, and is illustrated in Figure 3.17. Recalling our use of header and trailer sentinels, note that this algorithm works even if v is the tail node (the node just before the trailer). Code Fragment 3.20: Inserting a new node z after a given node v in a doubly linked list. 174 Figure 3.17: Adding a new node after the node storing JFK: (a) creating a new node with element BWI and linking it in; (b) after the insertion. 3.3.2 Removal in the Middle of a Doubly Linked List Likewise, it is easy to remove a node v in the middle of a doubly linked list. We access the nodes u and w on either side of v using v's getPrev and getNext methods (these nodes must exist, since we are using sentinels). To remove node v, we simply have u and w point to each other instead of to v. We refer to this operation as the linking out of v. We also null out v's prev and next pointers so as not to retain old references into the list. This algorithm is given in Code Fragment 3.21 and is illustrated in Figure 3.18. Code Fragment 3.21: Removing a node v in a doubly linked list. This method works even if v is the first, last, or only nonsentinel node. 175 Figure 3.18: Removing the node storing PVD: (a) before the removal; (b) linking out the old node; (c) after the removal (and garbage collection). 3.3.3 An Implementation of a Doubly Linked List In Code Fragments 3.22–3.24 we show an implementation of a doubly linked list with nodes that store character string elements. Code Fragment 3.22: Java class DList for a doubly linked list whose nodes are objects of class DNode (see Code Fragment 3.17) storing character strings. (Continues in Code Fragment 3.23.) 176 Code Fragment 3.23: Java class DList for a doubly linked list. (Continues in Code Fragment 3.24.) 177 Code Fragment 3.24: A doubly linked list class. (Continued from Code Fragment 3.23.) 178 We make the following observations about class DList above. • Object of class DNode, which store String elements, are used for all the nodes of the list, including the header and trailer sentinels. • We can use class DList for a doubly linked list of String objects only. To build a linked list of other types of objects, we can use a generic declaration, which we discuss in Chapter 5. • Methods getFirst and getLast provide direct access to the first and last nodes in the list. • Methods getPrev and getNext allow to traverse the list. • Methods hasPrev and hasNext detect the boundaries of the list. • Methods, addFirst and addLast add a new node at the beginning or end of the list. • Methods, add Before and add After add a new node before or after an existing node. 179 • Having only a single removal method, remove, is not actually a restriction, since we can remove at the beginning or end of a doubly linked list L by executing L.remove(L.getFirst()) or L.remove(L.getLast()), respectively. • Method toString for converting an entire list into a string is useful for testing and debugging purposes. 3.4 Circularly Linked Lists and Linked-List Sorting In this section, we study some applications and extensions of linked lists. 3.4.1 Circularly Linked Lists and Duck, Duck, Goose The children's game, "Duck, Duck, Goose," is played in many cultures. Children in Minnesota play a version called "Duck, Duck, Grey Duck" (but please don't ask us why.) In Indiana, this game is called "The Mosh Pot." And children in the Czech Republic and Ghana play sing-song versions known respectively as "Pesek" and "Antoakyire." A variation on the singly linked list, called the circularly linked list, is used for a number of applications involving circle games, like "Duck, Duck, Goose." We discuss this type of list and the circle-game application next. A circularly linked list has the same kind of nodes as a singly linked list. That is, each node in a circularly linked list has a next pointer and a reference to an element. But there is no head or tail in a circularly linked list. For instead of having the last node's next pointer be null, in a circularly linked list, it points back to the first node. Thus, there is no first or last node. If we traverse the nodes of a circularly linked list from any node by following next pointers, we will cycle through the nodes. Even though a circularly linked list has no beginning or end, we nevertheless need some node to be marked as a special node, which we call the cursor. The cursor node allows us to have a place to start from if we ever need to traverse a circularly linked list. And if we remember this starting point, then we can also know when we are done-we are done with a traversal of a circularly linked list when we return to the node that was the cursor node when we started. We can then define some simple update methods for a circularly linked list: add(v): Insert a new node v immediately after the cursor; if the list is empty, then v becomes the cursor and its next pointer points to itself. remove(): Remove and return the node v immediately after the cursor (not the cursor itself, unless it is the only node); if the list becomes empty, the cursor is set to null. 180 advance(): Advance the cursor to the next node in the list. In Code Fragment 3.25, we show a Java implementation of a circularly linked list, which uses the Node class from Code Fragment 3.12 and includes also a toString method for producing a string representation of the list. Code Fragment 3.25: A circularly linked list class with simple nodes. 181 182 Some Observations about the CircleList Class There are a few observations we can make about the CircleList class. It is a simple program that can provide enough functionality to simulate circle games, like Duck, Duck, Goose, as we will soon show. It is not a robust program, however. In particular, if a circle list is empty, then calling advance or remove on that list will cause an exception. (Which one?) Exercise R-3.5 deals with this exception-generating behavior and ways of handling this empty-list condition better. Duck, Duck, Goose In the children's game, Duck, Duck, Goose, a group of children sit in a circle. One of them is elected "it" and that person walks around the outside of the circle. The person who is "it" pats each child on the head, saying "Duck" each time, until reaching a child that the "it" person identifies as "Goose." At this point there is a mad scramble, as the "Goose" and the "it" person race around the circle. Who ever returns to the Goose's former place first gets to remain in the circle. The loser of this race is the "it" person for the next round of play. This game continues like this until the children get bored or an adult tells them it is snack time, at which point the game ends. (See Figure 3.19.) Figure 3.19: The Duck, Duck, Goose game: (a) choosing the "Goose;" (b) the race to the "Goose's" place between the "Goose" and the "it" person. Simulating this game is an ideal application of a circularly linked list. The children can represent nodes in the list. The "it" person can be identified as the person sitting after the cursor, and can be removed from the circle to simulate the marching around. We can advance the cursor with each "Duck" the "it" person identifies, which we can simulate with a random decision. Once a "Goose" is 183 identified, we can remove this node from the list, make a random choice to simulate whether the "Goose" or the "it" person win the race, and insert the winner back into the list. We can then advance the cursor and insert the "it" person back in to repeat the process (or be done if this is the last time we play the game). Using a Circularly Linked List to Simulate Duck, Duck, Goose We give Java code for a simulation of Duck, Duck, Goose in Code Fragment 3.26. Code Fragment 3.26: The main method from a program that uses a circularly linked list to simulate the Duck, Duck, Goose children's game. 184 Some Sample Output 185 We show an example output from a run of the Duck, Duck, Goose program in Figure 3.20. Figure 3.20: Sample output from the Duck, Duck, Goose program. Note that each iteration in this particular execution of this program produces a different outcome, due to the different initial configurations and the use of random choices to identify ducks and geese. Likewise, whether the "Duck" or the "Goose" wins the race is also different, depending on random choices. This execution shows a situation where the next child after the "it" person is immediately identified as the "Goose," as well a situation where the "it" person walks all the way around the group of children before identifying the "Goose." Such situations also illustrate the usefulness of using a circularly linked list to simulate circular games like Duck, Duck, Goose. 3.4.2 Sorting a Linked List 186 We show in Code Fragment 3.27 theinsertion-sort algorithm (Section 3.1.2) for a doubly linked list. A Java implementation is given in Code Fragment 3.28. Code Fragment 3.27: High-level pseudo-code description of insertion-sort on a doubly linked list. Code Fragment 3.28: Java implementation of the insertion-sort algorithm on a doubly linked list represented by class DList (see Code Fragments 3.22– 3.24). 187 3.5 Recursion We have seen that repetition can be achieved by writing loops, such as for loops and while loops. Another way to achieve repetition is through recursion, which occurs when a function calls itself. We have seen examples of methods calling other methods, so it should come as no surprise that most modern programming languages, including Java, allow a method to call itself. In this section, we will see why this capability provides an elegant and powerful alternative for performing repetitive tasks. The Factorial function To illustrate recursion, let us begin with a simple example of computing the value of the factorial function. The factorial of a positive integer n, denoted n!, is defined as the product of the integers from 1 to n. If n = 0, then n! is defined as 1 by convention. More formally, for any integer n ≥ 0, For example, 5! = 5·4·3·2·1 = 120. To make the connection with methods clearer, we use the notation factorial(n) to denote n!. 188 The factorial function can be defined in a manner that suggests a recursive formulation. To see this, observe that factorial(5) = 5 · (4 · 3 · 2 · 1) = 5 · factorial(4). Thus, we can define factorial(5) in terms of factorial(4). In general, for a positive integer n, we can define factorial(n) to be n·factorial(n − 1). This leads to the following recursive definition. This definition is typical of many recursive definitions. First, it contains one or more base cases, which are defined nonrecursively in terms of fixed quantities. In this case, n = 0 is the base case. It also contains one or more recursive cases, which are defined by appealing to the definition of the function being defined. Observe that there is no circularity in this definition, because each time the function is invoked, its argument is smaller by one. A Recursive Implementation of the Factorial Function Let us consider a Java implementation of the factorial function shown in Code Fragment 3.29 under the name recursiveFactorial(). Notice that no looping was needed here. The repeated recursive invocations of the function takes the place of looping. Code Fragment 3.29: A recursive implementation of the factorial function. We can illustrate the execution of a recursive function definition by means of a recursion trace. Each entry of the trace corresponds to a recursive call. Each new recursive function call is indicated by an arrow to the newly called function. When the function returns, an arrow showing this return is drawn and the return value may be indicated with this arrow. An example of a trace is shown in Figure 3.21. What is the advantage of using recursion? Although the recursive implementation of the factorial function is somewhat simpler than the iterative version, in this case there is no compelling reason for preferring recursion over iteration. For some 189 problems, however, a recursive implementation can be significantly simpler and easier to understand than an iterative implementation. Such an example follows. Figure 3.21: A recursion trace for the call recursiveFactorial(4). Drawing an English Ruler As a more complex example of the use of recursion, consider how to draw the markings of a typical English ruler. A ruler is broken up into 1-inch intervals, and each interval consists of a set of ticks placed at intervals of 1/2 inch, 1/4 inch, and so on. As the size of the interval decreases by half, the tick length decreases by one. (See Figure 3.22.) Figure 3.22: Three sample outputs of the ruler- drawing function: (a) a 2-inch ruler with major tick length 4; (b) a 1-inch ruler with major tick length 5; (c) a 3-inch ruler with major tick length 3. 190 Each multiple of 1 inch also has a numeric label. The longest tick length is called the major tick length. We will not worry about actual distances, however, and just print one tick per line. A Recursive Approach to Ruler Drawing Our approach to drawing such a ruler consists of three functions. The main function drawRuler() draws the entire ruler. Its arguments are the total number of inches in the ruler, nInches, and the major tick length, majorLength. The utility function drawOneTick() draws a single tick of the given length. It can also be given an optional integer label, which is printed if it is nonnegative. The interesting work is done by the recursive function drawTicks(), which draws the sequence of ticks within some interval. Its only argument is the tick length associated with the interval's central tick. Consider the 1-inch ruler with major tick length 5 shown in Figure 3.22(b). Ignoring the lines containing 0 and 1, let us consider how to draw the sequence of ticks lying between these lines. The central tick (at 1/2 inch) has length 4. Observe that the two patterns of ticks above and below this central tick are identical, and each has a central tick of length 3. In general, an interval with a central tick length L ≥ 1 is composed of the following: • An interval with a central tick length L − 1 191 • A single tick of length L • A interval with a central tick length L − 1. With each recursive call, the length decreases by one. When the length drops to zero, we simply return. As a result, this recursive process will always terminate. This suggests a recursive process, in which the first and last steps are performed by calling the drawTicks(L − 1) recursively. The middle step is performed by calling the function drawOneTick(L). This recursive formulation is shown in Code Fragment 3.30. As in the factorial example, the code has a base case (when L = 0). In this instance we make two recursive calls to the function. Code Fragment 3.30: A recursive implementation of a function that draws a ruler. Illustrating Ruler Drawing using a Recursion Trace The recursive execution of the recursive drawTicks function, defined above, can be visualized using a recursion trace. 192 The trace for drawTicks is more complicated than in the factorial example, however, because each instance makes two recursive calls. To illustrate this, we will show the recursion trace in a form that is reminiscent of an outline for a document. See Figure 3.23. Figure 3.23: A partial recursion trace for the call drawTicks(3). The second pattern of calls for drawTicks(2) is not shown, but it is identical to the first. Throughout this book we shall see many other examples of how recursion can be used in the design of data structures and algorithms. 193 Further Illustrations of Recursion As we discussed above, recursion is the concept of defining a method that makes a call to itself. Whenever a method calls itself, we refer to this as a recursive call. We also consider a method M to be recursive if it calls another method that ultimately leads to a call back to M. The main benefit of a recursive approach to algorithm design is that it allows us to take advantage of the repetitive structure present in many problems. By making our algorithm description exploit this repetitive structure in a recursive way, we can often avoid complex case analyses and nested loops. This approach can lead to more readable algorithm descriptions, while still being quite efficient. In addition, recursion is a useful way for defining objects that have a repeated similar structural form, such as in the following examples. Example 3.1: Modern operating systems define file-system directories (which are also sometimes called "folders") in a recursive way. Namely, a file system consists of a top-level directory, and the contents of this directory consists of files and other directories, which in turn can contain files and other directories, and so on. The base directories in the file system contain only files, but by using this recursive definition, the operating system allows for directories to be nested arbitrarily deep (as long as there is enough space in memory). Example 3.2: Much of the syntax in modern programming languages is defined in a recursive way. For example, we can define an argument list in Java using the following notation: argument-list: argument argument-list, argument In other words, an argument list consists of either (i) an argument or (ii) an argument list followed by a comma and an argument. That is, an argument list consists of a comma-separated list of arguments. Similarly, arithmetic expressions can be defined recursively in terms of primitives (like variables and constants) and arithmetic expressions. Example 3.3: There are many examples of recursion in art and nature. One of the most classic examples of recursion used in art is in the Russian Matryoshka dolls. Each doll is made of solid wood or is hollow and contains another Matryoshka doll inside it. 3.5.1 Linear Recursion 194 The simplest form of recursion is linear recursion, where a method is defined so that it makes at most one recursive call each time it is invoked. This type of recursion is useful when we view an algorithmic problem in terms of a first or last element plus a remaining set that has the same structure as the original set. Summing the Elements of an Array Recursively Suppose, for example, we are given an array, A, of n integers that we wish to sum together. We can solve this summation problem using linear recursion by observing that the sum of all n integers in A is equal to A[0], if n = 1, or the sum of the first n − 1 integers in A plus the last element in A. In particular, we can solve this summation problem using the recursive algorithm described in Code Fragment 3.31. Code Fragment 3.31: Summing the elements in an array using linear recursion. This example also illustrates an important property that a recursive method should always possess—the method terminates. We ensure this by writing a nonrecursive statement for the case n = 1. In addition, we always perform the recursive call on a smaller value of the parameter (n − 1) than that which we are given (n), so that, at some point (at the "bottom" of the recursion), we will perform the nonrecursive part of the computation (returning A[0]). In general, an algorithm that uses linear recursion typically has the following form: • Test for base cases. We begin by testing for a set of base cases (there should be at least one). These base cases should be defined so that every possible chain of recursive calls will eventually reach a base case, and the handling of each base case should not use recursion. • Recur. After testing for base cases, we then perform a single recursive call. This recursive step may involve a test that decides which of several possible recursive calls to make, but it should ultimately choose to make just one of these calls each time we perform this step. Moreover, we should define each possible recursive call so that it makes progress towards a base case. 195 Analyzing Recursive Algorithms using Recursion Traces We can analyze a recursive algorithm by using a visual tool known as a recursion trace. We used recursion traces, for example, to analyze and visualize the recursive Fibonacci function of Section 3.5, and we will similarly use recursion traces for the recursive sorting algorithms of Sections 11.1 and 11.2. To draw a recursion trace, we create a box for each instance of the method and label it with the parameters of the method. Also, we visualize a recursive call by drawing an arrow from the box of the calling method to the box of the called method. For example, we illustrate the recursion trace of the LinearSum algorithm of Code Fragment 3.31 in Figure 3.24. We label each box in this trace with the parameters used to make this call. Each time we make a recursive call, we draw a line to the box representing the recursive call. We can also use this diagram to visualize stepping through the algorithm, since it proceeds by going from the call for n to the call for n − 1, to the call for n − 2, and so on, all the way down to the call for 1. When the final call finishes, it returns its value back to the call for 2, which adds in its value, and returns this partial sum to the call for 3, and so on, until the call for n − 1 returns its partial sum to the call for n. Figure 3.24: Recursion trace for an execution of LinearSum(A,n) with input parameters A = {4,3,6,2,5} and n = 5. From Figure 3.24, it should be clear that for an input array of size n, Algorithm LinearSum makes n calls. Hence, it will take an amount of time that is roughly proportional to n, since it spends a constant amount of time performing the 196 nonrecursive part of each call. Moreover, we can also see that the memory space used by the algorithm (in addition to the array A) is also roughly proportional to n, since we need a constant amount of memory space for each of the n boxes in the trace at the time we make the final recursive call (for n = 1). Reversing an Array by Recursion Next, let us consider the problem of reversing the n elements of an array, A, so that the first element becomes the last, the second element becomes second to the last, and so on. We can solve this problem using linear recursion, by observing that the reversal of an array can be achieved by swapping the first and last elements and then recursively reversing the remaining elements in the array. We describe the details of this algorithm in Code Fragment 3.32, using the convention that the first time we call this algorithm we do so as ReverseArray(A,0,n − 1). Code Fragment 3.32: Reversing the elements of an array using linear recursion. Note that, in this algorithm, we actually have two base cases, namely, when i = j and when i > j. Moreover, in either case, we simply terminate the algorithm, since a sequence with zero elements or one element is trivially equal to its reversal. Furthermore, note that in the recursive step we are guaranteed to make progress towards one of these two base cases. If n is odd, we will eventually reach the i = j case, and if n is even, we will eventually reach the i > j case. The above argument immediately implies that the recursive algorithm of Code Fragment 3.32 is guaranteed to terminate. Defining Problems in Ways That Facilitate Recursion To design a recursive algorithm for a given problem, it is useful to think of the different ways we can subdivide this problem to define problems that have the same general structure as the original problem. This process sometimes means we need to redefine the original problem to facilitate similar-looking subproblems. For example, with the ReverseArray algorithm, we added the parameters i and j so that a recursive call to reverse the inner part of the array A would have the same structure (and same syntax) as the call to reverse all of A. Then, rather than 197 initially calling the algorithm as ReverseArray(A), we call it initially as ReverseArray(A,0,n−1). In general, if one has difficulty finding the repetitive structure needed to design a recursive algorithm, it is sometimes useful to work out the problem on a few concrete examples to see how the subproblems should be defined. Tail Recursion Using recursion can often be a useful tool for designing algorithms that have elegant, short definitions. But this usefulness does come at a modest cost. When we use a recursive algorithm to solve a problem, we have to use some of the memory locations in our computer to keep track of the state of each active recursive call. When computer memory is at a premium, then, it is useful in some cases to be able to derive nonrecursive algorithms from recursive ones. We can use the stack data structure, discussed in Section 5.1, to convert a recursive algorithm into a nonrecursive algorithm, but there are some instances when we can do this conversion more easily and efficiently. Specifically, we can easily convert algorithms that use tail recursion. An algorithm uses tail recursion if it uses linear recursion and the algorithm makes a recursive call as its very last operation. For example, the algorithm of Code Fragment 3.32 uses tail recursion to reverse the elements of an array. It is not enough that the last statement in the method definition include a recursive call, however. In order for a method to use tail recursion, the recursive call must be absolutely the last thing the method does (unless we are in a base case, of course). For example, the algorithm of Code Fragment 3.31 does not use tail recursion, even though its last statement includes a recursive call. This recursive call is not actually the last thing the method does. After it receives the value returned from the recursive call, it adds this value to A [n − 1] and returns this sum. That is, the last thing this algorithm does is an add, not a recursive call. When an algorithm uses tail recursion, we can convert the recursive algorithm into a nonrecursive one, by iterating through the recursive calls rather than calling them explicitly. We illustrate this type of conversion by revisiting the problem of reversing the elements of an array. In Code Fragment 3.33, we give a nonrecursive algorithm that performs this task by iterating through the recursive calls of the algorithm of Code Fragment 3.32. We initially call this algorithm as IterativeReverseArray (A, 0,n − 1). Code Fragment 3.33: Reversing the elements of an array using iteration. 198 3.5.2 Binary Recursion When an algorithm makes two recursive calls, we say that it uses binary recursion. These calls can, for example, be used to solve two similar halves of some problem, as we did in Section 3.5 for drawing an English ruler. As another application of binary recursion, let us revisit the problem of summing the n elements of an integer array A. In this case, we can sum the elements in A by: (i) recursively summing the elements in the first half of A; (ii) recursively summing the elements in the second half of A; and (iii) adding these two values together. We give the details in the algorithm of Code Fragment 3.34, which we initially call as BinarySum(A,0,n). Code Fragment 3.34: Summing the elements in an array using binary recursion. To analyze Algorithm BinarySum, we consider, for simplicity, the case where n is a power of two. The general case of arbitrary n is considered in Exercise R-4.4. Figure 3.25 shows the recursion trace of an execution of method BinarySum(0,8). We label each box with the values of parameters i and n, which represent the starting index and length of the sequence of elements to be reversed, respectively. Notice that the arrows in the trace go from a box labeled (i,n) to another box labeled (i,n/2) or (i + n/2,n/2). That is, the value of parameter n is halved at each recursive call. Thus, the depth of the recursion, that is, the maximum number of method instances that are active at the same time, is 1 + log2n. Thus, Algorithm BinarySum uses an amount of additional space roughly proportional to this value. This is a big improvement over the space needed by the LinearSum method of Code Fragment 3.31. The running time of Algorithm BinarySum is still roughly 199 proportional to n, however, since each box is visited in constant time when stepping through our algorithm and there are 2n − 1 boxes. Figure 3.25: Recursion trace for the execution of BinarySum(0,8). Computing Fibonacci Numbers via Binary Recursion Let us consider the problem of computing the kth Fibonacci number. Recall from Section 2.2.3, that the Fibonacci numbers are recursively defined as follows: F0 = 0 F1 = 1 Fi = Fi−1 + Fi−2 for i < 1. By directly applying this definition, Algorithm BinaryFib, shown in Code Fragment 3.35, computes the sequence of Fibonacci numbers using binary recursion. Code Fragment 3.35: Computing the kth Fibonacci number using binary recursion. 200 Unfortunately, in spite of the Fibonacci definition looking like a binary recursion, using this technique is inefficient in this case. In fact, it takes an exponential number of calls to compute the kth Fibonacci number in this way. Specifically, let nk denote the number of calls performed in the execution of BinaryFib(k). Then, we have the following values for the nk's: n0 = 1 n1 = 1 n2 = n1 + n0 + 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 n3 = n2 + n1 + 1 = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 n4 = n3 + n2 + 1 = 5 + 3 + 1 = 9 n5 = n4 + n3 + 1 = 9 + 5 + 1 = 15 n6 = n5+ n4 + 1 = 15 + 9 + 1 = 25 n7 = n6 + n5 + 1 = 25 + 15 + 1 = 41 n8 = n7 + n6 + 1 = 41 + 25 + 1 = 67. If we follow the pattern forward, we see that the number of calls more than doubles for each two consecutive indices. That is, n4 is more than twice n2 n5 is more than twice n3, n6 is more than twice n4, and so on. Thus, nk > 2k/2, which means that BinaryFib(k) makes a number of calls that are exponential in k. In other words, using binary recursion to compute Fibonacci numbers is very inefficient. Computing Fibonacci Numbers via Linear Recursion The main problem with the approach above, based on binary recursion, is that the computation of Fibonacci numbers is really a linearly recursive problem. It is not a good candidate for using binary recursion. We simply got tempted into using binary recursion because of the way the kth Fibonacci number, Fk, depends on the two previous values, Fk−1 and Fk−2. But we can compute Fk much more efficiently using linear recursion. In order to use linear recursion, however, we need to slightly redefine the problem. One way to accomplish this conversion is to define a recursive function that computes a pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers (Fk,Fk−1) using the convention F−1 = 0. Then we can use the linearly recursive algorithm shown in Code Fragment 3.36. 201 Code Fragment 3.36: Computing the kth Fibonacci number using linear recursion. The algorithm given in Code Fragment 3.36 shows that using linear recursion to compute Fibonacci numbers is much more efficient than using binary recursion. Since each recursive call to LinearFibonacci decreases the argument k by 1, the original call LinearFibonacci(k) results in a series of k − 1 additional calls. That is, computing the kth Fibonacci number via linear recursion requires k method calls. This performance is significantly faster than the exponential time needed by the algorithm based on binary recursion, which was given in Code Fragment 3.35. Therefore, when using binary recursion, we should first try to fully partition the problem in two (as we did for summing the elements of an array) or, we should be sure that overlapping recursive calls are really necessary. Usually, we can eliminate overlapping recursive calls by using more memory to keep track of previous values. In fact, this approach is a central part of a technique called dynamic programming, which is related to recursion and is discussed in Section 12.5.2. 3.5.3 Multiple Recursion Generalizing from binary recursion, we use multiple recursion when a method may make multiple recursive calls, with that number potentially being more than two. One of the most common applications of this type of recursion is used when we wish to enumerate various configurations in order to solve a combinatorial puzzle. For example, the following are all instances of summation puzzles: pot + pan = bib dog + cat = pig boy + girl = baby 202 To solve such a puzzle, we need to assign a unique digit (that is, 0,1,…, 9) to each letter in the equation, in order to make the equation true. Typically, we solve such a puzzle by using our human observations of the particular puzzle we are trying to solve to eliminate configurations (that is, possible partial assignments of digits to letters) until we can work though the feasible configurations left, testing for the correctness of each one. If the number of possible configurations is not too large, however, we can use a computer to simply enumerate all the possibilities and test each one, without employing any human observations. In addition, such an algorithm can use multiple recursion to work through the configurations in a systematic way. We show pseudocode for such an algorithm in Code Fragment 3.37. To keep the description general enough to be used with other puzzles, the algorithm enumerates and tests all k-length sequences without repetitions of the elements of a given set U. We build the sequences of k elements by the following steps: 1. Recursively generating the sequences of k − 1 elements 2. Appending to each such sequence an element not already contained in it. Throughout the execution of the algorithm, we use the set U to keep track of the elements not contained in the current sequence, so that an element e has not been used yet if and only if e is in U. Another way to look at the algorithm of Code Fragment 3.37 is that it enumerates every possible size-k ordered subset of U, and tests each subset for being a possible solution to our puzzle. For summation puzzles, U = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} and each position in the sequence corresponds to a given letter. For example, the first position could stand for b, the second for o, the third for y, and so on. Code Fragment 3.37: Solving a combinatorial puzzle by enumerating and testing all possible configurations. 203 In Figure 3.26, we show a recursion trace of a call to PuzzleSolve(3,S,U), where S is empty and U = {a,b,c}. During the execution, all the permutations of the three characters are generated and tested. Note that the initial call makes three recursive calls, each of which in turn makes two more. If we had executed PuzzleSolve(3,S, U) on a set U consisting of four elements, the initial call would have made four recursive calls, each of which would have a trace looking like the one in Figure 3.26. Figure 3.26: Recursion trace for an execution of PuzzleSolve(3,S,U), where S is empty and U = {a, b, c}. This execution generates and tests all permutations of a, b, and c. We show the permutations generated directly below their respective boxes. 204 3.6 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-3.1 The add and remove methods of Code Fragments 3.3 and 3.4 do not keep track of the number,n, of non-null entries in the array, a. Instead, the unused cells point to the null object. Show how to change these methods so that they keep track of the actual size of a in an instance variable n. R-3.2 Describe a way to use recursion to add all the elements in a n × n (two dimensional) array of integers. R-3.3 Explain how to modify the Caesar cipher program (Code Fragment 3.9) so that it performs ROT 13 encryption and decryption, which uses 13 as the alphabet shift amount. How can you further simplify the code so that the body of the decrypt method is only a single line? R-3.4 Explain the changes that would have be made to the program of Code Fragment 3.9 so that it could perform the Caesar cipher for messages that are written in an alphabet-based language other than English, such as Greek, Russian, or Hebrew. R-3.5 What is the exception that is thrown when advance or remove is called on an empty list, from Code Fragment 3.25? Explain how to modify these methods so that they give a more instructive exception name for this condition. R-3.6 Give a recursive definition of a singly linked list. R-3.7 Describe a method for inserting an element at the beginning of a singly linked list. Assume that the list does not have a sentinel header node, and instead uses a variable head to reference the first node in the list. 205 R-3.8 Give an algorithm for finding the penultimate node in a singly linked list where the last element is indicated by a null next reference. R-3.9 Describe a nonrecursive method for finding, by link hopping, the middle node of a doubly linked list with header and trailer sentinels. (Note: This method must only use link hopping; it cannot use a counter.) What is the running time of this method? R-3.10 Describe a recursive algorithm for finding the maximum element in an array A of n elements. What is your running time and space usage? R-3.11 Draw the recursion trace for the execution of method ReverseArray (A ,0,4) (Code Fragment 3.32) on array A = {4,3,6,2,5}. R-3.12 Draw the recursion trace for the execution of method PuzzleSolve(3,S, U) (Code Fragment 3.37), where S is empty and U = {a,b,c,d}. R-3.13 Write a short Java method that repeatedly selects and removes a random entry from an array until the array holds no more entries. R-3.14 Write a short Java method to count the number of nodes in a circularly linked list. Creativity C-3.1 Give Java code for performing add(e) and remove(i) methods for game entries, stored in an array a, as in Code Fragments 3.3 and 3.4, except now don't maintain the game entries in order. Assume that we still need to keep n entries stored in indices 0 to n − 1. Try to implement the add and remove methods without using any loops, so that the number of steps they perform does not depend on n. 206 C-3.2 Let A be an array of size n ≥ 2 containing integers from 1 to n − 1, inclusive, with exactly one repeated. Describe a fast algorithm for finding the integer in A that is repeated. C-3.3 Let B be an array of size n ≥ 6 containing integers from 1 to n − 5, inclusive, with exactly five repeated. Describe a good algorithm for finding the five integers in B that are repeated. C-3.4 Suppose you are designing a multi-player game that has n ≥ 1000 players, numbered 1 to n, interacting in an enchanted forest. The winner of this game is the first player who can meet all the other players at least once (ties are allowed). Assuming that there is a method meet(i,j), which is called each time a player i meets a player j (with i ≠ j), describe a way to keep track of the pairs of meeting players and who is the winner. C-3.5 Give a recursive algorithm to compute the product of two positive integers, m and n, using only addition and subtraction. C-3.6 Describe a fast recursive algorithm for reversing a singly linked list L, so that the ordering of the nodes becomes opposite of what it was before, a list has only one position, then we are done; the list is already reversed. Otherwise, remove C-3.7 Describe a good algorithm for concatenating two singly linked lists L and M, with header sentinels, into a single list L ′ that contains all the nodes of L followed by all the nodes of M. C-3.8 Give a fast algorithm for concatenating two doubly linked lists L and M, with header and trailer sentinel nodes, into a single list L ′. C-3.9 Describe in detail how to swap two nodes x and y in a singly linked list L given references only to x and y. Repeat this exercise for the case when L is a doubly linked list. Which algorithm takes more time? 207 C-3.10 Describe in detail an algorithm for reversing a singly linked list L using only a constant amount of additional space and not using any recursion. C-3.11 In the Towers of Hanoi puzzle, we are given a platform with three pegs, a, b, and c, sticking out of it. On peg a is a stack of n disks, each larger than the next, so that the smallest is on the top and the largest is on the bottom. The puzzle is to move all the disks from peg a to peg c, moving one disk at a time, so that we never place a larger disk on top of a smaller one. See Figure 3.27 for an example of the case n = 4. Describe a recursive algorithm for solving the Towers of Hanoi puzzle for arbitrary n. (Hint: Consider first the subproblem of moving all but the nth disk from peg a to another peg using the third as "temporary storage." ) Figure 3.27: An illustration of the Towers of Hanoi puzzle. C-3.12 Describe a recursive method for converting a string of digits into the integer it represents. For example, "13531" represents the integer 13,531. C-3.13 Describe a recursive algorithm that counts the number of nodes in a singly linked list. C-3.14 208 Write a recursive Java program that will output all the subsets of a set of n elements (without repeating any subsets). C-3.15 Write a short recursive Java method that finds the minimum and maximum values in an array of int values without using any loops. C-3.16 Describe a recursive algorithm that will check if an array A of integers contains an integer A[i] that is the sum of two integers that appear earlier in A, that is, such that A[i] = A[j] +A[k] for j,k > i. C-3.17 Write a short recursive Java method that will rearrange an array of int values so that all the even values appear before all the odd values. C-3.18 Write a short recursive Java method that takes a character string s and outputs its reverse. So for example, the reverse of "pots&pans" would be "snap&stop". C-3.19 Write a short recursive Java method that determines if a string s is a palindrome, that is, it is equal to its reverse. For example, "racecar" and "gohangasalamiimalasagnahog" are palindromes. C-3.20 Use recursion to write a Java method for determining if a string s has more vowels than consonants. C-3.21 Suppose you are given two circularly linked lists, L and M, that is, two lists of nodes such that each node has a nonnull next node. Describe a fast algorithm for telling if L and M are really the same list of nodes, but with different (cursor) starting points. C-3.22 Given a circularly linked list L containing an even number of nodes, describe how to split L into two circularly linked lists of half the size. 209 Projects P-3.1 Write a Java program for a matrix class that can add and multiply arbitrary two- dimensional arrays of integers. P-3.2 Perform the previous project, but use generic types so that the matrices involved can contain arbitrary number types. P-3.3 Write a class that maintains the top 10 scores for a game application, implementing the add and remove methods of Section 3.1.1, but using a singly linked list instead of an array. P-3.4 Perform the previous project, but use a doubly linked list. Moreover, your implementation of remove(i) should make the fewest number of pointer hops to get to the game entry at index i. P-3.5 Perform the previous project, but use a linked list that is both circularly linked and doubly linked. P-3.6 Write a program for solving summation puzzles by enumerating and testing all possible configurations. Using your program, solve the three puzzles given in Section 3.5.3. P-3.7 Write a program that can perform encryption and decryption using an arbitrary substitution cipher. In this case, the encryption array is a random shuffling of the letters in the alphabet. Your program should generate a random encryption array, its corresponding decryption array, and use these to encode and decode a message. P-3.8 Write a program that can perform the Caesar cipher for English messages that include both upper and lowercase characters. 210 Chapter Notes The fundamental data structures of arrays and linked lists, as well as recursion, discussed in this chapter, belong to the folklore of computer science. They were first chronicled in the computer science literature by Knuth in his seminal book on Fundamental Algorithms [62]. Chapter 4 Analysis Tools Contents 4.1 The Seven Functions Used in This Book . . . . . . . 154 4.1.1 The Constant Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.1.2 The Logarithm Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.1.3 The Linear Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 156 4.1.4 The N-Log-N Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.1.5 The Quadratic Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.1.6 The Cubic Function and Other Polynomials . . . . . 158 4.1.7 The Exponential Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 4.1.8 Comparing Growth Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 4.2 Analysis of Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 4.2.1 Experimental Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 4.2.2 212 Primitive Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 4.2.3 Asymptotic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 4.2.4 Asymptotic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 4.2.5 Using the Big-Oh Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 4.2.6 A Recursive Algorithm for Computing Powers . . . . 176 4.3 Simple Justification Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 4.3.1 By Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 4.3.2 The "Contra" Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 177 4.3.3 Induction and Loop Invariants . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 4.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 java.datastructures.net 4.1 The Seven Functions Used in This Book In this section, we briefly discuss the seven most important functions used in the analysis of algorithms. We will use only these seven simple functions for almost all the analysis we do in this book. In fact, a section that uses a function other than one of these seven will be marked with a star () to indicate that it is optional. In addition to these seven fundamental functions, Appendix A contains a list of other useful mathematical facts that apply in the context of data structure and algorithm analysis. 4.1.1 The Constant Function The simplest function we can think of is the constant function. This is the function, f(n) = c, for some fixed constant c, such as c = 5, c = 27, or c = 210. That is, for any argument n, the constant function f(n) assigns the value c. In other words, it doesn't matter what the value of n is; f (n) will always be equal to the constant value c. Since we are most interested in integer functions, the most fundamental constant function is g(n) = 1, and this is the typical constant function we use in this book. Note that any other constant function, f(n) = c, can be written as a constant c times g(n). That is,f(n) = cg(n) in this case. As simple as it is, the constant function is useful in algorithm analysis, because it characterizes the number of steps needed to do a basic operation on a computer, like adding two numbers, assigning a value to some variable, or comparing two numbers. 214 4.1.2 The Logarithm function One of the interesting and sometimes even surprising aspects of the analysis of data structures and algorithms is the ubiquitous presence of the logarithm function, f(n) = logbn, for some constant b > 1. This function is defined as follows: x = logb n if and only if bx = n. By definition, logb 1 = 0. The value b is known as the base of the logarithm. Computing the logarithm function exactly for any integer n involves the use of calculus, but we can use an approximation that is good enough for our purposes without calculus. In particular, we can easily compute the smallest integer greater than or equal to logan, for this number is equal to the number of times we can divide n by a until we get a number less than or equal to 1. For example, this evaluation of log327 is 3, since 27/3/3/3 = 1. Likewise, this evaluation of log464 is 4, since 64/4/4/4/4 = 1, and this approximation to log212 is 4, since 12/2/2/2/2 = 0.75 ≤ 1. This base-two approximation arises in algorithm analysis, actually, since a common operation in many algorithms is to repeatedly divide an input in half. Indeed, since computers store integers in binary, the most common base for the logarithm function in computer science is 2. In fact, this base is so common that we will typically leave it off when it is 2. That is, for us, logn = log2n. We note that most handheld calculators have a button marked LOG, but this is typically for calculating the logarithm base-10, not base-two. There are some important rules for logarithms, similar to the exponent rules. Proposition 4.1 (Logarithm Rules): Given real numbers a > 0, b > 1, c > 0 and d > 1, we have: 1. logbac = logba + logbc 2. logba/c = logba− logbc 3. logbac = clogba 4. logba = (logda)/logdb 5. b log d a = a log d b. Also, as a notational shorthand, we use logcn to denote the function (logn)c. Rather than show how we could derive each of the identities above which all follow from the definition of logarithms and exponents, let us illustrate these identities with a few examples instead. 215 Example 4.2: We demonstrate below some interesting applications of the logarithm rules from Proposition 4.1 (using the usual convention that the base of a logarithm is 2 if it is omitted). • log(2n) = log2 + log n = 1 + logn, by rule 1 • log(n/2) = logn − log2 = logn − 1, by rule 2 • logn3 = 3logn, by rule 3 • log2n = nlog2 =n · 1 = n, by rule 3 • log4n = (log n)/ log4 = (logn) /2, by rule 4 • 2logn = nlog2 = n1 = n, by rule 5. As a practical matter, we note that rule 4 gives us a way to compute the base-two logarithm on a calculator that has a base-10 logarithm button, LOG, for log2n = LOGn/LOG2. 4.1.3 The Linear function Another simple yet important function is the linear function, f(n)= n. That is, given an input value n, the linear function f assigns the value n itself. This function arises in algorithm analysis any time we have to do a single basic operation for each of n elements. For example, comparing a number x to each element of an array of size n will require n comparisons. The linear function also represents the best running time we can hope to achieve for any algorithm that processes a collection of n objects that are not already in the computer's memory, since reading in the n objects itself requires n operations. 4.1.4 The N-Log-N function The next function we discuss in this section is the n-log-n function, f(n) = nlogn, that is, the function that assigns to an input n the value of n times the logarithm base-two of n. This function grows a little faster than the linear function and a lot slower than the quadratic function. Thus, as we will show on several occasions, if we can improve the running time of solving some problem from quadratic to n-log- n, we will have an algorithm that runs much faster in general. 216 4.1.5 The Quadratic function Another function that appears quite often in algorithm analysis is the quadratic function, f(n) = n2. That is, given an input value n, the function f assigns the product of n with itself (in other words, "n squared"). The main reason why the quadratic function appears in the analysis of algo rithms is that there are many algorithms that have nested loops, where the inner loop performs a linear number of operations and the outer loop is performed a linear number of times. Thus, in such cases, the algorithm performs n · n = n2 operations. Nested Loops and the Quadratic function The quadratic function can also arise in the context of nested loops where the first iteration of a loop uses one operation, the second uses two operations, the third uses three operations, and so on. That is, the number of operations is 1+ 2 + 3 +… + (n − 2) + (n − 1) + n. In other words, this is the total number of operations that will be performed by the nested loop if the number of operations performed inside the loop increases by one with each iteration of the outer loop. This quantity also has an interesting history. In 1787, a German schoolteacher decided to keep his 9- and 10-year-old pupils occupied by adding up the integers from 1 to 100. But almost immediately one of the children claimed to have the answer! The teacher was suspicious, for the student had only the answer on his slate. But the answer was correct—5,050— and the student, Carl Gauss, grew up to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his time. It is widely suspected that young Gauss used the following identity. Proposition 4.3: For any integer n ≥ 1, we have: 1 + 2 + 3 + … + (n − 2) + (n − 1) + n = n(n + 1)/2. We give two "visual" justifications of Proposition 4.3 in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1: Visual justifications of Proposition 4.3. Both illustrations visualize the identity in terms of the total area covered by n unit-width rectangles with heights 1,2,…,n. In (a) the rectangles are shown to 217 cover a big triangle of area n2/2 (base n and height n) plus n small triangles of area 1/2 each (base 1 and height 1). In (b), which applies only when n is even, the rectangles are shown to cover a big rectangle of base n/2 and height n+ 1. The lesson to be learned from Proposition 4.3 is that if we perform an algorithm with nested loops such that the operations in the inner loop increase by one each time, then the total number of operations is quadratic in the number of times, n, we perform the outer loop. In particular, the number of operations is n2/2 + n/2, in this case, which is a little more than a constant factor (1/2) times the quadratic function n2. In other words, such an algorithm is only slightly better than an algorithm that uses n operations each time the inner loop is performed. This observation might at first seem nonintuitive, but it is nevertheless true, as shown in Figure 4.1. 4.1.6 The Cubic Function and Other Polynomials Continuing our discussion of functions that are powers of the input, we consider the cubic function, f(n) = n3, 218 which assigns to an input value n the product of n with itself three times. This function appears less frequently in the context of algorithm analysis than the constant, linear, and quadratic functions previously mentioned, but it does appear from time to time. Polynomials Interestingly, the functions we have listed so far can be viewed as all being part of a larger class of functions, the polynomials. A polynomial function is a function of the form, f(n) = a0 + a1n + a2n2 + a3n3 + … + adnd, where a0,a1,…,ad are constants, called the coefficients of the polynomial, and ad ≠ 0. Integer d, which indicates the highest power in the polynomial, is called the degree of the polynomial. For example, the following functions are all polynomials: • f(n) = 2 + 5n + n2 • f(n) = 1 + n3 • f(n) = 1 • f(n) = n • f(n) = n2. Therefore, we could argue that this book presents just four important functions used in algorithm analysis, but we will stick to saying that there are seven, since the constant, linear, and quadratic functions are too important to be lumped in with other polynomials. Running times that are polynomials with degree, d, are generally better than polynomial running times with large degree. Summations A notation that appears again and again in the analysis of data structures and algorithms is the summation, which is defined as follows: , 219 where a and b are integers and a ≤ b. Summations arise in data structure and algorithm analysis because the running times of loops naturally give rise to summations. Using a summation, we can rewrite the formula of Proposition 4.3 as . Likewise, we can write a polynomial f(n) of degree d with coefficients a0, …, ad as . Thus, the summation notation gives us a shorthand way of expressing sums of increasing terms that have a regular structure. 4.1.7 The Exponential Function Another function used in the analysis of algorithms is the exponential function, f(n) = bn, where b is a positive constant, called the base, and the argument n is the exponent. That is, function f(n) assigns to the input argument n the value obtained by multiplying the base b by itself n times. In algorithm analysis, the most common base for the exponential function is b = 2. For instance, if we have a loop that starts by performing one operation and then doubles the number of operations performed with each iteration, then the number of operations performed in the nth iteration is 2n. In addition, an integer word containing n bits can represent all the nonnegative integers less than 2n. Thus, the exponential function with base 2 is quite common. The exponential function will also be referred to as exponent function. We sometimes have other exponents besides n, however; hence, it is useful for us to know a few handy rules for working with exponents. In particular, the following exponent rules are quite helpful. Proposition 4.4 (Exponent Rules): Given positive integers a,b,and c,we have 1. (ba)c = bac 2. babc = ba+c 3. ba/bc = ba − c. 220 For example, we have the following: • 256 = 162 = (24)2 = 24.2 = 28 = 256 (Exponent Rule 1) • 243 = 35 = 32+3 = 3233 = 9 · 27 = 243 (Exponent Rule 2) • 16 = 1024/64 = 210/26 = 210−6 = 24 = 16 (Exponent Rule 3). We can extend the exponential function to exponents that are fractions or real numbers and to negative exponents, as follows. Given a positive integer k, we define b1/k to be kth root of b, that is, the number r such that rk = b. For example, 251/2 = 5, since 52 = 25. Likewise, 271/3 = 3 and 161/4 = 2. This approach allows us to define any power whose exponent can be expressed as a fraction, for ba/c = (ba)1/c, by Exponent Rule 1. For example, 93/2 = (93)1/2 = 7291/2 = 27. Thus, ba/c is really just the cth root of the integral exponent ba. We can further extend the exponential function to define bx for any real number x, by computing a series of numbers of the form ba/c for fractions a/c that get progressively closer and closer to x. Any real number x can be approximated arbitrarily close by a fraction a/c; hence, we can use the fraction a/c as the exponent of b to get arbitrarily close to bx. So, for example, the number 2π is well defined. Finally, given a negative exponent d, we define bd = 1/b−d, which corresponds to applying Exponent Rule 3 with a = 0 and c = −d. Geometric Sums Suppose we have a loop where each iteration takes a multiplicative factor longer than the previous one. This loop can be analyzed using the following proposition. Proposition 4.5: For any integer n ≥ 0 and any real number a such that a > 0 and a ≠ 1, consider the summation (remembering that a0 = 1 if a > 0). This summation is equal to an+ 1 − 1/a − 1 Summations as shown in Proposition 4.5 are called geometric summations, because each term is geometrically larger than the previous one if a > 1. For example, everyone working in computing should know that 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + … + 2n−1 = 2n−,1 for this is the largest integer that can be represented in binary notation using n bits. 221 4.1.8 Comparing Growth Rates To sum up, Table 4.1 shows each of the seven common functions used in algorithm analysis, which we described above, in order. Table 4.1: Classes of functions. Here we assume that a > 1 is a constant. constant logarithm linear n-log-n quadratic cubic exponent 1 log n n nlogn n2 n3 an Ideally, we would like data structure operations to run in times proportional to the constant or logarithm function, and we would like our algorithms to run in linear or n-log-n time. Algorithms with quadratic or cubic running times are less practical, but algorithms with exponential running times are infeasible for all but the smallest sized inputs. Plots of the seven functions are shown in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2: Growth rates for the seven fundamental functions used in algorithm analysis. We use base a = 2 for the exponential function. The functions are plotted in a log-log chart, to compare the growth rates 222 primarily as slopes. Even so, the exponential function grows too fast to display all its values on the chart. Also, we use the scientific notation for numbers, where, aE+b denotes a10b. The Ceiling and Floor Functions One additional comment concerning the functions above is in order. The value of a logarithm is typically not an integer, yet the running time of an algorithm is usually expressed by means of an integer quantity, such as the number of operations performed. Thus, the analysis of an algorithm may sometimes involve the use of thefloor function and ceiling function, which are defined respectively as follows: • x = the largest integer less than or equal to x. • x = the smallest integer greater than or equal to x. 4.2 Analysis of Algorithms In a classic story, the famous mathematician Archimedes was asked to determine if a golden crown commissioned by the king was indeed pure gold, and not part silver, as an informant had claimed. Archimedes discovered a way to perform this analysis while stepping into a (Greek) bath. He noted that water spilled out of the bath in proportion to the amount of him that went in. Realizing the implications of this fact, he immediately got out of the bath and ran naked through the city shouting, "Eureka, eureka!," for he had discovered an analysis tool (displacement), which, when combined with a simple scale, could determine if the king's new crown was good or not. That is, Archimedes could dip the crown and an equal-weight amount of gold 223 into a bowl of water to see if they both displaced the same amount. This discovery was unfortunate for the goldsmith, however, for when Archimedes did his analysis, the crown displaced more water than an equal-weight lump of pure gold, indicating that the crown was not, in fact, pure gold. In this book, we are interested in the design of "good" data structures and algorithms. Simply put, a data structure is a systematic way of organizing and accessing data, and an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for performing some task in a finite amount of time. These concepts are central to computing, but to be able to classify some data structures and algorithms as "good," we must have precise ways of analyzing them. The primary analysis tool we will use in this book involves characterizing the running times of algorithms and data structure operations, with space usage also being of interest. Running time is a natural measure of "goodness," since time is a precious resource—computer solutions should run as fast as possible. In general, the running time of an algorithm or data structure method increases with the input size, although it may also vary for different inputs of the same size. Also, the running time is affected by the hardware environment (as reflected in the processor, clock rate, memory, disk, etc.) and software environment (as reflected in the operating system, programming language, compiler, interpreter, etc.) in which the algorithm is implemented, compiled, and executed. All other factors being equal, the running time of the same algorithm on the same input data will be smaller if the computer has, say, a much faster processor or if the implementation is done in a program compiled into native machine code instead of an interpreted implementation run on a virtual machine. Nevertheless, in spite of the possible variations that come from different environmental factors, we would like to focus on the relationship between the running time of an algorithm and the size of its input. We are interested in characterizing an algorithm's running time as a function of the input size. But what is the proper way of measuring it? 4.2.1 Experimental Studies if an algorithm has been implemented, we can study its running time by executing it on various test inputs and recording the actual time spent in each execution. Fortunately, such measurements can be taken in an accurate manner by using system calls that are built into the language or operating system (for example, by using the System.current Time Millis () method or calling the run-time environment with profiling enabled). Such tests assign a specific running time to a specific input size, but we are interested in determining the general dependence of running time on the size of the input. In order to determine this dependence, we should perform several experiments on many different test inputs of various sizes. Then we can visualize the results of such experiments by plotting the performance of each run of the algorithm as a point with x-coordinate equal to the input size, n, 224 and y-coordinate equal to the running time, t. (See Figure 4.3.) From this visualization and the data that supports it, we can perform a statistical analysis that seeks to fit the best function of the input size to the experimental data. To be meaningful, this analysis requires that we choose good sample inputs and test enough of them to be able to make sound statistical claims about the algorithm's running time. Figure 4.3: Results of an experimental study on the running time of an algorithm. A dot with coordinates (n, t) indicates that on an input of size n, the running time of the algorithm is t milliseconds (ms). While experimental studies of running times are useful, they have three major limitations: • Experiments can be done only on a limited set of test inputs; hence, they leave out the running times of inputs not included in the experiment (and these inputs may be important). 225 • We will have difficulty comparing the experimental running times of two algorithms unless the experiments were performed in the same hardware and software environments. • We have to fully implement and execute an algorithm in order to study its running time experimentally. This last requirement is obvious, but it is probably the most time consuming aspect of performing an experimental analysis of an algorithm. The other limitations impose serious hurdles too, of course. Thus, we would ideally like to have an analysis tool that allows us to avoid performing experiments. In the rest of this chapter, we develop a general way of analyzing the running times of algorithms that: • Takes into account all possible inputs • Allows us to evaluate the relative efficiency of any two algorithms in a way that is independent from the hardware and software environment • Can be performed by studying a high-level description of the algorithm without actually implementing it or running experiments on it. This methodology aims at associating, with each algorithm, a function f(n) that characterizes the running time of the algorithm as a function of the input size n. Typical functions that will be encountered include the seven functions mentioned earlier in this chapter. 4.2.2 Primitive Operations As noted above, experimental analysis is valuable, but it has its limitations. If we wish to analyze a particular algorithm without performing experiments on its running time, we can perform an analysis directly on the high-level pseudo-code instead. We define a set of primitive operations such as the following: • Assigning a value to a variable • Calling a method • Performing an arithmetic operation (for example, adding two numbers) • Comparing two numbers • Indexing into an array • Following an object reference • Returning from a method. 226 Counting Primitive Operations Specifically, a primitive operation corresponds to a low-level instruction with an execution time that is constant. Instead of trying to determine the specific execution time of each primitive operation, we will simply count how many primitive operations are executed, and use this number t as a measure of the running-time of the algorithm. This operation count will correlate to an actual running time in a specific computer, for each primitive operation corresponds to a constant-time instruction, and there are only a fixed number of primitive operations. The implicit assumption in this approach is that the running times of different primitive operations will be fairly similar. Thus, the number, t, of primitive operations an algorithm performs will be proportional to the actual running time of that algorithm. An algorithm may run faster on some inputs than it does on others of the same size. Thus, we may wish to express the running time of an algorithm as the function of the input size obtained by taking the average over all possible inputs of the same size. Unfortunately, such an average-case analysis is typically quite challenging. It requires us to define a probability distribution on the set of inputs, which is often a difficult task. Figure 4.4 schematically shows how, depending on the input distribution, the running time of an algorithm can be anywhere between the worst-case time and the best-case time. For example, what if inputs are really only of types "A" or "D"? Figure 4.4: The difference between best-case and worst-case time. Each bar represents the running time of some algorithm on a different possible input. 227 Focusing on the Worst Case An average-case analysis usually requires that we calculate expected running times based on a given input distribution, which usually involves sophisticated probability theory. Therefore, for the remainder of this book, unless we specify otherwise, we will characterize running times in terms of the worst case, as a function of the input size, n, of the algorithm. Worst-case analysis is much easier than average-case analysis, as it requires only the ability to identify the worst-case input, which is often simple. Also, this approach typically leads to better algorithms. Making the standard of success for an algorithm to perform well in the worst case necessarily requires that it will do well on every input. That is, designing for the worst case leads to stronger algorithmic "muscles," much like a track star who always practices by running up an incline. 4.2.3 Asymptotic Notation In general, each basic step in a pseudo-code description or a high-level language implementation corresponds to a small number of primitive operations (except for method calls, of course). Thus, we can perform a simple analysis of an algorithm written in pseudo-code that estimates the number of primitive operations executed up to a constant factor, by pseudo-code steps (but we must be careful, since a single line of pseudo-code may denote a number of steps in some cases). 228 Simplifying the Analysis Further In algorithm analysis, we focus on the growth rate of the running time as a function of the input size n, taking a "big-picture" approach, rather than being bogged down with small details. It is often enough just to know that the running time of an algorithm such as arrayMax, given in Section 1.9.2, grows proportionally to n, with its true running time being n times a constant factor that depends on the specific computer. We analyze data structures and algorithms using a mathematical notation for functions that disregards constant factors. Namely, we characterize the running times of algorithms by using functions that map the size of the input, n, to values that correspond to the main factor that determines the growth rate in terms of n. We do not formally define what n means, however, and instead let n refer to a chosen measure of the input "size," which is allowed to be defined differently for each algorithm we are analyzing. This approach allows us to focus attention on the primary "big-picture" aspects in a running time function. In addition, the same approach lets us characterize space usage for data structures and algorithms, where we define space usage to be the total number of memory cells used. The "Big-Oh" Notation Let f(n) and g(n) be functions mapping nonnegative integers to real numbers. We say that f(n) is O(g(n)) if there is a real constant c > 0 and an integer constant n0 ≥ 1 such that f(n) ≤cg(n), for n ≥ n0. This definition is often referred to as the "big-Oh" notation, for it is sometimes pronounced as "f(n) is big-Oh of g(n)." Alternatively, we can also say "f(n) is order of g(n)." (This definition is illustrated in Figure 4.5.) Figure 4.5: Illustrating the "big-Oh" notation. The function f(n) is O(g(n)), since f(n) ≤ c · g(n) when n≥n0. 229 Example 4.6: The function 8n − 2 is O(n). Justification: By the big-Oh definition, we need to find a real constant c > 0 and an integer constant n0 ≥ 1 such that 8n − 2 ≤ cn for every integer n ≥ n0. It is easy to see that a possible choice is c = 8 and n0 = 1. Indeed, this is one o infinitely many choices available because any real number greater than or equal to 8 will work for c, and any integer greater than or equal to 1 will work for n f 0 The big-Oh notation allows us to say that a function f(n) is "less than or equal to" another function g(n) up to a constant factor and in the asymptotic sense as n grows toward infinity. This ability comes from the fact that the definition uses "≤" to compare f(n) to a g(n) times a constant, c, for the asymptotic cases when n≥n0. Characterizing Running Times using the Big-Oh Notation The big-Oh notation is used widely to characterize running times and space bounds in terms of some parameter n, which varies from problem to problem, but is always defined as a chosen measure of the "size" of the problem. For example, if we are interested in finding the largest element in an array of integers, as in the arrayMax algorithm, we should let n denote the number of elements of the array. Using the big-Oh notation, we can write the following mathematically precise statement on the running time of algorithm arrayMax for any computer. 230 Proposition 4.7: The AlgorithmarrayMax, for computing the maximum element in an array ofn integers, runs in O(n) time. Justification: The number of primitive operations executed by algorithm arrayMax in each iteration is a constant. Hence, since each primitive operation runs in constant time, we can say that the running time of algorithm arrayMax on an input of size n is at most a constant times n, that is, we may conclude that the running time of algorithm arrayMax is O(n). Some Properties of the Big-Oh Notation The big-Oh notation allows us to ignore constant factors and lower order terms and focus on the main components of a function that affect its growth. Example 4.8: 5n4 + 3n3 + 2n2 + 4n + 1 is O(n4). Justification: Note that 5n4 + 3n3 + 2n2 + 4n+ 1 ≤ (5 + 3 + 2 + 4+ 1)n4 = cn4, for c = 15, when n ≥ n0 = 1. In fact, we can characterize the growth rate of any polynomial function. Proposition 4.9: If f(n) is a polynomial of degree d, that is, f(n) = a0+ a1n+ … + adnd, and ad > 0, then f(n) is O(nd). Justification: Note that, for n ≥ 1, we have 1 ≤ n ≤ n2 ≤ … ≤ nd; hence, a0 + a1n + a2n2 + … + adnd ≤ (a0 + a1 + a2 + … + ad)nd. Therefore, we can show f(n) is O(nd) by defining c = a0 + a1 +… + ad and n0 = 1. Thus, the highest-degree term in a polynomial is the term that determines the asymptotic growth rate of that polynomial. We consider some additional properties of the big-Oh notation in the exercises. Let us consider some further examples here, however, focusing on combinations of the seven fundamental functions used in algorithm design. Example 4.10: 5n2 + 3nlog n+ 2n+ 5 is O(n2). 231 Justification: 5n2 + 3nlogn + 2n + 5 ≤ (5 + 3 + 2+5)n2 =cn, for c= 15, when n≥ n0 = 2 (note that n log n is zero for n = 1). Example 4.11: 20n3 + 10n log n + 5 is O(n3). Justification: 20n3 + 10n log n + 5 ≤ 35n3, for n ≥ 1. Example 4.12: 3log n + 2 is O(log n). Justification: 3 log n + 2 ≤ 5 log n, for n ≥ 2. Note that log n is zero for n = 1. That is why we use n ≥ n0 = 2 in this case. Example 4.13: 2n+2 is O(2n). Justification: 2n+2 = 2n22 = 4·2n; hence, we can take c = 4 and n0 = 1 in this case. Example 4.14: 2n + 100 log n is O(n). Justification: 2n + 100 log n ≤ 102 n, for n ≥ n0 = 2; hence, we can take c = 102 in this case. Characterizing Functions in Simplest Terms In general, we should use the big-Oh notation to characterize a function as closely as possible. While it is true that the function f(n) = 4n3 + 3n2 is O(n5) or even O(n4), it is more accurate to say that f(n) is O(n3). Consider, by way of analogy, a scenario where a hungry traveler driving along a long country road happens upon a local farmer walking home from a market. If the traveler asks the farmer how much longer he must drive before he can find some food, it may be truthful for the farmer to say, "certainly no longer than 12 hours," but it is much more accurate (and helpful) for him to say, "you can find a market just a few minutes drive up this road." Thus, even with the big-Oh notation, we should strive as much as possible to tell the whole truth. It is also considered poor taste to include constant factors and lower order terms in the big-Oh notation. For example, it is not fashionable to say that the function 2n2 232 is O(4n2 + 6n log n), although this is completely correct. We should strive instead to describe the function in the big-Oh in simplest terms. The seven functions listed in Section 4.1 are the most common functions used in conjunction with the big-Oh notation to characterize the running times and space usage of algorithms. Indeed, we typically use the names of these functions to refer to the running times of the algorithms they characterize. So, for example, we would say that an algorithm that runs in worst-case time 4n2 + n log n as a quadratic-time algorithm, since it runs in O(n2) time. Likewise, an algorithm running in time at most 5n + 20 log n + 4 would be called a linear-time algorithm. Big-Omega Just as the big-Oh notation provides an asymptotic way of saying that a function is "less than or equal to" another function, the following notations provide an asymptotic way of saying that a function grows at a rate that is "greater than or equal to" that of another. Let f(n) and g(n) be functions mapping nonnegative integers to real numbers. We say that f(n) is Ω(g(n)) (pronounced "f(n) is big-Omega of g(n)") if g(n) is O(f(n)) , that is, there is a real constant c > 0 and an integer constant n0 ≥ 1 such that f(n) ≥cg(n), for n ≥ n0. This definition allows us to say asymptotically that one function is greater than or equal to another, up to a constant factor. Example 4.15: 3nlog n + 2n is Ω(n log n). Justification: 3n log n + 2n ≥ 3n log n, for n ≥ 2. Big-Theta In addition, there is a notation that allows us to say that two functions grow at the same rate, up to constant factors. We say that f(n) is Θ (g(n)) (pronounced "f(n) is big-Theta of g(n)") if f(n) is O(g(n)) and f(n) is Ω(g(n)) , that is, there are real constants c ′ > 0 and c ′′ > 0, and an integer constant n0 ≥ 1 such that c ′g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ c ′′g(n), for n ≥ n0. Example 4.16: 3 n log n + 4n + 5log n isΘ(n log n). Justification: 3n log n ≤ 3nlog n + 4n + 5log n ≤ (3 + 4 + 5)nlog n for n ≥ 2. 233 4.2.4 Asymptotic Analysis Suppose two algorithms solving the same problem are available: an algorithm A, which has a running time of O(n), and an algorithm B, which has a running time of O(n2). Which algorithm is better? We know that n is O(n2), which implies that algorithm A is asymptotically better than algorithm B, although for a small value of n, B may have a lower running time than A. We can use the big-Oh notation to order classes of functions by asymptotic growth rate. Our seven functions are ordered by increasing growth rate in the sequence below, that is, if a function f(n) precedes a function g(n) in the sequence, then f(n) is O(g(n)): 1 log n n nlog n n2 n3 2n. We illustrate the growth rates of some important functions in Figure 4.2. Table 4.2: Selected values of fundamental functions in algorithm analysis. n logn n nlogn n2 n3 2n 8 3 8 24 64 512 234 256 16 4 16 64 256 4,096 65,536 32 5 32 160 1,024 32,768 4,294,967,296 64 6 64 384 4,096 262,144 1.84 × 1019 128 7 128 235 896 16,384 2,097,152 3.40 × 1038 256 8 256 2,048 65,536 16,777,216 1.15 × 1077 512 9 512 4,608 262,144 134,217,728 1.34 × 10154 We further illustrate the importance of the asymptotic viewpoint in Table 4.3. This table explores the maximum size allowed for an input instance that is processed by an algorithm in 1 second, 1 minute, and 1 hour. It shows the importance of good algorithm design, because an asymptotically slow algorithm is beaten in the long run by an asymptotically faster algorithm, even if the constant factor for the asymptotically faster algorithm is worse. Table 4.3: Maximum size of a problem that can be solved in 1 second, 1 minute,and 1 hour, for various running times measured in microseconds. 236 Running Maximum Problem Size (n) Time (μs) 1 second 1 minute 1 hour 400n 2,500 150,000 9,000,000 2n2 707 5,477 42,426 2n 19 25 31 The importance of good algorithm design goes beyond just what can be solved effectively on a given computer, however. As shown in Table 4.4, even if we achieve a dramatic speed-up in hardware, we still cannot overcome the handicap of an asymptotically slow algorithm. This table shows the new maximum problem size achievable for any fixed amount of time, assuming algorithms with the given running times are now run on a computer 256 times faster than the previous one. Table 4.4: Increase in the maximum size of a problem that can be solved in a fixed amount of time, by using a computer that is 256 times faster than the previous one. 237 Each entry is a function of m, the previous maximum problem size. Running Time New Maximum Problem Size 400n 256m 2n2 16m 2n m + 8 4.2.5 Using the Big-Oh Notation Having made the case of using the big-Oh notation for analyzing algorithms, let us briefly discuss a few issues concerning its use. It is considered poor taste, in general, to say "f(n) ≤ O(g(n))," since the big-Oh already denotes the "less-than-or- equal-to" concept. Likewise, although common, it is not fully correct to say "f(n) = O(g(n))" (with the usual understanding of the "=" relation), since there is no way to make sense of the statement "O(g(n)) = f(n)." In addition, it is completely wrong to say "f(n) ≥ O(g(n))" or "f(n) > O(g(n))," since the g(n) in the big-Oh expresses an upper bound on f(n). It is best to say, "f(n) is O(g(n))." For the more mathematically inclined, it is also correct to say, "f(n)  O(g(n))," for the big-Oh notation is, technically speaking, denoting a whole collection of functions. In this book, we will stick to presenting big-Oh statements as "f(n) is O(g(n))." Even with this interpretation, there is considerable freedom in how we can use arithmetic operations with the big-Oh notation, and with this freedom comes a certain amount of responsibility. Some Words of Caution A few words of caution about asymptotic notation are in order at this point. First, note that the use of the big-Oh and related notations can be somewhat misleading 238 should the constant factors they "hide" be very large. For example, while it is true that the function 10100n is O(n), if this is the running time of an algorithm being compared to one whose running time is 10nlogn, we should prefer the O(nlogn) time algorithm, even though the linear-time algorithm is asymptotically faster. This preference is because the constant factor, 10100, which is called "one googol," is believed by many astronomers to be an upper bound on the number of atoms in the observable universe. So we are unlikely to ever have a real-world problem that has this number as its input size. Thus, even when using the big-Oh notation, we should at least be somewhat mindful of the constant factors and lower order terms we are "hiding." The observation above raises the issue of what constitutes a "fast" algorithm. Generally speaking, any algorithm running in O(nlogn) time (with a reasonable constant factor) should be considered efficient. Even an O(n2) time method may be fast enough in some contexts, that is, when n is small. But an algorithm running in O(2n) time should almost never be considered efficient. Exponential Running Times There is a famous story about the inventor of the game of chess. He asked only that his king pay him 1 grain of rice for the first square on the board, 2 grains for the second, 4 grains for the third, 8 for the fourth, and so on. It is an interesting test of programming skills to write a program to compute exactly the number of grains of rice the king would have to pay. In fact, any Java program written to compute this number in a single integer value will cause an integer overflow to occur (although the run-time machine will probably not complain). To represent this number exactly as an integer requires using a BigInteger class. If we must draw a line between efficient and inefficient algorithms, therefore, it is natural to make this distinction be that between those algorithms running in polynomial time and those running in exponential time. That is, make the distinction between algorithms with a running time that is O(nc), for some constant c> 1, and those with a running time that is O(bn), for some constant b > 1. Like so many notions we have discussed in this section, this too should be taken with a "grain of salt," for an algorithm running in O(n100) time should probably not be considered "efficient." Even so, the distinction between polynomial-time and exponential-time algorithms is considered a robust measure of tractability. To summarize, the asymptotic notations of big-Oh, big-Omega, and big-Theta provide a convenient language for us to analyze data structures and algorithms. As mentioned earlier, these notations provide convenience because they let us concentrate on the "big picture" rather than low-level details. Two Examples of Asymptotic Algorithm Analysis 239 We conclude this section by analyzing two algorithms that solve the same problem but have rather different running times. The problem we are interested in is the one of computing the so-called prefix averages of a sequence of numbers. Namely, given an array X storing n numbers, we want to compute an array A such that A[i] is the average of elements X[0],…, X[i], for i = 0,…, n − 1, that is, Computing prefix averages has many applications in economics and statistics. For example, given the year-by-year returns of a mutual fund, an investor will typically want to see the fund's average annual returns for the last year, the last three years, the last five years, and the last ten years. Likewise, given a stream of daily Web usage logs, a Web site manager may wish to track average usage trends over various time periods. A Quadratic-Time Algorithm Our first algorithm for the prefix averages problem, called prefixAverages1, is shown in Code Fragment 4.1. It computes every element of A separately, following the definition. Code Fragment 4.1: Algorithm prefixAverages1. Let us analyze the prefixAverages1 algorithm. • Initializing and returning array A at the beginning and end can be done with a constant number of primitive operations per element, and takes O(n) time. 240 • There are two nested for loops, which are controlled by counters i and j, respectively. The body of the outer loop, controlled by counter i, is executed n times, for i = 0,…,n − 1. Thus, statements a = 0 and A[i] = a/(i+ 1) are executed n times each. This implies that these two statements, plus the incrementing and testing of counter i, contribute a number of primitive operations proportional to n, that is, O(n) time. • The body of the inner loop, which is controlled by counter j, is executed i + 1 times, depending on the current value of the outer loop counter i. Thus, statement a = a + X[j] in the inner loop is executed 1 + 2 + 3 +… +n times. By recalling Proposition 4.3, we know that 1 + 2 + 3 +… +n, = n(n + 1)/2, which implies that the statement in the inner loop contributes O(n2) time. A similar argument can be done for the primitive operations associated with the incrementing and testing counter j, which also take O(n2)time. The running time of algorithm prefixAverages1 is given by the sum of three terms. The first and the second term are O(n), and the third term is O(n2). By a simple application of Proposition 4.9, the running time of prefixAverages1 is O(n2). A Linear-Time Algorithm In order to compute prefix averages more efficiently, we can observe that two consecutive averages A[i − 1] and A[i] are similar: A[i − 1] = (X[0] + X[1] + … + X[i − 1])/i A[i] = (X[0] + X[1] + … + X[i − 1] + X[i])/(i + 1). If we denote with Si the prefix sum X[0] + X[1] + … + X[i], we can compute the prefix averages as A[i] = Si/(i + 1). It is easy to keep track of the current prefix sum while scanning array X with a loop. We are now ready to present Algorithm prefixAverages2 in Code Fragment 4.2. Code Fragment 4.2: Algorithmprefix Averages2. 241 The analysis of the running time of algorithm prefixAverages2 follows: • Initializing and returning array A at the beginning and end can be done with a constant number of primitive operations per element, and takes O(n) time. • Initializing variable s at the beginning takes O(1) time. • There is a single for loop, which is controlled by counter i. The body of the loop is executed n times, for i = 0,… ,n − 1. Thus, statements s = s + X[i] and A[i] = s/(i+ 1) are executed n times each. This implies that these two statements plus the incrementing and testing of counter i contribute a number of primitive operations proportional to n, that is, O(n) time. The running time of algorithm prefixAverages2 is given by the sum of three terms. The first and the third term are O(n), and the second term is O(1). By a simple application of Proposition 4.9, the running time of prefixAverages2 is O(n), which is much better than the quadratic-time algorithm prefixAverages1. 4.2.6 A Recursive Algorithm for Computing Powers As a more interesting example of algorithm analysis, let us consider the problem of raising a number x to an arbitrary nonnegative integer, n. That is, we wish to compute the power function p(x,n), defined as p(x,n) = xn. This function has an immediate recursive definition based on linear recursion: 242 This definition leads immediately to a recursive algorithm that uses O(n) method calls to compute p(x,n). We can compute the power function much faster than this, however, by using the following alternative definition, also based on linear recursion, which employs a squaring technique: To illustrate how this definition works, consider the following examples: 24 = 2(4/2)2 = (24/2)2 = (22)2 = 42 = 16 25 = 21 + (4/2)2 = 2(24/2)2 = 2(22)2 = 2(42) = 32 26 = 2(6/2)2 = (26/2)2 = (23)2 = 82 = 64 27 = 21 + (6/2)2 = 2(26/2)2 = 2(23)2 = 2(82) = 128. This definition suggests the algorithm of Code Fragment 4.3. Code Fragment 4.3: Computing the power function using linear recursion. To analyze the running time of the algorithm, we observe that each recursive call of method Power(x, n) divides the exponent, n, by two. Thus, there are O(logn) recursive calls, not O(n). That is, by using linear recursion and the squaring 243 technique, we reduce the running time for the computation of the power function from O(n) to O(logn), which is a big improvement. 4.3. Simple Justification Techniques Sometimes, we will want to make claims about an algorithm, such as showing that it is correct or that it runs fast. In order to rigorously make such claims, we must use mathematical language, and in order to back up such claims, we must justify or prove our statements. Fortunately, there are several simple ways to do this. 4.3.1 By Example Some claims are of the generic form, "There is an element x in a set S that has property P." To justify such a claim, we only need to produce a particular x in S that has property P. Likewise, some hard-to-believe claims are of the generic form, "Every element x in a set S has property P." To justify that such a claim is false, we need to only produce a particular x from S that does not have property P. Such an instance is called a counterexample. Example 4.17: Professor Amongus claims that every number of the form 2i − 1 is a prime, when i is an integer greater than 1. Professor Amongus is wrong. Justification: To prove Professor Amongus is wrong, we find a counter- example. Fortunately, we need not look too far, for 24 − 1 = 15 = 3 · 5. 4.3.2 The "Contra" Attack Another set of justification techniques involves the use of the negative. The two primary such methods are the use of the contrapositive and the contradiction. The use of the contrapositive method is like looking through a negative mirror. To justify the statement "if p is true, then q is true" we establish that "if q is not true, then p is not true" instead. Logically, these two statements are the same, but the latter, which is called the contrapositive of the first, may be easier to think about. Example 4.18: Let a and b be integers. If ab is even, then a is even or b is even. Justification: To justify this cxlaim, consider the contrapositive, "If a is odd and b is odd, then ab is odd." So, suppose a = 2i + 1 and b = 2j+1, for some integers i and j. Then ab = 4ij + 2i + 2j + 1 = 2(2ij plus; i + j) + 1; hence, ab is odd. 244 Besides showing a use of the contrapositive justification technique, the previous example also contains an application of DeMorgan's Law. This law helps us deal with negations, for it states that the negation of a statement of the form "p or q" is "not p and not q." Likewise, it states that the negation of a statement of the form "p and q" is "not p or not q" Contradiction Another negative justification technique is justification by contradiction, which also often involves using DeMorgan's Law. In applying the justification by contradicti on technique, we establish that a statement q is true by first supposing that q is false and then showing that this assumption leads to a contradiction (such as 2 ≠ 2 or 1 > 3). By reaching such a contradiction, we show that no consistent situation exists with q being false, so q must be true. Of course, in order to reach this conclusion, we must be sure our situation is consistent before we assume q is false. Example 4.19: Let a and b be integers. If ab is odd, then a is odd and b is odd. Justification: Let ab be odd. We wish to show that a is odd and b is odd. So, with the hope of leading to a contradiction, let us assume the opposite, namely, suppose a is even or b is even. In fact, without loss of generality, we can assume that a is even (since the case for b is symmetric). Then a = 2i for some integer i. Hence, ab = (2i)b = 2(ib), that is, ab is even. But this is a contradiction: ab cannot simultaneously be odd and even. Therefore a is odd and b is odd. 4.3.3 Induction and Loop Invariants Most of the claims we make about a running time or a space bound involve an integer parameter n (usually denoting an intuitive notion of the "size" of the problem). Moreover, most of these claims are equivalent to saying some statement q(n) is true "for all n ≥ 1." Since this is making a claim about an infinite set of numbers, we cannot justify this exhaustively in a direct fashion. Induction We can often justify claims such as those above as true, however, by using the technique of induction. This technique amounts to showing that, for any particular n ≥ 1, there is a finite sequence of implications that starts with something known to be true and ultimately leads to showing that q(n) is true. Specifically, we begin a justification by induction by showing that q(n) is true for n = 1 (and possibly some other values n = 2,3,…, k, for some constant k). Then 245 we justify that the inductive "step" is true for n> k, namely, we show "if q(i) is true for i > n, then q(n) is true." The combination of these two pieces completes the justification by induction. Proposition 4.20: Consider the Fibonacci function F(n), where we define F(1) = 1, F(2) = 2, and F(n) = F(n − 1) + F(n − 2) for n > 2. (See Section 2.2.3.) We claim thatF(n) < 2n. Justification: We will show our claim is right by induction. Base cases: (n ≤ 2). F(1) = 1< 2 = 21 and F(2) = 2 < 4 = 22. Induction step: (n > 2). Suppose our claim is true for n ′ < n. Consider F(n). Since n > 2, F(n) = F(n − 1) + F(n − 2). Moreover, since n − 10. 249 R-4.14 Show that if d(n) is O(f(n)) and e(n) is O(g(n)), then the product d(n)e(n) is O(f(n)g(n)). R-4.15 Give a big-Oh characterization, in terms of n, of the running time of the Ex1 method shown in Code Fragment 4.5. R-4.16 Give a big-Oh characterization, in terms of n, of the running time of the Ex2 method shown in Code Fragment 4.5. R-4.17 Give a big-Oh characterization, in terms of n, of the running time of the Ex3 method shown in Code Fragment 4.5. R-4.18 Give a big-Oh characterization, in terms of n, of the running time of the Ex4 method shown in Code Fragment 4.5. R-4.19 Give a big-Oh characterization, in terms of n, of the running time of the Ex5 method shown in Code Fragment 4.5. R-4.20 Bill has an algorithm, find2D, to find an element x in an n × n array A. The algorithm find2D iterates over the rows of A, and calls the algorithm array Find, of Code Fragment 4.4, on each row, until x is found or it has searched all rows of A. What is the worst-case running time of find2D in terms of n? What is the worst-case running time of find2D in terms of N, where N is the total size of A? Would it be correct to say that Find2D is a linear-time algorithm? Why or why not? R-4.21 For each function f(n) and time t in the following table, determine the largest size n of a problem P that can be solved in time t if the algorithm for solving P takes f(n) microseconds (one entry is already completed). 250 R-4.22 Show that if d(n) is O(f(n)) and e(n) is O(g(n)), then d(n) + e(n) is O(f(n) + g(n)). R-4.23 Show that if d(n) is O(f(n)) and e(n) is O(g(n)), then d(n) − e(n) is not necessarily O( f(n) − g(n)). R-4.24 Show that if d(n) is O(f(n)) and f(n) is O(g(n)), then d(n) is O(g(n)). R-4.25 Show that O(max{f(n),g(n)}) = O(f(n) + g(n)). R-4.26 Show that f(n) is O(g(n)) if and only if g(n) is Ω(f(n)). R-4.27 Show that if p(n) is a polynomial in n, then log p(n) is O(logn). R-4.28 Show that (n + 1)5 is O(n5). Code Fragment 4.5: Some algorithms. 251 252 R-4.29 Show that 2n+1 is O(2n). R-4.30 Show that n is O(nlogn). R-4.31 Show that n2 is Ω(n log n). R-4.32 Show that nlogn is Ω(n). R-4.33 Show that [f(n)] is O(f(n)), if f(n) is a positive nondecreasing function that is always greater than 1. R-4.34 Algorithm A executes an O(logn)-time computation for each entry of an n- element array. What is the worst-case running time of Algorithm A? R-4.35 Given an n-element array X, Algorithm B chooses logn elements in X at random and executes an O(n)-time calculation for each. What is the worst-case running time of Algorithm B? R-4.36 Given an n-element array X of integers, Algorithm C executes an O(n)-time computation for each even number in X, and an O(logn)-time computation for each odd number in X. What are the best-case and worst-case running times of Algorithm C? R-4.37 Given an n-element array X, Algorithm D calls Algorithm E on each element X[i]. Algorithm E runs in O(i) time when it is called on element X[i]. What is the worst-case running time of Algorithm D? R-4.38 Al and Bob are arguing about their algorithms. Al claims his O(nlogn)-time method is always faster than Bob's O(n2)-time method. To settle the issue, they 253 perform a set of experiments. To Al's dismay, they find that if n <100, the O(n2)-time algorithm runs faster, and only when n ≥ 100 is the O(n log n) -time one better. Explain how this is possible. Creativity C-4.1 Describe a recursive algorithm to compute the integer part of the base-two logarithm of n using only addition and integer division. C-4.2 Describe how to implement the queue ADT using two stacks. What is the running time of the enqueue() and dequeue() methods in this case? C-4.3 Suppose you are given an n-element array A containing distinct integers that are listed in increasing order. Given a number k, describe a recursive algorithm to find two integers in A that sum to k, if such a pair exists. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-4.4 Given an n-element unsorted array A of n integers and an integer k, describe a recursive algorithm for rearranging the elements in A so that all elements less than or equal to k come before any elements larger than k. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-4.5 Show that is O(n3). C-4.6 Show that (Hint: Try to bound this sum term by term with a geometric progression.) C-4.7 Show that logb f(n) is θ(logf(n)) if b > 1 is a constant. C-4.8 254 Describe a method for finding both the minimum and maximum of n numbers using fewer than 3n/2 comparisons. (Hint: First construct a group of candidate minimums and a group of candidate maximums.) C-4.9 Bob built a Web site and gave the URL only to his n friends, which he numbered from 1 to n. He told friend number i that he/she can visit the Web site at most i times. Now Bob has a counter, C, keeping track of the total number of visits to the site (but not the identities of who visits). What is the minimum value for C such that Bob should know that one of his friends has visited his/her maximum allowed number of times? C-4.10 Consider the following "justification" that the Fibonacci function, F(n) (see Proposition 4.20) is O(n):Base case (n ≤ 2): F(1) = 1 and F(2) = 2. Induction step (n > 2): Assume claim true for n ′ < n. Consider n. F(n) = F(n − 1) + F(n − 2). By induction, F(n − 1) is O(n − 1) and F(n − 2) is O(n − 2). Then, F(n) is O((n − 1) + (n − 2)), by the identity presented in Exercise R-4.22. Therefore, F(n) is O(n). What is wrong with this "justification"? C-4.11 Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree n, that is,p(x) = . (a) Describe a simple O(n2) time method for computing p(x). (b) Now consider a rewriting of p(x) as p(x) = a0 + x(a1 +x(a2 + x(a3 + …+ x(an−1 +xan) … ))), which is known as Horner's method. Using the big-Oh notation, characterize the number of arithmetic operations this method executes. C-4.12 Consider the Fibonacci function, F(n) (see Proposition 4.20). Show by induction that F(n) is Ω((3/2)n). C-4.13 255 Given a set A = {a1,a2, …an} of n integers, describe, in pseudo-code, an efficient method for computing each of partial sums sk = for k= 1,2,…, n. What is the running time of this method? C-4.14 Draw a visual justification of Proposition 4.3 analogous to that of Figure 4.1(b) for the case when n is odd. C-4.15 An array A contains n − 1 unique integers in the range [0,n − 1] , that is, there is one number from this range that is not in A. Design an O(n)-time algorithm for finding that number. You are only allowed to use O(1) additional space besides the array A itself. C-4.16 Let s be a set of n lines in the plane such that no two are parallel and no three meet in the same point. Show, by induction, that the lines in s determine Θ(n2) intersection points. C-4.17 Show that the summation is O(nlogn). C-4.18 An evil king has n bottles of wine, and a spy has just poisoned one of them. Unfortunately, they don't know which one it is. The poison is very deadly; just one drop diluted even a billion to one will still kill. Even so, it takes a full month for the poison to take effect. Design a scheme for determining exactly which one of the wine bottles was poisoned in just one month's time while expending O(logn) taste testers. C-4.19 Suppose that each row of an n × n array A consists of 1's and 0's such that, in any row of A all the 1's come before any 0's in that row. Assuming A is already in memory, describe a method running in O(n) time (not O(n2) time) for finding the row of A that contains the most 1's. C-4.20 256 Describe, in pseudo-code a method for multiplying an n × m matrix A and an m × p matrix B. Recall that the product C = AB is defined so that C[i] [j] = What is the running time of your method? C-4.21 Suppose each row of an n × n array A consists of 1's and 0's such that, in any row i of A all the 1's come before any 0's. Also suppose that the number of 1's in row i is at least the number in row i + 1, for i = 0,1,…, n − 2. Assuming A is already in memory, describe a method running in O(n) time (not O(n2)) for counting the number of 1's in A. C-4.22 Describe a recursive method for computing the nth Harmonic number, Projects P-4.1 Implement prefixAverages1 and prefixAverages2 from Section 4.2.5, and perform an experimental analysis of their running times. Visualize their running times as a function of the input size with a log-log chart. P-4.2 Perform a careful experimental analysis that compares the relative running times of the methods shown in Code Fragments 4.5. Chapter Notes The big-Oh notation has prompted several comments about its proper use [16, 47, 61]. Knuth [62, 61] defines it using the notation f(n) = O(g(n)), but says this "equality" is only "one way." We have chosen to take a more standard view of equality and view the big-Oh notation as a set, following Brassard [16]. The reader interested in studying average-case analysis is referred to the book chapter by Vitter and Flajolet [97]. We found the story about Archimedes in [77]. For some additional mathematical tools, please refer to Appendix A. 257 Chapter 5 Stacks and Queues Contents 5.1 258 Stacks.............................................. 188 5.1.1 The Stack Abstract Data Type....................... 189 5.1.2 A Simple Array-Based Stack Implementation.......... 192 5.1.3 Implementing a Stack with a Generic Linked List.... 197 5.1.4 Reversing an Array Using a Stack................... 199 5.1.5 Matching Parentheses and HTML Tags................. 200 5.2 Queues.............................................. 204 5.2.1 The Queue Abstract Data Type....................... 204 5.2.2 ASimple Array-Based Queue Implementation........... 259 206 5.2.3 Implementing a Queue with a Generic Linked List.... 210 5.2.4 Round Robin Schedulers............................. 211 5.3 Double-Ended Queues................................. 213 5.3.1 The Deque Abstract Data Type....................... 213 5.3.2 Implementing a Deque............................... 214 5.4 Exercises........................................... 217 java.datastructures.net 5.1 Stacks A stack is a collection of objects that are inserted and removed according to the last- in first-out (LIFO) principle. Objects can be inserted into a stack at any time, but only the most recently inserted (that is, "last") object can be removed at any time. The name "stack" is derived from the metaphor of a stack of plates in a spring-loaded, cafeteria plate dispenser. In this case, the fundamental operations involve the "pushing" and "popping" of plates on the stack. When we need a new plate from the dispenser, we "pop" the top plate off the stack, and when we add a plate, we "push" it 260 down on the stack to become the new top plate. Perhaps an even more amusing metaphor would be a PEZ® candy dispenser, which stores mint candies in a spring- loaded container that "pops" out the top-most candy in the stack when the top of the dispenser is lifted. (See Figure 5.1.) Stacks are a fundamental data structure. They are used in many applications, including the following. Figure 5.1: A schematic drawing of a PEZ® dispenser; a physical implementation of the stack ADT. (PEZ® is a registered trademark of PEZ Candy, Inc.) Example 5.1: Internet Web browsers store the addresses of recently visited sites on a stack. Each time a user visits a new site, that site's address is "pushed" onto the stack of addresses. The browser then allows the user to "pop" back to previously visited sites using the "back" button. Example 5.2: Text editors usually provide an "undo" mechanism that cancels recent editing operations and reverts to former states of a document. This undo operation can be accomplished by keeping text changes in a stack. 5.1.1 The Stack Abstract Data Type Stacks are the simplest of all data structures, yet they are also among the most important, as they are used in a host of different applications that include many more sophisticated data structures. Formally, a stack is an abstract data type (ADT) that supports the following two methods: 261 push(e): Insert element e, to be the top of the stack. pop(): Remove from the stack and return the top element on the stack; an error occurs if the stack is empty. Additionally, let us also define the following methods: size(): Return the number of elements in the stack. isEmpty(): Return a Boolean indicating if the stack is empty. top(): Return the top element in the stack, without removing it; an error occurs if the stack is empty. Example 5.3: The following table shows a series of stack operations and their effects on an initially empty stack S of integers. Operation Output Stack Contents push(5) - (5) push(3) - (5, 3) pop() 3 (5) push(7) - (5, 7) pop() 262 7 (5) top() 5 (5) pop() 5 () pop() "error" () isEmpty() true () push(9) - (9) push(7) - (9, 7) push(3) - (9, 7, 3) push(5) - 263 (9, 7, 3, 5) size() 4 (9, 7, 3, 5) pop() 5 (9, 7, 3) push(8) - (9, 7, 3, 8) pop() 8 (9, 7, 3) pop() 3 (9, 7) A Stack Interface in Java Because of its importance, the stack data structure is included as a "built-in" class in the java.util package of Java. Class java.util.Stack is a data structure that stores generic Java objects and includes, among others, the methods push(), pop(), peek() (equivalent to top()), size(), and empty() (equivalent to isEmpty()). Methods pop() and peek() throw exception EmptyStackException if they are called on an empty stack. While it is convenient to just use the built-in class java.util.Stack, it is instructive to learn how to design and implement a stack "from scratch." Implementing an abstract data type in Java involves two steps. The first step is the definition of a Java Application Programming Interface (API), or simply interface, which describes the names of the methods that the ADT supports and how they are to be declared and used. 264 In addition, we must define exceptions for any error conditions that can arise. For instance, the error condition that occurs when calling method pop() or top() on an empty stack is signaled by throwing an exception of type EmptyStackException, which is defined in Code Fragment 5.1. Code Fragment 5.1: Exception thrown by methods pop() and top() of the Stack interface when called on an empty stack. A complete Java interface for the stack ADT is given in Code Fragment 5.2. Note that this interface is very general since it specifies that elements of any given class (and its subclasses) can be inserted into the stack. It achieves this generality by using the concept of generics (Section 2.5.2). For a given ADT to be of any use, we need to provide a concrete class that implements the methods of the interface associated with that ADT. We give a simple implementation of the Stack interface in the following subsection. Code Fragment 5.2: Interface Stack documented with comments in Javadoc style (Section 1.9.3). Note also the use of the generic parameterized type, E, which implies that a stack can contain elements of any specified class. 265 266 5.1.2 A Simple Array-Based Stack Implementation We can implement a stack by storing its elements in an array. Specifically, the stack in this implementation consists of an N-element array S plus an integer variable t that gives the the index of the top element in array S. (See Figure 5.2.) Figure 5.2: Implementing a stack with an array S. The top element in the stack is stored in the cell S[t]. Recalling that arrays start at index 0 in Java, we initialize t to −1, and we use this value for t to identify an empty stack. Likewise, we can use t to determine the number of elements (t + 1). We also introduce a new exception, called FullStackException, to signal the error that arises if we try to insert a new element into a full array. Exception FullStackException is specific to this implementation and is not defined in the stack ADT, however. We give the details of the array-based stack implementation in Code Fragment 5.3. Code Fragment 5.3: Implementing a stack using an array of a given size, N. 267 Analyzing the Array-Based Stack Implementation The correctness of the methods in the array-based implementation follows immediately from the definition of the methods themselves. There is, nevertheless, a mildly interesting point here involving the implementation of the pop method. Note that we could have avoided resetting the old S[t] to null and we would still have a correct method. There is a trade-off in being able to avoid this assignment should we be thinking about implementing these algorithms in Java, however. The trade-off involves the Java garbage collection mechanism that searches memory for objects that are no longer referenced by active objects, and reclaims their space for future use. (For more details, see Section 14.1.3.) Let e = S[t] be the top element before the pop method is called. By making S[t] a null reference, 268 we indicate that the stack no longer needs to hold a reference to object e. Indeed, if there are no other active references to e, then the memory space taken by e will be reclaimed by the garbage collector. Table 5.1 shows the running times for methods in a realization of a stack by an array. Each of the stack methods in the array realization executes a constant number of statements involving arithmetic operations, comparisons, and assignments. In addition, pop also calls isEmpty, which itself runs in constant time. Thus, in this implementation of the Stack ADT, each method runs in constant time, that is, they each run in O(1) time. Table 5.1: Performance of a stack realized by an array. The space usage is O(N), where N is the size of the array, determined at the time the stack is instantiated. Note that the space usage is independent from the number n ≤ N of elements that are actually in the stack. Method Time size O(1) is Empty O(1) top O(1) push O(1) pop O(1) A concrete Java implementation of the pseudo-code of Code Fragment 5.3, with Java class ArrayStack implementing the Stack interface, is given in Code Fragments 5.4 and 5.5. Unfortunately, due to space considerations, we omit most 269 javadoc comments for this and most other Java code fragments presented in the remainder of this book. Note that we use a symbolic name, CAPACITY, to specify the capacity of the array. This allows us to specify the capacity of the array in one place in our code and have that value reflected throughout. Code Fragment 5.4: Array-based Java implementation of the Stack interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 5.5.) 270 271 Code Fragment 5.5: Array-based Stack. (Continued from Code Fragment 5.4.) 272 273 Example Output Below, we show the output from the above ArrayStack program. Note that, through the use of generic types, we are able to create an ArrayStack A for storing integers and another ArrayStack B that stores character strings. ------> new ArrayStack A, returns null result: size = 0, isEmpty = true, stack: [] ------> A.push(7), returns null result: size = 1, isEmpty = false, stack: [7] ------> A.pop(), returns 7 result: size = 0, isEmpty = true, stack: [] ------> A.push(9), returns null result: size = 1, isEmpty = false, stack: [9] ------> A.pop(), returns 9 result: size = 0, isEmpty = true, stack: [] ------> new ArrayStack B, returns null result: size = 0, isEmpty = true, stack: [] ------> B.push("Bob"), returns null result: size = 1, isEmpty = false, stack: [Bob] ------> B.push("Alice"), returns null result: size = 2, isEmpty = false, stack: [Bob, Alice] ------> B.pop(), returns Alice result: size = 1, isEmpty = false, stack: [Bob] ------> B.push("Eve"), returns null result: size = 2, isEmpty = false, stack: [Bob, Eve] A Drawback with the Array-Based Stack Implementation 274 The array implementation of a stack is simple and efficient. Nevertheless, this implementation has one negative aspect—it must assume a fixed upper bound, CAPACITY, on the ultimate size of the stack. In Code Fragment 5.4, we chose the capacity value 1,000 more or less arbitrarily. An application may actually need much less space than this, which would waste memory. Alternatively, an application may need more space than this, which would cause our stack implementation to generate an exception as soon as a client program tries to push its 1,001st object on the stack. Thus, even with its simplicity and efficiency, the array-based stack implementation is not necessarily ideal. Fortunately, there is another implementation, which we discuss next, that does not have a size limitation and use space proportional to the actual number of elements stored in the stack. Still, in cases where we have a good estimate on the number of items needing to go in the stack, the array-based implementation is hard to beat. Stacks serve a vital role in a number of computing applications, so it is helpful to have a fast stack ADT implementation such as the simple array-based implementation. 5.1.3 Implementing a Stack with a Generic Linked List In this section, we explore using a singly linked list to implement the stack ADT. In designing such an implementation, we need to decide if the top of the stack is at the head or at the tail of the list. There is clearly a best choice here, however, since we can insert and delete elements in constant time only at the head. Thus, it is more efficient to have the top of the stack at the head of our list. Also, in order to perform operation size in constant time, we keep track of the current number of elements in an instance variable. Rather than use a linked list that can only store objects of a certain type, as we showed in Section 3.2, we would like, in this case, to implement a generic stack using a generic linked list. Thus, we need to use a generic kind of node to implement this linked list. We show such a Node class in Code Fragment 5.6. Code Fragment 5.6: Class Node, which implements a generic node for a singly linked list. 275 A Generic NodeStack Class A Java implementation of a stack, by means of a generic singly linked list, is given in Code Fragment 5.7. All the methods of the Stack interface are executed in constant time. In addition to being time efficient, this linked list implementation has a space requirement that is O(n), where n is the current number of elements in the stack. Thus, this implementation does not require that a new exception be created to handle size overflow problems. We use an instance variable top to refer to the head of the list (which points to the null object if the list is empty). When we push a new element e on the stack, we simply create a new node v for e, reference e from v, and insert v at the head of the list. Likewise, when we pop an element from the stack, we simply remove the node at the head 276 of the list and return its element. Thus, we perform all insertions and removals of elements at the head of the list. Code Fragment 5.7: Class NodeStack, which implements the Stack interface using a singly linked list, whose nodes are objects of class Node from Code Fragment 5.6. 5.1.4 Reversing an Array Using a Stack We can use a stack to reverse the elements in an array, thereby producing a nonrecursive algorithm for the array-reversal problem introduced in Section 3.5.1. The basic idea is simply to push all the elements of the array in order into a stack 277 and then fill the array back up again by popping the elements off of the stack. In Code Fragment 5.8, we give a Java implementation of this algorithm. Incidentally, this method also illustrates how we can use generic types in a simple application that uses a generic stack. In particular, when the elements are popped off the stack in this example, they are automatically returned as elements of the E type; hence, they can be immediately returned to the input array. We show an example use of this method in Code Fragment 5.9. Code Fragment 5.8: A generic method that reverses the elements in an array of type E objects, using a stack declared using the Stack interface. Code Fragment 5.9: A test of the reverse method using two arrays. 278 5.1.5 Matching Parentheses and HTML Tags In this subsection, we explore two related applications of stacks, the first of which is for matching parentheses and grouping symbols in arithmetic expressions. Arithmetic expressions can contain various pairs of grouping symbols, such as • Parentheses: "(" and ")" • Braces: "{" and "}" • Brackets: "[" and "]" • Floor function symbols: " " and "" • Ceiling function symbols: "" and "," and each opening symbol must match with its corresponding closing symbol. For example, a left bracket, "[," must match with a corresponding right bracket, "]," as in the following expression: [(5 + x) − (y + z)]. 279 The following examples further illustrate this concept: • Correct: ( )(( )){([( )])} • Correct: ((( )(( )){([( )])})) • Incorrect: )(( )){([( )])} • Incorrect: ({[])} • Incorrect: (. We leave the precise definition of matching of grouping symbols to Exercise R-5.5. An Algorithm for Parentheses Matching An important problem in processing arithmetic expressions is to make sure their grouping symbols match up correctly. We can use a stack S to perform the matching of grouping symbols in an arithmetic expression with a single left-to- right scan. The algorithm tests that left and right symbols match up and also that the left and right symbols are both of the same type. Suppose we are given a sequence X = x0x1x2…xn−1, where each xi is a token that can be a grouping symbol, a variable name, an arithmetic operator, or a number. The basic idea behind checking that the grouping symbols in S match correctly, is to process the tokens in X in order. Each time we encounter an opening symbol, we push that symbol onto S, and each time we encounter a closing symbol, we pop the top symbol from the stack S (assuming S is not empty) and we check that these two symbols are of the same type. If the stack is empty after we have processed the whole sequence, then the symbols in X match. Assuming that the push and pop operations are implemented to run in constant time, this algorithm runs in O(n), that is linear, time. We give a pseudo-code description of this algorithm in Code Fragment 5.10. Code Fragment 5.10: Algorithm for matching grouping symbols in an arithmetic expression. 280 Matching Tags in an HTML Document Another application in which matching is important is in the validation of HTML documents. HTML is the standard format for hyperlinked documents on the Internet. In an HTML document, portions of text are delimited by HTML tags. A simple opening HTML tag has the form "" and the corresponding closing tag has the form "." Commonly used HTML tags include • body: document body • h1: section header • center: center justify • p: paragraph • ol: numbered (ordered) list • li: list item. Ideally, an HTML document should have matching tags, although most browsers tolerate a certain number of mismatching tags. We show a sample HTML document and a possible rendering in Figure 5.3. 281 Figure 5.3: Illustrating HTML tags. (a) An HTML document; (b) its rendering. Fortunately, more or less the same algorithm as in Code Fragment 5.10 can be used to match the tags in an HTML document. In Code Fragments 5.11 and 5.12, we give a Java program for matching tags in an HTML document read from standard input. For simplicity, we assume that all tags are the simple opening or closing tags defined above and that no tags are formed incorrectly. Code Fragment 5.11: A complete Java program for testing if an HTML document has fully matching tags. (Continues in Code Fragment 5.12.) 282 Code Fragment 5.12: Java program for testing for matching tags in an HTML document. (Continued from 5.11.) Method isHTMLMatched uses a stack to store the names of the opening tags seen so far, similar to how the stack was used in Code Fragment 5.10. Method parseHTML uses a Scanner s to extract the tags from the HTML document, using the pattern "<[^>]*>," which denotes a string that starts with '<', followed by zero or more characters that are not '>', followed by a '>'. 283 5.2 Queues 284 Another fundamental data structure is the queue. It is a close "cousin" of the stack, as a queue is a collection of objects that are inserted and removed according to the first- in first-out (FIFO) principle. That is, elements can be inserted at any time, but only the element that has been in the queue the longest can be removed at any time. We usually say that elements enter a queue at the rear and are removed from the front. The metaphor for this terminology is a line of people waiting to get on an amusement park ride. People waiting for such a ride enter at the rear of the line and get on the ride from the front of the line. 5.2.1 The Queue Abstract Data Type Formally, the queue abstract data type defines a collection that keeps objects in a sequence, where element access and deletion are restricted to the first element in the sequence, which is called the front of the queue, and element insertion is restricted to the end of the sequence, which is called the rear of the queue. This restriction enforces the rule that items are inserted and deleted in a queue according to the first-in first-out (FIFO) principle. The queue abstract data type (ADT) supports the following two fundamental methods: enqueue(e): Insert element e at the rear of the queue. dequeue(): Remove and return from the queue the object at the front; an error occurs if the queue is empty. Additionally, similar to the case with the Stack ADT, the queue ADT includes the following supporting methods: size(): Return the number of objects in the queue. isEmpty(): Return a Boolean value that indicates whether the queue is empty. front(): Return, but do not remove, the front object in the queue; an error occurs if the queue is empty. Example 5.4: The following table shows a series of queue operations and their effects on an initially empty queue Q of integer objects. For simplicity, we use integers instead of integer objects as arguments of the operations. Operation Output front ← Q ← rear 285 enqueue(5) - (5) enqueue(3) - (5, 3) dequeue( ) 5 (3) enqueue(7) - (3, 7) dequeue( ) 3 (7) front( ) 7 (7) dequeue( ) 7 ( ) dequeue( ) "error" ( ) isEmpty( ) 286 true ( ) enqueue(9) - (9) enqueue(7) - (9, 7) size() 2 (9, 7) enqueue(3) - (9, 7, 3) enqueue(5) - (9, 7, 3, 5) dequeue( ) 9 (7, 3, 5) Example Applications There are several possible applications for queues. Stores, theaters, reservation centers, and other similar services typically process customer requests according to the FIFO principle. A queue would therefore be a logical choice for a data structure to handle transaction processing for such applications. For example, it would be a natural choice for handling calls to the reservation center of an airline or to the box office of a theater. 287 A Queue Interface in Java A Java interface for the queue ADT is given in Code Fragment 5.13. This generic interface specifies that objects of arbitrary object types can be inserted into the queue. Thus, we don't have to use explicit casting when removing elements. Note that the size and isEmpty methods have the same meaning as their counterparts in the Stack ADT. These two methods, as well as the front method, are known as accessor methods, for they return a value and do not change the contents of the data structure. Code Fragment 5.13: Interface Queue documented with comments in Javadoc style. 288 5.2.2 A Simple Array-Based Queue Implementation We present a simple realization of a queue by means of an array, Q, of fixed capacity, storing its elements. Since the main rule with the queue ADT is that we insert and delete objects according to the FIFO principle, we must decide how we are going to keep track of the front and rear of the queue. 289 One possibility is to adapt the approach we used for the stack implementation, letting Q[0] be the front of the queue and then letting the queue grow from there. This is not an efficient solution, however, for it requires that we move all the elements forward one array cell each time we perform a dequeue operation. Such an implementation would therefore take O(n) time to perform the dequeue method, where n is the current number of objects in the queue. If we want to achieve constant time for each queue method, we need a different approach. Using an Array in a Circular Way To avoid moving objects once they are placed in Q, we define two variables f and r, which have the following meanings: • f is an index to the cell of Q storing the first element of the queue (which is the next candidate to be removed by a dequeue operation), unless the queue is empty (in which case f = r). • r is an index to the next available array cell in Q. Initially, we assign f = r = 0, which indicates that the queue is empty. Now, when we remove an element from the front of the queue, we increment f to index the next cell. Likewise, when we add an element, we store it in cell Q[r] and increment r to index the next available cell in Q. This scheme allows us to implement methods front, enqueue, and dequeue in constant time, that is, O(1) time. However, there is still a problem with this approach. Consider, for example, what happens if we repeatedly enqueue and dequeue a single element N different times. We would have f = r = N. If we were then to try to insert the element just one more time, we would get an array-out-of-bounds error (since the N valid locations in Q are from Q[0] to Q[N − 1]), even though there is plenty of room in the queue in this case. To avoid this problem and be able to utilize all of the array Q, we let the f and r indices "wrap around" the end of Q. That is, we now view Q as a "circular array" that goes from Q[0] to Q[N − 1] and then immediately back to Q[0] again. (See Figure 5.4.) Figure 5.4: Using array Q in a circular fashion: (a) the "normal" configuration with f ≤ r; (b) the "wrapped around" configuration with r < f. The cells storing queue elements are highlighted. 290 Using the Modulo Operator to Implement a Circular Array Implementing this circular view of Q is actually pretty easy. Each time we increment f or r, we compute this increment as "(f + 1) mod N" or "(r + 1) mod N," respectively. Recall that operator "mod" is the modulo operator, which is computed by taking the remainder after an integral division. For example, 14 divided by 4 is 3 with remainder 2, so 14 mod 4 = 2. Specifically, given integers x and y such that x ≥ 0 and y > 0, we have x mod y = x − x/yy. That is, if r = x mod y, then there is a nonnegative integer q, such that x = qy + r. Java uses "%" to denote the modulo operator. By using the modulo operator, we can view Q as a circular array and implement each queue method in a constant amount of time (that is, O(1) time). We describe how to use this approach to implement a queue in Code Fragment 5.14. Code Fragment 5.14: Implementation of a queue using a circular array. The implementation uses the modulo operator to "wrap" indices around the end of the array and it also includes two instance variables, f and r, which index the front of the queue and first empty cell after the rear of the queue respectively. 291 The implementation above contains an important detail, which might be missed at first. Consider the situation that occurs if we enqueue N objects into Q without dequeuing any of them. We would have f = r, which is the same condition that occurs when the queue is empty. Hence, we would not be able to tell the difference between a full queue and an empty one in this case. Fortunately, this is not a big problem, and a number of ways for dealing with it exist. The solution we describe here is to insist that Q can never hold more than N − 1 objects. This simple rule for handling a full queue takes care of the final problem with our implementation, and leads to the pseudo-coded descriptions of the queue methods given in Code Fragment 5.14. Note our introduction of an implementation-specific exception, called FullQueueException, to signal that no more elements can be inserted in the queue. Also note the way we compute the size of the queue by means of the expression (N − f + r) mod N, 292 which gives the correct result both in the "normal" configuration (when f ≤ r) and in the "wrapped around" configuration (when r < f). The Java implementation of a queue by means of an array is similar to that of a stack, and is left as an exercise (P-5.4). Table 5.2 shows the running times of methods in a realization of a queue by an array. As with our array-based stack implementation, each of the queue methods in the array realization executes a constant number of statements involving arithmetic operations, comparisons, and assignments. Thus, each method in this implementation runs in O(1) time. Table 5.2: Performance of a queue realized by an array. The space usage is O(N), where N is the size of the array, determined at the time the queue is created. Note that the space usage is independent from the number n < N of elements that are actually in the queue. Method Time size O(1) isEmpty O(1) front O(1) enqueue O(1) dequeue O(1) As with the array-based stack implementation, the only real disadvantage of the array-based queue implementation is that we artificially set the capacity of the queue to be some fixed value. In a real application, we may actually need more or 293 less queue capacity than this, but if we have a good capacity estimate, then the array-based implementation is quite efficient. 5.2.3 Implementing a Queue with a Generic Linked List We can efficiently implement the queue ADT using a generic singly linked list. For efficiency reasons, we choose the front of the queue to be at the head of the list, and the rear of the queue to be at the tail of the list. In this way, we remove from the head and insert at the tail. (Why would it be bad to insert at the head and remove at the tail?) Note that we need to maintain references to both the head and tail nodes of the list. Rather than go into every detail of this implementation, we simply give a Java implementation for the fundamental queue methods in Code Fragment 5.15. Code Fragment 5.15: Methods enqueue and dequeue in the implementation of the queue ADT by means of a singly linked list, using nodes from class Node of Code Fragment 5.6. 294 Each of the methods of the singly linked list implementation of the queue ADT runs in O(1) time. We also avoid the need to specify a maximum size for the queue, as was done in the array-based queue implementation, but this benefit comes at the expense of increasing the amount of space used per element. Still, the methods in the singly linked list queue implementation are more complicated than we might like, for we must take extra care in how we deal with special cases where the queue is empty before an enqueue or where the queue becomes empty after a dequeue. 5.2.4 Round Robin Schedulers A popular use of the queue data structure is to implement a round robin scheduler, where we iterate through a collection of elements in a circular fashion and "service" each element by performing a given action on it. Such a schedule is used, for example, to fairly allocate a resource that must be shared by a collection of clients. 295 For instance, we can use a round robin scheduler to allocate a slice of CPU time to various applications running concurrently on a computer. We can implement a round robin scheduler using a queue, Q, by repeatedly performing the following steps (see Figure 5.5): 1. e ← Q.dequeue() 2. Service element e 3. Q.enqueue(e) Figure 5.5: The three iterative steps for using a queue to implement a round robin scheduler. The Josephus Problem In the children's game "hot potato," a group of n children sit in a circle passing an object, called the "potato," around the circle. The potato begins with a starting child in the circle, and the children continue passing the potato until a leader rings a bell, at which point the child holding the potato must leave the game after handing the potato to the next child in the circle. After the selected child leaves, the other children close up the circle. This process is then continued until there is only one child remaining, who is declared the winner. If the leader always uses the strategy of ringing the bell after the potato has been passed k times, for some fixed value k, then determining the winner for a given list of children is known as the Josephus problem. Solving the Josephus Problem Using a Queue We can solve the Josephus problem for a collection of n elements using a queue, by associating the potato with the element at the front of the queue and storing elements in the queue according to their order around the circle. Thus, passing the 296 potato is equivalent to dequeuing an element and immediately enqueuing it again. After this process has been performed k times, we remove the front element by dequeuing it from the queue and discarding it. We show a complete Java program for solving the Josephus problem using this approach in Code Fragment 5.16, which describes a solution that runs in O(nk) time. (We can solve this problem faster using techniques beyond the scope of this book.) Code Fragment 5.16: A complete Java program for solving the Josephus problem using a queue. Class NodeQueue is shown in Code Fragment 5.15. 297 5.3 Double-Ended Queues Consider now a queue-like data structure that supports insertion and deletion at both the front and the rear of the queue. Such an extension of a queue is called a double- ended queue, or deque, which is usually pronounced "deck" to avoid confusion with the dequeue method of the regular queue ADT, which is pronounced like the abbreviation "D.Q." 5.3.1 The Deque Abstract Data Type The deque abstract data type is richer than both the stack and the queue ADTs. The fundamental methods of the deque ADT are as follows: addFirst(e): Insert a new element e at the beginning of the deque. addLast(e): Insert a new element e at the end of the deque. removeFirst(): Remove and return the first element of the deque; an error occurs if the deque is empty. removeLast(): Remove and return the last element of the deque; an error occurs if the deque is empty. Additionally, the deque ADT may also include the following support methods: getFirst(): Return the first element of the deque; an error occurs if the deque is empty. getLast(): Return the last element of the deque; an error occurs if the deque is empty. size(): Return the number of elements of the deque. isEmpty(): Determine if the deque is empty. Example 5.5: The following table shows a series of operations and their effects on an initially empty deque D of integer objects. For simplicity, we use integers instead of integer objects as arguments of the operations. Operation Output D addFirst(3) 298 - (3) addFirst(5) - (5,3) removeFirst() 5 (3) addLast(7) - (3,7) removeFirst() 3 (7) removeLast() 7 () removeFirst() "error" () isEmpty() true () 5.3.2 Implementing a Deque 299 Since the deque requires insertion and removal at both ends of a list, using a singly linked list to implement a deque would be inefficient. We can use a doubly linked list, however, to implement a deque efficiently. As discussed in Section 3.3, inserting or removing elements at either end of a doubly linked list is straightforward to do in O(1) time, if we use sentinel nodes for the header and trailer. For an insertion of a new element e, we can have access to the node p before the place e should go and the node q after the place e should go. To insert a new element between the two nodes p and q (either or both of which could be sentinels), we create a new node t, have t's prev and next links respectively refer to p and q, and then have p's next link refer to t, and have q's prev link refer to t. Likewise, to remove an element stored at a node t, we can access the nodes p and q on either side of t (and these nodes must exist, since we are using sentinels). To remove node t between nodes p and q, we simply have p and q point to each other instead of t. We need not change any of the fields in t, for now t can be reclaimed by the garbage collector, since no one is pointing to t. Table 5.3 shows the running times of methods for a deque implemented with a doubly linked list. Note that every method runs in O(1) time. Table 5.3: Performance of a deque realized by a doubly linked list. Method Time size, isEmpty O(1) getFirst, getLast O(1) add First, addLast O(1) removeFirst, removeLast O(1) 300 Thus, a doubly linked list can be used to implement each method of the deque ADT in constant time. We leave the details of implementing the deque ADT efficiently in Java as an exercise (P-5.7). Incidentally, all of the methods of the deque ADT, as described above, are included in the java.util.LinkedList class. So, if we need to use a deque and would rather not implement one from scratch, we can simply use the built-in java.util.LinkedList class. In any case, we show a Deque interface in Code Fragment 5.17 and an implementation of this interface in Code Fragment 5.18. Code Fragment 5.17: Interface Deque documented with comments in Javadoc style (Section 1.9.3). Note also the use of the generic parameterized type, E, which implies that a deque can contain elements of any specified class. 301 302 Code Fragment 5.18: Class NodeDeque implementing the Deque interface, except that we have not shown the class DLNode, which is a generic doubly linked list node, nor have we shown methods getLast, addLast, and removeFirst. 303 304 5.4 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-5.1 Suppose an initially empty stack S has performed a total of 25 push operations, 12 top operations, and 10 pop operations, 3 of which generated StackEmptyExceptions, which were caught and ignored. What is the current size of S? R-5.2 If we implemented the stack S from the previous problem with an array, as described in this chapter, then what is the current value of the top instance variable? R-5.3 Describe the output of the following series of stack operations: push(5), push(3), pop(), push(2), push(8), pop(), pop(), push(9), push(1), pop(), push(7), push(6), pop(), pop(), push(4), pop(), pop(). R-5.4 Give a recursive method for removing all the elements in a stack. R-5.5 Give a precise and complete definition of the concept of matching for grouping symbols in an arithmetic expression. R-5.6 Describe the output for the following sequence of queue operations: enqueue(5), enqueue(3), dequeue(), enqueue(2), enqueue(8), dequeue(), dequeue(), enqueue(9), enqueue(1), dequeue(), enqueue(7), enqueue(6), dequeue(), dequeue(), enqueue(4), dequeue(), dequeue(). R-5.7 305 Suppose an initially-empty queue Q has performed a total of 32 enqueue operations, 10 front operations, and 15 dequeue operations, 5 of which generated QueueEmptyExceptions, which were caught and ignored. What is the current size of Q? R-5.8 If the queue of the previous problem was implemented with an array of capacity N = 30, as described in the chapter, and it never generated a FullQueueException, what would be the current values of f and r? R-5.9 Describe the output for the following sequence of deque ADT operations: addFirst(3), addLast(8), addLast(9), addFirst(5), removeFirst(), remove-Last(), first(), addLast(7), removeFirst(), last(), removeLast(). R-5.10 Suppose you have a deque D containing the numbers (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8), in this order. Suppose further that you have an initially empty queue Q. Give a pseudo- code description of a method that uses only D and Q (and no other variables or objects) and results in D storing the elements (1,2,3,5,4,6,7,8), in this order. R-5.11 Repeat the previous problem using the deque D and an initially empty stack S. Creativity C-5.1 Suppose you have a stack S containing n elements and a queue Q that is initially empty. Describe how you can use Q to scan S to see if it contains a certain element x, with the additional constraint that your algorithm must return the elements back to S in their original order. You may not use an array or linked list—only S and Q and a constant number of reference variables. C-5.2 Give a pseudo-code description for an array-based implementation of the double-ended queue ADT. What is the running time for each operation? C-5.3 306 Suppose Alice has picked three distinct integers and placed them into a stack S in random order. Write a short, straightline piece of pseudo-code (with no loops or recursion) that uses only one comparison and only one variable x, yet guarantees with probability 2/3 that at the end of this code the variable x will store the largest of Alice's three integers. Argue why your method is correct. C-5.4 Describe how to implement the stack ADT using two queues. What is the running time of the push() and pop() methods in this case? C-5.5 Show how to use a stack S and a queue Q to generate all possible subsets of an n-element set T nonrecursively. C-5.6 Suppose we have an n × n two-dimensional array A that we want to use to store integers, but we don't want to spend the O(n2) work to initialize it to all 0's (the way Java does), because we know in advance that we are only going to use up to n of these cells in our algorithm, which itself runs in O(n) time (not counting the time to initialize A). Show how to use an array-based stack S storing (i, j, k) integer triples to allow us to use the array A without initializing it and still implement our algorithm in O(n) time, even though the initial values in the cells of A might be total garbage. C-5.7 Describe a nonrecursive algorithm for enumerating all permutations of the numbers {1,2,…,n}. C-5.8 Postfix notation is an unambiguous way of writing an arithmetic expression without parentheses. It is defined so that if "(exp1 )op(exp2)" is a normal fully parenthesized expression whose operation is op, then the postfix version of this is "pexp1 pexp2 op", where pexp1 is the postfix version of exp1 and pexp2 is the postfix version of exp an 2. The postfix version of a single number or variable is just that number or variable. So, for example, the postfix version of "((5 + 2) * (8 − 3))/4" is "5 2 + 8 3 − * 4 /". Describe a nonrecursive way of evaluating expression in postfix notation. C-5.9 Suppose you have two nonempty stacks S and T and a deque D. Describe how to use D so that S stores all the elements of T below all of its original elements, with both sets of elements still in their original order. 307 C-5.10 Alice has three array-based stacks, A, B, and C, such that A has capacity 100, B has capacity 5, and C has capacity 3. Initially, A is full, and B and C are empty. Unfortunately, the person who programmed the class for these stacks made the push and pop methods private. The only method Alice can use is a static method, transfer(S,T), which transfers (by itera-tively applying the private pop and push methods) elements from stack S to stack T until either S becomes empty or T becomes full. So, for example, starting from our initial configuration and performing transfer(A, C) results in A now holding 97 elements and C holding 3. Describe a sequence of transfer operations that starts from the initial configuration and results in B holding 4 elements at the end. C-5.11 Alice has two queues, S and T, which can store integers. Bob gives Alice 50 odd integers and 50 even integers and insists that she stores all 100 integers in S and T. They then play a game where Bob picks S or T at random and then applies the round-robin scheduler, described in the chapter, to the chosen queue a random number of times. If the number left out of the queue at the end of this game is odd, Bob wins. Otherwise, Alice wins. How can Alice allocate integers to queues to optimize her chances of winning? What is her chance of winning? C-5.12 Suppose Bob has four cows that he wants to take across a bridge, but only one yoke, which can hold up to two cows, side by side, tied to the yoke. The yoke is too heavy for him to carry across the bridge, but he can tie (and untie) cows to it in no time at all. Of his four cows, Mazie can cross the bridge in 2 minutes, Daisy can cross it in 4 minutes, Crazy can cross it in 10 minutes, and Lazy can cross it in 20 minutes. Of course, when two cows are tied to the yoke, they must go at the speed of the slower cow. Describe how Bob can get all his cows across the bridge in 34 minutes. Projects P-5.1 Implement the stack ADT with a doubly linked list. P-5.2 Implement the stack ADT using the Java ArrayList class (without using the built-in Java Stack class). P-5.3 308 Implement a program that can input an expression in postfix notation (see Exercise C-5.8) and output its value. P-5.4 Implement the queue ADT using an array. P-5.5 Implement the entire queue ADT using a singly linked list. P-5.6 Design an ADT for a two-color, double-stack ADT that consists of two stacks— one "red" and one "blue"—and has as its operations color-coded versions of the regular stack ADT operations. For example, this ADT should allow for both a red push operation and a blue push operation. Give an efficient implementation of this ADT using a single array whose capacity is set at some value N that is assumed to always be larger than the sizes of the red and blue stacks combined. P-5.7 Implement the deque ADT with a doubly linked list. P-5.8 Implement the deque ADT with an array used in a circular fashion. P-5.9 Implement the Stack and Queue interfaces with a unique class that extends class NodeDeque (Code Fragment 5.18). P-5.10 When a share of common stock of some company is sold, the capital gain (or, sometimes, loss) is the difference between the share's selling price and the price originally paid to buy it. This rule is easy to understand for a single share, but if we sell multiple shares of stock bought over a long period of time, then we must identify the shares actually being sold. A standard accounting principle for identifying which shares of a stock were sold in such a case is to use a FIFO protocol—the shares sold are the ones that have been held the longest (indeed, this is the default method built into several personal finance software packages). For example, suppose we buy 100 shares at $20 each on day 1, 20 shares at $24 on day 2, 200 shares at $36 on day 3, and then sell 150 shares on day 4 at $30 each. Then applying the FIFO protocol means that of the 150 shares sold, 100 were bought on day 1, 20 were bought on day 2, and 30 were bought on day 3. The capital gain in this case would therefore be 100 · 10 + 20 · 6 + 30 · (−6), or 309 $940. Write a program that takes as input a sequence of transactions of the form "buy x; share(s) at $y each" or "sell x share(s) at $y each," assuming that the transactions occur on consecutive days and the values x and y are integers. Given this input sequence, the output should be the total capital gain (or loss) for the entire sequence, using the FIFO protocol to identify shares. Chapter Notes We were introduced to the approach of defining data structures first in terms of their ADTs and then in terms of concrete implementations by the classic books by Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman [4, 5], which incidentally is where we first saw aproblem similar to Exercise C-5.6. Exercises C-5.10, C-5.11, and C-5.12 are similar to interview questions said to be from a well-known software company. For further study of abstract data types, see Liskov and Guttag [69], Cardelli and Wegner [20], or Demurjian [28]. Chapter 6 Lists and Iterators Contents 6.1 Array Lists ...................... 222 6.1.1 The Array List Abstract Data Type.......... 222 6.1.2 The Adapter Pattern................. 310 223 6.1.3 A Simple Array-Based Implementation........ 224 6.1.4 A Simple Interface and the java.util.ArrayList Class. 226 6.1.5 Implementing an Array List Using Extendable Arrays 227 6.2 Node Lists ...................... 231 6.2.1 Node-Based Operations................ 231 6.2.2 Positions........................ 232 6.2.3 The Node List Abstract Data Type.......... 232 6.2.4 Doubly Linked List Implementation.......... 236 311 6.3 Iterators ...................... 242 6.3.1 The Iterator and Iterable Abstract Data Types.... 242 6.3.2 The Java For-Each Loop............... 244 6.3.3 Implementing Iterators................ 245 6.3.4 List Iterators in Java................. 247 6.4 List ADTs and the Collections Framework ...................... 249 6.4.1 The Java Collections Framework........... 249 6.4.2 The java.util.LinkedList Class............. 250 6.4.3 312 Sequences....................... 251 6.5 Case Study: The Move-to-Front Heuristic ...................... 253 6.5.1 Using a Sorted List and a Nested Class....... 253 6.5.2 Using a List with the Move-to-Front Heuristic.... 256 6.5.3 Possible Uses of a Favorites List........... 257 6.6 Exercises ...................... 260 java.datastructures.net 6.1 Array Lists Suppose we have a collection S of n elements stored in a certain linear order, so that we can refer to the elements in S as first, second, third, and so on. Such a collection is generically referred to as a list or sequence. We can uniquely refer to each element e in S using an integer in the range [0,n − 1] that is equal to the number of elements of S that precede e in S. The index of an element e in S is the number of elements that are before e in S. Hence, the first element in S has index 0 and the last element has index n − 1. Also, if an element of S has index i, its previous element (if it exists) has index i − 1, and its next element (if it exists) has index i + 1. This concept of index is related 313 to that of the rank of an element in a list, which is usually defined to be one more than its index; so the first element is at rank 1, the second is at rank 2, and so on. A sequence that supports access to its elements by their indices is called an array list (or vector, using an older term). Since our index definition is more consistent with the way arrays are indexed in Java and other programming languages (such as C and C++), we will be referring to the place where an element is stored in an array list as its "index," not its "rank" (although we may use r to denote this index, if the letter "i" is being used as a for-loop counter). This index concept is a simple yet powerful notion, since it can be used to specify where to insert a new element into a list or where to remove an old element. 6.1.1 The Array List Abstract Data Type As an ADT, an array list S has the following methods (besides the standard size() and isEmpty() methods): get(i): Return the element of S with index i; an error condition occurs if i < 0 or i > size() − 1. set(i, e): Replace with e and return the element at index i; an error condition occurs if i < 0 or i > size() − 1. add(i, e): Insert a new element e into S to have index i; an error condition occurs if i < 0 or i > size(). remove(i): Remove from S the element at index i; an error condition occurs if i < 0 or i > size() − 1. We do not insist that an array should be used to implement an array list, so that the element at index 0 is stored at index 0 in the array, although that is one (very natural) possibility. The index definition offers us a way to refer to the "place" where an element is stored in a sequence without having to worry about the exact implementation of that sequence. The index of an element may change whenever the sequence is updated, however, as we illustrate in the following example. Example 6.1: We show below some operations on an initially empty array list S. Operation Output S add(0,7) 314 - (7) add(0,4) - (4,7) get(1) 7 (4,7) add(2,2) - (4,7,2) get(3) "error" (4,7,2) remove(1) 7 (4,2) add(1,5) - (4,5,2) add(1,3) - (4,3,5,2) add(4,9) - 315 (4,3,5,2,9) get(2) 5 (4,3,5,2,9) set(3,8) 2 (4,3,5,8,9) 6.1.2 The Adapter Pattern Classes are often written to provide similar functionality to other classes. The adapter design pattern applies to any context where we want to modify an existing class so that its methods match those of a related, but different, class or interface. One general way for applying the adapter pattern is to define the new class in such a way that it contains an instance of the old class as a hidden field, and implement each method of the new class using methods of this hidden instance variable. The result of applying the adapter pattern is that a new class that performs almost the same functions as a previous class, but in a more convenient way, has been created. With respect to our discussion of the array list ADT, we note that this ADT is sufficient to define an adapter class for the deque ADT, as shown in Table 6.1. (See also Exercise C-6.8.) Table 6.1: Realization of a deque by means of an array list. Deque Method Realization with Array-List Methods size(), isEmpty() size(), isEmpty() getFirst() get(0) getLast() 316 get(size() −1) addFirst(e) add(0,e) addLast(e) add(size(),e) removeFirst() remove(0) removeLast() remove(size() − 1) 6.1.3 A Simple Array-Based Implementation An obvious choice for implementing the array list ADT is to use an array A, where A[i] stores (a reference to) the element with index i. We choose the size N of array A sufficiently large, and we maintain the number of elements in an instance variable, n < N. The details of this implementation of the array list ADT are simple. To implement the get(i) operation, for example, we just return A[i]. Implementations of methods add(i, e) and remove(i) are given in Code Fragment 6.1. An important (and time-consuming) part of this implementation involves the shifting of elements up or down to keep the occupied cells in the array contiguous. These shifting operations are required to maintain our rule of always storing an element whose list index is i at index i in the array A. (See Figure 6.1 and also Exercise R- 6.12.) Code Fragment 6.1: Methods add(i, e) and remove(i) in the array implementation of the array list ADT. We denote, with n, the instance variable storing the number of elements in the array list. 317 Figure 6.1: Array-based implementation of an array list S that is storing n elements: (a) shifting up for an insertion at index i(b); shifting down for a removal at index i The Performance of a Simple Array-Based Implementation Table 6.2 shows the worst-case running times of the methods of an array list with n elements realized by means of an array. Methods isEmpty, size, get and set clearly run in O(1) time, but the insertion and removal methods can take much longer than this. In particular, add(i, e) runs in time O(n). Indeed, the worst case for this operation occurs when i = 0, since all the existing n elements 318 have to be shifted forward. A similar argument applies to method remove(i), which runs in O(n) time, because we have to shift backward n − 1 elements in the worst case (i = 0). In fact, assuming that each possible index is equally likely to be passed as an argument to these operations, their average running time is O(n), for we will have to shift n/2 elements on average. Table 6.2: Performance of an array list with n elements realized by an array. The space usage is O(N), where N is the size of the array. Method Time size() O(1) isEmpty() O(1) get(i) O(1) set(i, e) O(1) add(i, e) O(n) remove(i) O(n) Looking more closely at add(i, e) and remove(i), we note that they each run in time O(n − i + 1), for only those elements at index i and higher have to be shifted up or down. Thus, inserting or removing an item at the end of an array list, using the methods add(n, e) and remove(n − 1), respectively take O(1) time each. Moreover, this observation has an interesting consequence for the adaptation of the array list ADT to the deque ADT given in Section 6.1.1. If the array list ADT in this case is implemented by means of an array as described above, then methods addLast and removeLast of the deque each run in O(1) 319 time. However, methods addFirst and removeFirst of the deque each run in O(n) time. Actually, with a little effort, we can produce an array-based implementation of the array list ADT that achieves O(1) time for insertions and removals at index 0, as well as insertions and removals at the end of the array list. Achieving this requires that we give up on our rule that an element at index i is stored in the array at index i, however, as we would have to use a circular array approach like the one we used in Section 5.2 to implement a queue. We leave the details of this implementation for an exercise (C-6.9). 6.1.4 A Simple Interface and the java. util. ArrayList Class To prepare for constructing a Java implementation of the array list ADT, we show, in Code Fragment 6.2, a Java interface, IndexList, that captures the main methods from the array list ADT. In this case, we use a IndexOutOfBoundsException to signal an invalid index argument. Code Fragment 6.2: The IndexList interface for the array list ADT. The java.util.ArrayList Class Java provides a class, java.util.ArrayList, that implements all the methods that we give above for our array list ADT. That is, it includes all of the methods included in Code Fragment 6.2 for the IndexList interface. 320 Moreover, the java.util.ArrayList class has features in addition to those of our simplified array list ADT. For example, the class java.util.ArrayList also includes a method, clear(), which removes all the elements from the array list, and a method, toArray(), which returns an array containing all the elements of the array list in the same order. In addition, the class java.util.ArrayList also has methods for searching the list, including a method indexOf(e), which returns the index of the first occurrence of an element equal to e in the array list, and a method lastIndexOf(e), which returns the index of the last occurrence of an element equal to e in the array list. Both of these methods return the (invalid) index value − 1 if an element equal to e is not found. 6.1.5 Implementing an Array List Using Extendable Arrays In addition to implementing the methods of the IndexList interface (and some other useful methods), the class java.util.ArrayList provides an an interesting feature that overcomes a weakness in the simple array implementation. Specifically, a major weakness of the simple array implementation for the array list ADT given in Section 6.1.3, is that it requires advance specification of a fixed capacity, N, for the total number of elements that may be stored in the array list. If the actual number of elements, n, of the array list is much smaller than N, then this implementation will waste space. Worse, if n increases past N, then this implementation will crash. Instead, the java.util.ArrayList uses an interesting extendable-array technique so that we never have to worry about array overflows when using this class. As with the java.util.ArrayList class, let us provide a means to grow the array A that stores the elements of an array list S. Of course, in Java (and other programming languages), we cannot actually grow the array A; its capacity is fixed at some number N, as we have already observed. Instead, when an overflow occurs, that is, when n = N and we make a call to the method add, we perform the following additional steps: 1. Allocate a new array B of capacity 2N 2. Let B[i ]← A[i], for i = 0,... , N − 1 3. Let A ← B, that is, we use B as the array supporting S 4. Insert the new element in A. 321 This array replacement strategy is known as an extendable array, for it can be viewed as extending the end of the underlying array to make room for more elements. (See Figure 6.2.) Intuitively, this strategy is much like that of the hermit crab, which moves into a larger shell when it outgrows its previous one. Figure 6.2: An illustration of the three steps for "growing" an extendable array: (a) create new array B; (b) copy elements from A to B; (c) reassign reference A to the new array. Not shown is the future garbage collection of the old array. Implementing the IndexList Interface with an Extendable Array We give portions of a Java implementation of the array list ADT using an extendable array in Code Fragment 6.3. This class only provides means for the array to grow. Exercise C-6.2 explores an implementation that can also shrink. Code Fragment 6.3: Portions of class ArrayIndexList realizing the array list ADT by means of an extendable array. Method checkIndex(r, n) (not shown) checks whether an index r is in the range [0, n − 1]. 322 An Amortized Analysis of Extendable Arrays This array replacement strategy might at first seem slow, for performing a single array replacement required by some element insertion can take O(n) time. Still, 323 notice that after we perform an array replacement, our new array allows us to add n new elements to the array list before the array must be replaced again. This simple fact allows us to show that performing a series of operations on an initially empty array list is actually quite efficient. As a shorthand notation, let us refer to the insertion of an element to be the last element in an array list as a push operation. (See Figure 6.3.) Figure 6.3: Running times of a series of push operations on a java.util.ArrayList of initial size 1. Using an algorithmic design pattern called amortization, we can show that performing a sequence of such push operations on an array list implemented with an extendable array is actually quite efficient. To perform an amortized analysis, we use an accounting technique where we view the computer as a coin-operated appliance that requires the payment of one cyber-dollar for a constant amount of computing time. When an operation is executed, we should have enough cyber- dollars available in our current "bank account" to pay for that operation's running time. Thus, the total amount of cyber-dollars spent for any computation will be proportional to the total time spent on that computation. The beauty of using this analysis method is that we can overcharge some operations in order to save up cyber-dollars to pay for others. 324 Proposition 6.2: Let S be an array list implemented by means of an extendable array with initial length one. The total time to perform a series of n push operations in S, starting from S being empty is O(n). Justification: Let us assume that one cyber-dollar is enough to pay for the execution of each push operation in S, excluding the time spent for growing the array. Also, let us assume that growing the array from size k to size 2k requires k cyber-dollars for the time spent copying the elements. We shall charge each push operation three cyber-dollars. Thus, we overcharge each push operation that does not cause an overflow by two cyber-dollars. Think of the two cyber-dollars profited in an insertion that does not grow the array as being "stored" at the element inserted. An overflow occurs when the array list S has 2i elements, for some integer i ≥ 0, and the size of the array used by the array list representing S is 2i. Thus, doubling the size of the array will require 2i cyber-dollars. Fortunately, these cyber-dollars can be found at the elements stored in cells 2i−1 through 2i − 1. (See Figure 6.4.) Note that the previous overflow occurred when the number of elements became larger than 2i−1 for the first time, and thus the cyber-dollars stored in cells 2i−1 through 2i − 1 were not previously spent. Therefore, we have a valid amortization scheme in which each operation is charged three cyber-dollars and all the computing time is paid for. That is, we can pay for the execution of n push operations using 3n cyber-dollars. In other words, the amortized running time of each push operation is O(1); hence, the total running time of n push operations is O(n). Figure 6.4: Illustration of a series of push operations on an array list: (a) an 8-cell array is full, with two cyber-dollars "stored" at cells 4 through 7; (b) a push operation causes an overflow and a doubling of capacity. Copying the eight old elements to the new array is paid for by the cyber-dollars already stored in the table. Inserting the new element is paid for by one of the cyber-dollars charged to the push operation, and the two cyber-dollars profited are stored at cell 8. 325 6.2 Node Lists Using an index is not the only means of referring to the place where an element appears in a sequence. If we have a sequence S implemented with a (singly or doubly) linked list, then it could possibly be more natural and efficient to use a node instead of an index as a means of identifying where to access and update S. In this section, we define the node list ADT, which abstracts the concrete linked list data structure (Sections 3.2 and 3.3) using a related position ADT that abstracts the notion of "place" in a node list. 6.2.1 Node-Based Operations Let S be a (singly or doubly) linked list. We would like to define methods for S that take nodes as parameters and provide nodes as return types. Such methods could provide significant speedups over index-based methods, because finding the index of an element in a linked list requires searching through the list incrementally from its beginning or end, counting elements as we go. For instance, we could define a hypothetical method remove(v) that removes the element of S stored at node v of the list. Using a node as a parameter allows us to remove an element in O(1) time by simply going directly to the place where that node is stored and then "linking out" this node through an update of the next and prev links of its neighbors. Similarly, we could insert, in O(1) time, a new element e into S with an operation such as addAfter(v, e), which specifies the node v after which the node of the new element should be inserted. In this case, we simply "link in" the new node. Defining methods of a list ADT by adding such node-based operations raises the issue of how much information we should be exposing about the implementation of our list. Certainly, it is desirable for us to be able to use either a singly or doubly 326 linked list without revealing this detail to a user. Likewise, we do not wish to allow a user to modify the internal structure of a list without our knowledge. Such modification would be possible, however, if we provided a reference to a node in our list in a form that allowed the user to access internal data in that node (such as a next or prev field). To abstract and unify the different ways of storing elements in the various implementations of a list, we introduce the concept of position, which formalizes the intuitive notion of "place" of an element relative to others in the list. 6.2.2 Positions So as to safely expand the set of operations for lists, we abstract a notion of "position" that allows us to enjoy the efficiency of doubly or singly linked list implementations without violating object-oriented design principles. In this framework, we view a list as a collection of elements that stores each element at a position and that keeps these positions arranged in a linear order. A position is itself an abstract data type that supports the following simple method: element(): Return the element stored at this position. A position is always defined relatively, that is, in terms of its neighbors. In a list, a position p will always be "after" some position q and "before" some position s (unless p is the first or last position). A position p, which is associated with some element e in a list S, does not change, even if the index of e changes in S, unless we explicitly remove e (and, hence, destroy position p). Moreover, the position p does not change even if we replace or swap the element e stored at p with another element. These facts about positions allow us to define a set of position-based list methods that take position objects as parameters and also provide position objects as return values. 6.2.3 The Node List Abstract Data Type Using the concept of position to encapsulate the idea of "node" in a list, we can define another type of sequence ADT called the node list ADT. This ADT supports the following methods for a list S: first(): Return the position of the first element of S; an error occurs if S is empty. last(): Return the position of the last element of S; an error occurs if S is empty. prev(p): 327 Return the position of the element of S preceding the one at position p; an error occurs if p is the first position. next(p): Return the position of the element of S following the one at position p; an error occurs if p is the last position. The above methods allow us to refer to relative positions in a list, starting at the beginning or end, and to move incrementally up or down the list. These positions can intuitively be thought of as nodes in the list, but note that there are no specific references to node objects. Moreover, if we provide a position as an argument to a list method, then that position must represent a valid position in that list. Node List Update Methods In addition to the above methods and the generic methods size and isEmpty, we also include the following update methods for the node list ADT, which take position objects as parameters and/or provide position objects as return values. set(p, e): Replace the element at position p with e, returning the element formerly at position p. addFirst(e): Insert a new element e into S as the first element. addLast(e): Insert a new element e into S as the last element. addBefore(p, e): Insert a new element e into S before position p. addAfter(p, e): Insert a new element e into S after position p. remove(p): Remove and return the element at position p in S, invalidating this position in S. 328 The node list ADT allows us to view an ordered collection of objects in terms of their places, without worrying about the exact way those places are represented.(See Figure 6.5.) Figure 6.5: A node list. The positions in the current order are p, q, r, and s. There may at first seem to be redundancy in the above repertory of operations for the node list ADT, since we can perform operation addFirst(e) with addBefore(first(), e), and operation addLast(e) with addAfter(getLast(), e). But these substitutions can only be done for a nonempty list. Note that an error condition occurs if a position passed as argument to one of the list operations is invalid. Reasons for a position p to be invalid include: • p = null • p was previously deleted from the list • p is a position of a different list • p is the first position of the list and we call prev(p) • p is the last position of the list and we call next(p). We illustrate the operations of the node list ADT in the following example. Example 6.3: We show below a series of operations for an initially empty list node S. We use variables p1, p2, and so on, to denote different positions, and we show the object currently stored at such a position in parentheses. Operation Output S addFirst(8) 329 - (8) first() p1 (8) (8) addAfter(p1,5) - (8,5) next(p1) p2(5) (8,5) addBefore(p2,3) - (8,3,5) prev(p2) p3(3) (8,3,5) addFirst(9) - (9,8,3,5) last() p2(5) (9,8,3,5) remove(first()) 9 330 (8,3,5) set(p3,7) 3 (8,7,5) addAfter(first(),2) - (8,2,7,5) The node list ADT, with its built-in notion of position, is useful in a number of settings. For example, a program that simulates a game of cards could model each person's hand as a node list. Since most people keep cards of the same suit together, inserting and removing cards from a person's hand could be implemented using the methods of the node list ADT, with the positions being determined by a natural ordering of the suits. Likewise, a simple text editor embeds the notion of positional insertion and removal, since such editors typically perform all updates relative to a cursor, which represents the current position in the list of characters of text being edited. A Java interface representing the position ADT is given in Code Fragment 6.4. Code Fragment 6.4: Java interface for the position ADT. An interface for the node list ADT, called Position List, is given in Code Fragment 6.5. This interface uses the following exceptions to indicate error conditions. BoundaryViolationException: Thrown if an attempt is made at accessing an element whose position is outside the range of positions of the list (for example, calling method next on the last position of the sequence). Invalid Position Exception: Thrown if a position provided as argument is not valid (for example, it is a null reference or it has no associated list). 331 Code Fragment 6.5: Java interface for the node list ADT. Yet Another Deque Adapter With respect to our discussion of the node list ADT, we note that this ADT is sufficient to define an adapter class for the deque ADT, as shown in Table 6.3. Table 6.3: Realization of a deque by means of a node list. 332 Deque Method Realization with Node-List Methods size(), isEmpty() size(), isEmpty() getFirst() first()·element() getLast() last()·element() addFirst(e) addFirst(e) addLast(e) addLast(e) removeFirst() remove(first()) removeLast() remove(last()) 6.2.4 Doubly Linked List Implementation Suppose we would like to implement the node list ADT using a doubly linked list (Section 3.3). We can simply make the nodes of the linked list implement the position ADT. That is, we have each node implement the Position interface and therefore define a method, element(), which returns the element stored at the node. Thus, the nodes themselves act as positions. They are viewed internally by the linked list as nodes, but from the outside, they are viewed only as positions. In the internal view, we can give each node v instance variables prev and next that respectively refer to the predecessor and successor nodes of v (which could in fact be header or trailer sentinel nodes marking the beginning and end of the list). Instead of using variables prev and next directly, we define methods getPrev, setPrev, getNext, and setNext of a node to access and modify these variables. 333 In Code Fragment 6.6, we show a Java class DNode for the nodes of a doubly linked list implementing the position ADT. This class is similar to class DNode shown in Code Fragment 3.17, except that now our nodes store a generic element instead of a character string. Note that the prev and next instance variables in the DNode class below are private references to other DNode objects. Code Fragment 6.6: Class DNode realizing a node of a doubly linked list and implementing the Position interface (ADT). Given a position p in S, we can "unwrap" p to reveal the underlying node v. This is accomplished by casting the position to a node. Once we have node v, we can, for example, implement method prev(p) with v.getPrev (unless the node returned by v.getPrev is the header, in which case we signal an error). Therefore, positions in a doubly linked list implementation can be supported in an object-oriented way without any additional time or space overhead. Consider how we might implement the addAfter(p, e) method, for inserting an element e after position p. Similar to the discussion in Section 3.3.1, we create a 334 new node v to hold the element e, link v into its place in the list, and then update the next and prev references of v's two new neighbors. This method is given in Code Fragment 6.7, and is illustrated (again) in Figure 6.6. Recalling the use of sentinels (Section 3.3), note that this algorithm works even if p is the last real position. Code Fragment 6.7: Inserting an element e after a position p in a linked list. Figure 6.6: Adding anew node after the position for "JFK": (a) before the insertion; (b) creating node v with element "BWI" and linking it in; (c) after the insertion. The algorithms for methods addBefore, addFirst, and addLast are similar to that for method addAfter. We leave their details as an exercise (R-6.5). 335 Next, consider the remove(p) method, which removes the element e stored at position p. Similar to the discussion in Section 3.3.2, to perform this operation, we link the two neighbors of p to refer to one another as new neighbors—linking out p. Note that after p is linked out, no nodes will be pointing to p; hence, the garbage collector can reclaim the space for p. This algorithm is given in Code Fragment 6.8 and is illustrated in Figure 6.7. Recalling our use of header and trailer sentinels, note that this algorithm works even if p is the first, last, or only real position in the list. Code Fragment 6.8: Removing an element e stored at a position p in a linked list. Figure 6.7: Removing the object stored at the position for "PVD": (a) before the removal; (b) linking out the old node; (c) after the removal (and garbage collection). 336 In conclusion, using a doubly linked list, we can perform all the methods of the list ADT in O(1) time. Thus, a doubly linked list is an efficient implementation of the list ADT. A Node List Implementation in Java Portions of the Java class NodePositionList, which implements the node list ADT using a doubly linked list, are shown in Code Fragments 6.9–6.11. Code Fragment 6.9 shows NodePosition List's instance variables, its constructor, and a method, checkPosition, which performs safety checks and "unwraps" a position, casting it back to a DNode. Code Fragment 6.10 shows additional accessor and update methods. Code Fragment 6.11 shows additional update methods. Code Fragment 6.9: Portions of the NodePositionList class implementing the node list ADT with a doubly linked list. (Continues in Code Fragments 6.10 and 6.11.) 337 Code Fragment 6.10: Portions of the NodePositionList class implementing the node list ADT with a doubly linked list. (Continued from Code Fragment 6.9. Continues in Code Fragment 6.11.) 338 Code Fragment 6.11: Portions of the NodePositionList class implementing the node list ADT with a doubly linked list. (Continued from Code Fragments 6.9 and 6.10.) Note that the mechanism used to invalidate a position in the remove method is 339 consistent with one of the checks performed in the checkPosition convenience function. 6.3 Iterators A typical computation on an array list, list, or sequence is to march through its elements in order, one at a time, for example, to look for a specific element. 6.3.1 The Iterator and Iterable Abstract Data Types 340 An iterator is a software design pattern that abstracts the process of scanning through a collection of elements one element at a time. An iterator consists of a sequence S, a current element in S, and a way of stepping to the next element in S and making it the current element. Thus, an iterator extends the concept of the position ADT we introduced in Section 6.2. In fact, a position can be thought of as an iterator that doesn't go anywhere. An iterator encapsulates the concepts of "place" and "next" in a collection of objects. We define the iterator ADT as supporting the following two methods: hasNext(): Test whether there are elements left in the iterator. next(): Return the next element in the iterator. Note that the iterator ADT has the notion of the "current" element in a traversal of a sequence. The first element in an iterator is returned by the first call to the method next, assuming of course that the iterator contains at least one element. An iterator provides a unified scheme to access all the elements of a collection of objects in a way that is independent from the specific organization of the collection. An iterator for an array list, list, or sequence should return the elements according to their linear ordering. Simple Iterators in Java Java provides an iterator through its java.util.Iterator interface. We note that the java.util.Scanner class (Section 1.6) implements this interface. This interface supports an additional (optional) method to remove the previously returned element from the collection. This functionality (removing elements through an iterator) is somewhat controversial from an object-oriented viewpoint, however, and it is not surprising that its implementation by classes is optional. Incidentally, Java also provides the java.util.Enumeration interface, which is historically older than the iterator interface and uses names hasMoreElements() and nextElement(). The Iterable Abstract Data Type In order to provide a unified generic mechanism for scanning through a data structure, ADTs storing collections of objects should support the following method: iterator(): Return an iterator of the elements in the collection. This method is supported by the java.util.ArrayList class. In fact, this method is so important, that there is a whole interface, 341 java.lang.Iterable, which has only this method in it. This method can make it simple for us to specify computations that need to loop through the elements of a list. To guarantee that a node list supports the above methods, for example, we could add this method to the Position List interface, as shown in Code Fragment 6.12. In this case, we would also want to state that Position List extends Iterable. Therefore, let us assume that our array lists and node lists lists support the iterator() method. Code Fragment 6.12: Adding the iterator method to the Position List interface. Given such a Position List definition, we could use an iterator returned by the iterator() method to create a string representation of a node list, as shown in Code Fragment 6.13. Code Fragment 6.13: Example of a Java iterator used to convert a node list to a string. 6.3.2 The Java For-Each Loop 342 Since looping through the elements returned by an iterator is such a common construct, Java provides a shorthand notation for such loops, called the for-each loop. The syntax for such a loop is as follows: for (Type name : expression) loop statement where expression evaluates to a collection that implements the java.lang.Iterable interface, Type is the type of object returned by the iterator for this class, and name is the name of a variable that will take on the values of elements from this iterator in the loop_statement. This notation is really just shorthand for the following: for (Iterator it = expression.iterator(); it.hasNext(); ) { Type name = it.next(); loop_statement } For example, if we had a list, values, of Integer objects, and values implements java.lang.Iterable, then we can add up all the integers in values as follows: List values; // … statements that create a new values list and fill it with Integers… int sum = 0; for (Integer i : values) sum += i; // unboxing allows this We would read the above loop as, "for each Integer i in values, do the loop body (in this case, add i to sum)." In addition to the above form of for-each loop, Java also allows a for-each loop to be defined for the case when expression is an array of type Type, which, in this case, can be either a base type or an object type. For example, we can total up the integers in an array, v, which stores the first ten positive integers, as follows: int[] v = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}; 343 int total = 0; for (int i : v) total += i; 6.3.3 Implementing Iterators One way to implement an iterator for a collection of elements is to make a "snapshot" of it and iterate over that. This approach would involve storing the collection in a separate data structure that supports sequential access to its elements. For example, we could insert all the elements of the collection into a queue, in which case method hasNext() would correspond to !isEmpty() and next() would correspond to enqueue(). With this approach, the method iterator() takes O(n) time for a collection of size n. Since this copying overhead is relatively costly, we prefer, in most cases, to have iterators operate on the collection itself, not a copy. In implementing this direct approach, we need only to keep track of where in the collection the iterator's cursor points. Thus, creating a new iterator in this case simply involves creating an iterator object that represents a cursor placed just before the first element of the collection. Likewise, performing the next() method involves returning the next element, if it exists, and moving the cursor just past this element's position. Thus, in this approach, creating an iterator takes O(1) time, as do each of the iterator's methods. We show a class implementing such an iterator in Code Fragment 6.14, and we show in Code Fragment 6.15 how this iterator could be used to implement the iterator() method in the NodePositionList class. Code Fragment 6.14: An element iterator class for a Position List. 344 Code Fragment 6.15: The iterator() method of class NodePositionList. Position Iterators For ADTs that support the notion of position, such as the list and sequence ADTs, we can also provide the following method: positions(): Return an Iterable object (like an array list or node list) containing the positions in the collection as elements. An iterator returned by this method allows us to loop through the positions of a list. To guarantee that a node list supports this method, we could add it to the PositionList interface, as shown in Code Fragment 6.16. Then we could, for example, add an implementation of this method to the NodePositionList, as shown in Code Fragment 6.17. This method uses the NodePositionList class itself to create a list that contains the positions of the original list as its elements. Returning this list of positions as our Iterable object allows us to 345 then call iterator() on this object to get an iterator of positions from the original list. Code Fragment 6.16: Adding iterator methods to the Position List interface. Code Fragment 6.17: The positions() method of class NodePositionList. The iterator() method returned by this and other Iterable objects defines a restricted type of iterator that allows only one pass through the elements. More powerful iterators can also be defined, however, which allows us to move forward and backward over a certain ordering of the elements. 6.3.4 List Iterators in Java The java.util.Linked List class does not expose a position concept to users in its API. Instead, the preferred way to access and update a LinkedList object in Java, without using indices, is to use a ListIterator that is generated by the linked list, using a listIterator() method. Such an iterator provides forward and backward traversal methods as well as local update methods. It views its current position as being before the first element, between two elements, or after 346 the last element. That is, it uses a list cursor, much like a screen cursor is viewed as being located between two characters on a screen. Specifically, the java.util.ListIterator interface includes the following methods: add(e): Add the element e at the current position of the iterator. hasNext(): True if and only if there is an element after the current position of the iterator. hasPrevious(): True if and only if there is an element before the current position of the iterator. previous(): Return the element e before the current position and sets the current position to be before e. next(): Return the element e after the current position and sets the current position to be after e. nextIndex(): Return the index of the next element. previousIndex(): Return the index of the previous element. set(e): Replace the element returned by the previous next or previous operation with e. remove(): Remove the element returned by the previous next or previous operation. It is risky to use multiple iterators over the same list while modifying its contents. If insertions, deletions, or replacements are required at multiple "places" in a list, it is safer to use positions to specify these locations. But the java.util.LinkedList class does not expose its position objects to the user. 347 So, to avoid the risks of modifying a list that has created multiple iterators (by calls to its iterator() method), java.util.Iterator objects have a "fail-fast" feature that immediately invalidates such an iterator if its underlying collection is modified unexpectedly. For example, if a java.util.LinkedList object L has returned five different iterators and one of them modifies L, then the other four all become immediately invalid. That is, Java allows many list iterators to be traversing a linked list L at the same time, but if one of them modifies L (using an add, set, or remove method), then all the other iterators for L become invalid. Likewise, if L is modified by one of its own update methods, then all existing iterators for L immediately become invalid. The java.util.List Interface and Its Implementations Java provides functionality similar to our array list and node lists ADT in the java.util.List interface, which is implemented with an array in java.util.ArrayList and with a linked list in java.util.LinkedList. There are some trade-offs between these two implementations, which we explore in more detail in the next section. Moreover, Java uses iterators to achieve a functionality similar to what our node list ADT derives from positions. Table 6.4 shows corresponding methods between our (array and node) list ADTs and the java.util interfaces List and ListIterator interfaces, with notes about their implementations in the java.util classes ArrayList and LinkedList. Table 6.4: Correspondences between methods in the array list and node list ADTs and the java.util interfaces List and ListIterator. We use A and L as abbreviations for java.util.ArrayList and java.util.Linked List (or their running times). List ADT Method java.util.List Method ListIterator Method Notes size() size() O(1) time 348 isEmpty() isEmpty() O(1) time get(i) get(i) A is O(1), L is O(min{i, n − i}) first() listIterator() first element is next last() listIterator(size()) last element is previous prev(p) previous() O(1) time next(p) next() O(1) time set(p, e) set(e) O(1) time set(i,e) set(i, e) A is O(1), L is O (min{i,n − i}) add(i,e) 349 add(i,e) O(n) time remove(i) remove(i) A is O(1), L is O(min{i, n − i}) addFirst(e) add(0,e) A is O(n),L is O(1) addFirst(e) addFirst(e) only exists in L, O(1) addLast(e) add(e) O(1) time addLast(e) addLast(e) only exists in L, O(1) addAfter(p, e) add(e) insertion is at cursor; A is O(n), L is O(1) addBefore(p,e) add(e) insertion is at cursor; A is O(n),L is O(1) remove(p) remove() 350 deletion is at cursor; A is O(n),L is O(1) 6.4 List ADTs and the Collections Framework In this section, we discuss general list ADTs, which combine methods of the deque, array list, and/or node list ADTs. Before describing such ADTs, we mention a larger context in which they exist. 6.4.1 The Java Collections Framework Java provides a package of data structure interfaces and classes, which together define the Java Collections Framework. This package, java.util, includes versions of several of the data structures discussed in this book, some of which we have already discussed and others of which we discuss in the remainder of this book. In particular, the java.util package includes the following interfaces: Collection: A general interface for any data structure that contains a collection of elements. It extends java.lang.Iterable; hence, it includes an iterator() method, which returns an iterator of the elements in this collection. Iterator: An interface for the simple iterator ADT. List: An interface extending Collection to include the array list ADT. It also includes a method listIterator for returning a ListIterator object for this list. ListIterator: An iterator interface that provides both forward and backward traversal over a list, as well as cursor-based update methods. Map: An interface for mapping keys to values. This concept and interface are discussed in Section 9.1. Queue: 351 An interface for a queue ADT, but using different method names. Methods include peek() (same as front()), offer(e) (same as enqueue(e)), and poll() (same as dequeue()). Set: An interface extending Collection to sets. The Java Collections Framework also includes several concrete classes implementing various combinations of the above interfaces. Rather than list each of these classes here, however, we discuss them at more appropriate places in this book. One topic we would like to stress now, however, is that any class implementing the java.util.Collection interface also implements the java.lang.Iterable interface; hence, it includes an iterator() method and can be used in a for-each loop. In addition, any class implementing the java.util.List interface also includes a listIterator() method, as well. As we observed above, such interfaces are useful for looping through the elements of a collection or list. 6.4.2 The java. util.LinkedList Class The java.util.Linked List class contains a lot of methods, including all of the methods of the deque ADT (Section 5.3) and all of the methods from the array list ADT (Section 6.1). In addition, as we mentioned above, it also provides functionality similar to that of the node list ADT through the use of its list iterator. Performance of the java.util.LinkedList Class The documentation for the java.util.LinkedList class makes it clear that this class is implemented with a doubly linked list. Thus, all of the update methods of the associated list iterator run in O(1) time each. Likewise, all of the methods of the deque ADT also run in O(1) time each, since they merely involve updating or querying the list at its ends. But the methods from the array list ADT are also included in the java.util.LinkedList, which are, in general, not well-suited to an implementation of a doubly linked list. In particular, since a linked list does not allow for indexed access to its elements, performing the operation get(i), to return the element at a given index i, requires that we perform link "hopping" from one of the ends of the list, counting up or down, until we locate the node storing the element with index i. As a slight optimization, we observe that we can start this hopping from the closer end of the list, thus achieving a running time that is O(min(i + 1, n − i)), 352 where n is the number of elements in the list. The worst case for this kind of search occurs when r= n/2. Thus, the running time is still O(n). Operations add(i,e) and remove(i) also must perform link hopping to locate the node storing the element with index i, and then insert or delete a node. The running times of these implementations of add(i,e) and remove(i) are likewise O(min(i+ 1, n−i+1)), which is O(n). One advantage of this approach is that, if i = 0 or i = n − 1, as is the case in the adaptation of the array list ADT to the deque ADT given in Section 6.1.1, then add and remove run in O(1) time. But, in general, using array-list methods with a java.util. LinkedList object is inefficient. 6.4.3 Sequences A sequence is an ADT that supports all of the methods of the deque ADT (Section 5.3), the array list ADT (Section 6.1), and the node list ADT (Section 6.2). That is, it provides explicit access to the elements in the list either by their indices or by their positions. Moreover, since it provides this dual access capability, we also include, in the sequence ADT, the following two "bridging" methods that provide connections between indices and positions: atIndex(i): Return the position of the element with index i; an error condition occurs if i < 0 or i > size() − 1. indexOf(p): Return the index of the element at position p. Multiple Inheritance in the Sequence ADT The definition of the sequence ADT as including all the methods from three different ADTs is an example of multiple inheritance (Section 2.4.2). That is, the sequence ADT inherits methods from three "super" abstract data types. In other words, its methods include the union of the methods of these super ADTs. See Code Fragment 6.18 for a Java specification of the sequence ADT as a Java interface. Code Fragment 6.18: The Sequence interface defined via multiple inheritance. It includes all the methods of the Deque, IndexList, and 353 PositionList interfaces (defined for any generic type E), and adds two more methods. Implementing a Sequence with an Array If we implement the sequence S ADT with a doubly linked list, we would get similar performance to that of the java.util.LinkedList class. So suppose instead we want to implement a sequence S by storing each element e of S in a cell A[i] of an array A. We can define a position object p to hold an index i and a reference to array A, as instance variables, in this case. We can then implement method element(p) simply by returning A[i]. A major drawback with this approach, however, is that the cells in A have no way to reference their corresponding positions. Thus, after performing an add First operation, we have no way of informing the existing positions in S that their indices each went up by 1 (remember that positions in a sequence are always defined relative to their neighboring positions, not their indices). Hence, if we are going to implement a general sequence with an array, we need a different approach. Consider an alternate solution, then, in which, instead of storing the elements of S in array A, we store a new kind of position object in each cell of A, and we store elements in positions. The new position object p holds the index i and the element e associated with p. With this data structure, illustrated in Figure 6.8, we can easily scan through the array to update the index variable i for each position whose index changes because of an insertion or deletion. Figure 6.8: An array-based implementation of the sequence ADT. 354 Efficiency Trade-Offs with an Array-Based Sequence In this array implementation of a sequence, the addFirst, addBefore, addAfter, and remove methods take O(n) time, because we have to shift position objects to make room for the new position or to fill in the hole created by the removal of the old position (just as in the insert and remove methods based on index). All the other position-based methods take O(1) time. 6.5 Case Study: The Move-to-Front Heuristic Suppose we would like to maintain a collection of elements while keeping track of the number of times each element is accessed. Keeping such access counts allows us to know which elements are among the "top ten" most popular, for instance. Examples of such scenarios include a Web browser that keeps track of the most popular Web addresses (or URLs) a user visits or a photo album program that maintains a list of the most popular images a user views. In addition, a favorites list could be used in a graphical user interface (GUI) to keep track of the most popular buttons used in a pull-down menu, and then present the user with condensed pull- downs containing the most popular options. Therefore, in this section, we consider how we can implement a favorite list ADT, which supports the size() and isEmpty() methods as well as the following: access(e): Access the element e, incrementing its access count, and adding it to the favorites list if it is not already present. remove(e): Remove element e from the favorites list, provided it is already there. 355 top(k): Return an iterable collection of the k most accessed elements. 6.5.1 Using a Sorted List and a Nested Class The first implementation of a favorite list that we consider (in Code Fragments 6.19–6.20) is to build a class, FavoriteList, storing references to accessed objects in a linked list ordered by nonincreasing access counts. This class also uses a feature of Java that allows us to define a related class nested inside an enclosing class definition. Such a nested class must be declared static, to indicate that this definition is related to the enclosing class, not any specific instance of that class. Using nested classes allows us to define "helper" or "support" classes that can be protected from outside use. In this case, the nested class, Entry, stores, for each element e in our list, a pair (c,v), where c is the access count for e and v is a value reference to the element e itself. Each time an element is accessed, we find it in the linked list (adding it if it is not already there) and increment its access count. Removing an element amounts to finding it and taking it out of our linked list. Returning the k most accessed elements simply involves our copying the entry values into an output list according to their order in the internal linked list. Code Fragment 6.19: Class FavoritesList. (Continues in Code Fragment 6.20.) 356 357 Code Fragment 6.20: Class FavoriteList, including a nested class, Entry, for representing elements and their access count. (Continued from Code Fragment 6.19.) 6.5.2 Using a List with the Move-to-Front Heuristic 358 The previous implementation of a favorite list performs the access(e) method in time proportional to the index of e in the favorite list. That is, if e is the kth most popular element in the favorite list, then accessing it takes O(k) time. In many real- life access sequences, including those formed by the visits that users make to Web pages, it is common that, once an element is accessed, it is likely to be accessed again in the near future. Such scenarios are said to possess locality of reference. A heuristic, or rule of thumb, that attempts to take advantage of the locality of reference that is present in an access sequence is the move-to-front heuristic. To apply this heuristic, each time we access an element we move it all the way to the front of the list. Our hope, of course, is that this element will then be accessed again in the near future. Consider, for example, a scenario in which we have n elements and the following series of n2 accesses: • element 1 is accessed n times • element 2 is accessed n times • … • element n is accessed n times. If we store the elements sorted by their access counts, inserting each element the first time it is accessed, then • each access to element 1 runs in O(1) time • each access to element 2 runs in O(2) time • … • each access to element n runs in O(n) time. Thus, the total time for performing the series of accesses is proportional to n + 2n + 3n+ ... n·n = n(1 + 2 + 3 +...+n) = n· (n + 1)/2, which is O(n3). On the other hand, if we use the move-to-front heuristic, inserting each element the first time it is accessed, then • each access to element 1 takes O(1) time • each access to element 2 takes O(1) time • … • each access to element n runs in O(1) time. 359 So the running time for performing all the accesses in this case is O(n2). Thus, the move-to-front implementation has faster access times for this scenario. This benefit comes at a cost, however. Implementing the Move-to-Front Heuristic in Java In Code Fragment 6.21, we give an implementation of a favorite list using the move-to-front heuristic. We implement the move-to-front approach in this case by defining a new class, FavoriteListMTF, which extends the FavoriteList class and then overrides the definitions of the moveUp and top methods. The moveUp method in this case simply removes the accessed element from its present position in the linked list and then inserts this element back in this list at the front. The top method, on the other hand, is more complicated. The Trade-Offs with the Move-to-Front Heuristic Now that we are no longer maintaining the favorite list as a list of entries ordered by their value's access counts, when we are asked to find the k most accessed elements, we need to search for them. In particular, we can implement method top(k) as follows: 1. We copy the entries of our favorite list into another list, C, and we create an empty list, T. 2. We scan list C k times. In each scan, we find an entry of C with the largest access count, remove this entry from C, and insert its value at the end of T. 3. We return list T. This implementation of method top takes O(kn) time. Thus, when k is a constant, method top runs in O(n) time. This occurs, for example, when we want to get the "top ten" list. However, if k is proportional to n, then top runs in O(n2) time. This occurs, for example, when we want a "top 25%" list. Still, the move-to-front approach is just a heuristic, or rule of thumb, for there are access sequences where using the move-to-front approach is slower than simply keeping the favorite list ordered by access counts. In addition, it trades off the potential speed of performing accesses that possess locality of reference, for a slower reporting of the top elements. 6.5.3 Possible Uses of a Favorites List In Code Fragment 6.22, we use an example application of our favorite list implementations to solve the problem of maintaining the most popular URLs in a simulated sequence of Web page accesses. This program accesses a set of URLs in 360 decreasing order and then pops up a window showing the most popular Web page accessed in the simulation. Code Fragment 6.21: Class FavoriteListMTF implementing the move-to-front heuristic. This class extends FavoriteList (Code Fragments 6.19–6.20) and overrides methods moveUp and top. 361 Code Fragment 6.22: Illustrating the use of the FavoritesList and FavoriteListMTF classes for counting Web page access counts. This simulation randomly 362 accesses several Web pages and then displays the most popular page. 363 364 6.6 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-6.1 Draw a representation of an initially empty array list A after performing the following sequence of operations: add(0,4), add(0,3), add(0,2), add(2,1), add(1,5), add(1,6), add(3,7), add(0,8). R-6.2 Give a justification of the running times shown in Table 6.2 for the methods of an array list implemented with a (nonexpanding) array. R-6.3 Give an adapter class to support the Stack interface using the methods of the array list ADT. R-6.4 Redo the justification of Proposition 6.2 assuming that the the cost of growing the array from size k to size 2k is 3k cyber-dollars. How much should each push operation be charged to make the amortization work? R-6.5 Give pseudo-code descriptions of algorithms for performing the methods addBefore(p,e), addFirst(e), and addLast(e) of the node list ADT, assuming the list is implemented using a doubly linked list. R-6.6 Draw pictures illustrating each of the major steps in the algorithms given in the previous exercise. R-6.7 Provide the details of an array implementation of the node list ADT, including how to perform the methods add Before and addAfter. R-6.8 365 Provide Java code fragments for the methods of the PositionList interface of Code Fragment 6.5 that are not included in Code Fragments 6.9-6.11. R-6.9 Describe a nonrecursive method for reversing a node list represented with a doubly linked list using a single pass through the list (you may use the internal node pointers). R-6.10 Given the set of element {a, b, c, d, e, f} stored in a list, show the final state of the list, assuming we use the move-to-front heuristic and access the elements according to the following sequence: (a, b, c, d, e, f, a, c, f,b,d,e). R-6.11 Suppose we are keeping track of access counts in a list L of n elements. Suppose further that we have made kn total accesses to the elements in L, for some integer k ≥ 1. What are the minimum and maximum number of elements that have been accessed fewer than k times? R-6.12 Give pseudo-code describing how to implement all the operations in the array list ADT using an array in a circular fashion. What is the running time for each of these methods? R-6.13 Using the Sequence interface methods, describe a recursive method for determining if a sequence S of n integers contains a given integer k. Your method should not contain any loops. How much space does your method use in addition to the space used for S? R-6.14 Briefly describe how to perform a new sequence method makeFirst(p) that moves an element of a sequence S at position p to be the first element in S while keeping the relative ordering of the remaining elements in S unchanged. That is, makeFirst(p) performs a move-to-front. Your method should run in O(1) time if S is implemented with a doubly linked list. R-6.15 Describe how to use an array list and an int field to implement an iterator. Include pseudo-code fragments describing hasNext() and next(). 366 R-6.16 Describe how to create an iterator for a node list that returns every other element in the list. R-6.17 Suppose we are maintaining a collection C of elements such that, each time we add a new element to the collection, we copy the contents of C into a new array list of just the right size. What is the running time of adding n elements to an initially empty collection C in this case? R-6.18 Describe an implementation of the methods addLast and add Before realized by using only methods in the set {isEmpty, checkPosition, first, last, prev, next, addAfter, addFirst}. R-6.19 Let L be maintained to be a list of n items ordered by decreasing access count. Describe a series of O(n2) accesses that will reverse L. R-6.20 Let L be a list of n items maintained according to the move-to-front heuristic. Describe a series of O(n) accesses that will reverse L. Creativity C-6.1 Give pseudo-code for the methods of a new class, ShrinkingArrayList, that extends the class ArrayIndexList shown in Code Fragment 6.3 and adds a method, shrinkToFit(), which replaces the underlying array with an array whose capacity is exactly equal to the number of elements currently in the array list. C-6.2 Describe what changes need to be made to the extendable array implementation given in Code Fragment 6.3 in order to shrink by half the size N of the array any time the number of elements in the array list goes below N/4. C-6.3 367 Show that, using an extendable array that grows and shrinks as described in the previous exercise, the following series of 2n operations takes O(n) time: (i) n push operations on an array list with initial capacity N = 1; (ii) n pop (removal of the last element) operations. C-6.4 Show how to improve the implementation of method add in Code Fragment 6.3 so that, in case of an overflow, the elements are copied into their final place in the new array, that is, no shifting should be done in this case. C-6.5 Consider an implementation of the array list ADT using an extendable array, but instead of copying the elements of the array list into an array of double the size (that is, from N to 2N) when its capacity is reached, we copy the elements into an array with N/4 additional cells, going from capacity N to N + N/4. Show that performing a sequence of n push operations (that is, insertions at the end) still runs in O(n) time in this case. C-6.6 The NodePositionList implementation given in Code Fragments 6.9-6.11 does not do any error checks to test if a given position p is actually a member of this particular list. For example, if p is a position in list S and we call T.addAfter(p, e) on a different list T, then we actually will add the element to S just after p. Describe how to change the NodePositionList implementation in an efficient manner to disallow such misuses. C-6.7 Suppose we want to extend the Sequence abstract data type with methods indexOfElement(e) and positionOfElement(e), which respectively return the index and the position of the (first occurrence of) element e in the sequence. Show how to implement these methods by expressing them in terms of other methods of the Sequence interface. C-6.8 Give an adaptation of the array list ADT to the deque ADT that is different from that given in Table 6.1. C-6.9 Describe the structure and pseudo-code for an array-based implementation of the array list ADT that achieves O(1) time for insertions and removals at index 0, as well as insertions and removals at the end of the array list. Your implementation should also provide for a constant-time get method. (Hint: 368 Think about how to extend the circular array implementation of the queue ADT given in the previous chapter.) C-6.10 Describe an efficient way of putting an array list representing a deck of n cards into random order. You may use a function, randomInteger(n), which returns a random number between 0 and n − 1, inclusive. Your method should guarantee that every possible ordering is equally likely. What is the running time of your method? C-6.11 Describe a method for maintaining a favorites list L such that every element in L has been accessed at least once in the last n accesses, where n is the size of L. Your scheme should add only O(1) additional amortized time to each operation. C-6.12 Suppose we have an n-element list L maintained according to the move-to-front heuristic. Describe a sequence of n2 accesses that is guaranteed to take Ω(n3) time to perform on L. C-6.13 Design a circular node list ADT that abstracts a circularly linked list in the - same way that the node list ADT abstracts a doubly linked list. C-6.14 Describe how to implement an iterator for a circularly linked list. Since hasNext() will always return true in this case, describe how to perform hasNewNext(), which returns true if and only if the next node in the list has not previously had its element returned by this iterator. C-6.15 Describe a scheme for creating list iterators that fail fast, that is, they all become invalid as soon as the underlying list changes. C-6.16 An array is sparse if most of its entries are null. A list L can be used to implement such an array, A, efficiently. In particular, for each nonnull cell A[i], we can store an entry (i, e) in L, where e is the element stored at A[i]. This approach allows us to represent A using O(m) storage, where m is the number of nonnull entries in A. Describe and analyze efficient ways of performing the 369 methods of the array list ADT on such a representation. Is it better to store the entries in L by increasing indices or not? C-6.17 There is a simple, but inefficient, algorithm, called bubble-sort, for sorting a sequence S of n comparable elements. This algorithm scans the sequence n−1 times, where, in each scan, the algorithm compares the current element with the next one and swaps them if they are out of order. Give a pseudo-code description of bubble-sort that is as efficient as possible assuming S is implemented with a doubly linked list. What is the running time of this algorithm? C-6.18 Answer Exercise C-6.17 assuming S is implemented with an array list. C-6.19 A useful operation in databases is the natural join. If we view a database as a list of ordered pairs of objects, then the natural join of databases A and B is the list of all ordered triples (x,y,z) such that the pair (x,y) is in A and the pair (y,z) is in B. Describe and analyze an efficient algorithm for computing the natural join of a list A of n pairs and a list B of m pairs. C-6.20 When Bob wants to send Alice a message M on the Internet, he breaks M into n data packets, numbers the packets consecutively, and injects them into the network. When the packets arrive at Alice's computer, they may be out of order, so Alice must assemble the sequence of n packets in order before she can be sure she has the entire message. Describe an efficient scheme for Alice to do this. What is the running time of this algorithm? C-6.21 Given a list L of n positive integers, each represented with k = logn + 1 bits, describe an O(n)-time method for finding a k-bit integer not in L. C-6.22 Argue why any solution to the previous problem must run in Ω(n) time. C-6.23 Given a list L of n arbitrary integers, design an O(n)-time method for finding an integer that cannot be formed as the sum of two integers in L. 370 C-6.24 Isabel has an interesting way of summing up the values in an array A of n integers, where n is a power of two. She creates an array B of half the size of A and sets B[i] = A[2i] +A[2i+ 1], for i = 0,1,..., (n/2) − 1. If B has size 1, then she outputs B[0]. Otherwise, she replaces A with B, and repeats the process. What is the running time of her algorithm? Projects P-6.1 Implement the array list ADT by means of an extendable array used in a circular fashion, so that insertions and deletions at the beginning and end of the array list run in constant time. P-6.2 Implement the array list ADT using a doubly linked list. Show experimentally that this implementation is worse than the array-based approach. P-6.3 Write a simple text editor, which stores and displays a string of characters using the list ADT, together with a cursor object that highlights a position in this string. Your editor should support the following operations: • left: Move cursor left one character (do nothing if at text end). • right: Move cursor right one character (do nothing if at text end). • cut: Delete the character right of the cursor (do nothing at text end). • paste c: Insert the character c just after the cursor. P-6.4 Implement a phased favorites list. A phase consists of N accesses in the list, for a given parameter N. During a phase, the list should maintain itself so that elements are ordered by decreasing access counts during that phase. At the end 371 of a phase, it should clear all the access counts and start the next phase. Experimentally, determine what are the best values of N for various list sizes. P-6.5 Write a complete adapter class that implements the sequence ADT using a java.util.ArrayList object. P-6.6 Implement the favorites list application using an array list instead of a list. Compare it experimentally to the list-based implementation. Chapter Notes The concept of viewing data structures as collections (and other principles of object- oriented design) can be found in object-oriented design books by Booch [14], Budd [17], Golberg and Robson [40], and Liskov and Guttag [69]. Lists and iterators are pervasive concepts in the Java Collections Framework. Our node list ADT is derived from the "position" abstraction introduced by Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman [5], and the list ADT of Wood [100]. Implementations of lists via arrays and linked lists are discussed by Knuth [62]. 372 Chapter 7 Trees Contents 7.1 General Trees ...................... 266 7.1.1 Tree Definitions and Properties............ 267 7.1.2 The Tree Abstract Data Type ............ 373 270 7.1.3 Implementing a Tree ................. 271 7.2 Tree Traversal Algorithms................ 273 7.2.1 Depth and Height................... 273 7.2.2 Preorder Traversal................... 276 7.2.3 Postorder Traversal.................. 279 7.3 Binary Trees....................... 282 7.3.1 The Binary Tree ADT................. 284 7.3.2 A Binary Tree Interface in Java............ 284 374 7.3.3 Properties of Binary Trees .............. 285 7.3.4 A Linked Structure for Binary Trees......... 287 7.3.5 An Array-List Representation of a Binary Tree.... 296 7.3.6 Traversals of Binary Trees............... 298 7.3.7 The Template Method Pattern............ 305 7.4 Exercises......................... 309 java.datastructures.net 7.1 General Trees Productivity experts say that breakthroughs come by thinking "nonlinearly." In this chapter, we discuss one of the most important nonlinear data structures in computing—trees. Tree structures are indeed a breakthrough in data organization, for they allow us to implement a host of algorithms much faster than when using linear data structures, such as list. Trees also provide a natural organization for data, and consequently have become ubiquitous structures in file systems, graphical user interfaces, databases, Web sites, and other computer systems. 375 It is not always clear what productivity experts mean by "nonlinear" thinking, but when we say that trees are "nonlinear," we are referring to an organizational relationship that is richer than the simple "before" and "after" relationships between objects in sequences. The relationships in a tree are hierarchical, with some objects being "above" and some "below" others. Actually, the main terminology for tree data structures comes from family trees, with the terms "parent," "child," "ancestor," and "descendent" being the most common words used to describe relationships. We show an example of a family tree in Figure 7.1. Figure 7.1: A family tree showing some descendents of Abraham, as recorded in Genesis, chapters 25–36. 7.1.1 Tree Definitions and Properties A tree is an abstract data type that stores elements hierarchically. With the exception of the top element, each element in a tree has a parent element and zero or more children elements. A tree is usually visualized by placing elements inside ovals or rectangles, and by drawing the connections between parents and children with straight lines. (See Figure 7.2.) We typically call the top element the root of the tree, but it is drawn as the highest element, with the other elements being connected below (just the opposite of a botanical tree). Figure 7.2: A tree with 17 nodes representing the organization of a fictitious corporation. The root stores 376 Electronics R'Us. The children of the root store R&D, Sales, Purchasing, and Manufacturing. The internal nodes store Sales, International, Overseas, Electronics R'Us, and Manufacturing. Formal Tree Definition Formally, we define a tree T as a set of nodes storing elements such that the nodes have a parent-child relationship, that satisfies the following properties: • If T is nonempty, it has a special node, called the root of T, that has no parent. • Each node v of T different from the root has a unique parent node w; every node with parent w is a child of w. Note that according to our definition, a tree can be empty, meaning that it doesn't have any nodes. This convention also allows us to define a tree recursively, such that a tree T is either empty or consists of a node r, called the root of T, and a (possibly empty) set of trees whose roots are the children of r. Other Node Relationships 377 Two nodes that are children of the same parent are siblings. A node v is external if v has no children. A node v is internal if it has one or more children. External nodes are also known as leaves. Example 7.1: In most operating systems, files are organized hierarchically into nested directories (also called folders), which are presented to the user in the form of a tree. (See Figure 7.3.) More specifically, the internal nodes of the tree are associated with directories and the external nodes are associated with regular files. In the UNIX and Linux operating systems, the root of the tree is appropriately called the "root directory," and is represented by the symbol "/." Figure 7.3: Tree representing a portion of a file system. A node u is an ancestor of a node v if u = v or u is an ancestor of the parent of v. Conversely, we say that a node v is a descendent of a node u if u is an ancestor of v. For example, in Figure 7.3, cs252/ is an ancestor of papers/, and pr3 is a descendent of cs016/. The subtree of T rooted at a node v is the tree consisting of all the descendents of v in T (including v itself). In Figure 7.3, the subtree rooted at cs016/ consists of the nodes cs016/, grades, homeworks/, programs/, hw1, hw2, hw3, pr1, pr2, and pr3. 378 Edges and Paths in Trees An edge of tree T is a pair of nodes (u, v) such that u is the parent of v, or vice versa. A path of T is a sequence of nodes such that any two consecutive nodes in the sequence form an edge. For example, the tree in Figure 7.3 contains the path (cs252/, projects/, demos/, market). Example 7.2: The inheritance relation between classes in a Java program forms a tree. The root, java. lang. Object, is an ancestor of all other classes. Each class, C, is a descendent of this root and is the root of a subtree of the classes that extend C. Thus, there is a path from C to the root, java.lang.Object, in this inheritance tree. Ordered Trees A tree is ordered if there is a linear ordering defined for the children of each node; that is, we can identify the children of a node as being the first, second, third, and so on. Such an ordering is usually visualized by arranging siblings left to right, according to their ordering. Ordered trees typically indicate the linear order among siblings by listing them in the correct order. Example 7.3: The components of a structured document, such as a book, are hierarchically organized as a tree whose internal nodes are parts, chapters, and sections, and whose external nodes are paragraphs, tables, figures, and so on. (See Figure 7.4.) The root of the tree corresponds to the book itself. We could, in fact, consider expanding the tree further to show paragraphs consisting of sentences, sentences consisting of words, and words consisting of characters. Such a tree is an example of an ordered tree, because there is a well-defined ordering among the children of each node. Figure 7.4: An ordered tree associated with a book. 379 7.1.2 The Tree Abstract Data Type The tree ADT stores elements at positions, which, as with positions in a list, are defined relative to neighboring positions. The positions in a tree are its nodes, and neighboring positions satisfy the parent-child relationships that define a valid tree. Therefore, we use the terms "position" and "node" interchangeably for trees. As with a list position, a position object for a tree supports the method: element(): return the object stored at this position. The real power of node positions in a tree, however, comes from the accessor methods of the tree ADT that return and accept positions, such as the following: root(): return the tree's root; an error occurs if the tree is empty. parent (v): return the parent of v; an error occurs if v is the root. children(v): return an iterable collection containing the children of node v. If a tree T is ordered, then the iterable collection, children(v), stores the children of v in order. If v is an external node, then children(v) is empty. In addition to the above fundamental accessor methods, we also include the following query methods: isInternal(v): Test whether node v is internal. isExternal(v): Test whether node v is external. isRoot(v): Test whether node v is the root. These methods make programming with trees easier and more readable, since we can use them in the conditionals of if statements and while loops, rather than using a nonintuitive conditional. 380 There are also a number of generic methods a tree should probably support that are not necessarily related to its tree structure, including the following: size(): return the number of nodes in the tree. isEmpty(): Test whether the tree has any nodes or not. iterator(): return an iterator of all the elements stored at nodes of the tree. positions(): return an iterable collection of all the nodes of the tree. replace(v,e): Replace with e and return the element stored at node v. Any method that takes a position as an argument should generate an error condition if that position is invalid. We do not define any specialized update methods for trees here. Instead, we prefer to describe different tree update methods in conjunction with specific applications of trees in subsequent chapters. In fact, we can imagine several kinds of tree update operations beyond those given in this book. 7.1.3 Implementing a Tree The Java interface shown in Code Fragment 7.1 represents the tree ADT. Error conditions are handled as follows: Each method that can take a position as an argument, may throw an InvalidPositionException, to indicate that the position is invalid. Method parent throws a BoundaryViolationException if it is called on the root. Method root throws an EmptyTreeException if it is called on an empty tree. Code Fragment 7.1: Java interface Tree representing the tree ADT. Additional update methods may be added, depending on the application. We do not include such methods in the interface, however. 381 A Linked Structure for General Trees A natural way to realize a tree T is to use a linked structure, where we represent each node v of T by a position object (see Figure 7.5a) with the following fields: A reference to the element stored at v, a link to the parent of v, and a some kind of collection (for example, a list or array) to store links to the children of v. If v is the root of T, then the parent field of v is null. Also, we store a reference to the root of T and the number of nodes of T in internal variables. This structure is schematically illustrated in Figure 7.5b. 382 Figure 7.5: The linked structure for a general tree: (a) the position object associated with a node; (b) the portion of the data structure associated with a node and its children. Table 7.1 summarizes the performance of the implementation of a general tree using a linked structure. The analysis is left as an exercise (C-7.25), but we note that, by using a collection to store the children of each node v, we can implement children(v) simply by returning a reference to this collection. Table 7.1: Running times of the methods of an n- node general tree implemented with a linked structure. We let cv denote the number of children of a node v. The space usage is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) iterator, positions O(n) 383 replace O(1) root, parent O(1) children(v) O(cv) isInternal, isExternal, isRoot O(1) 7.2 Tree Traversal Algorithms In this section, we present algorithms for performing traversal computations on a tree by accessing it through the tree ADT methods. 7.2.1 Depth and Height Let v be a node of a tree T. The depth of v is the number of ancestors of v, excluding v itself. For example, in the tree of Figure 7.2, the node storing International has depth 2. Note that this definition implies that the depth of the root of T is 0. The depth of a node v can also be recursively defined as follows: • If v is the root, then the depth of v is 0 • Otherwise, the depth of v is one plus the depth of the parent of v. Based on this definition, we present a simple, recursive algorithm, depth, in Code Fragment 7.2, for computing the depth of a node v in T. This method calls itself recursively on the parent of v, and adds 1 to the value returned. A simple Java implementation of this algorithm is shown in Code Fragment 7.3. Code Fragment 7.2: Algorithm for computing the depth of a node v in a tree T. 384 Code Fragment 7.3: Method depth written in Java. The running time of algorithm depth(T, v) is O(dv), where dv denotes the depth of the node v in the tree T, because the algorithm performs a constant-time recursive step for each ancestor of v. Thus, algorithm depth (T, v) runs in O(n) worst-case time, where n is the total number of nodes of T, since a node of T may have depth n − 1 in the worst case. Although such a running time is a function of the input size, it is more accurate to characterize the running time in terms of the parameter dv, since this parameter can be much smaller than n. Height The height of a node v in a tree T is also defined recursively: • If v is an external node, then the height of v is 0 • Otherwise, the height of v is one plus the maximum height of a child of v. The height of a nonempty tree T is the height of the root of T. For example, the tree of Figure 7.2 has height 4. In addition, height can also be viewed as follows. Proposition 7.4: The height of a nonempty tree T is equal to the maximum depth of an external node of T. We leave the justification of this fact to an exercise (R-7.6). We present here an algorithm, height1, shown in Code Fragment 7.4 and implemented in Java in Code Fragment 7.5, for computing the height of a nonempty tree T based on the proposition above and the algorithm depth from Code Fragment 7.2. 385 Code Fragment 7.4: Algorithm height1 for computing the height of a nonempty tree T. Note that this algorithm calls algorithm depth (Code Fragment 7.2). Code Fragment 7.5: Method height1 written in Java. Note the use of the max method of class java.lang. Math. Unfortunately, algorithm height1 is not very efficient. Since height1 calls algorithm depth (v) on each external node v of T, the running time of height1 is given by O(n + Σv(1 + dv)), where n is the number of nodes of T, dv is the depth of node v, and E is the set of external nodes of T. In the worst case, the sumΣv(1 d + v) is proportional to n2. (See Exercise C-7.6.) Thus, algorithm height1 runs in O(n2) time. Algorithm height2, shown in Code Fragment 7.6 and implemented in Java in Code Fragment 7.7, computes the height of tree T in a more efficient manner by using the recursive definition of height. 386 Code Fragment 7.6: Algorithm height2 for computing the height of the subtree of tree T rooted at a node v. Code Fragment 7.7: Method height2 written in Java. Algorithm height2 is more efficient than height1 (from Code Fragment 7.4). The algorithm is recursive, and, if it is initially called on the root of T, it will eventually be called on each node of T. Thus, we can determine the running time of this method by summing, over all the nodes, the amount of time spent at each node (on the nonrecursive part). Processing each node in children(v) takes O(cv) time, where cv denotes the number of children of node v. Also, the while loop has cv iterations and each iteration of the loop takes O(1) time plus the time for the recursive call on a child of v. Thus, algorithm height2 spends O(1 + cv) time at each node v, and its running time is O(Σv(1 + cv)). In order to complete the analysis, we make use of the following property. Proposition 7.5: Let T be a tree with n nodes, and let cv denote the number of children of a node v of T. Then, summing over the vertices in T, Σvcv= n − 1. 387 Justification: Each node of T, with the exception of the root, is a child of another node, and thus contributes one unit to the above sum. By Proposition 7.5, the running time of algorithm height2, when called on the root of T, is O(n), where n is the number of nodes of T. 7.2.2 Preorder Traversal A traversal of a tree T is a systematic way of accessing, or "visiting," all the nodes of T. In this section, we present a basic traversal scheme for trees, called preorder traversal. In the next section, we will study another basic traversal scheme, called postorder traversal. In a preorder traversal of a tree T, the root of T is visited first and then the subtrees rooted at its children are traversed recursively. If the tree is ordered, then the subtrees are traversed according to the order of the children. The specific action associated with the "visit" of a node v depends on the application of this traversal, and could involve anything from incrementing a counter to performing some complex computation for v. The pseudo-code for the preorder traversal of the subtree rooted at a node v is shown in Code Fragment 7.8. We initially call this algorithm with preorder(T,T.root()). Code Fragment 7.8: Algorithm preorder for performing the preorder traversal of the subtree of a tree T rooted at a node v. The preorder traversal algorithm is useful for producing a linear ordering of the nodes of a tree where parents must always come before their children in the ordering. Such orderings have several different applications. We explore a simple instance of such an application in the next example. Figure 7.6: Preorder traversal of an ordered tree, where the children of each node are ordered from left to right. 388 Example 7.6: The preorder traversal of the tree associated with a document, as in Example 7.3, examines an entire document sequentially, from beginning to end. If the external nodes are removed before the traversal, then the traversal examines the table of contents of the document. (See Figure 7.6.) The preorder traversal is also an efficient way to access all the nodes of a tree. To justify this, let us consider the running time of the preorder traversal of a tree T with n nodes under the assumption that visiting a node takes O(1) time. The analysis of the preorder traversal algorithm is actually similar to that of algorithm height2 (Code Fragment 7.7), given in Section 7.2.1. At each node v, the nonrecursive part of the preorder traversal algorithm requires time O(1 + cv), where cv is the number of children of v. Thus, by Proposition 7.5, the overall running time of the preorder traversal of T is O(n). Algorithm toStringPreorder(T, v), implemented in Java in Code Fragment 7.9, performs a preorder printing of the subtree of a node v of T, that is, it performs the preorder traversal of the subtree rooted at v and prints the element stored at a node when the node is visited. Recall that, for an ordered tree T, method T.children(v) returns an iterable collection that accesses the children of v in order. Code Fragment 7.9: Method toStringPreorder(T, v) that performs a preorder printing of the elements in the subtree of node v of T. 389 There is an interesting application of the preorder traversal algorithm that produces a string representation of an entire tree. Let us assume again that for each element e stored in tree T, calling e.toString() returns a string associated with e. The parenthetic string representation P(T) of tree T is recursively defined as follows. If T consists of a single node v, then P(T) = v.element().toString(). Otherwise, P(T) = v.element().toString() + " (" + P(T1) + "," + ··· + ", "+ P(Tk) +")", where v is the root of T and T1, T2,..., Tk are the subtrees rooted at the children of v, which are given in order if T is an ordered tree. Note that the above definition of P(T) is recursive. Also, we are using "+" here to denote string concatenation. The parenthetic representation of the tree of Figure 7.2 is shown in Figure 7.7. Figure 7.7: Parenthetic representation of the tree of Figure 7.2. Indentation, line breaks and spaces have been added for clarity. Note that, technically speaking, there are some computations that occur between and after the recursive calls at a node's children in the above algorithm. We still consider this algorithm to be a preorder traversal, however, since the primary action of printing a node's contents occurs prior to the recursive calls. The Java method parentheticRepresentation, shown in Code Fragment 7.10, is a variation of method toStringPreorder (Code Fragment 7.9). It implements the definition given above to output a parenthetic string representation of a tree T. As with the method toStringPreorder, the method parentheticRepresentation makes use of the toString method that is defined for every Java object. In fact, we can view this method as a kind of toString() method for tree objects. 390 Code Fragment 7.10: Algorithm parentheticRepresentation. Note the use of the + operator to concatenate two strings. We explore a modification to Code Fragment 7.10 in Exercise R-7.9, to display a tree in a fashion more closely matching that given in Figure 7.7. 7.2.3 Postorder Traversal Another important tree traversal algorithm is the postorder traversal. This algorithm can be viewed as the opposite of the preorder traversal, because it recursively traverses the subtrees rooted at the children of the root first, and then visits the root. It is similar to the preorder traversal, however, in that we use it to solve a particular problem by specializing an action associated with the "visit" of a node v. Still, as with the preorder traversal, if the tree is ordered, we make recursive calls for the children of a node v according to their specified order. Pseudo-code for the postorder traversal is given in Code Fragment 7.11. Code Fragment 7.11: Algorithm postorder for performing the postorder traversal of the subtree of a tree T rooted at a node v. 391 The name of the postorder traversal comes from the fact that this traversal method will visit a node v after it has visited all the other nodes in the subtree rooted at v. (See Figure 7.8.) Figure 7.8: Postorder traversal of the ordered tree of Figure 7.6. The analysis of the running time of a postorder traversal is analogous to that of a preorder traversal. (See Section 7.2.2.) The total time spent in the nonrecursive portions of the algorithm is proportional to the time spent visiting the children of each node in the tree. Thus, a postorder traversal of a tree T with n nodes takes O(n) time, assuming that visiting each node takes O(1) time. That is, the postorder traversal runs in linear time. As an example of postorder traversal, we show a Java method toStringPostorder in Code Fragment 7.12, which performs a postorder traversal of a tree T. This method prints the element stored at a node when it is visited. Code Fragment 7.12: Method toStringPostorder(T, v) that performs a postorder printing of the elements in the subtree of node v of T. The method implicitly calls toString on elements, when they are involved in a string concatenation operation. 392 The postorder traversal method is useful for solving problems where we wish to compute some property for each node v in a tree, but computing that property for v requires that we have already computed that same property for v's children. Such an application is illustrated in the following example. Example 7.7: Consider a file system tree T, where external nodes represent files and internal nodes represent directories (Example 7.1). Suppose we want to compute the disk space used by a directory, which is recursively given by the sum of: • The size of the directory itself • The sizes of the files in the directory • The space used by the children directories. (See Figure 7.9.) This computation can be done with apostorder traversal of tree T. After the subtrees of an internal node v have been traversed, we compute the space used by v by adding the sizes of the directory v itself and of the files contained in v to the space used by each internal child of v, which was computed by the recursive postorder traversals of the children of v. A Recursive Java Method for Computing Disk Space Motivated by Example 7.7, Java method diskSpace, shown in Code Fragment 7.13, performs a postorder traversal of a file-system tree T, printing the name and disk space used by the directory associated with each internal node of T. When called on the root of tree T, diskSpace runs in time O(n), where n is the number of nodes of T, provided the auxiliary methods name and size take O(1) time. Figure 7.9: The tree of Figure 7.3 representing a file system, showing the name and size of the associated file/directory inside each node, and the disk space used by the associated directory above each internal node. 393 Code Fragment 7.13: Method diskSpace prints the name and disk space used by the directory associated with each internal node of a file-system tree. This method calls the auxiliary methods name and size, which should be defined to return the name and size of the file/directory associated with a node. Other Kinds of Traversals 394 Although the preorder and postorder traversals are common ways of visiting the nodes of a tree, we can also imagine other traversals. For example, we could traverse a tree so that we visit all the nodes at depth d before we visit the nodes at depth d + 1. Consecutively numbering the nodes of a tree T as we visit them in this traversal is called the level numbering of the nodes of T (see Section 7.3.5). 7.3 Binary Trees A binary tree is an ordered tree with the following properties: 1. Every node has at most two children. 2. Each child node is labeled as being either a left child or a right child. 3. A left child precedes a right child in the ordering of children of a node. The subtree rooted at a left or right child of an internal node v is called a left subtree or right subtree, respectively, of v. A binary tree is proper if each node has either zero or two children. Some people also refer to such trees as being full binary trees. Thus, in a proper binary tree, every internal node has exactly two children. A binary tree that is not proper is improper. Example 7.8: An important class of binary trees arises in contexts where we wish to represent a number of different outcomes that can result from answering a series of yes-or-no questions. Each internal node is associated with a question. Starting at the root, we go to the left or right child of the current node, depending on whether the answer to the question is "Yes" or "No." With each decision, we follow an edge from a parent to a child, eventually tracing a path in the tree from the root to an external node. Such binary trees are known as decision trees, because each external node v in such a tree represents a decision of what to do if the questions associated with v's ancestors are answered in a way that leads to v. A decision tree is a proper binary tree. Figure 7.10 illustrates a decision tree that provides recommendations to a prospective investor. Figure 7.10: A decision tree providing investment advice. 395 Example 7.9: An arithmetic expression can be represented by a binary tree whose external nodes are associated with variables or constants, and whose internal nodes are associated with one of the operators +, −, ×, and /. (See Figure 7.11.) Each node in such a tree has a value associated with it. • If a node is external, then its value is that of its variable or constant. • If a node is internal, then its value is defined by applying its operation to the values of its children. An arithmetic expression tree is a proper binary tree, since each operator +, −, ×, and / takes exactly two operands. Of course, if we were to allow for unary operators, like negation (−), as in "−x," then we could have an improper binary tree. Figure 7.11: A binary tree representing an arithmetic expression. This tree represents the expression ((((3 + 1) × 3)/((9 −5) +2)) − ((3 × (7 −4)) + 6)). The value associated with the internal node labeled "/" is 2. 396 A Recursive Binary Tree Definition Incidentally, we can also define a binary tree in a recursive way such that a binary tree is either empty or consists of: • A node r, called the root of T and storing an element • A binary tree, called the left subtree of T • A binary tree, called the right subtree of T. We discuss some of the specialized topics for binary trees below. 7.3.1 The Binary Tree ADT As an abstract data type, a binary tree is a specialization of a tree that supports three additional accessor methods: left(v): Return the left child of v; an error condition occurs if v has no left child. right(v): Return the right child of v; an error condition occurs if v has no right child. hasLeft(v): Test whether v has a left child. 397 hasRight(v): Test whether v has a right child. Just as in Section 7.1.2 for the tree ADT, we do not define specialized update methods for binary trees here. Instead, we will consider some possible update methods when we describe specific implementations and applications of binary trees. 7.3.2 A Binary Tree Interface in Java We model a binary tree as an abstract data type that extends the tree ADT and adds the three specialized methods for a binary tree. In Code Fragment 7.14, we show the simple Java interface we can define using this approach. By the way, since binary trees are ordered trees, the iterable collection returned by method children(v) (inherited from the Tree interface) stores the left child of v before the right child of v. Code Fragment 7.14: Java interface Binary Tree for the binary tree ADT. Interface Binary Tree extends interface Tree (Code Fragment 7.1). 7.3.3 Properties of Binary Trees Binary trees have several interesting properties dealing with relationships between their heights and number of nodes. We denote the set of all nodes of a tree T at the 398 same depth d as the level dof T. In a binary tree, level 0 has at most one node (the root), level 1 has at most two nodes (the children of the root), level 2 has at most four nodes, and so on. (See Figure 7.12.) In general, level d has at most 2d nodes. Figure 7.12: Maximum number of nodes in the levels of a binary tree. We can see that the maximum number of nodes on the levels of a binary tree grows exponentially as we go down the tree. From this simple observation, we can derive the following properties relating the height of a binary T with its number of nodes. A detailed justification of these properties is left as an exercise (R-7.15). Proposition 7.10: Let T be a nonempty binary tree, and let n, nE, nI and h denote the number of nodes, number of external nodes, number of internal nodes, and height of T, respectively. Then T has the following properties: 1. h+1 ≤ n ≤ 2 h+1 −1 2. 1≤nE≤2h 3. h≤nI≤2h−1 4. log(n+1)−1 ≤h≤n−1. Also, if T is proper, then T has the following properties: 399 1. 2h+1 ≤ n≤2h+1−1 2. h+1≤nE≤2h 3. h≤nI≤2h−1 4. log(n + 1) − 1 ≤ h ≤ (n − 1)/2. Relating Internal Nodes to External Nodes in a Proper Binary Tree In addition to the binary tree properties above, we also have the following relationship between the number of internal nodes and external nodes in a proper binary tree. Proposition 7.11: In a nonempty proper binary tree T, with nE external nodes and nI internal nodes, we have ne = nI + 1. Justification: We justify this proposition by removing nodes from T and dividing them up into two "piles", an internal-node pile and an external-node pile, until T becomes empty. The piles are initially empty. At the end, the external- node pile will have one more node than the internal-node pile. We consider two cases: Case 1: If T has only one node v, we remove v and place it on the external-node pile. Thus, the external-node pile has one node and the internal-node pile is empty. Case 2: Otherwise (T has more than one node), we remove from T an (arbitrary) external node w and its parent v, which is an internal node. We place w on the external-node pile and v on the internal-node pile. If v has a parent u, then we reconnect u with the former sibling z of w, as shown in Figure 7.13. This operation, removes one internal node and one external node, and leaves the tree being a proper binary tree. Repeating this operation, we eventually are left with a final tree consisting of a single node. Note that the same number of external and internal nodes have been removed and placed on their respective piles by the sequence of operations leading to this final tree. Now, we remove the node of the final tree and we place it on the external-node pile. Thus, the the external-node pile has one more node than the internal-node pile. 400 Figure 7.13: Operation that removes an external node and its parent node, used in the justification of Proposition 7.11. Note that the above relationship does not hold, in general, for improper binary trees and nonbinary trees, although there are other interesting relationships that can hold, as we explore in an exercise (C-7.7). 7.3.4 A Linked Structure for Binary Trees As with a general tree, a natural way to realize a binary tree T is to use a linked structure, where we represent each node v of T by a position object (see Figure 7.14a) with fields providing references to the element stored at v and to the position objects associated with the children and parent of v. If v is the root of T, then the parent field of v is null. If v has no left child, then the left field of v is null. If v has no right child, then the right field of v is null. Also, we store the number of nodes of T in a variable, called size. We show the linked structure representation of a binary tree in Figure 7.14b. Figure 7.14: A node (a) and a linked structure (b) for representing a binary tree. 401 Java Implementation of a Binary Tree Node 402 We use a Java interface BTPosition (not shown) to represent a node of a binary tree. This interfaces extends Position, thus inheriting method element, and has additional methods for setting the element stored at the node (setElement) and for setting and returning the left child (setLeft and getLeft), right child (setRight and getRight), and parent (setParent and getParent) of the node. Class BTNode (Code Fragment 7.15) implements interface BTPosition by an object with fields element, left, right, and parent, which, for a node v, reference the element at v, the left child of v, the right child of v, and the parent of v, respectively. Code Fragment 7.15: Auxiliary class BTNode for implementing binary tree nodes. 403 Java Implementation of the Linked Binary Tree Structure In Code Fragments 7.16–7.18, we show portions of class Linked Binary Tree that implements the Binary Tree interface (Code Fragment 7.14) using a linked data structure. This class stores the size of the tree and a reference to the BTNode object associated with the root of the tree in internal variables. In 404 addition to the Binary Tree interface methods, LinkedBinaryTree has various other methods, including accessor method sibling(v), which returns the sibling of a node v, and the following update methods: addRoot(e): Create and return a new node r storing element e and make r the root of the tree; an error occurs if the tree is not empty. insertLeft(v,e): Create and return a new node w storing element e, add w as the the left child of v and return w; an error occurs if v already has a left child. insertRight(v,e): Create and return a new node z storing element e, add z as the the right child of v and return z; an error occurs if v already has a right child. remove(v): Remove node v, replace it with its child, if any, and return the element stored at v; an error occurs if v has two children. attach(v,T1,T2): Attach T1 and T2, respectively, as the left and right subtrees of the external node v; an error condition occurs if v is not external. Class LinkedBinaryTree has a constructor with no arguments that returns an empty binary tree. Starting from this empty tree, we can build any binary tree by creating the first node with method addRoot and repeatedly applying the insertLeft and insertRight methods and/or the attach method. Likewise, we can dismantle any binary tree T using the remove operation, ultimately reducing such a tree T to an empty binary tree. When a position v is passed as an argument to one of the methods of class LinkedBinaryTree, its validity is checked by calling an auxiliary helper method, checkPosition(v). A list of the nodes visited in a preorder traversal of the tree is constructed by recursive method preorderPositions. Error conditions are indicated by throwing exceptions Invalid Position Exception, BoundaryViolation Exception, EmptyTreeException, and NonEmptyTreeException. Code Fragment 7.16: Portions of the Linked Binary Tree class, which implements the Binary Tree interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 7.17.) 405 406 Code Fragment 7.17: Portions of the Linked Binary Tree class, which implements the Binary Tree interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 7.18.) 407 408 Code Fragment 7.18: Portions of the Linked Binary Tree class, which implements the Binary Tree interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 7.19.) 409 Code Fragment 7.19: Portions of the LinkedBinaryTree class, which implements the 410 Binary Tree interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 7.20.) Code Fragment 7.20: Portions of the Linked Binary Tree class, which implements the Binary Tree interface. (Continued from Code Fragment 7.19.) 411 Performance of the Linked Binary Tree Implementation Let us now analyze the running times of the methods of class Linked Binary Tree, which uses a linked structure representation: 412 • Methods size() and isEmpty() use an instance variable storing the number of nodes of T, and each take O(1) time. • The accessor methods root, left, right, sibling and parent take O(1) time. • Method replace(v,e) takes O(1) time. • Methods iterator() and positions() are implemented by performing a pre- order traversal of the tree (using the auxiliary method preorderPositions). The nodes visited by the traversal are stored in a position list implemented by class NodePositionList (Section 6.2.4) and the output iterator is generated with method iterator() of class NodePositionList. Methods iterator() and positions() take O(n) time and methods hasNext() and next() of the returned iterators run in O(1) time. • Method children uses a similar approach to construct the returned iterable collection, but it runs in O(1) time, since there are at most two children for any node in a binary tree. • The update methods insertLeft, insertRight, attach, and remove all run in O(1) time, as they involve constant-time manipulation of a constant number of nodes. Considering the space required by this data structure for a tree with n nodes, note that there is an object of class BTNode (Code Fragment 7.15) for every node of tree T. Thus, the overall space requirement is O(n). Table 7.2 summarizes the performance of the linked structure implementation of a binary tree. Table 7.2: Running times for the methods of an n- node binary tree implemented with a linked structure. Methods hasNext() and next() of the iterators returned by iterator(), positions().iterator(), and children(v).iterator() run in O(1) time. The space usage is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) iterator, positions 413 O(n) replace O(1) root, parent, children, left, right, sibling O(1) hasLeft, hasRight, isInternal, isExternal, isRoot O(1) insertLeft, insertRight, attach, remove O(1) 7.3.5 An Array-List Representation of a Binary Tree An alternative representation of a binary tree T is based on a way of numbering the nodes of T. For every node v of T, let p(v) be the integer defined as follows. • If v is the root of T, then p(v) = 1. • If v is the left child of node u, then p(v) = 2p(u). • If v is the right child of node u, then p(v) = 2p(u) + 1. The numbering function p is known as a level numbering of the nodes in a binary tree T, for it numbers the nodes on each level of T in increasing order from left to right, although it may skip some numbers. (See Figure 7.15.) Figure 7.15: Binary tree level numbering: (a) general scheme; (b) an example. 414 The level numbering function p suggests a representation of a binary tree T by means of an array list S such that node v of T is the element of S at index p(v). As mentioned in the previous chapter, we realize the array list S by means of an extendable array. (See Section 6.1.4.) Such an implementation is simple and efficient, for we can use it to easily perform the methods root, parent, left, right, hasLeft, hasRight, isInternal, isExternal, and isRoot by using simple arithmetic operations on the numbers p(v) associated with each node v involved in the operation. We leave the details of this implementation as an exercise (R-7.26). We show an example array-list representation of a binary tree in Figure 7.16. Figure 7.16: Representation of a binary tree T by means of an array list S. 415 Let n be the number of nodes of T, and let pM be the maximum value of p(v) over all the nodes of T. The array list S has size N = pM + 1 since the element of S at index 0 is not associated with any node of T. Also, S will have, in general, a number of empty elements that do not refer to existing nodes of T. In fact, in the worst case, N = 2n, the justification of which is left as an exercise (R-7.23). In Section 8.3, we will see a class of binary trees, called "heaps" for which N = n + 1. Thus, in spite of the worst-case space usage, there are applications for which the array-list representation of a binary tree is space efficient. Still, for general binary trees, the exponential worst-case space requirement of this representation is prohibitive. Table 7.3 summarizes running times of the methods of a binary tree implemented with an array list. We do not include any tree update methods here. Table 7.3: Running times for a binary tree T implemented with an array list S. We denote the number of nodes of T with n, and N denotes the size of S. The space usage is O(N), which is O(2n) in the worst case. Operation 416 Time size, isEmpty O(1) iterator, positions O(n) replace O(1) root, parent, children, left, right O(1) hasLeft, hasRight, isInternal, isExternal, isRoot O(1) 7.3.6 Traversals of Binary Trees As with general trees, binary tree computations often involve traversals. Building an Expression Tree Consider the problem of constructing an expression tree from a fully parenthesized arithmetic expression of size n. (Recall Example 7.9 and Code Fragment 7.24.) In Code Fragment 7.21, we give algorithm buildExpression for building such an expression tree, assuming all arithmetic operations are binary and variables are not parenthesized. Thus, every parenthesized subexpression contains an operator in the middle. The algorithm uses a stack S while scanning the input expression E looking for variables, operators, and right parentheses. • When we see a variable or operator x, we create a single-node binary tree T, whose root stores x and we push T on the stack. • When we see a right parenthesis, ")", we pop the top three trees from the stack S, which represent a subexpression (E1 o E2). We then attach the trees for E1 and E2 to the one for o, and push the resulting tree back on S. We repeat this until the expression E has been processed, at which time the top element on the stack is the expression tree for E. The total running time is O(n). 417 Code Fragment 7.21: Algorithm buildExpression. Preorder Traversal of a Binary Tree Since any binary tree can also be viewed as a general tree, the preorder traversal for general trees (Code Fragment 7.8) can be applied to any binary tree. We can simplify the algorithm in the case of a binary tree traversal, however, as we show in Code Fragment 7.22. Code Fragment 7.22: Algorithm binaryPreorder for performing the preorder traversal of the subtree of a binary tree T rooted at a node v. 418 As is the case for general trees, there are many applications of the preorder traversal for binary trees. Postorder Traversal of a Binary Tree Analogously, the postorder traversal for general trees (Code Fragment 7.11) can be specialized for binary trees, as shown in Code Fragment 7.23. Code Fragment 7.23: Algorithm binaryPostorder for performing the postorder traversal of the subtree of a binary tree T rooted at node v. Expression Tree Evaluation The postorder traversal of a binary tree can be used to solve the expression tree evaluation problem. In this problem, we are given an arithmetic expression tree, that is, a binary tree where each external node has a value associated with it and each internal node has an arithmetic operation associated with it (see Example 7.9), and we want to compute the value of the arithmetic expression represented by the tree. Algorithm evaluateExpression, given in Code Fragment 7.24, evaluates the expression associated with the subtree rooted at a node v of an arithmetic expression tree T by performing a postorder traversal of T starting at v. In this 419 case, the "visit" action consists of performing a single arithmetic operation. Note that we use the fact that an arithmetic expression tree is a proper binary tree. Code Fragment 7.24: Algorithm evaluateExpression for evaluating the expression represented by the subtree of an arithmetic expression tree T rooted at node v. The expression-tree evaluation application of the postorder traversal provides an O(n)-time algorithm for evaluating an arithmetic expression represented by a binary tree with n nodes. Indeed, like the general postorder traversal, the postorder traversal for binary trees can be applied to other "bottom-up" evaluation problems (such as the size computation given in Example 7.7) as well. Inorder Traversal of a Binary Tree An additional traversal method for a binary tree is the inorder traversal. In this traversal, we visit a node between the recursive traversals of its left and right subtrees. The inorder traversal of the subtree rooted at a node v in a binary tree T is given in Code Fragment 7.25. Code Fragment 7.25: Algorithm inorder for performing the inorder traversal of the subtree of a binary tree T rooted at a node v. 420 The inorder traversal of a binary tree T can be informally viewed as visiting the nodes of T "from left to right." Indeed, for every node v, the inorder traversal visits v after all the nodes in the left subtree of v and before all the nodes in the right subtree of v. (See Figure 7.17.) Figure 7.17: Inorder traversal of a binary tree. Binary Search Trees Let S be a set whose elements have an order relation. For example, S could be a set of integers. A binary search tree for S is a proper binary tree T such that • Each internal node v of T stores an element of S, denoted with x(v). • For each internal node v of T, the elements stored in the left subtree of v are less than or equal to x(v) and the elements stored in the right subtree of v are greater than or equal to x(v). • The external nodes of T do not store any element. An inorder traversal of the internal nodes of a binary search tree T visits the elements in nondecreasing order. (See Figure 7.18.) 421 Figure 7.18: A binary search tree storing integers. The blue solid path is traversed when searching (successfully) for 36. The blue dashed path is traversed when searching (unsuccessfully) for 70. We can use a binary search tree T for set S to find whether a given search value y is in S, by traversing a path down the tree T, starting at the root. (See Figure 7.18.) At each internal node v encountered, we compare our search value y with the element x(v) stored at v. If y = x(v), then the search continues in the left subtree of v. If y = x(v), then the search terminates successfully. If y ≥ x(v), then the search continues in the right subtree of v. Finally, if we reach an external node, the search terminates unsuccessfully. In other words, a binary search tree can be viewed as a binary decision tree (recall Example 7.8), where the question asked at each internal node is whether the element at that node is less than, equal to, or larger than the element being searched for. Indeed, it is exactly this correspondence to a binary decision tree that motivates restricting binary search trees to be proper binary trees (with "place-holder" external nodes). Note that the running time of searching in a binary search tree T is proportional to the height of T. Recall from Proposition 7.10 that the height of a proper binary tree with n nodes can be as small as log(n + 1) − 1 or as large as (n − 1)/2. Thus, binary search trees are most efficient when they have small height. We illustrate an example search operation in a binary search tree in Figure 7.18, and we study binary search trees in more detail in Section 10.1. Using Inorder Traversal for Tree Drawing 422 The inorder traversal can also be applied to the problem of computing a drawing of a binary tree. We can draw a binary tree T with an algorithm that assigns x- and y-coordinates to a node v of T using the following two rules (see Figure 7.19): • x(v) is the number of nodes visited before v in the inorder traversal of T • y(v) is the depth of v in T. In this application, we take the convention common in computer graphics that x- coordinates increase left to right and y-coordinates increase top to bottom. So the origin is in the upper left corner of the computer screen. Figure 7.19: An inorder drawing of a binary tree. The Euler Tour Traversal of a Binary Tree The tree-traversal algorithms we have discussed so far are all forms of iterators. Each traversal visits the nodes of a tree in a certain order, and is guaranteed to visit each node exactly once. We can unify the tree-traversal algorithms given above into a single framework, however, by relaxing the requirement that each node be visited exactly once. The resulting traversal method is called the Euler tour traversal, which we study next. The advantage of this traversal is that it allows for more general kinds of algorithms to be expressed easily. The Euler tour traversal of a binary tree T can be informally defined as a "walk" around T, where we start by going from the root toward its left child, viewing the edges of T as being "walls" that we always keep to our left. (See Figure 7.20.) Each node v of T is encountered three times by the Euler tour: • "On the left" (before the Euler tour of v's left subtree) • "From below" (between the Euler tours of v's two subtrees) • "On the right" (after the Euler tour of v's right subtree). 423 if v is external, then these three "visits" actually all happen at the same time. We describe the Euler tour of the subtree rooted at v in Code Fragment 7.26. Figure 7.20: Euler tour traversal of a binary tree. Code Fragment 7.26: The Euler tour of the subtree of a binary tree T rooted at v. The running time of the Euler tour traversal of an n-node tree is easy to analyze, assuming each visit action takes O(1) time. Since we spend a constant amount of time at each node of the tree during the traversal, the overall running time is O(n). The preorder traversal of a binary tree is equivalent to an Euler tour traversal such that each node has an associated "visit" action occur only when it is encountered on the left. Likewise, the inorder and postorder traversals of a binary tree are equivalent to an Euler tour such that each node has an associated "visit" action occur only when it is encountered from below or on the right, respectively. The Euler tour traversal extends the preorder, inorder, and postorder traversals, but it can also perform other kinds of traversals. For example, suppose we wish to compute the number of descendents of each node v in an n-node binary tree. We 424 start an Euler tour by initializing a counter to 0, and then increment the counter each time we visit a node on the left. To determine the number of descendents of a node v, we compute the difference between the values of the counter when v is visited on the left and when it is visited on the right, and add 1. This simple rule gives us the number of descendents of v, because each node in the subtree rooted at v is counted between v's visit on the left and v's visit on the right. Therefore, we have an O(n)-time method for computing the number of descendents of each node. Another application of the Euler tour traversal is to print a fully parenthesized arithmetic expression from its expression tree (Example 7.9). Algorithm printEx- pression, shown in Code Fragment 7.27, accomplishes this task by performing the following actions in an Euler tour: • "On the left" action: if the node is internal, print "(" • "From below" action: print the value or operator stored at the node • "On the right" action: if the node is internal, print ")". Code Fragment 7.27: An algorithm for printing the arithmetic expression associated with the subtree of an arithmetic expression tree T rooted at v. 7.3.7 The Template Method Pattern 425 The tree traversal methods described above are actually examples of an interesting object-oriented software design pattern, the template method pattern. The template method pattern describes a generic computation mechanism that can be specialized for a particular application by redefining certain steps. Following the template method pattern, we design an algorithm that implements a generic Euler tour traversal of a binary tree. This algorithm, called templateEulerTour, is shown in Code Fragment 7.28. Code Fragment 7.28: An Euler tour traversal of the subtree of a binary tree T rooted at a node v, following the template method pattern. When called on a node v, method templateEulerTour calls several other auxiliary methods at different phases of the traversal. Namely, it • Creates a local variable r of type TourResult, which is used to store intermediate results of the computation and has fields left, right and out • Calls auxiliary method visitLeft(T,v,r), which performs the computations associated with encountering the node on the left • If v has a left child, recursively calls itself on the left child of v and stores the returned value in r.left • Calls auxiliary method visitBelow(T, v, r), which performs the computations associated with encountering the node from below • If v has a right child, recursively calls itself on the right child and stores the returned value in r.right 426 • Calls auxiliary method visitRight(T, v, r), which performs the computations associated with encountering the node on the right • Returns r.out. Method templateEulerTour can be viewed as a template or "skeleton" of an Euler tour. (See Code Fragment 7.28.) Java Implementation Java class EulerTour, shown in Code Fragment 7.29, implements an Euler tour traversal using the template method pattern. The recursive traversal is performed by method eulerTour. The auxiliary methods called by eulerTour are empty place holders. That is, they have an empty body or they just return null. Class EulerTour is abstract and thus cannot be instantiated. It contains an abstract method, called execute, which needs to be specified in the concrete subclass of EulerTour. Class TourResult, with fields left, right, and out, is not shown. Code Fragment 7.29: Java class EulerTour defining a generic Euler tour of a binary tree. This class realizes the template method pattern and must be specialized in order to get an interesting computation. 427 The class, EulerTour, itself does not perform any useful computation. Nevertheless, we can extend it and override the empty auxiliary methods to do useful tasks. We illustrate this concept using arithmetic expression trees (see Example 7.9). We assume that an arithmetic expression tree has objects of type 428 ExpressionTerm at each node. Class ExpressionTerm has subclasses ExpressionVariable (for variables) and ExpressionOperator (for operators). In turn, class ExpressionOperator has subclasses for the arithmetic operators, such as AdditionOperator and MultiplicationOperator. Method value of ExpressionTerm is overridden by its subclasses. For a variable, it returns the value of the variable. For an operator, it returns the result of applying the operator to its operands. The operands of an operator are set by method setOperands of ExpressionOperator. In Code Fragment 7.30, we show the classes ExpressionTerm, ExpressionVariable, ExpressionOperator and AdditionOperator. Code Fragment 7.30: Classes for a variable, generic operator, and addition operator of an arithmetic expression. 429 In Code Fragments 7.31 and 7.32, we show classes EvaluateExpressionTour and PrintExpressionTour, specializing EulerTour, that evaluate and print the arithmetic expression stored in a binary tree, respectively. Class EvaluateExpressionTour overrides auxiliary method visitRight(T, v, r) with the following computation: • If v is an external node, set r.out equal to the value of the variable stored at v • Else (v is an internal node), combine r.left and r.right with the operator stored at v, and set r.out equal to the result of the operation. Class PrintExpressionTour overrides methods visitLeft, visitBelow, and visitRight following the approach of pseudo-code version shown in Code Fragment 7.27. 430 Code Fragment 7.31: Class EvaluateExpressionTour that specializes EulerTour to evaluate the expression associated with an arithmetic expression tree. Code Fragment 7.32: Class PrintExpressionTour that specializes EulerTour to print the expression associated with an arithmetic expression tree. 7.4 Exercises 431 For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-7.1 The following questions refer to the tree of Figure 7.3. a. Which node is the root? b. What are the internal nodes? c. How many descendents does node cs016/ have? d. How many ancestors does node cs016/ have? e. What are the siblings of node homeworks/? f. Which nodes are in the subtree rooted at node projects/? g. What is the depth of node papers/? h. What is the height of the tree? R-7.2 Find the value of the arithmetic expression associated with each subtree of the binary tree of Figure 7.11. R-7.3 432 Let T be an n-node binary tree that may be improper. Describe how to represent T by means of a proper binary tree T ′ with O(n) nodes. R-7.4 What are the minimum and maximum number of internal and external nodes in an improper binary tree with n nodes? R-7.5 Show a tree achieving the worst-case running time for algorithm depth. R-7.6 Give a justification of Proposition 7.4. R-7.7 What is the running time of algorithm height2(T, v) (Code Fragment 7.6) when called on a node v distinct from the root of T? R-7.8 Let T be the tree of Figure 7.3, and refer to Code Fragments 7.9 and 7.10. a. Give the output of toStringPostorder(T, T.root()). b. Give the output of parentheticRepresentation(T, T.root()). R-7.9 Describe a modification to parentheticRepresentation, from Code Fragment 7.10, so that it uses the length() method for String objects to output the parenthetic representation of a tree with line breaks and spaces added to display the tree in a text window that is 80 characters wide. R-7.10 Draw an arithmetic expression tree that has four external nodes, storing the numbers 1, 5, 6, and 7 (with each number stored in a distinct external node, but not necessarily in this order), and has three internal nodes, each storing an operator from the set { + , − , ×, /}, so that the value of the root is 21. The operators may return and act on fractions, and an operator may be used more than once. 433 R-7.11 Let T be an ordered tree with more than one node. Is it possible that the preorder traversal of T visits the nodes in the same order as the postorder traversal of T? If so, give an example; otherwise, argue why this cannot occur. Likewise, is it possible that the preorder traversal of T visits the nodes in the reverse order of the postorder traversal of T? If so, give an example; otherwise, argue why this cannot occur. R-7.12 Answer the previous question for the case when T is a proper binary tree with more than one node. R-7.13 What is the running time of parentheticRepresentation(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.10) for a tree T with n nodes? R-7.14 Draw a (single) binary tree T such that • Each internal node of T stores a single character • A preorder traversal of T yields EXAMFUN • An inorder traversal of T yields MAFXUEN. R-7.15 Answer the following questions so as to justify Proposition 7.10. a. What is the minimum number of external nodes for a proper binary tree with height h? Justify your answer. b. What is the maximum number of external nodes for a proper binary tree with height h? Justify your answer. 434 c. Let T be a proper binary tree with height h and n nodes. Show that log(n + 1) −1 ≤ h ≤ (n − 1)/2. d. For which values of n and h can the above lower and upper bounds on h be attained with equality? R-7.16 Describe a generalization of the Euler tour traversal to trees such that each internal node has three children. Describe how you could use this traversal to compute the height of each node in such a tree. R-7.17 Compute the output of algorithm toStringPostorder(T,T.root()), from Code Fragment 7.12, on the tree T of Figure 7.3. R-7.18 Illustrate the execution of algorithm diskSpace(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.13) on the tree T of Figure 7.9. R-7.19 Let T be the binary tree of Figure 7.11. a. Give the output of toStringPostorder(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.9). b. Give the output of parentheticRepresentation(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.10). R-7.20 Let T be the binary tree of Figure 7.11. a. Give the output of toStringPostorder(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.12). 435 b. Give the output of printExpression(T, T.root()) (Code Fragment 7.27). R-7.21 Describe, in pseudo-code, an algorithm for computing the number of descendents of each node of a binary tree. The algorithm should be based on the Euler tour traversal. R-7.22 Let T be a (possibly improper) binary tree with n nodes, and let D be the sum of the depths of all the external nodes of T. Show that if T has the minimum number of external nodes possible, then D is O(n) and if T has the maximum number of external nodes possible, then D is O(n log n). R-7.23 Let T be a binary tree with n nodes, and let p be the level numbering of the nodes of T, as given in Section 7.3.5. a. Show that, for every node v of T, p(v) ≤ 2n − 1. b. Show an example of a binary tree with seven nodes that attains the above upper bound on p(v) for some node v. R-7.24 Show how to use the Euler tour traversal to compute the level number, defined in Section 7.3.5, of each node in a binary tree T. R-7.25 Draw the binary tree representation of the following arithmetic expression: "(((5 + 2) * (2 − 1))/((2 + 9) + ((7 − 2) − 1)) * 8)". R-7.26 Let T be a binary tree with n nodes that is realized with an array list, S, and let p be the level numbering of the nodes in T, as given in Section 7.3.5. Give pseudo-code descriptions of each of the methods root, parent, left, right, hasLeft, hasRight, isInternal, isExternal, and isRoot. 436 Creativity C-7.1 For each node v in a tree T, let pre(v) be the rank of v in a preorder traversal of T, let post(v) be the rank of v in a postorder traversal of T, let depth (v) be the depth of v, and let desc(v) be the number of descendents of v, not counting v itself. Derive a formula defining post(v) in terms of desc(v), depth(v), and pre(v), for each node v in T. C-7.2 Let T be a tree whose nodes store strings. Give an efficient algorithm that computes and prints, for every node v of T, the string stored at v and the height of the subtree rooted at v. C-7.3 Design algorithms for the following operations for a binary tree T: • preorderNext(v): return the node visited after node v in a preorder traversal of T • inorderNext(v): return the node visited after node v in an inorder traversal of T • postorderNext(v): return the node visited after node v in a postorder traversal of T. What are the worst-case running times of your algorithms? C-7.4 Give an O(n)-time algorithm for computing the depth of all the nodes of a tree T, where n is the number of nodes of T. C-7.5 The indented parenthetic representation of a tree T is a variation of the parenthetic representation of T (see Figure 7.7) that uses indentation and line breaks as illustrated in Figure 7.21. Give an algorithm that prints this representation of a tree. 437 Figure 7.21: (a) Tree T; (b) indented parenthetic representation of T. C-7.6 Let T be a (possibly improper) binary tree with n nodes, and let D be the sum of the depths of all the external nodes of T. Describe a configuration for T such that D is Ω(n2). Such a tree would be the worst case for the asymptotic running time of Algorithm height1 (Code Fragment 7.5). C-7.7 For a tree T, let nI denote the number of its internal nodes, and let nE denote the number of its external nodes. Show that if every internal node in T has exactly 3 children, then nE = 2nI + 1. C-7.8 Describe how to clone a proper binary tree using the attach method instead of methods insertLeft and insertRight. C-7.9 The balance factor of an internal node v of a proper binary tree is the difference between the heights of the right and left subtrees of v. Show how to specialize the Euler tour traversal of Section 7.3.7 to print the balance factors of all the internal nodes of a proper binary tree. 438 C-7.10 Two ordered trees T ′ and T ″ are said to be isomorphic if one of the following holds: • Both T ′ and T ″ are empty • Both T ′ and T ″ consist of a single node • Both T ′ and T ″ have the same number k ≥ 1 of subtrees, and the ith subtree of T ′ is isomorphic to the ith subtree of T ″, for i = 1, …,k. Design an algorithm that tests whether two given ordered trees are isomorphic. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-7.11 Extend the concept of an Euler tour to an ordered tree that is not necessarily a binary tree. C-7.12 We can define a binary tree representation T ′ for an ordered general tree T as follows (see Figure 7.22): • For each node u of T, there is an internal node u ′ of T ′ associated with u. • If u is an external node of T and does not have a sibling immediately following it, then the children of u ′ in T ′ are external nodes. • If u is an internal node of T and v is the first child of u in T, then v is the left child of u ′ in T ′. • If node v has a sibling w immediately following it, then w ′ is the right child of v ′ in T ′. Given such a representation T ′ of a general ordered tree T, answer each of the following questions: a. Is a preorder traversal of T ′ equivalent to a preorder traversal of T? b. Is a postorder traversal of T ′ equivalent to a postorder traversal of T? c. Is an inorder traversal of T ′ equivalent to one of the standard traversals of T? If so, which one? 439 Figure 7.22: Representation of a tree with a binary tree: (a) tree T; (b) binary tree T ′ for T. The dashed edges connect nodes of T ′ that are siblings in T. C-7.13 As mentioned in Exercise C-5.8,postfix notation is an unambiguous way of writing an arithmetic expression without parentheses. It is defined so that if "(exp1)op(exp2)" is a normal (infix) fully parenthesized expression with operation op, then its postfix equivalent is "pexp1 pexp2 op", where pexp1 is the postfix version of exp1 and pexp2 is the postfix version of exp2. The postfix version of a single number of variables is just that number or variable. So, for example, the postfix version of the infix expression "((5 + 2) * (8 − 3))/4" is "5 2 + 8 3 − * 4 /". Give an efficient algorithm for converting an infix arithmetic expression to its equivalent postfix notation. (Hint: First convert the infix expression into its equivalent binary tree representation, using the algorithm of Code Fragment 7.21.) C-7.14 Given a proper binary tree T, define the reflection of T to be the binary tree T ′ such that each node v in T is also in T ′, but the left child of v in T is v's right child in T ′ and the right child of v in T is v's left child in T ′. Show that a preorder traversal of a proper binary tree T is the same as the postorder traversal of T ′s reflection, but in reverse order. C-7.15 Algorithm preorderDraw draws a binary tree T by assigning x- and y- coordinates to each node v such that x(v) is the number of nodes preceding v in the preorder traversal of T and y(v) is the depth of v in T. Algorithm 440 postorderDraw is similar to preorderDraw but assigns x-coordinates using a postorder traversal. a. Show that the drawing of T produced by preorderDraw has no pairs of crossing edges. b. Redraw the binary tree of Figure 7.19 using preorderDraw. c. Show that the drawing of T produced by postorderDraw has no pairs of crossing edges. d. Redraw the binary tree of Figure 7.19 using postorderDraw. C-7.16 Design an algorithm for drawing general trees that generalizes the inorder traversal approach for drawing binary trees. C-7.17 Let a visit action in the Euler tour traversal be denoted by a pair (v,a), where v is the visited node and a is one of left, below, or right. Design and analyze an algorithm for performing operation tourNext(v, a), which returns the visit action (w,b) following (v,a). C-7.18 Consider a variation of the linked data structure for binary trees where each node object has references to the node objects of the children but not to the node object of the parent. Describe an implementation of the methods of a binary tree with this data structure and analyze the time complexity for these methods. C-7.19 Design an alternative implementation of the linked data structure for proper binary trees using a class for nodes that specializes into subclasses for an internal node, an external node, and the root node. C-7.20 Within the linked data structure for binary trees, explore an alternative design for implementing the iterators returned by the methods iterator(), positions().iterator(), and children(v).iterator() such that each of these methods takes O(1) time. Can you still achieve constant time implementations for the methods hasNext() and next() of the iterators returned? C-7.21 441 Let T be a tree with n nodes. Define the lowest common ancestor (LCA) between two nodes v and w as the lowest node in T that has both v and w as descendents (where we allow a node to be a descendent of itself). Given two nodes v and w, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the LCA of v and w. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-7.22 Let T be a binary tree with n nodes, and, for any node v in T, let dv denote the depth of v in T. The distance between two nodes v and w in T is dv + dw − 2du, where u is the lowest common ancestor (LCA) u of v and w. The diameter of T is the maximum distance between two nodes in T. Describe an efficient algorithm for finding the diameter of T. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-7.23 Suppose each node v of a binary tree T is labeled with its value p(v) in a level numbering of T. Design a fast method for determining p(u) for the lowest common ancestor (LCA), u, of two nodes v and w in T, given p(v) and p(w). You do not need to find node u, just compute its level-numbering label. C-7.24 Justify the bounds in Table 7.3 by providing a detailed analysis of the running times of the methods of a binary tree T implemented with an array list, S, where S is realized by means of an array. C-7.25 Justify Table 7.1, summarizing the running time of the methods of a tree represented with a linked structure, by providing, for each method, a description of its implementation, and an analysis of its running time. C-7.26 Describe a nonrecursive method for evaluating a binary tree representing an arithmetic expression. C-7.27 Let T be a binary tree with n nodes. Define a Roman node to be a node v in T, such that the number of descendents in v's left subtree differ from the number of descendents in v's right subtree by at most 5. Describe a linear-time method for finding each node v of T, such that v is not a Roman node, but all of v's descendents are Roman nodes. C-7.28 442 Describe a nonrecursive method for performing an Euler tour traversal of a binary tree that runs in linear time and does not use a stack. C-7.29 Describe, in pseudo-code, a nonrecursive method for performing an in-order traversal of a binary tree in linear time. C-7.30 Let T be a binary tree with n nodes (T may be realized with an array list or a linked structure). Give a linear-time algorithm that uses the methods of the Binary Tree interface to traverse the nodes of T by increasing values of the level numbering function p given in Section 7.3.5. This traversal is known as the level order traversal. C-7.31 The path length of a tree T is the sum of the depths of all the nodes in T. Describe a linear-time method for computing the path length of a tree T (which is not necessarily binary). C-7.32 Define the internal path length, I(T), of a tree T to be the sum of the depths of all the internal nodes in T. Likewise, define the external path length, E(T), of a tree T to be the sum of the depths of all the external nodes in T. Show that if T is a proper binary tree with n nodes, then E(T) = I(T) + n − 1. Projects P-7.1 Implement the binary tree ADT using an array list. P-7.2 Implement the tree ADT using a linked structure. P-7.3 Write a program that draws a binary tree. P-7.4 Write a program that draws a general tree. P-7.5 443 Write a program that can input and display a person's family tree. P-7.6 Implement the tree ADT using the binary tree representation described in Exercise C-7.12. You may reuse the LinkedBinaryTree implementation of a binary tree. P-7.7 A slicing floorplan divides a rectangle with horizontal and vertical sides using horizontal and vertical cuts. (See Figure 7.23a.) A slicing floorplan can be represented by a proper binary tree, called a slicing tree, whose internal nodes represent the cuts, and whose external nodes represent the basic rectangles into which the floorplan is decomposed by the cuts. (See Figure 7.23b.) The compaction problem for a slicing floorplan is defined as follows. Assume that each basic rectangle of a slicing floorplan is assigned a minimum width w and a minimum height h. The compaction problem is to find the smallest possible height and width for each rectangle of the slicing floorplan that is compatible with the minimum dimensions of the basic rectangles. Namely, this problem requires the assignment of values h(v) and w(v) to each node v of the slicing tree such that: Design a data structure for slicing floorplans that supports the operations: • Create a floorplan consisting of a single basic rectangle. • Decompose a basic rectangle by means of a horizontal cut. • Decompose a basic rectangle by means of a vertical cut. • Assign minimum height and width to a basic rectangle. • Draw the slicing tree associated with the floorplan. • Compact and draw the floorplan. Figure 7.23: (a) Slicing floorplan; (b) slicing tree associated with the floorplan. 444 P-7.8 Write a program that can play tic-tac-toe effectively. (See Section 3.1.5.) To do this, you will need to create a game tree T, which is a tree where each node corresponds to a game configuration, which, in this case, is a representation of the tic-tac-toe board. The root node corresponds to the initial configuration. For each internal node v in T, the children of v correspond to the game states we can reach from v's game state in a single legal move for the appropriate player, A (the first player) or B (the second player). Nodes at even depths correspond to moves for A and nodes at odd depths correspond to moves for B. External nodes are either final game states or are at a depth beyond which we don't want to explore. We score each external node with a value that indicates how good this state is for player A. In large games, like chess, we have to use a heuristic scoring function, but for small games, like tic-tac-toe, we can construct the entire game tree and score external nodes as + 1, 0, − 1, indicating whether player A has a win, draw, or lose in that configuration. A good algorithm for choosing moves is minimax. In this algorithm, we assign a score to each internal node v in T, such that if v represents A's turn, we compute v's score as the maximum of the scores of v's children (which corresponds to A's optimal play from v). If an internal node v represents B's turn, then we compute v's score as the minimum of the scores of v's children (which corresponds to B's optimal play from v). P-7.9 Write a program that takes as input a fully parenthesized, arithmetic expression and converts it to a binary expression tree. Your program should display the tree in some way and also print the value associated with the root. For an additional challenge, allow for the leaves to store variables of the form x1, x2, x3, and so on, which are initially 0 and which can be updated interactively by your program, with the corresponding update in the printed value of the root of the expression tree. 445 P-7.10 Write a program that visualizes an Euler tour traversal of a proper binary tree, including the movements from node to node and the actions associated with visits on the left, from below, and on the right. Illustrate your program by having it compute and display preorder labels, inorder labels, postorder labels, ancestor counts, and descendent counts for each node in the tree (not necessarily all at the same time). P-7.11 The arithmetic expression code shown in Code Fragments 7.29–7.32 only work for Integer expressions with the addition operator. Write a Java program that can evaluation arbitrary expressions of any Number type of object. Chapter Notes Discussions of the classic preorder, inorder, and postorder tree traversal methods can be found in Knuth's Fundamental Algorithms book [62]. The Euler tour traversal technique comes from the parallel algorithms community, as it is introduced by Tarjan and Vishkin [89] and is discussed by J´aJ´a [53] and by Karp and Ramachandran [57]. The algorithm for drawing a tree is generally considered to be a part of the "folklore" of graph drawing algorithms. The reader interested in graph drawing is referred to works by Tamassia [88] and Di Battista et al. [30]. The puzzler in Exercise R-7.10 was communicated by Micha Sharir. 446 Chapter 8 Priority Queues Contents 8.1 The Priority Queue Abstract Data Type...................... 320 8.1.1 Keys, Priorities, and Total Order Relations............ 320 8.1.2 447 Entries and Comparators............ 322 8.1.3 The Priority Queue ADT................. 325 8.1.4 Sorting with a Priority Queue................. 327 8.2 Implementing a Priority Queue with a List................ 328 8.2.1 Implementation with an Unsorted List................... 328 8.2.2 Implementation with a Sorted List................... 328 8.2.3 Selection-Sort and Insertion-Sort.................. 332 8.3 Heaps....................... 334 8.3.1 448 The Heap Data Structure................. 334 8.3.2 Complete Binary Trees and Their Representation............ 337 8.3.3 Implementing a Priority Queue with a Heap.............. 342 8.3.4 A Java Heap Implementation......... 347 8.3.5 Heap-Sort.............................. 350 8.3.6 Bottom-Up Heap Construction ★.............. 352 8.4 Adaptable Priority Queues......................... 356 8.4.1 Methods of the Adaptable Priority Queue ADT................. 356 8.4.2 449 Location-Aware Entries................. 357 8.4.3 Implementing an Adaptable Priority Queue ................. 358 8.5 Exercises......................... 361 java.datastructures.net 8.1 The Priority Queue Abstract Data Type A priority queue is an abstract data type for storing a collection of prioritized elements that supports arbitrary element insertion but supports removal of elements in order of priority, that is, the element with first priority can be removed at any time. This ADT is fundamentally different from the position-based data structures we discussed in previous chapters, such as stacks, queues, deques, lists, and even trees. These other data structures store elements at specific positions, which are often positions in a linear arrangement of the elements determined by the insertion and deletion operations performed. The priority queue ADT stores elements according to their priorities, and exposes no notion of "position" to the user. 8.1.1 Keys, Priorities, and Total Order Relations Applications commonly require that we compare objects according to parameters or properties, called "keys," that are assigned for each object in a collection. Formally, we define a key to be an object that is assigned to an element as a specific attribute for that element, which can be used to identify or weigh that element. Note that the key is assigned to an element, typically by a user or application; hence, a key might represent a property that an element did not originally possess. The key an application assigns to an element is not necessarily unique, however, and an application may even change an element's key if it needs to. For example, we can compare companies by earnings or by number of employees; hence, either of these parameters can be used as a key for a company, depending on the information we wish to extract. Likewise, we can compare restaurants by a critic's food quality rating or by average entrée price. To achieve the most generality then, we allow a key to be of any type that is appropriate for a particular application. 450 As in the examples above from an airport, the key used for comparisons is often more than a single numerical value, such as price, length, weight, or speed. That is, a key can sometimes be a more complex property that cannot be quantified with a single number. For example, the priority of standby passengers is usually determined by taking into account a host of different factors, including frequent- flyer status, the fare paid, and check-in time. In some applications, the key for an object is part of the object itself (for example, it might be an instance variable storing the list price of a book, or the weight of a car). In other applications, the key is not part of the object but the object gets assigned its key by the application (for example, the quality rating given to a stock by a financial analyst, or the priority assigned to a standby passenger by a gate agent). Comparing Keys with Total Orders A priority queue needs a comparison rule that will never contradict itself. In order for a comparison rule, which we denote by ≤, to be robust in this way, it must define a total order relation, which is to say that the comparison rule is defined for every pair of keys and it must satisfy the following properties: • Reflexive property: k ≤ k. • Antisymmetric property: if k1 ≤ k2 and k2 ≤ k1, then k1 = k2. • Transitive property: if k1 ≤ k2 and k2 ≤ k3, then k1 ≤ k3. Any comparison rule, ≤, that satisfies these three properties will never lead to a comparison contradiction. In fact, such a rule defines a linear ordering relationship among a set of keys; hence, if a (finite) collection of elements has a total order defined for it, then the notion of a smallest key, kmin, is well defined, as a key in which kmin ≤ k, for any other key k in our collection. A priority queue is a collection of elements, called values, each having an associated key that is provided at the time the element is inserted. A key-value pair inserted into a priority queue is called an entry of the priority queue. The name "priority queue" comes from the fact that keys determine the "priority" used to pick entries to be removed. The two fundamental methods of a priority queue P are as follows: • insert(k,x): Insert a value x with key k into P. • removeMin(): Return and remove from P an entry with the smallest key, that is, an entry whose key is less than or equal to that of every other entry in P. By the way, some people refer to the removeMin method as the "extractMin" method, so as to stress that this method simultaneously removes and returns an entry P. There are many applications where the insert and 451 removeMin operations play an important role. We consider such an application in the example that follows. Example 8.1: Suppose a certain flight is fully booked an hour prior to departure. Because of the possibility of cancellations, the airline maintains a priority queue of standby passengers hoping to get a seat. The priority of each standby passenger is determined by the airline taking into account the fare paid, the frequent-flyer status, and the time that the passenger is inserted into the priority queue. A standby passenger reference is inserted into the priority queue with an insert operation as soon as he or she requests to fly standby. Shortly before the flight departure, if seats become available (for example, due to no- shows or last-minute cancellations), the airline removes a standby passenger with first priority from the priority queue, using aremoveMin operation and lets this person board. This process is then repeated until all available seats have been filled or the priority queue becomes empty. 8.1.2 Entries and Comparators There are still two important issues that we have left undetermined to this point: • How do we keep track of the associations between keys and values? • How do we compare keys so as to determine a smallest key? Answering these questions involves the use of two interesting design patterns. The definition of a priority queue implicitly makes use of two special kinds of objects that answer the above questions, the entry and comparator, which we discuss in this subsection. Entries An entry is an association between a key k and a value x, that is, an entry is simply a key-value pair. We use entries in a priority queue Q to keep track of the way Q is associating keys and their corresponding values. An entry is actually an example of a more general object-oriented design pattern, the composition pattern, which defines a single object that is composed of other objects. We use this pattern in a priority queue when we define the entries being stored in the priority queue to be pairs consisting of a key k and a value x. A pair is the simplest composition, for it combines two objects into a single pair object. To implement this concept, we define a class that stores two objects in its first and second instance variables, respectively, and provides methods to access and update these variables. In Code Fragment 8.1, we show an implementation of the composition pattern for entries storing key-value pairs in a priority queue. We realize this composition with an interface called Entry (the java.util 452 package includes a similar Entry interface, by the way). Other kinds of compositions include triples, which store three objects, quadruples, which store four objects, and so on. Code Fragment 8.1: Java interface for an entry storing key-value pairs in a priority queue. Comparators Another important issue in the priority queue ADT that we need to define is how to specify the total order relation for comparing keys. We have a number of design choices concerning how to compare keys that we can make at this point. One possibility, and the one that is the most concrete, is to implement a different priority queue for each key type we want to use and each possible way of comparing keys of such types. The problem with this approach is that it is not very general and it requires that we create a lot of similar code. An alternative strategy is to require that keys be able to compare themselves to one another. This solution allows us to write a general priority queue class that can store instances of a key class that implements some kind of Comparable interface and encapsulates all the usual comparison methods. This solution is an improvement over the specialized approach, for it allows us to write a single priority queue class that can handle lots of different types of keys. But there are contexts in which this solution is asking too much of the keys, as keys often do not "know" how they ought to be compared. Two examples follow. Example 8.2: Given keys 4 and 11 we have that 4 ≤ 11 if the keys are integer objects (to be compared in the usual manner), but 11 ≤ 4 if the keys are string objects (to be compared lexicographically). Example 8.3: A geometric algorithm may compare points p and q in the plane, by their x-coordinate (that is, p ≤q ifx(p) ≤ x(q)), to sort them from left to right, while another algorithm may compare them by their y-coordinate (that is, p ≤ q ify(p) ≤ y(q)), to sort them from bottom to top. In principle, there is nothing pertaining to the concept of a point that says whether points should be compared 453 by x- or y-coordinate. Also, many other ways of comparing points can be defined (for example, we can compare the distances of p and q from the origin). Thus, for the most general and reusable form of a priority queue, we should not rely on the keys to provide their comparison rules. Instead, we use special comparator objects that are external to the keys to supply the comparison rules. A comparator is an object that compares two keys. We assume that a priority queue P is given a comparator when P is constructed, and we might also imagine the ability of a priority queue to be given a new comparator if its old one ever becomes "out of date." When P needs to compare two keys, it uses the comparator it was given to perform the comparison. Thus, a programmer can write a general priority queue implementation that works correctly in a wide variety of contexts. The Comparator ADT Formally, the comparator ADT provides a streamlined comparison mechanism, based on a single method that takes two keys and compares them (or reports an error if the keys are incomparable): compare(a,b):Returns an integer i such that i < 0 if a < b, i = 0 if a = b, and i > 0 if a > b; an error occurs if a and b cannot be compared. The standard Java interface java.util.Comparator corresponds to the comparator ADT above, which offers a general, dynamic , reusable way to compare objects. It also includes an equals() method for comparing a comparator to other comparators. In Code Fragment 8.2, we provide an example of a comparator, for two-dimensional points (Code Fragment 8.3), which is also an example of the composition pattern. Code Fragment 8.2: A comparator for two- dimensional points based on the lexicographic order. 454 Code Fragment 8.3: Class representing points in the plane with integer coordinates. 8.1.3 The Priority Queue ADT Having described the composition and comparator patterns, let us now define the priority queue ADT, to support the following method for a priority queue P: size(): Return the number of entries in P. isEmpty(): Test whether P is empty. min(): Return (but do not remove) an entry of P with smallest key; an error condition occurs if P is empty. insert(k,x): Insert into P key k with value x and return the entry storing them; an error condition occurs if k is invalid (that is, k cannot be compared with other keys. removeMin(): Remove from P and return an entry with smallest key; an error condition occurs if P is empty. 455 As mentioned above, the primary methods of the priority queue ADT are the insert and removeMin operations. The other methods are query operation min and the generic collection operations size and isEmpty. Note that we allow a priority queue to have multiple entries with the same key. A Java Priority Queue Interface A Java interface, called PriorityQueue, for the priority queue ADT is shown in Code Fragment 8.4. Code Fragment 8.4: Java interface for the priority queue ADT. It should now be obvious that the priority queue ADT is much simpler than the sequence ADT. This simplicity is due to the fact that elements in a priority queue are inserted and removed based entirely on their keys, whereas elements are inserted and removed in a sequence based on their positions and indices. Example 8.4: The following table shows a series of operations and their effects on an initially empty priority queue P. We denote with ei an entry object returned by method insert. The "Priority Queue" column is somewhat deceiving since it shows the entries sorted by key. This is more than is required of apriority queue. Operation Output Priority Queue 456 insert(5,A) e1[=(5,A)] {(5,A)} insert(9,C) e2[=(9,C)] {(5,A),(9,C)} insert(3,B) e3[=(3,B)] {(3,B),(5,A),(9,C)} insert(7,D) e4[=(7,D)] {(3,B),(5,A),(7,D),(9,C)} min() e3 {(3,B),(5,A),(7,D),(9,C)} removeMin() e3 {(5,A),(7,D),(9,C)} size() e3 {(5,A),(7,D),(9,C)} removeMin() e1 {(7,D),(9,C)} removeMin() 457 e4 {(9,C)} removeMin() e2 {} The java.util.PriorityQueue Class There is no priority queue interface built into Java, but Java does include a class, java.util.PriorityQueue, which implements the java.util.Queue interface. Instead of adding and removing elements according to the FIFO policy, however, which is the standard queue policy, the java.util.PriorityQueue class processes its entries according to a priority. This priority is defined by a given comparator object, which is passed to the queue in a constructor, or it is defined by the natural ordering of the elements being stored in the queue. Even though the java.util.PriorityQueue is based on the java.util.Queue interface, we can define a simple correspondence between the methods of this class and our priority queue ADT, as shown in Table 8.1, assuming we have a class, PQEntry, which implements the Entry interface. Table 8.1: Methods of our priority queue ADT and corresponding methods of class java.util.PriorityQueue. We assume that the comparator for PQEntry objects is essentially the same as the comparator for the keys of the priority queue. Note that java.util.PriorityQueue has a pair of methods for its main operation. The two methods have similar functionality, with minor differences in the way they deal with boundary conditions (e.g., trying to remove from an empty priority queue). Priority Queue ADT Classjava.util.PriorityQueue 458 size() size() isEmpty() isEmpty() insert(k,v) offer(new PQEntry(k,v)) or add(new PQEntry(k,v)) min() peek(), or element() removeMin() poll(), or remove() 8.1.4 Sorting with a Priority Queue Another important application of a priority queue is sorting, where we are given a collection S of n elements that can be compared according to a total order relation, and we want to rearrange them in increasing order (or at least in nondecreasing order if there are ties). The algorithm for sorting S with a priority queue Q, called PriorityQueueSort, is quite simple and consists of the following two phases: 1. In the first phase, we put the elements of S into an initially empty priority queue P by means of a series of n insert operations, one for each element. 2. In the second phase, we extract the elements from P in nondecreasing order by means of a series of nremoveMin operations, putting them back into S in order. We give pseudo-code for this algorithm in Code Fragment 8.5, assuming that S is a sequence (pseudo-code for a different type of collection, such as an array list or node list, would be similar). The algorithm works correctly for any priority queue P, no matter how P is implemented. However, the running time of the algorithm is determined by the running times of operations insert and removeMin, which do depend on how P is implemented. Indeed, PriorityQueueSort should be considered more a sorting "scheme" than a sorting "algorithm," because it does not specify how the priority queue P is implemented. The PriorityQueueSort scheme is the paradigm of several popular sorting algorithms, including selection- sort, insertion-sort, and heap-sort, which we discuss in this chapter. 459 Code Fragment 8.5: Algorithm PriorityQueueSort. Note that the elements of the input sequence S serve as keys of the priority queue P. 8.2 Implementing a Priority Queue with a List In this section, we show how to implement a priority queue by storing its entries in a list S. (See Chapter 6.2.) We provide two realizations, depending on whether or not we keep the entries in S sorted by key. When analyzing the running time of the methods of a priority queue implemented with a list, we will assume that a comparison of two keys takes O(1) time. 8.2.1 Implementation with an Unsorted List As our first implementation of a priority queue P, let us consider storing the entries of P in a list S, where S is implemented with a doubly linked list. Thus, the elements of S are entries (k,x), where k is the key and x is the value. Fast Insertions and Slow Removals A simple way of performing operation insert(k,x) on P is to create a new entry object e = (k,x) and add it at the end of list S, by executing method addLast(e) on S. This implementation of method insert takes O(1) time. The above insertion algorithm implies that S will be unsorted, for always inserting entries at the end of S does not take into account the ordering of the keys. As a consequence, to perform operation min or removeMin on P, we must inspect all the elements of list S to find an entry (k, x) of S with minimum k. Thus, methods min and removeMin take O(n) time each, where n is the number of entries in P 460 at the time the method is executed. Moreover, these methods run in time proportional to n even in the best case, since they each require searching the entire list to find a minimum-key entry. That is, using the notation of Section 4.2.3, we can say that these methods run in θ(n) time. Finally, we implement methods size and isEmpty by simply returning the output of the corresponding methods executed on list S. Thus, by using an unsorted list to implement a priority queue, we achieve constant-time insertion, but linear-time search and removal. 8.2.2 Implementation with a Sorted List An alternative implementation of a priority queue P also uses a list S, except that this time let us store the entries sorted by key. Specifically, we represent the priority queue P by using a list S of entries sorted by nondecreasing keys, which means that the first element of S is an entry with the smallest key. Fast Removals and Slow Insertions We can implement method min in this case simply by accessing the first element of the list with the first method of S. Likewise, we can implement the removeMin method of P as S.remove(S.first()). Assuming that S is implemented with a doubly linked list, operations min and removeMin in P take O(1) time. Thus, using a sorted list allows for simple and fast implementations of priority queue access and removal methods. This benefit comes at a cost, however, for now method insert of P requires that we scan through the list S to find the appropriate position to insert the new entry. Thus, implementing the insert method of P now takes O(n) time, where n is the number of entries in P at the time the method is executed. In summary, when using a sorted list to implement a priority queue, insertion runs in linear time whereas finding and removing the minimum can be done in constant time. Comparing the Two List-Based Implementations Table 8.2 compares the running times of the methods of a priority queue realized by means of a sorted and unsorted list, respectively. We see an interesting trade- off when we use a list to implement the priority queue ADT. An unsorted list allows for fast insertions but slow queries and deletions, while a sorted list allows for fast queries and deletions, but slow insertions. Table 8.2: Worst-case running times of the methods of a priority queue of size n, realized by 461 means of an unsorted or sorted list, respectively. We assume that the list is implemented by a doubly linked list. The space requirement is O(n). Method Unsorted List Sorted List size, isEmpty O(1) O(1) insert O(1) O(n) min, removeMin O(n) O(1) Java Implementation In Code Fragments 8.6 and 8.8, we show a Java implementation of a priority queue based on a sorted node list. This implementation uses a nested class, called MyEntry, to implement the Entry interface (see Section 6.5.1). We do not show auxiliary method checkKey(k), which throws an InvalidKeyException if key k cannot be compared with the comparator of the priority queue. Class DefaultComparator, which realizes a comparator using the natural ordering, is shown in Code Fragment 8.7. Code Fragment 8.6: Portions of the Java class SortedListPriorityQueue, which implements the PriorityQueue interface. The nested class MyEntry implements the Entry interface. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.8.) 462 Code Fragment 8.7: Java class DefaultComparator that implements a comparator using the natural ordering and is the default comparator for class SortedListPriorityQueue. 463 Code Fragment 8.8: Portions of the Java class SortedListPriorityQueue, which implements the PriorityQueue interface. (Continued from Code Fragment 8.6.) 464 465 8.2.3 Selection-Sort and Insertion-Sort Recall the PriorityQueueSort scheme introduced in Section 8.1.4. We are given an unsorted sequence S containing n elements, which we sort using a priority queue P in two phases. In Phase 1 we insert all the elements into P and in Phase 2 we repeatedly remove the elements from P using the removeMin() method. Selection-Sort If we implement P with an unsorted list, then Phase 1 of PriorityQueueSort takes O(n) time, for we can insert each element in O(1) time. In Phase 2, the running time of each removeMin operation is proportional to the size of P. Thus, the bottleneck computation is the repeated "selection" of the minimum element in Phase 2. For this reason, this algorithm is better known as selection- sort. (See Figure 8.1.) As noted above, the bottleneck is in Phase 2 where we repeatedly remove an entry with smallest key from the priority queue P. The size of P starts at n and incrementally decreases with each removeMin until it becomes 0. Thus, the first removeMin operation takes time O(n), the second one takes time O(n − 1), and so on, until the last (nth) operation takes time O(1). Therefore, the total time needed for the second phase is . By Proposition 4.3, we have . Thus, Phase 2 takes time O(n2), as does the entire selection-sort algorithm. Figure 8.1: Execution of selection-sort on sequence S = (7,4,8,2,5,3,9). 466 Insertion-Sort If we implement the priority queue P using a sorted list, then we improve the running time of Phase 2 to O(n), for each operation removeMin on P now takes O(1) time. Unfortunately, Phase 1 now becomes the bottleneck for the running time, since, in the worst case, each insert operation takes time proportional to the size of P. This sorting algorithm is therefore better known as insertion-sort (see Figure 8.2), for the bottleneck in this sorting algorithm involves the repeated "insertion" of a new element at the appropriate position in a sorted list. Figure 8.2: Execution of insertion-sort on sequence S = (7,4,8,2,5,3,9). In Phase 1, we repeatedly remove the first element of S and insert it into P, by scanning the list implementing P, until we find the correct place for this element. In Phase 2, we repeatedly perform removeMin operations on P, each of which returns the first element of the list implementing P, and we add the element at the end of S. Analyzing the running time of Phase 1 of insertion-sort, we note that it is 467 Analyzing the running time of Phase 1 of insertion-sort, we note that it is Again, by recalling Proposition 4.3, Phase 1 runs in O(n2) time, and hence, so does the entire insertion-sort algorithm. Alternatively, we could change our definition of insertion-sort so that we insert elements starting from the end of the priority-queue list in Phase 1, in which case performing insertion-sort on a sequence that is already sorted would run in O(n) time. Indeed, the running time of insertion-sort in this case is O(n + I), where I is the number of inversions in the sequence, that is, the number of pairs of elements that start out in the input sequence in the wrong relative order. 8.3 Heaps The two implementations of the PriorityQueueSort scheme presented in the previous section suggest a possible way of improving the running time for priority- queue sorting. For one algorithm (selection-sort) achieves a fast running time for Phase 1, but has a slow Phase 2, whereas the other algorithm (insertion-sort) has a slow Phase 1, but achieves a fast running time for Phase 2. If we can somehow balance the running times of the two phases, we might be able to significantly speed up the overall running time for sorting. This is, in fact, exactly what we can achieve using the priority-queue implementation discussed in this section. 468 An efficient realization of a priority queue uses a data structure called a heap. This data structure allows us to perform both insertions and removals in logarithmic time, which is a significant improvement over the list-based implementations discussed in Section 8.2. The fundamental way the heap achieves this improvement is to abandon the idea of storing entries in a list and take the approach of storing entries in a binary tree instead. 8.3.1 The Heap Data Structure A heap (see Figure 8.3) is a binary tree T that stores a collection of entries at its nodes and that satisfies two additional properties: a relational property defined in terms of the way keys are stored in T and a structural property defined in terms of the nodes of T itself. We assume that a total order relation on the keys is given, for example, by a comparator. The relational property of T, defined in terms of the way keys are stored, is the following: Heap-Order Property: In a heap T, for every node v other than the root, the key stored at v is greater than or equal to the key stored at v's parent. As a consequence of the heap-order property, the keys encountered on a path from the root to an external node of T are in nondecreasing order. Also, a minimum key is always stored at the root of T. This is the most important key and is informally said to be "at the top of the heap"; hence, the name "heap" for the data structure. By the way, the heap data structure defined here has nothing to do with the memory heap (Section 14.1.2) used in the run-time environment supporting a programming language like Java. If we define our comparator to indicate the opposite of the standard total order relation between keys (so that, for example, compare(3,2) > 0), then the root of the heap stores the largest key. This versatility comes essentially "for free" from our use of the comparator pattern. By defining the minimum key in terms of the comparator, the "minimum" key with a "reverse" comparator is in fact the largest. Figure 8.3: Example of a heap storing 13 entries with integer keys. The last node is the one storing entry (8, W). 469 Thus, without loss of generality, we assume that we are always interested in the minimum key, which will always be at the root of the heap. For the sake of efficiency, as will become clear later, we want the heap T to have as small a height as possible. We enforce this requirement by insisting that the heap T satisfy an additional structural property: it must be complete. Before we define this structural property, we need some definitions. We recall from Section 7.3.3 that level i of a binary tree T is the set of nodes of Tthat have depth i. Given nodes v and w on the same level of T, we say that v is to the left of w if v is encountered before w in an inorder traversal of T. That is, there is a node u of T such that v is in the left subtree of u and w is in the right subtree of u. For example, in the binary tree of Figure 8.3, the node storing entry (15,K) is to the left of the node storing entry (7, Q). In a standard drawing of a binary tree, the "to the left of" relation is visualized by the relative horizontal placement of the nodes. Complete Binary Tree Property: A heap T with height h is a complete binary tree if levels 0,1,2,… ,h − 1 of T have the maximum number of nodes possible (namely, level i has 2i nodes, for 0 ≤ i ≤ h − 1) and in level h − 1, all the internal nodes are to the left of the external nodes and there is at most one node with one child, which must be a left child. By insisting that a heap T be complete, we identify another important node in a heap T, other than the root, namely, the last node of T, which we define to be the right-most, deepest external node of T (see Figure 8.3). The Height of a Heap Let h denote the height of T. Another way of defining the last node of T is that it is the node on level h such that all the other nodes of level h are to the left of it. Insisting that T be complete also has an important consequence, as shown in Proposition 8.5. 470 Proposition 8.5: A heap T storing n entries has height h = logn. Justification: From the fact that T is complete, we know that the number of nodes of T is at least 1 + 2 + 4 + … + 2h−1 + 1 = 2h − 1 + 1 = 2h. This lower bound is achieved when there is only one node on level h. In addition, also following from T being complete, we have that the number of nodes of T is at most 1 + 2 + 4 + … + 2h = 2h + 1 − 1. This upper bound is achieved when level h has 2h nodes. Since the number of nodes is equal to the number n of entries, we obtain 2h ≤ n and n ≤ 2h+1 − 1. Thus, by taking logarithms of both sides of these two inequalities, we see that h ≤ log n and log(n + 1) − 1 ≤ h. Since h is an integer, the two inequalities above imply that h = logn. Proposition 8.5 has an important consequence, for it implies that if we can perform update operations on a heap in time proportional to its height, then those operations will run in logarithmic time. Let us therefore turn to the problem of how to efficiently perform various priority queue methods using a heap. 8.3.2 Complete Binary Trees and Their Representation Let us discuss more about complete binary trees and how they are represented. 471 The Complete Binary Tree ADT As an abstract data type, a complete binary T supports all the methods of binary tree ADT (Section 7.3.1), plus the following two methods: add(o): Add to T and return a new external node v storing element o such that the resulting tree is a complete binary tree with last node v. remove(): Remove the last node of T and return its element. Using only these update operations guarantees that we will always have a complete binary tree. As shown in Figure 8.4, there are two cases for the effect of an add or remove. Specifically, for an add, we have the following (remove is similar). • If the bottom level of T is not full, then add inserts a new node on the bottom level of T, immediately after the right-most node of this level (that is, the last node); hence, T's height remains the same. • If the bottom level is full, then add inserts a new node as the left child of the left-most node of the bottom level of T; hence, T's height increases by one. Figure 8.4: Examples of operations add and remove on a complete binary tree, where w denotes the node inserted by add or deleted by remove. The trees shown in (b) and (d) are the results of performing add operations on the trees in (a) and (c), respectively. Likewise, the trees shown in (a) and (c) are the results of performing remove operations on the trees in (b) and (d), respectively. 472 The Array List Representation of a Complete Binary Tree The array-list binary tree representation (Section 7.3.5) is especially suitable for a complete binary tree T. We recall that in this implementation, the nodes of T are stored in an array list A such that node v in T is the element of A with index equal to the level number p(v) of v, defined as follows: • If v is the root of T, then p(v) = 1. • If v is the left child of node u, then p(v) = 2p(u). • If v is the right child of node u, then p(v) = 2p(u) + 1. With this implementation, the nodes of T have contiguous indices in the range [1,n] and the last node of T is always at index n, where n is the number of nodes of T. Figure 8.5 shows two examples illustrating this property of the last node. Figure 8.5: Two examples showing that the last node w of a heap with n nodes has level number n: (a) heap T1 with more than one node on the bottom level; (b) heap T2 with one node on the bottom level; (c) array-list representation of T1; (d) array-list representation of T2. 473 The simplifications that come from representing a complete binary tree T with an array list aid in the implementation of methods add and remove. Assuming that no array expansion is necessary, methods add and remove can be performed in O(1) time, for they simply involve adding or removing the last element of the array list. Moreover, the array list associated with T has n + 1 elements (the element at index 0 is a place-holder). If we use an extendable array that grows and shrinks for the implementation of the array list (Section 6.1.4 and Exercise C-6.2), the space used by the array-list representation of a complete binary tree with n nodes is O(n) and operations add and remove take O(1) amortized time. Java Implementation of a Complete Binary Tree We represent the complete binary tree ADT in interface CompleteBinaryTree shown in Code Fragment 8.9. We provide a Java class ArrayListCompleteBinaryTree that implements the CompleteBinaryTree interface with an array list and supports methods add and remove in O(1) time in Code Fragments 8.10–8.12. Code Fragment 8.9: Interface CompleteBinaryTree for a complete binary tree. Code Fragment 8.10: Class ArrayListCompleteBinaryTree implementing interface CompleteBinaryTree using a 474 java.util.ArrayList. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.11.) Code Fragment 8.11: Class ArrayListCompleteBinaryTree implementing the complete binary tree ADT. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.12.) 475 476 Code Fragment 8.12: Class ArrayListCompleteBinaryTree implementing the complete binary tree ADT. Methods children and positions are omitted. (Continued from Code Fragment 8.11.) 477 478 8.3.3 Implementing a Priority Queue with a Heap We now discuss how to implement a priority queue using a heap. Our heap-based representation for a priority queue P consists of the following (see Figure 8.6): • heap, a complete binary tree T whose internal nodes store entries so that the heap-order property is satisfied. We assume T is implemented using an array list, as described in Section 8.3.2. For each internal node v of T, we denote the key of the entry stored at v as k(v). • comp, a comparator that defines the total order relation among the keys. With this data structure, methods size and isEmpty take O(1) time, as usual. In addition, method min can also be easily performed in O(1) time by accessing the entry stored at the root of the heap (which is at index 1 in the array list). Insertion Let us consider how to perform insert on a priority queue implemented with a heap T. To store a new entry (k,x) into T we add a new node z to T with operation add so that this new node becomes the last node of T and stores entry (k,x). After this action, the tree T is complete, but it may violate the heap-order property. Hence, unless node z is the root of T (that is, the priority queue was empty before the insertion), we compare key k(z) with the key k(u) stored at the parent u of z. If k(z) ≥ k(u), the heap-order property is satisfied and the algorithm terminates. If instead k(z) < k(u), then we need to restore the heap-order property, which can be locally achieved by swapping the entries stored at z and u. (See Figure 8.7c and d.) This swap causes the new entry (k,e) to move up one level. Again, the heap-order property may be violated, and we continue swapping, going up in T until no violation of the heap-order property occurs. (See Figure 8.7e and h.) Figure 8.6: Illustration of the heap-based implementation of a priority queue. 479 Figure 8.7: Insertion of a new entry with key 2 into the heap of Figure 8.6: (a) initial heap; (b) after performing operation add; (c and d) swap to locally restore the partial order property; (e and f) another swap; (g and h) final swap. 480 The upward movement of the newly inserted entry by means of swaps is conventionally called up-heap bubbling. A swap either resolves the violation of the heap-order property or propagates it one level up in the heap. In the worst case, up-heap bubbling causes the new entry to move all the way up to the root of heap T. (See Figure 8.7.) Thus, in the worst case, the number of swaps performed in the execution of method insert is equal to the height of T, that is, it is logn by Proposition 8.5. Removal 481 Let us now turn to method removeMin of the priority queue ADT. The algorithm for performing method removeMin using heap T is illustrated in Figure 8.8. We know that an entry with the smallest key is stored at the root r of T (even if there is more than one entry with smallest key). However, unless r is the only internal node of T, we cannot simply delete node r, because this action would disrupt the binary tree structure. Instead, we access the last node w of T, copy its entry to the root r, and then delete the last node by performing operation remove of the complete binary tree ADT. (See Figure 8.8a and b.) Down-Heap Bubbling after a Removal We are not necessarily done, however, for, even though T is now complete, T may now violate the heap-order property. If T has only one node (the root), then the heap-order property is trivially satisfied and the algorithm terminates. Otherwise, we distinguish two cases, where r denotes the root of T: • If r has no right child, let s be the left child of r. • Otherwise (r has both children), let s be a child of r with the smallest key. if k(r) ≤ k(s), the heap-order property is satisfied and the algorithm terminates. If instead k(r) > k(s), then we need to restore the heap-order property, which can be locally achieved by swapping the entries stored at r and s. (See Figure 8.8c and d.) (Note that we shouldn't swap r with s's sibling.) The swap we perform restores the heap-order property for node r and its children, but it may violate this property at s; hence, we may have to continue swapping down T until no violation of the heap-order property occurs. (See Figure 8.8e and h.) This downward swapping process is called down-heap bubbling. A swap either resolves the violation of the heap-order property or propagates it one level down in the heap. In the worst case, an entry moves all the way down to the bottom level. (See Figure 8.8.) Thus, the number of swaps performed in the execution of method removeMin is, in the worst case, equal to the height of heap T, that is, it is logn by Proposition 8.5. Figure 8.8: Removal of the entry with the smallest key from a heap: (a and b) deletion of the last node, whose entry gets stored into the root; (c and d) swap to locally restore the heap-order property; (e and f) another swap; (g and h) final swap. 482 Analysis Table 8.3 shows the running time of the priority queue ADT methods for the heap implementation of a priority queue, assuming that two keys can be compared in O(1) time and that the heap T is implemented with either an array list or linked structure. 483 Table 8.3: Performance of a priority queue realized by means of a heap, which is in turn implemented with an array list or linked structure. We denote with n the number of entries in the priority queue at the time a method is executed. The space requirement is O(n). The running time of operations insert and removeMin is worst case for the array-list implementation of the heap and amortized for the linked representation. Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) min, O(1) insert O(logn) removeMin O(logn) In short, each of the priority queue ADT methods can be performed in O(1) or in O(logn) time, where n is the number of entries at the time the method is executed. The analysis of the running time of the methods is based on the following: • The heap T has n nodes, each storing a reference to an entry. • Operations add and remove on T take either O(1) amortized time (array- list representation) or O(logn) worst-case time. • In the worst case, up-heap and down-heap bubbling perform a number of swaps equal to the height of T. • The height of heap T is O(logn), since T is complete (Proposition 8.5). 484 We conclude that the heap data structure is a very efficient realization of the priority queue ADT, independent of whether the heap is implemented with a linked structure or an array list. The heap-based implementation achieves fast running times for both insertion and removal, unlike the list-based priority queue implementations. Indeed, an important consequence of the efficiency of the heap- based implementation is that it can speed up priority-queue sorting to be much faster than the list-based insertion-sort and selection-sort algorithms. 8.3.4 A Java Heap Implementation A Java implementation of a heap-based priority queue is shown in Code Frag ments 8.13-8.15. To aid in modularity, we delegate the maintenance of the structure of the heap itself to a complete binary tree. Code Fragment 8.13: Class HeapPriorityQueue, which implements a priority queue with a heap. A nested class MyEntry is used for the entries of the priority queue, which form the elements in the heap tree. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.14.) 485 Code Fragment 8.14: Methods min, insert and removeMin and some auxiliary methods of class HeapPriorityQueue. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.15.) 486 Code Fragment 8.15: Remaining auxiliary methods of class HeapPriorityQueue. (Continued from Code Fragment 8.14.) 487 8.3.5 Heap-Sort 488 As we have previously observed, realizing a priority queue with a heap has the advantage that all the methods in the priority queue ADT run in logarithmic time or better. Hence, this realization is suitable for applications where fast running times are sought for all the priority queue methods. Therefore, let us again consider the PriorityQueueSort sorting scheme from Section 8.1.4, which uses a priority queue P to sort a sequence S with n elements. During Phase 1, the i-th insert operation (1 ≤ i ≤ n) takes O(1 +logi) time, since the heap has i entries after the operation is performed. Likewise, during Phase 2, the j- th removeMin operation (1≤j≤ n) runs in time O(1 +log(n − j+1), since the heap has n − j + 1 entries at the time the operation is performed. Thus, each phase takes O(nlogn) time, so the entire priority-queue sorting algorithm runs in O(nlogn) time when we use a heap to implement the priority queue. This sorting algorithm is better known as heap-sort, and its performance is summarized in the following proposition. Proposition 8.6: The heap-sort algorithm sorts a sequence S of n elements in O(nlogn) time, assuming two elements ofS can be compared in O(1) time. Let us stress that the O(nlogn) running time of heap-sort is considerably better than the O(n2) running time of selection-sort and insertion-sort (Section 8.2.3). Implementing Heap-Sort In-Place If the sequence S to be sorted is implemented by means of an array, we can speed up heap-sort and reduce its space requirement by a constant factor using a portion of the sequence S itself to store the heap, thus avoiding the use of an external heap data structure. This is accomplished by modifying the algorithm as follows: 1. We use a reverse comparator, which corresponds to a heap where an entry with the largest key is at the top. At any time during the execution of the algorithm, we use the left portion of S, up to a certain index i − 1, to store the entries of the heap, and the right portion of S, from index i to n − 1, to store the elements of the sequence. Thus, the first i elements of S (at indices 0,…,i− 1) provide the array-list representation of the heap (with modified level numbers starting at 0 instead of 1), that is, the element at index k is greater than or equal to its "children" at indices 2k + 1 and 2k + 2. 2. In the first phase of the algorithm, we start with an empty heap and move the boundary between the heap and the sequence from left to right, one step at a time. In step i (i = 1,…, n), we expand the heap by adding the element at index i − 1. 3. In the second phase of the algorithm, we start with an empty sequence and move the boundary between the heap and the sequence from right to left, one step at a time. At step i (i = 1,…, n), we remove a maximum element from the heap and store it at index n − i. 489 The variation of heap-sort above is said to be in-place because we use only a small amount of space in addition to the sequence itself. Instead of transferring elements out of the sequence and then back in, we simply rearrange them. We il lustrate in-place heap-sort in Figure 8.9. In general, we say that a sorting algorithm is in-place if it uses only a small amount of memory in addition to the sequence storing the objects to be sorted. Figure 8.9: First three steps of Phase 1 of in-place heap-sort. The heap portion of the sequence is highlighted in blue. We draw next to the sequence a binary tree view of the heap, even though this tree is not actually constructed by the in-place algorithm. 490 8.3.6 Bottom-Up Heap Construction  The analysis of the heap-sort algorithm shows that we can construct a heap storing n entries in O(nlogn) time, by means of n successive insert operations, and then use that heap to extract the entries in order by nondecreasing key. However, if all the n key-value pairs to be stored in the heap are given in advance, there is an al ternative bottom-up construction method that runs in O(n) time. We describe this method in this section, observing that it could be included as one of the constructors of a class implementing a heap-based priority queue. For simplicity of exposition, we describe this bottom-up heap construction assuming the number n of keys is an integer of the type n = 2h + 1 − 1. That is, the heap is a complete binary tree with every level being full, so the heap has height h = log(n+ 1) − 1. Viewed nonre 491 cursively, bottom-up heap construction consists of the following h + 1 = log(n + 1) steps: 1. In the first step (see Figure 8.10a), we construct (n + 1)/2 elementary heaps storing one entry each. 2. In the second step (see Figure 8.10b -c), we form (n + 1)/4 heaps, each stor ing three entries, by joining pairs of elementary heaps and adding a new entry. The new entry is placed at the root and may have to be swapped with the entry stored at a child to preserve the heap-order property. 3. In the third step (see Figure 8.10d -e), we form (n + 1)/8 heaps, each storing 7 entries, by joining pairs of 3-entry heaps (constructed in the previous step) and adding a new entry. The new entry is placed initially at the root, but may have to move down with a down-heap bubbling to preserve the heap-order property.  i. In the generic ith step, 2 ≤ i ≤ h, we form (n + 1)/2i heaps, each storing 2i − 1 entries, by joining pairs of heaps storing (2i−1 − 1) entries (constructed in the previous step) and adding a new entry. The new entry is placed initially at the root, but may have to move down with a down-heap bubbling to preserve the heap-order property.  h + 1. In the last step (see Figure 8.10f -g), we form the final heap, storing all the n entries, by joining two heaps storing (n − 1)/2 entries (constructed in the previous step) and adding a new entry. The new entry is placed initially at the root, but may have to move down with a down-heap bubbling to preserve the heap-order property. We illustrate bottom-up heap construction in Figure 8.10 for h = 3. Figure 8.10: Bottom-up construction of a heap with 15 entries: (a) we begin by constructing 1-entry heaps on the bottom level; (b and c) we combine these heaps into 3-entry heaps and then (d and e) 7-entry heaps, until (f and g) we create the final heap. The paths of the down-heap bubblings are highlighted in blue. For simplicity, we only show the key within each node instead of the entire entry. 492 Recursive Bottom-Up Heap Construction We can also describe bottom-up heap construction as a recursive algorithm, as shown in Code Fragment 8.16, which we call by passing a list storing the key- value pairs for which we wish to build a heap. Code Fragment 8.16: Recursive bottom-up heap construction. 493 Bottom-up heap construction is asymptotically faster than incrementally insert ing n keys into an initially empty heap, as the following proposition shows. Proposition 8.7: Bottom-up construction of a heap with n entries takes O(n) time, assuming two keys can be compared in O(1) time. Justification: We analyze bottom-up heap construction using a "visual" ap proach, which is illustrated in Figure 8.11. Let T be the final heap, let v be a node of T, and let T(v) denote the subtree of T rooted at v. In the worst case, the time for forming T(v) from the two recursively formed subtrees rooted at v's children is proportional to the height of T(v). The worst case occurs when down-heap bubbling from v traverses a path from v all the way to a bottom-most node of T(v). Now consider the path p(v) of T from node v to its inorder successor external node, that is, the path that starts at v, goes to the right child of v, and then goes down leftward until it reaches an external node. We say that path p(v) is associated with node v. Note that p(v) is not necessarily the path followed by down-heap bubbling when forming T(v). Clearly, the size (number of nodes) of p(v) is equal to the height of T(v) plus one. Hence, forming T(v) takes time proportional to the size of ofp(v), in the worst case. Thus, the total running time of bottom-up heap construction is proportional to the sum of the sizes of the paths associated with the nodes of T. Observe that each node v of T distinct from the root belongs to exactly two such paths: the path p(v) associated with v itself and the path p(u) associated with the parent u of v. (See Figure 8.11.) Also, the root r of T belongs only to path p(r) associated with r itself. Therefore, the sum of the sizes of the paths associated with the internal nodes of T is 2n − 1. We conclude that the bottom-up construction of heap T takes O(n) time. 494 Figure 8.11: Visual justification of the linear running time of bottom-up heap con struction, where the paths associated with the internal nodes have been highlighted with alternating colors. For example, the path associated with the root consists of the nodes storing keys 4, 6, 7, and 11. Also, the path associated with the right child of the root consists of the internal nodes storing keys 6, 20, and 23. To summarize, Proposition 8.7 states that the running time for the first phase of heap-sort can be reduced to be O(n). Unfortunately, the running time of the second phase of heap-sort cannot be made asymptotically better than O(nlogn) (that is, it will always be Ω(nlogn) in the worst case). We will not justify this lower bound until Chapter 11, however. Instead, we conclude this chapter by discussing a design pattern that allows us to extend the priority queue ADT to have additional functionality. 8.4 Adaptable Priority Queues The methods of the priority queue ADT given in Section 8.1.3 are sufficient for most basic applications of priority queues, such as sorting. However, there are situations where additional methods would be useful, as shown in the scenarios below, which refer to the standby airline passenger application. • A standby passenger with a pessimistic attitude may become tired of waiting and decide to leave ahead of the boarding time, requesting to be removed from the 495 waiting list. Thus, we would like to remove from the priority queue the entry associated with this passenger. Operation removeMin is not suitable for this purpose since the passenger leaving is unlikely to have first priority. Instead, we would like to have a new operation remove (e) that removes an arbitrary entry e. • Another standby passenger finds her gold frequent-flyer card and shows it to the agent. Thus, her priority has to be modified accordingly. To achieve this change of priority, we would like to have a new operation replaceKey(e,k) that replaces with k the key of entry e in the priority queue. • Finally, a third standby passenger notices her name is misspelled on the ticket and asks it to be corrected. To perform the change, we need to up date the passenger's record. Hence, we would like to have a new operation replaceValue(e,x) that replaces with x the value of entry e in the priority queue. 8.4.1 Methods of the Adaptable Priority Queue ADT The above scenarios motivate the definition of a new ADT that extends the prior ity queue ADT with methods remove, replaceKey, and replaceValue. Namely, an adaptable priority queue P supports the following methods in addition to those of the priority queue ADT: remove(e): Remove from P and return entry e. replaceKey(e,k): Replace with k and return the key of entry e of P; an error condition occurs if k is invalid (that is, k cannot be compared with other keys). replaceValue(e,x): Replace with x and return the value of entry e of P. Example 8.8: The following table shows a series of operations and their effects on an initially empty adaptable priority queue P. Operation Output P insert(5,A) e1 {(5,A)} 496 insert(3,B) e2 {(3,B), (5,A)} insert(7,C) e3 {(3,B),(5,A),(7,C)} min() e2 (3,B),(5,A),(7,C)} getKey(e)2 3 {(3,B),(5,A),(7,C)} remove(e)1 e1 (3,B), (7,C)} replaceKey(e2,9) 3 {(7,C),(9,B)} replace Value(e3,D) C {(7,D),(9,B)} remove(e2) e2 {(7,D)} 497 8.4.2 Location-Aware Entries In order to implement methods remove, replaceKey, and replaceValue of an adapt able priority queue P, we need a mechanism for finding the position of an entry of P. Namely, given the entry e of P passed as an argument to one of the above methods, we need to find the position storing e in the the data structure imple menting P (for example, a doubly linked list or a heap). This position is called the location of the entry. Instead of searching for the location of a given entry e, we augment the entry object with an instance variable of type Position storing the location. This im plementation of an entry that keeps track of its position is called a location-aware entry. A summary description of the the use of location-aware entries for the sorted list and heap implementations of an adaptable priority queue is provided below. We denote the number of entries in the priority queue at the time an operation is per formed, with n. • Sorted list implementation. In this implementation, after an entry is inserted, we set the location of the entry to refer to the position of the list containing the entry. Also, we update the location of the entry whenever it changes position in the list. Operations remove(e) and replaceValue(e,x) take O(1) time, since we can obtain the position p of entry e in O(1) time following the location reference stored with the entry. Instead, operation replaceKey(e, k) runs in O(n) time, because the modification of the key of entry e may require moving the entry to a different position in the list to preserve the ordering of the keys. The use of location-aware entries increases the running time of the standard priority queue operations by a constant factor. • Heap implementation. In this implementation, after an entry is inserted, we set the location of the entry to refer to the node of the heap containing the entry. Also, we update the location of the entry whenever it changes node in the heap (for example, because of the swaps in a down-heap or up-heap bubbling). Operation replaceValue(e,x) takes O(1) time since we can obtain the position p of entry e in O(1) time following the location reference stored with the entry. Operations remove(e) and replaceKey(e,k) run instead in O(logn) (details are explored in Exercise C-8.22). The use of location-aware entries increases the running time of operations insert and removeMin by a constant factor overhead. The use of location-aware entries for the unsorted list implementation is explored in Exercise C-8.21. Performance of Adaptable Priority Queue Implementations 498 The performance of an adaptable priority queue implemented by means of various data structures with location-aware entries is summarized in Table 8.4. Table 8.4: Running times of the methods of an adaptable priority queue of size n, realized by means of an unsorted list, sorted list, and heap, respectively. The space requirement is O(n). Method Unsorted List Sorted List Heap size, isEmpty O(1) O(1) O(1) insert O(1) O(n) O(logn) min O(n) O(1) O(1) removeMin O(n) O(1) O(logn) 499 remove O(1) O(1) O(logn) replaceKey O(1) O(n) O(logn) replaceValue O(1) O(1) O(1) 8.4.3 Implementing an Adaptable Priority Queue In Code Fragment 8.17 and 8.18, we show the Java implementation of an adaptable priority queue based on a sorted list. This implementation is obtained by extending class SortedListPriorityQueue shown in Code Fragment 8.6. In particular, Code Fragment 8.18 shows how to realize a location-aware entry in Java by extending a regular entry. Code Fragment 8.17: Java implementation of an adaptable priority queue by means of a sorted list storing location-aware entries. Class SortedListAdaptablePriori tyQueue extends class SortedListPriorityQueue (Code Fragment 8.6) and imple ments interface AdaptablePriorityQueue. (Continues in Code Fragment 8.18.) 500 Code Fragment 8.18: An adaptable priority queue implemented with a sorted list storing location-aware entries. (Continued from Code Fragment 8.17.) The 501 nested class LocationAwareEntry realizes a location- aware entry and extends nested class MyEntry of SortedListPriorityQueue shown in Code Fragment 8.6. 502 503 8.5. Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-8.1 Suppose you label each node v of a binary tree T with a key equal to the preorder rank of v. Under what circumstances is T a heap? R-8.2 What is the output from the following sequence of priority queue ADT methods: insert(5,A), insert(4,B), insert(7,I), insert(1,D), removeMin(), insert(3,J), insert(6,L), removeMin(), removeMin(), insert(8,G), remove Min(), insert(2,H), removeMin(), removeMin() ? R-8.3 An airport is developing a computer simulation of air-traffic control that handles events such as landings and takeoffs. Each event has a time-stamp that denotes the time when the event occurs. The simulation program needs to efficiently perform the following two fundamental operations: • Insert an event with a given time-stamp (that is, add a future event). • Extract the event with smallest time-stamp (that is, determine the next event to process). Which data structure should be used for the above operations? Why? R-8.4 Although it is correct to use a "reverse" comparator with the priority queue ADT so that we retrieve and remove an entry with the maximum key each time, it is confusing to have an entry with maximum key returned by a method named "removeMin." Write a short adapter class that can take any priority queue P and an associated comparator C and implement a priority queue that concentrates on the element with maximum key, using methods with names like removeMax. R-8.5 504 Illustrate the execution of the selection-sort algorithm on the following input sequence: (22,15,36,44,10,3,9,13,29,25). R-8.6 Illustrate the execution of the insertion-sort algorithm on the input se quence of the previous problem. R-8.7 Give an example of a worst-case sequence with n elements for insertion sort, and show that insertion-sort runs in Ω(n2) time on such a sequence. R-8.8 At which nodes of a heap can an entry with the largest key be stored? R-8.9 In defining the relation "to the left of" for two nodes of a binary tree (Sec tion 8.3.1), can we use a preorder traversal instead of an inorder traversal? How about a postorder traversal? R-8.10 Illustrate the execution of the heap-sort algorithm on the following input sequence: (2,5,16,4,10,23,39,18,26,15). R-8.11 Let T be a complete binary tree such that node v stores the entry (p(v), 0), where p(v) is the level number of v. Is tree T a heap? Why or why not? R-8.12 Explain why the case where node r has a right child but not a left child was not considered in the description of down-heap bubbling. R-8.13 Is there a heap T storing seven entries with distinct keys such that a pre order traversal of T yields the entries of T in increasing or decreasing order by key? How about an inorder traversal? How about a postorder traversal? If so, give an example; if not, say why. R-8.14 Let H be a heap storing 15 entries using the array-list representation of a complete binary tree. What is the sequence of indices of the array list that are 505 visited in a preorder traversal of H? What about an inorder traversal of H? What about a postorder traversal of H? R-8.15 Show that the sum which appears in the analysis of heap-sort, is Ω(nlogn). R-8.16 Bill claims that a preorder traversal of a heap will list its keys in nonde creasing order. Draw an example of a heap that proves him wrong. R-8.17 Hillary claims that a postorder traversal of a heap will list its keys in non increasing order. Draw an example of a heap that proves her wrong. R-8.18 Show all the steps of the algorithm for removing key 16 from the heap of Figure 8.3. R-8.19 Show all the steps of the algorithm for replacing key 5 with 18 in the heap of Figure 8.3. R-8.20 Draw an example of a heap whose keys are all the odd numbers from 1 to 59 (with no repeats), such that the insertion of an entry with key 32 would cause up-heap bubbling to proceed all the way up to a child of the root (replacing that child's key with 32). R-8.21 Complete Figure 8.9 by showing all the steps of the in-place heap-sort algorithm. Show both the array and the associated heap at the end of each step. R-8.22 Give a pseudo-code description of a nonrecursive in-place heap-sort algorithm. R-8.23 506 A group of children want to play a game, called Unmonopoly, where in each turn the player with the most money must give half of his/her money to the player with the least amount of money. What data structure(s) should be used to play this game efficiently? Why? Creativity C-8.1 An online computer system for trading stock needs to process orders of the form "buy 100 shares at $x each" or "sell 100 shares at $y each." A buy order for $x can only be processed if there is an existing sell order with price $y such that y ≤ x. Likewise, a sell order for $y can only be processed if there is an existing buy order with price $x such that y ≤ x. If a buy or sell order is entered but cannot be processed, it must wait for a future order that allows it to be processed. Describe a scheme that allows for buy and sell orders to be entered in O(logn) time, independent of whether or not they can be immediately processed. C-8.2 Extend a solution to the previous problem so that users are allowed to update the prices for their buy or sell orders that have yet to be processed. C-8.3 Write a comparator for nonnegative integers that determines order based on the number of 1's in each integer's binary expansion, so that i < j if the number of 1's in the binary representation of i is less than the number of 1 's in the binary representation of j. C-8.4 Show how to implement the stack ADT using only a priority queue and one additional integer instance variable. C-8.5 Show how to implement the (standard) queue ADT using only a priority queue and one additional integer instance variable. C-8.6 Describe in detail an implementation of a priority queue based on a sorted array. Show that this implementation achieves O(1) time for operations min and removeMin and O(n) time for operation insert. C-8.7 507 Describe an in-place version of the selection-sort algorithm that uses only O(1) space for instance variables in addition to an input array itself. C-8.8 Assuming the input to the sorting problem is given in an array A, describe how to implement the insertion-sort algorithm using only the array A and, at most, six additional (base-type) variables. C-8.9 Describe how to implement the heap-sort algorithm using, at most, six integer variables in addition to an input array itself. C-8.10 Describe a sequence of n insertions in a heap that requires Ω(nlogn) time to process. C-8.11 An alternative method for finding the last node during an insertion in a heap T is to store, in the last node and each external node of T, a reference to the external node immediately to its right (wrapping to the first node in the next lower level for the right-most external node). Show how to maintain such references in O(1) time per operation of the priority queue ADT assuming T is implemented as a linked structure. C-8.12 Describe an implementation of complete binary tree T by means of a linked structure and a reference to the last node. In particular, show how to update the reference to the last node after operations add and remove in O(logn) time, where n is the current number of nodes of T. Be sure and handle all possible cases, as illustrated in Figure 8.12. Figure 8.12: Updating the last node in a complete binary tree after operation add or remove. Node w is the last node before operation add or after operation remove. Node z is the last node after operation add or before operation remove. 508 C-8.13 We can represent a path from the root to a given node of a binary tree by means of a binary string, where 0 means "go to the left child" and 1 means "go to the right child." For example, the path from the root to the node storing (8,W) in the heap of Figure 8.12a is represented by "101." Design an O(logn)-time algorithm for finding the last node of a complete binary tree with n nodes, based on the above representation. Show how this algorithm can be used in the implementation of a complete binary tree by means of a linked structure that does not keep a reference to the last node. C-8.14 Given a heap T and a key k, give an algorithm to compute all the entries in T with key less than or equal to k. For example, given the heap of Figure 8.12a and query k= 7, the algorithm should report the entries with keys 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 (but not necessarily in this order). Your algorithm should run in time proportional to the number of entries returned. C-8.15 Provide a justification of the time bounds in Table 8.4. C-8.16 Tamarindo Airlines wants to give a first-class upgrade coupon to their top log n frequent flyers, based on the number of miles accumulated, where n is the total number of the airlines' frequent flyers. The algorithm they currently use, which runs in O(nlogn) time, sorts the flyers by the number of miles flown and then scans the sorted list to pick the top logn flyers. Describe an algorithm that identifies the top logn flyers in O(n) time. C-8.17 Develop an algorithm that computes the kth smallest element of a set of n distinct integers in O(n + klogn) time. 509 C-8.18 Suppose two binary trees, T1 and T2, hold entries satisfying the heap-order property. Describe a method for combining T1 and T2 into a tree T whose internal nodes hold the union of the entries in T1 andT2 and also satisfy the heap-order property. Your algorithm should run in time O(h1 + h2) where h1 and h2 are the respective heights of T1 and T2. C-8.19 Give an alternative analysis of bottom-up heap construction by showing the following summation is O(1), for any positive integer h: C-8.20 Give an alternate description of the in-place heap-sort algorithm that uses a standard comparator instead of a reverse one. C-8.21 Describe efficient algorithms for performing operations remove(e) and replaceKey(e,k) on an adaptable priority queue realized by means of an unsorted list with location-aware entries. C-8.22 Describe efficient algorithms for performing operations remove(e) and replaceKey(e,k) on an adaptable priority queue realized by means of a heap with location-aware entries. C-8.23 Let S be a set of n points in the plane with distinct integer x- and y- coordinates. Let T be a complete binary tree storing the points from S at its external nodes, such that the points are ordered left-to-right by in creasing x-coordinates. For each node v in T, let S(v) denote the subset of S consisting of points stored in the subtree rooted at v. For the root r of T, define top(r) to be the point in S = S(r) with maximum y-coordinate. For every other node v, define top(r) to be the point in S with highest y-coordinate in S(v) that is not also the highest y- coordinate in S(u), where u is the parent of v in T (if such a point exists). Such labeling turns T into a priority search tree. Describe a linear-time algorithm for turning T into a priority search tree. Projects 510 P-8.1 Give a Java implementation of a priority queue based on an unsorted list. P-8.2 Write an applet or stand-alone graphical program that animates both the insertion-sort and selection-sort algorithms. Your animation should visu alize the movement of elements to their correct locations. P-8.3 Write an applet or stand-alone graphical program that animates a heap. Your program should support all the priority queue operations and should visualize the swaps in the up-heap and down-heap bubblings. (Extra: Vi sualize bottom- up heap construction as well.) P-8.4 Implement the heap-sort algorithm using bottom-up heap construction. P-8.5 Implement the in-place heap-sort algorithm. Experimentally compare its running time with that of the standard heap-sort that is not in-place. P-8.6 Implement a heap-based priority queue that supports the following addi tional operation in linear time: replaceComparator(c): Replace the current comparator with c. (Hint: Utilize the bottom-up heap construction algorithm.) P-8.7 Develop a Java implementation of an adaptable priority queue that is based on an unsorted list and supports location-aware entries. P-8.8 Develop a Java implementation of an adaptable priority queue that is based on a heap and supports location-aware entries. P-8.9 Write a program that can process a sequence of stock buy and sell orders as described in Exercise C-8.1. 511 P-8.10 One of the main applications of priority queues is in operating systems for scheduling jobs on a CPU. In this project you are to build a program that schedules simulated CPU jobs. Your program should run in a loop, each iteration of which corresponds to a time slice for the CPU. Each job is assigned a priority, which is an integer between -20 (highest priority) and 19 (lowest priority), inclusive. From among all jobs waiting to be pro cessed in a time slice, the CPU must work on a job with highest priority. In this simulation, each job will also come with a length value, which is an integer between 1 and 100, inclusive, indicating the number of time slices that are needed to process this job. For simplicity, you may assume jobs cannot be interrupted—once it is scheduled on the CPU, a job runs for a number of time slices equal to its length. Your simulator must output the name of the job running on the CPU in each time slice and must process a sequence of commands, one per time slice, each of which is of the form "add job name with length n and priority p" or "no new job this slice". Chapter Notes Knuth's book on sorting and searching [63] describes the motivation and history for the selection-sort, insertion-sort, and heap-sort algorithms. The heap-sort algorithm is due to Williams [99], and the linear-time heap construction algorithm is due to Floyd [36]. Additional algorithms and analyses for heaps and heap-sort variations can be found in papers by Bentley [13], Carlsson [21], Gonnet and Munro [42], McDiarmid and Reed [71], and Schaffer and Sedgewick [85]. The design pattern of using location-aware entries (also described in [43]) appears to be new. 512 Chapter 9 Maps and Dictionaries Contents 9.1 The Map Abstract Data Type....................... 368 9.1.1 A Simple List-Based Map Implementation.......... 371 9.2 Hash Tables...................................... 372 9.2.1 Bucket Arrays................................... 372 9.2.2 Hash Functions.................................. 373 9.2.3 Hash Codes...................................... 513 374 9.2.4 Compression Functions........................... 377 9.2.5 Collision-Handling Schemes...................... 379 9.2.6 A Java Hash Table Implementation................ 383 9.2.7 Load Factors and Rehashing...................... 387 9.2.8 Application: Counting Word Frequencies.......... 388 9.3 The Dictionary Abstract Data Type................ 389 9.3.1 List-Based Dictionaries and Audit Trails........ 390 9.3.2 Hash Table Dictionary Implementation............ 393 514 9.3.3 Ordered Search Tables and Binary Search......... 394 9.4 Skip Lists....................................... 398 9.4.1 Search and Update Operations in a Skip List..... 400 9.4.2 A Probabilistic Analysis of Skip Lists ★...... 404 9.5 Extensions and Applications of Dictionaries...... 407 9.5.1 Supporting Location-Aware Dictionary Entries.... 407 9.5.2 The Ordered Dictionary ADT...................... 408 9.5.3 Flight Databases and Maxima Sets................ 410 9.6 515 Exercises........................................ 413 java.datastructures.net 9.1 The Map Abstract Data Type A map allows us to store elements so they can be located quickly using keys. The motivation for such searches is that each element typically stores additional useful information besides its search key, but the only way to get at that information is to use the search key. Specifically, a map stores key-value pairs (k, v), which we call entries, where k is the key and v is its corresponding value. In addition, the map ADT requires that each key be unique, so the association of keys to values defines a mapping. In order to achieve the highest level of generality, we allow both the keys and the values stored in a map to be of any object type. (See Figure 9.1.) In a map storing student records (such as the student's name, address, and course grades), the key might be the student's ID number. In some applications, the key and the value may be the same. For example, if we had a map storing prime numbers, we could use each number itself as both a key and its value. Figure 9.1: A conceptual illustration of the map ADT. Keys (labels) are assigned to values (diskettes) by a user. The resulting entries (labeled diskettes) are inserted into the map (file cabinet). The keys can be used later to retrieve or remove values. 516 In either case, we use a key as a unique identifier that is assigned by an appli cation or user to an associated value object. Thus, a map is most appropriate in situations where each key is to be viewed as a kind of unique index address for its value, that is, an object that serves as a kind of location for that value. For exam ple, if we wish to store student records, we would probably want to use student ID objects as keys (and disallow two students having the same student ID). In other words, the key associated with an object can be viewed as an "address" for that object. Indeed, maps are sometimes referred to as associative stores, because the key associated with an object determines its "location" in the data structure. The Map ADT Since a map stores a collection of objects, it should be viewed as a collection of key-value pairs. As an ADT, a map M supports the following methods: size(): Return the number of entries in M. isEmpty(): Test whether M is empty. get(k): If Mcontains an entry e with key equal to k, then return the value of e, else return null. put(k, v): If M does not have an entry with key equal to k, then add entry (k, v) to M and return null; else, replace with v the existing value of the entry with key equal to k and return the old value. 517 remove(k): Remove from M the entry with key equal to k, and return its value; if M has no such entry, then return null. keys(): Return an iterable collection containing all the keys stored in M (so keys().iterator() returns an iterator of keys). values(): Return an iterable collection containing all the values as sociated with keys stored in M (so values().iterator() re turns an iterator of values). entries(): Return an iterable collection containing all the key-value entries in M (so entries().iterator() returns an iterator of entries). When operations get(k), put(k,v) and remove(k) are performed on a map M that has no entry with key equal to k, we use the convention of returning null. A special value such as this is known as a sentinel. (See also Section 3.3.) The disadvantage with using null as such a sentinel is that this choice can create ambiguity should we every want to have an entry (k, null) with value null in the map. Another choice, of course, would be to throw an exception when someone requests a key that is not in our map. This would probably not be an appropriate use of an exception, however, since it is normal to ask for something that might not be in our map. Moreover, throwing and catching an exception is typically slower than a test against a sentinel; hence, using a sentinel is more efficient (and, in this case, conceptually more appropriate). So we use null as a sentinel for a value associated with a missing key. Example 9.1: In the following, we show the effect of a series of operations on an initially empty map storing entries with integer keys and single-character values. Operation Output Map isEmpty() true φ put(5,A) null {(5,A)} put(7,B) 518 null {(5,A), (7,B)} put(2,C) null {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C)} put(8,D) null {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D)} put(2,E) C {(5,A), (7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} get(7) B {(5,A), (7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} get(4) null {(5,A), (7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} get(2) E {(5,A), (7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} size() 4 {(5,A), (7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} remove(5) A 519 {(7,B), (2,E), (8,D)} remove(2) E {(7,B), (8,D)} get(2) null {(7,B), (8,D)} isEmpty() false {(7,B), (8,D)} Maps in the java.util Package The Java package java.util includes an interface for the map ADT, which is called java.util.Map. This interface is defined so that an implementing class enforces unique keys, and it includes all of the methods of the map ADT given above, except that it uses different method names in a couple of cases. The correspondences between the map ADT and the java.util. Map interface are shown in Table 9.1. Table 9.1: Correspondences between methods of the map ADT and the methods of the java.util.Map interface, which supports other methods as well. Map ADT Methods java.util.Map Methods size() size() isEmpty() isEmpty() get(k) 520 get(k) put(k,v) put(k,v) remove(k) remove(k) keys() keySet() values() values() entries() entrySet() 9.1.1 A Simple List-Based Map Implementation A simple way of implementing a map is to store its n entries in a list S, implemented as a doubly linked list. Performing the fundamental methods, get(k), put(k, v), and remove(k), involves simple scans down S looking for an entry with key k. We give pseudo-code for performing these methods on a map M in Code Fragment 9.1. This list-based map implementation is simple, but it is only efficient for very small maps. Every one of the fundamental methods takes O(n) time on a map with n entries, because each method involves searching through the entire list in the worst case. Thus, we would like something faster. Code Fragment 9.1: Algorithms for the fundamental map methods with a list S. 521 9.2 Hash Tables The keys associated with values in a map are typically thought of as "addresses" for those values. Examples of such applications include a compiler's symbol table and a registry of environment variables. Both of these structures consist of a collection of symbolic names where each name serves as the "address" for properties about a variable's type and value. One of the most efficient ways to implement a map in such circumstances is to use a hash table. Although, as we will see, the worst-case running 522 time of map operations in an n-entry hash table is O(n), a hash table can usually perform these operations in O(1) expected time. In general, a hash table consists of two major components, a bucket array and a hash function. 9.2.1 Bucket Arrays A bucket array for a hash table is an array A of size N, where each cell of A is thought of as a "bucket" (that is, a collection of key-value pairs) and the integer N defines the capacity of the array. If the keys are integers well distributed in the range [0,N − 1], this bucket array is all that is needed. An entry e with key k is simply inserted into the bucket A[k]. (See Figure 9.2.) To save space, an empty bucket may be replaced by a null object. Figure 9.2: A bucket array of size 11 for the entries (1,D), (3,C), (3,F), (3,Z), (6,A), (6,C) and (7Q), if our keys are unique integers in the range [0,N − 1], then each bucket holds at most one entry. Thus, searches, insertions, and removals in the bucket array take O(1) time. This sounds like a great achievement, but it has two drawbacks. First, the space used is proportional to N. Thus, if N is much larger than the number of entries n actually present in the map, we have a waste of space. The second draw back is that keys are required to be integers in the range [0, N − 1], which is often not the case. Because of these two drawbacks, we use the bucket array in conjunction with a "good" mapping from the keys to the integers in the range [0,N − 1]. 9.2.2 Hash Functions The second part of a hash table structure is a function, h, called a hash function, that maps each key k in our map to an integer in the range [0,N − 1], where N is the capacity of the bucket array for this table. Equipped with such a hash function, h, we can apply the bucket array method to arbitrary keys. The main idea of this approach is to use the hash function value, h(k), as an index into our bucket array, A, instead of the key k (which is most likely inappropriate for use as a bucket array index). That is, we store the entry (k, v) in the bucket A[h(k)]. 523 Of course, if there are two or more keys with the same hash value, then two different entries will be mapped to the same bucket in A. In this case, we say that a collision has occurred. Clearly, if each bucket of A can store only a single entry, then we cannot associate more than one entry with a single bucket, which is a problem in the case of collisions. To be sure, there are ways of dealing with collisions, which we will discuss later, but the best strategy is to try to avoid them in the first place. We say that a hash function is "good" if it maps the keys in our map so as to minimize collisions as much as possible. For practical reasons, we also would like a hash function to be fast and easy to compute. Following the convention in Java, we view the evaluation of a hash function, h(k), as consisting of two actions—mapping the key k to an integer, called the hash code, and mapping the hash code to an integer within the range of indices ([0,N − 1]) of a bucket array, called the compression function. (See Figure 9.3.) Figure 9.3: The two parts of a hash function: a hash code and a compression func tion. 9.2.3 Hash Codes The first action that a hash function performs is to take an arbitrary key k in our map and assign it an integer value. The integer assigned to a key k is called the hash code for k. This integer value need not be in the range [0,N − 1], and may even be negative, but we desire that the set of hash codes assigned to our keys should avoid collisions as much as possible. For if the hash codes of our keys cause collisions, then there is no hope for our compression function to avoid them. In addition, to be consistent with all of our keys, the hash code we use for a key k should be the same as the hash code for any key that is equal to k. 524 Hash Codes in Java The generic Object class defined in a Java comes with a default hashCode() method for mapping each object instance to an integer that is a "representation" of that ob ject. Specifically, the hashCode() method returns a 32-bit integer of type int. Un less specifically overridden, this method is inherited by every object used in a Java program. We should be careful in using the default Object version of hashCode(), however, as this could just be an integer interpretation of the object's location in memory (as is the case in many Java implementations). This type of hash code works poorly with character strings, for example, because two different string ob jects in memory might actually be equal, in which case we would like them to have the same hash code. Indeed, the Java String class overrides the hashCode method of the Object class to be something more appropriate for character strings. Like wise, if we intend to use certain objects as keys in a map, then we should override the built-in hashCode() method for these objects, replacing it with a mapping that assigns well-spread, consistent integers to these types of objects. Let us consider, then, several common data types and some example methods for assigning hash codes to objects of these types. Casting to an Integer To begin, we note that, for any data type X that is represented using at most as many bits as our integer hash codes, we can simply take as a hash code for X an integer interpretation of its bits. Thus, for Java base types byte, short, int, and char, we can achieve a good hash code simply by casting this type to int. Likewise, for a variable x of base type float, we can convert x to an integer using a call to Float.floatToIntBits(x), and then use this integer as x's hash code. Summing Components For base types, such as long and double, whose bit representation is double that of a hash code, the above scheme is not immediately applicable. Still, one possible hash code, and indeed one that is used by many Java implementations, is to simply cast a (long) integer representation of the type down to an integer the size of a hash code. This hash code, of course, ignores half of the information present in the original value, and if many of the keys in our map only differ in these bits, then they will collide using this simple hash code. An alternative hash code, then, which takes all the original bits into consideration, is to sum an integer representation of the high-order bits with an integer representation of the low- order bits. Such a hash code can be written in Java as follows: 525 static inthashCode(longi) {return (int)((i >> 32) + (int) i);} Indeed, the approach of summing components can be extended to any object x whose binary representation can be viewed as a k-tuple (x0,x1,… ,xk−1) of integers, for we can then form a hash code for x as . For example, given any floating point number, we can sum its mantissa and exponent as long integers, and then apply a hash code for long integers to the result. Polynomial Hash Codes The summation hash code, described above, is not a good choice for character strings or other variable-length objects that can be viewed as tuples of the form (x0,x1,…,xk−1), where the order of the xi's is significant. For example, consider a hash code for a character string s that sums the ASCII (or Unicode) values of the characters in s. This hash code unfortunately produces lots of unwanted collisions for common groups of strings. In particular, "temp01" and "temp10" collide using this function, as do "stop", "tops", "pots", and "spot". A better hash code should somehow take into consideration the positions of the x i's. An alternative hash code, which does exactly this, is to choose a nonzero constant, a≠1, and use as a hash code the value x0ak−1+ x1ak−2 + …+ xk−2a + xk−1. Mathematically speaking, this is simply a polynomial in a that takes the compo nents (x0,x1,… ,xk−1) of an object x as its coefficients. This hash code is therefore called a polynomial hash code. By Horner's rule (see Exercise C-4.11), this poly nomial can be written as xk−1 + a(xk−2 + a(xk−3 + … + a(x2 + a(x1 + ax0))…)). Intuitively, a polynomial hash code uses multiplication by the constant a as a way of "making room" for each component in a tuple of values while also preserv ing a characterization of the previous components. Of course, on a typical computer, evaluating a polynomial will be done using the finite bit representation for a hash code; hence, the value will periodically over flow the bits used for an integer. Since we are more interested in a good spread of the object x with respect to other keys, we simply ignore such overflows. Still, we should be mindful that such overflows are occurring and choose the constant a so that it has some nonzero, low-order bits, which will serve to preserve some of the information content even as we are in an overflow situation. We have done some experimental studies that suggest that 33, 37, 39, and 41 are particularly good choices for a when working with character strings that are English words. In fact, in a list of over 50,000 English words formed as the union 526 of the word lists provided in two variants of Unix, we found that taking a to be 33, 37, 39, or 41 produced less than 7 collisions in each case! It should come as no surprise, then, to learn that many Java implementations choose the polynomial hash function, using one of these constants for a, as a default hash code for strings. For the sake of speed, however, some Java implementations only apply the polynomial hash function to a fraction of the characters in long strings. Cyclic Shift Hash Codes A variant of the polynomial hash code replaces multiplication by a with a cyclic shift of a partial sum by a certain number of bits. Such a function, applied to character strings in Java could, for example, look like the following: static int hashCode(String s) { int h=0; for (int i=0; i>> 27); // 5-bit cyclic shift of the running sum h + = (int) s.charAt(i); // add in next character } return h; } As with the traditional polynomial hash code, using the cyclic-shift hash code re quires some fine-tuning. In this case, we must wisely choose the amount to shift by for each new character. We show in Table 9.2 the results of some experiments run on a list of just over 25,000 English words, which compare the number of col lisions for various shift amounts. These and our previous experiments show that if we choose our constant a or our shift value wisely, then either the polynomial hash code or its cyclic-shift variant are suitable for any object that can be written as a tuple (x0,x1 ,… ,xk 1), where the order in tuples matters. Table 9.2: Comparison of collision behavior for the cyclic shift variant of the poly nomial hash code as applied to a list of just over 25,000 English words. The "Total" column records the total number of collisions and the "Max" column records the maximum number 527 of collisions for any one hash code. Note that with a cyclic shift of 0, this hash code reverts to the one that simply sums all the characters. Collisions Shift Total Max 0 23739 86 1 10517 21 2 2254 6 3 448 3 4 89 2 5 4 2 528 6 6 2 7 14 2 8 105 2 9 18 2 10 277 3 11 453 4 12 43 2 13 13 2 14 529 135 3 15 1082 6 16 8760 9 9.2.4 Compression Functions The hash code for a key k will typically not be suitable for immediate use with a bucket array, because the range of possible hash codes for our keys will typically exceed the range of legal indices of our bucket array A. That is, incorrectly using a hash code as an index into our bucket array may result in an array out-of-bounds exception being thrown, either because the index is negative or it exceeds the ca pacity of A. Thus, once we have determined an integer hash code for a key object k, there is still the issue of mapping that integer into the range [0,N − 1]. This map ping is the second action that a hash function performs, and a good compression function is one that minimizes the possible number of collisions in a given set of hash codes. The Division Method One simple compression function is the division method, which maps an integer i to |i| mod N, where N, the size of the bucket array, is a fixed positive integer. Additionally, if we take N to be a prime number, then this compression function helps "spread out" the distribution of hashed values. Indeed, if N is not prime, then there is a higher likelihood that patterns in the distribution of hash codes will be repeated in the distribution of hash values, thereby causing collisions. For example, if we insert keys with hash codes {200,205,210,215,220,... ,600} into a bucket array of size 100, then each hash code will collide with three others. But if we use a bucket array of size 101, then there will be no collisions. If a hash function is chosen well, it should ensure that the probability of two different keys getting hashed to the same bucket is 1/N. Choosing N to be a prime number is not always enough, 530 however, for if there is a repeated pattern of hash codes of the form pN + q for several different p's, then there will still be collisions. The MAD Method A more sophisticated compression function, which helps eliminate repeated pat terns in a set of integer keys is the multiply add and divide (or "MAD") method. This method maps an integer i to |ai + b| mod N, where N is a prime number, and a > 0 (called scaling factor) and b ≥ 0 (called shift) are integer constants randomly chosen at the time the compression function is determined so that a mod N≠ 0. This compression function is chosen in order to eliminate repeated patterns in the set of hash codes and get us closer to having a "good" hash function, that is, one such that the probability any two different keys collide is 1/N. This good behavior would be the same as we would have if these keys were "thrown" into A uniformly at random. With a compression function such as this, which spreads integers fairly evenly in the range [0,N − 1], and a hash code that transforms the keys in our map into integers, we have an effective hash function. Together, such a hash function and a bucket array define the main ingredients of the hash table implementation of the map ADT. But before we can give the details of how to perform such operations as put, get, and remove, we must first resolve the issue of how we will be handling collisions. 9.2.5 Collision-Handling Schemes The main idea of a hash table is to take a bucket array, A, and a hash function, h, and use them to implement a map by storing each entry (k,v) in the "bucket" A [h(k)]. This simple idea is challenged, however, when we have two distinct keys, k1 and k2, such that h(k1) = h(k2). The existence of such collisions prevents us from simply inserting anew entry (k,v) directly in the bucket A [h(k)]. They also complicate our procedure for performing the get(k), put(k, v), and remove(k) operations. Separate Chaining A simple and efficient way for dealing with collisions is to have each bucket A[i] store a small map, Mi, implemented using a list, as described in Section 9.1.1, holding entries (k, v) such that h(k) = i. That is, each separate Mi chains together the entries that hash to index i in a linked list. This collision resolution rule is known as separate chaining. Assuming that we initialize each bucket A [i] to be 531 an empty list-based map, we can easily use the separate chaining rule to perform the fundamental map operations, as shown in Code Fragment 9.2. Code Fragment 9.2: The fundamental methods of the map ADT, implemented with a hash table that uses separate chaining to resolve collisions among its n entries. For each fundamental map operation, involving a key k, the separate-chaining approach delegates the handling of this operation to the miniature list-based map stored at A [h(k)]. So, put(k, v) will scan this list looking for an entry with key equal to k; if it finds one, it replaces its value with v, otherwise, it puts (k, v) at the end of this list. Likewise, get(k) will search through this list until it reaches the end or finds an entry with key equal to k. And remove(k) will perform a similar search but additionally remove an entry after it is found. We can "get away" with this simple list-based approach, because the spreading properties of the hash function help keep each bucket's list small. Indeed, a good hash function will try to minimize collisions as much as possible, which will imply that most of our buckets are either empty or store just a single entry. This observation allows us to make a slight change to our implementation so that, if a bucket A[i] is empty, it stores null, and if A[i] stores just a single entry (k,v), we can simply have A[i] point directly to the entry (k, v) rather than to a list-based map holding 532 only the one entry. We leave the details of this final space optimization to an exercise (C-9.5). In Figure 9.4, we give an illustration of a hash table with separate chaining. Assuming we use a good hash function to index the n entries of our map in a bucket array of capacity N, we expect each bucket to be of size n/N. This value, called the load factor of the hash table (and denoted with δ), should be bounded by a small constant, preferably below 1. For, given a good hash function, the expected running time of operations get, put, and remove in a map implemented with a hash table that uses this function is O( n/N). Thus, we can implement these operations to run in O(1) expected time, provided n is O(N). Figure 9.4: A hash table of size 13, storing 10 entries with integer keys, with colli sions resolved by separate chaining. The compression function is h(k) = k mod 13. For simplicity, we do not show the values associated with the keys. Open Addressing The separate chaining rule has many nice properties, such as allowing for simple implementations of map operations, but it nevertheless has one slight disadvan tage: it requires the use of an auxiliary data structure—a list—to hold entries with colliding keys. We can handle collisions in other ways besides using the separate 533 chaining rule, however. In particular, if space is at a premium (for example, if we are writing a program for a small handheld device), then we can use the alternative approach of always storing each entry directly in a bucket, at most one entry per bucket. This approach saves space because no auxiliary structures are employed, but it requires a bit more complexity to deal with collisions. There are several vari ants of this approach, collectively referred to as open addressing schemes, which we discuss next. Open addressing requires that the load factor is always at most 1 and that entries are stored directly in the cells of the bucket array itself. Linear Probing A simple open addressing method for collision handling is linear probing. In this method, if we try to insert an entry (k, v) into a bucket A[i] that is already occupied, where i = h(k), then we try next at A[(i + 1) modN]. If A[(i + 1) mod N] is also occupied, then we try A[(i + 2) mod N], and so on, until we find an empty bucket that can accept the new entry. Once this bucket is located, we simply insert the entry there. Of course, this collision resolution strategy requires that we change the implementation of the get(k, v) operation. In particular, to perform such a search, followed by either a replacement or insertion, we must examine consecutive buck ets, starting from A [h(k)], until we either find an entry with key equal to k or we find an empty bucket. (See Figure 9.5.) The name "linear probing" comes from the fact that accessing a cell of the bucket array can be viewed as a "probe". Figure 9.5: Insertion into a hash table with integer keys using linear probing. The hash function is h(k) = k mod 11. Values associated with keys are not shown. To implement remove(k), we might, at first, think we need to do a consider able amount of shifting of entries to make it look as though the entry with key k was never inserted, which would be very complicated. A typical way to get around this difficulty is to replace a deleted entry with a special "available" marker object. With this special marker possibly occupying buckets in our hash table, we modify our search algorithm for remove(k) or get(k) so that the search for a 534 key k will skip over cells containing the available marker and continue probing until reach ing the desired entry or an empty bucket (or returning back to where we started from). Additionally, our algorithm for put(k,v) should remember an available cell encountered during the search for k, since this is a valid place to put a new entry (k,v). Thus, linear probing saves space, but it complicates removals. Even with the use of the available marker object, linear probing suffers from an additional disadvantage. It tends to cluster the entries of the map into contiguous runs, which may even overlap (particularly if more than half of the cells in the hash table are occupied). Such contiguous runs of occupied hash cells causes searches to slow down considerably. Quadratic Probing Another open addressing strategy, known as quadratic probing, involves iteratively trying the buckets A[(i + f (j)) mod N], for j = 0,1,2,…, where f (j) =j2, until finding an empty bucket. As with linear probing, the quadratic probing strategy complicates the removal operation, but it does avoid the kinds of clustering patterns that occur with linear probing. Nevertheless, it creates its own kind of clustering, called secondary clustering, where the set of filled array cells "bounces" around the array in a fixed pattern. If N is not chosen as a prime, then the quadratic probing strategy may not find an empty bucket in A even if one exists. In fact, even if N is prime, this strategy may not find an empty slot, if the bucket array is at least half full; we explore the cause of this type of clustering in an exercise (C-9.9). Double Hashing Another open addressing strategy that does not cause clustering of the kind pro duced by linear probing or the kind produced by quadratic probing is the double hashing strategy. In this approach, we choose a secondary hash function, h ′, and if h maps some key k to a bucket A[i], with i = h(k), that is already occupied, then we iteratively try the buckets A[(i + f (j)) mod N] next, for j = 1,2,3,…, where f (j) = j. h ′(k). In this scheme, the secondary hash function is not allowed to eval uate to zero; a common choice is h ′(k) = q - (k mod q), for some prime number q < N. Also, N should be a prime. Moreover, we should choose a secondary hash function that will attempt to minimize clustering as much as possible. These open addressing schemes save some space over the separate chaining method, but they are not necessarily faster. In experimental and theoretical anal yses, the chaining method is either competitive or faster than the other methods, depending on the load factor of the bucket array. So, if memory space is not a major issue, the collision-handling method of choice seems to be separate chain ing. Still, if memory space is in short supply, then one of these open addressing methods might be worth implementing, provided our probing strategy minimizes the clustering that can occur from open addressing. 535 9.2.6 A Java Hash Table Implementation In Code Fragments 9.3–9.5, we show class, HashTableMap, which implements the map ADT using a hash table with linear probing to resolve collisions. These code fragments include the entire implementation of the map ADT, except for the methods values() and entries(), which we leave as an Exercise (R-9.10). The main design elements of the Java class HashTableMap are as follows: • We maintain, in instance variables, the size, n, of the map, the bucket array, A, and the capacity, N, of A. • We use method hash Value to compute the hash function of a key by means of the built-in hashCode method and the multiply-add-and-divide (MAD) compression function. • We define a sentinel, AVAILABLE, as a marker for deactivated entries. • We provide an optional constructor that allows us to specify the initial capac ity of the bucket array. • If the current bucket array is full and one tries to insert a new entry, we rehash the entire contents into a new array that is twice the size as the old version. • The following (protected) auxiliary methods are used:  checkKey(k), which checks if the key k is valid. This method currently just checks that k is not null, but a class that extends HashTableMap can override this method with a more elaborate test.  rehash(), which computes a new MAD hash function with random pa rameters and rehashes the entries into a new array with double capacity.  findEntry(k), which looks for an entry with key equal to k, starting at the index A[h(k)] and going through the array in a circular fashion. If the method finds a cell with such an entry, then it returns the index i of this cell. Otherwise, it returns -i-1, where i is the index of the last empty or available cell encountered. Code Fragment 9.3: Class HashTableMap implementing the map ADT using a hash table with linear probing. (Continues in Code Fragment 9.4.) 536 537 Code Fragment 9.4: Class HashTableMap implementing the map ADT using a hash table with linear probing. (Continues in Code Fragment 9.5.) 538 539 Code Fragment 9.5: Class HashTableMap implementing the map ADT using a hash table with linear probing. (Continued from Code Fragment 9.4.) We have omitted the values() and entries() methods in the listing above, as they are similar to keys(). 540 9.2.7 Load Factors and Rehashing In the hash table schemes described above, we should desire that the load factor, X = n/N, be kept below 1. Experiments and average-case analyses suggest that we 541 should maintain λ<' 0.5 for the open addressing schemes and we should maintain X < 0.9 for separate chaining. The built-in class java.util.HashMap, which imple ments the map ADT, uses the threshold 0.75 as a default maximum load factor and rehashes any time the load factor exceeds this (or an optional user-set load factor). The choice of 0.75 is fine for separate chaining (which is the likely implementation in java.util.HashMap), but, as we explore in Exercise C-9.9, some open addressing schemes can start to fail when λ ≥ 0.5. Although the details of the average-case analysis of hashing are beyond the scope of this book, its probabilistic basis is quite intuitive. If our hash function is good, then we expect the entries to be uniformly distributed in the N cells of the bucket array. Thus, to store n entries, the expected number of keys in a bucket would be n/N, which is O(1) if n is O(N). With separate chaining, as λ gets very close to 1, the probability of a collision also approaches 1, which adds overhead to our operations, since we must revert to linear-time list-based methods in buckets that have collisions. Of course, in the worst case, a poor hash function could map every entry to the same bucket, which would result in linear-time performance for all map operations, but this is unlikely. With open addressing, on the other hand, as the load factor λ grows beyond 0.5 and starts approaching 1, clusters of entries in the bucket array start to grow as well. These clusters cause the probing strategies to "bounce around" the bucket array for a considerable amount of time before they can finish. Thus, keeping the load factor below a certain threshold is vital for open ad dressing schemes and is also of concern with the separate chaining method. If the load factor of a hash table goes significantly above the specified threshold, then it is common to require that the table be resized (to regain the specified load factor) and all the objects inserted into this new table. When rehashing to a new table, it is a good requirement for the new array's size to be at least double the previous size. Once we have allocated this new bucket array, we must define a new hash function to go with it, possibly computing new parameters. We then reinsert every entry from the old array into the new array using this new hash function. In our im plementation of a hash table with linear probing given in Code Fragments 9.3–9.5, rehashing is used to keep the load factor less than or equal to 0.5. Even with periodic rehashing, a hash table is an efficient means of implementing a map. Indeed, if we always double the size of the table with each rehashing operation, then we can amortize the cost of rehashing all the entries in the table against the time used to insert them in the first place. (See Section 6.1.4.) Each rehashing will generally scatter the entries throughout the new bucket array. 9.2.8 Application: Counting Word Frequencies As a miniature case study of using a hash table, consider the problem of counting the number of occurrences of different words in a document, which arises, for 542 example, when pundits study political speeches looking for themes. A hash table is an ideal data structure to use here, for we can use words as keys and word counts as values. We show such an application in Code Fragment 9.6. Code Fragment 9.6: A program for counting word frequencies in a document, print ing the most frequent word. The document is parsed using the Scanner class, for which we change the delimiter for separating tokens from whitespace to any non letter. We also convert words to lowercase. 543 9.3 The Dictionary Abstract Data Type Like a map, a dictionary stores key-value pairs (k, v), which we call entries, where k is the key and v is the value. Similarly, a dictionary allows for keys and values to be of any object type. But, whereas a map insists that entries have unique keys, a dictionary allows for multiple entries to have the same key, much like an English dictionary, which allows for multiple definitions for the same word. We distinguish two types of dictionaries, unordered dictionaries and ordered dictionaries. In an ordered dictionary, we assume that a total order relation is de fined 544 for the keys, and we provide additional methods that refer to this ordering (see Section 9.5.2). In an unordered dictionary, however, no order relation is assumed on the keys; hence, only equality testing between keys is used. As an ADT, an (unordered) dictionary D supports the following methods: size(): Return the number of entries in D. isEmpty(): Test whether D is empty. find(k): If D contains an entry with key equal to k, then return such an entry, else return null. findAll(k): Return an iterable collection containing all entries with key equal to k. insert(k,v): Insert an entry with key k and value v into D, returning the entry created. remove(e): Remove from D an entry e, returning the removed entry or null if e was not in D. entries(): Return an iterable collection of the key-value entries in D. Notice that our dictionary operations use entries, which are the key-value pairs stored in the dictionary. We assume each entry comes equipped with getKey() and getValue() methods to access its key and value components respectively. When the method find(k) is unsuccessful (that is, there is no entry with key equal to k), we use the convention of returning a sentinel null. Another choice, of course, would be to throw an exception for an unsuccessful find(k), but that would probably not be an appropriate use of an exception, since it is normal to ask for a key that might not be in our dictionary. Moreover, throwing and catching an exception is typically slower than a test against a sentinel; hence, using a sentinel is more efficient. Note that, as we have defined it, a dictionary D can contain different entries with equal keys. In this case, operation find(k) returns an arbitrary entry (k,v), whose key is equal to k. We mention, in passing, that our dictionary ADT should not be confused with the abstract class java.util. Dictionary, which actually corresponds to the map ADT given above and is now considered obsolete. Example 9.2: In the following, we show a series of operations on an initially empty dictionary storing entries with integer keys and character values. Operation Output 545 Dictionary insert(5,A) (5,A) {(5A)} insert(7,B) (7,B) {(5,A), (7,B)} insert(2,C) (2,C) {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C)} insert(8,D) (8,D) {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C),(8,D)} insert(2,E) (2,E) {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} find(7) (7,B) {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} find(4) null {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} find(2) (2,C) {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} 546 findAll(2) {(2,C), (2,E)} {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} size() 5 {(5,A), (7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} remove(find(5)) (5,A) {(7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E)} find(5) null {(7,B), (2,C), (8,D), (2,E) 9.3.1 List-Based Dictionaries and Audit Trails A simple way of realizing a dictionary uses an unordered list to store the key-value entries. Such an implementation is often called a log file or audit trail. The primary applications of audit trails are situations where we wish to archive structured data. For example, many operating systems store log files of login requests they process. The typical scenario is that there are many insertions into the dictionary but few searches. For example, searching such an operating system log file typically occurs only after something goes wrong. Thus, a list-based dictionary supports simple and fast insertions, possibly at the expense of search time, by storing entries of a dictionary in arbitrary order. (See Figure 9.6.) Figure 9.6: Realization of a dictionary D by means of a log file. We show only the keys in this dictionary, so as to highlight its unordered list implementation. 547 Implementing a Dictionary with an Unordered List We assume that the list S used for a list-based dictionary is implemented with a doubly linked list. We give descriptions of the main dictionary methods for a list- based implementation in Code Fragment 9.7. In this simple implementation, we don't assume that an entry stores a reference to its location in S. Code Fragment 9.7: Some of the main methods for a dictionary D, implemented with an unordered list SH. 548 Analysis of a List-Based Dictionary 549 Let us briefly analyze the performance of a dictionary implemented with an un ordered list. Beginning with the memory usage, we note that the space required for a list-based dictionary with n entries is O(n), since the linked list data structure has memory usage proportional to its size. In addition, with this implementation of the dictionary ADT, we can realize operation insert(k, v) easily and efficiently, just by a single call to the add Last method on S, which simply adds the new entry to the end of the list. Thus, we achieve O(1) time for the insert(k, v) operation on the dictionary D. Unfortunately, this implementation does not allow for an efficient execution of the find method. A find(k) operation requires, in the worst case, scanning through the entire list S, examining each of its n entries. For example, we could use an iterator on the positions in S, stopping as soon as we encounter an entry with key equal to k (or reach the end of the list). The worst case for the running time of this method clearly occurs when the search is unsuccessful, and we reach the end of the list having examined all of its n entries. Thus, the find method runs in O(n) time. Similarly, time proportional to n is needed in the worst case to perform a remove(e) operation on D, if we assume that entries do not keep track of their positions in S. Thus the running time for performing operation remove(e) is O(n). Alternatively, if we use location-aware entries that store their position in S, then we can perform operation remove(e) in O(1) time. (See Section 9.5.1.) The operation find All always requires scanning through the entire list S, and therefore its running time is O(n). More precisely, using the big-Theta notation (Section 4.2.3), we say that operation find All runs in Θ(n) time since it takes time proportional to n in both the best and worst case. In conclusion, implementing a dictionary with an unordered list provides for fast insertions, but at the expense of slow searches and removals. Thus, we should only use this implementation where we either expect the dictionary to always be small or we expect the number of insertions to be large relative to the number of searches and removals. Of course, archiving database and operating system transactions are precisely situations such as this. Nevertheless, there are many other scenarios where the number of insertions in a dictionary will be roughly proportional to the number of searches and removals, and in these cases the list implementation is clearly inappropriate. The unordered dictionary implementation we discuss next can often be used, however, to achieve fast insertions, removals, and searches in many such cases. 9.3.2 Hash Table Dictionary Implementation We can use a hash table to implement the dictionary ADT, much in the same way as we did for the map ADT. The main difference, of course, is that a dictionary allows 550 for entries with duplicate keys. Assuming that the load factor of our hash table is kept below 1, our hash function spreads entries fairly uniformly, and we use separate chaining to resolve collisions, then we can achieve O(1)-time performance for the find, remove, and insert methods and O(1 + m)-time performance for the findAll method, where m is the number of entries returned. In addition, we can simplify the algorithms for implementing this dictionary, if we assume we have a list-based dictionary storing the entries at each cell in the bucket array A. Such an assumption would be in keeping with our use of separate chaining, since each cell would be a list. This approach allows us to implement the main dictionary methods as shown in Code Fragment 9.8. Code Fragment 9.8: Some of the main methods for a dictionary D, implemented with a hash table that uses a bucket array, A, and an unordered list for each cell in A. We use n to denote the number of entries in D, N to denote the capacity of A, and λ to denote the maximum load factor for the hash table. 551 9.3.3 Ordered Search Tables and Binary Search If the keys in a dictionary D come from a total order, we can store D's entries in an array list S by nondecreasing order of the keys. (See Figure 9.7.) We specify that S is an array list, rather than a node list, for the ordering of the keys in the array list S allows for faster searching than would be possible had S been, say, implemented with a linked list. Admittedly, a hash table has good expected running time for searching. But its worst-case time for searching is no better than a linked list, and in some applications, such as in real-time processing, we need to guarantee a worst- case searching bound. The fast algorithm for searching in an ordered array list, which we discuss in this subsection, has a good worst-case guarantee on its running time. So it might be preferred over a hash table in certain applications. We refer to this ordered array list implementation of a dictionary D as an ordered search table. 552 Figure 9.7: Realization of a dictionary D by means of an ordered search table. We show only the keys for this dictionary, so as to highlight their ordering. The space requirement of an ordered search table is O(n), which is similar to the list-based dictionary implementation (Section 9.3.1), assuming we grow and shrink the array supporting the array list S to keep the size of this array proportional to the number of entries in S. Unlike an unordered list, however, performing updates in a search table takes a considerable amount of time. In particular, performing the insert(k,v) operation in a search table requires O(n) time, since we need to shift up all the entries in the array list with key greater than k to make room for the new entry (k, v). A similar observation applies to the operation remove (k), since it takes O(n) time to shift all the entries in the array list with key greater than k to close the "hole" left by the removed entry (or entries). The search table implementation is therefore inferior to the log file in terms of the worst-case running times of the dictionary update operations. Nevertheless, we can perform the find method much faster in a search table. Binary Search A significant advantage of using an ordered array list S to implement a dictionary D with n entries is that accessing an element of S by its index takes O(1) time. We recall, from Section 6.1, that the index of an element in an array list is the number of elements preceding it. Thus, the first element in S has index 0, and the last element has index n − 1. The elements stored in S are the entries of dictionary D, and since S is ordered, the entry at index i has a key no smaller than the keys of the entries at indices 0,…, i − 1, and no larger than the keys of the entries at indices i + 1,…, n − 1. This observation allows us to quickly "home in" on a search key k using a variant of the children's game "high-low." We call an entry of D a candidate if, at the current stage of the search, we cannot rule out that this entry has key equal to k. The algorithm maintains two parameters, low and high, such that all the candidate entries have index at least low and at most high in S. Initially, low = 0 and high = n − 1. We then compare k to the key of the median candidate e, that is, the entry e with index mid = (low + high)/2. We consider three cases: 553 • If k = e.getKey(), then we have found the entry we were looking for, and the search terminates successfully returning e. • If k < e.getKey(), then we recur on the first half of the array list, that is, on the range of indices from low to mid − 1. • If k > e.getKey(), we recur on the range of indices from mid + 1 to high. This search method is called binary search, and is given in pseudo-code in Code Fragment 9.9. Operation find(k) on an n-entry dictionary implemented with an ordered array list S consists of calling BinarySearch(S,k,0,n − 1). Code Fragment 9.9: Binary search in an ordered array list. We illustrate the binary search algorithm in Figure 9.8. Figure 9.8: Example of a binary search to perform operation find(22), in a dictio nary with integer keys, implemented with an ordered array list. For simplicity, we show the keys stored in the dictionary but not the whole entries. 554 Considering the running time of binary search, we observe that a constant num ber of primitive operations are executed at each recursive call of method Binary Search. Hence, the running time is proportional to the number of recursive calls performed. A crucial fact is that with each recursive call the number of candidate entries still to be searched in the array list S is given by the value high − low + 1. Moreover, the number of remaining candidates is reduced by at least one half with each recursive call. Specifically, from the definition of mid, the number of remain ing candidates is either or Initially, the number of candidate entries is n; after the first call to BinarySearch, it is at most n/2; after the second call, it is at most n/4; and so on. In general, after the ith call to BinarySearch, the number of candidate entries remaining is at most n/2i. In the worst case (unsuccessful search), the recursive calls stop when there are no more candidate entries. Hence, the maximum number of recursive calls performed, is the smallest integer m such that n/2m < 1. 555 In other words (recalling that we omit a logarithm's base when it is 2), m > logn. Thus, we have m = logn + 1, which implies that binary search runs in O(logn) time. There is a simple variation of binary search that performs findAll(k) in time O(logn + s), where s is the number of entries in the iterator returned. The details are left as an exercise (C-9.4). Thus, we can use an ordered search table to perform fast dictionary searches, but using such a table for lots of dictionary updates would take a considerable amount of time. For this reason, the primary applications for search tables are in situations where we expect few updates to the dictionary but many searches. Such a situation could arise, for example, in an ordered list of English words we use to order entries in an encyclopedia or help file. Comparing Dictionary Implementations Table 9.3 compares the running times of the methods of a dictionary realized by either an unordered list, a hash table, or an ordered search table. Note that an unordered list allows for fast insertions but slow searches and removals, whereas a search table allows for fast searches but slow insertions and removals. Incidentally, although we don't explicitly discuss it, we note that a sorted list implemented with a doubly linked list would be slow in performing almost all the dictionary operations. (See Exercise R-9.3.) Table 9.3: Comparison of the running times of the methods of a dictionary realized by means of an unordered list, a hash table, or an ordered search table. We let n denote the number of entries in the dictionary, N denote the capacity of the bucket array in the hash table implementations, and s denote the size of collection returned by operation findAll. The space requirement of all the implementations is O(n), assuming that the arrays supporting the hash table and search table implementations are maintained such that their capacity is proportional to the number of entries in the dictionary. 556 Method List Hash Table Search Table size, isEmpty O(1) O(1) O(1) entries O(n) O(n) O(n) find O(n) O(1) exp., O(n) worst-case O(logn) findAll O(n) O(1 + s) exp., O(n) worst-case O(logn + s) insert O(1) O(1) O(n) remove 557 O(n) O(1) exp., O(n) worst-case O(n) 9.4 Skip Lists An interesting data structure for efficiently realizing the dictionary ADT is the skip list. This data structure makes random choices in arranging the entries in such a way that search and update times are O(logn) on average, where n is the number of entries in the dictionary. Interestingly, the notion of average time complexity used here does not depend on the probability distribution of the keys in the input. Instead, it depends on the use of a random-number generator in the implementation of the insertions to help decide where to place the new entry. The running time is averaged over all possible outcomes of the random numbers used when inserting entries. Because they are used extensively in computer games, cryptography, and computer simulations, methods that generate numbers that can be viewed as random numbers are built into most modern computers. Some methods, called pseudorandom number generators, generate random-like numbers deterministically, starting with an initial number called a seed. Other methods use hardware devices to extract "true" random numbers from nature. In any case, we will assume that our computer has access to numbers that are sufficiently random for our analysis. The main advantage of using randomization in data structure and algorithm design is that the structures and methods that result are usually simple and efficient. We can devise a simple randomized data structure, called the skip list, which has the same logarithmic time bounds for searching as is achieved by the binary searching algorithm. Nevertheless, the bounds are expected for the skip list, while they are worst-case bounds for binary searching in a look-up table. On the other hand, skip lists are much faster than look-up tables for dictionary updates. A skip list S for dictionary D consists of a series of lists {S0, S1, ..., Sh}. Each list Si stores a subset of the entries of D sorted by a nondecreasing key plus entries with two special keys, denoted −∞ and +∞, where −∞ is smaller than every possible key that can be inserted in D and +∞ is larger than every possible key that can be inserted in D. In addition, the lists in S satisfy the following: • List S0 contains every entry of dictionary D (plus the special entries with keys −∞ and +∞). • For i = 1, ..., h − 1, list Si contains (in addition to −∞ and +∞) a randomly generated subset of the entries in list Si−1. • List Sh contains only −∞ and +∞. 558 An example of a skip list is shown in Figure 9.9. It is customary to visualize a skip list S with list S0 at the bottom and lists S1,…,Sh above it. Also, we refer to h as the height of skip list S. Figure 9.9: Example of a skip list storing 10 entries. For simplicity, we show only the keys of the entries. Intuitively, the lists are set up so that Si+1 contains more or less every other entry in Si. As we shall see in the details of the insertion method, the entries in Si+1 are chosen at random from the entries in S th i by picking each entry from Si to also be in Si+1 wi probability 1/2. That is, in essence, we "flip a coin" for each entry in Si and place that entry in Si+1 if the coin comes up "heads." Thus, we expect S1 to have about n/2 entries, S2 to have about n/4 entries, and, in general, Si to have about n/2i entries. In other words, we expect the height h of S to be about logn. The halving of the number of entries from one list to the next is not enforced as an explicit property of skip lists, however. Instead, randomization is used. Using the position abstraction used for lists and trees, we view a skip list as a two- dimensional collection of positions arranged horizontally into levels and vertically into towers. Each level is a list Si and each tower contains positions storing the same entry across consecutive lists. The positions in a skip list can be traversed using the following operations: next(p): Return the position following p on the same level. prev(p): Return the position preceding p on the same level. below(p): Return the position below p in the same tower. above(p): Return the position above p in the same tower. We conventionally assume that the above operations return a null position if the position requested does not exist. Without going into the details, we note that we can easily implement a skip list by means of a linked structure such that the above traversal methods each take O(1) time, given a skip-list position p. Such a linked 559 structure is essentially a collection of h doubly linked lists aligned at towers, which are also doubly linked lists. 9.4.1 Search and Update Operations in a Skip List The skip list structure allows for simple dictionary search and update algorithms. In fact, all of the skip list search and update algorithms are based on an elegant SkipSearch method that takes a key k and finds the position p of the entry e in list S0 such that e has the largest key (which is possibly −∞) less than or equal to k. Searching in a Skip List Suppose we are given a search key k. We begin the SkipSearch method by setting a position variable p to the top-most, left position in the skip list S, called the start position of S. That is, the start position is the position of Sh storing the special entry with key −∞. We then perform the following steps (see Figure 9.10), where key(p) denotes the key of the entry at position p: 1. If S.below(p) is null, then the search terminates—we are at the bottom and have located the largest entry in S with key less than or equal to the search key k. Otherwise, we drop down to the next lower level in the present tower by setting p ← S.below(p). 2. Starting at position p, we move p forward until it is at the right-most position on the present level such that key(p) ≤ k. We call this the scan forward step. Note that such a position always exists, since each level contains the keys +∞ and −∞. In fact, after we perform the scan forward for this level, p may remain where it started. In any case, we then repeat the previous step. Figure 9.10: Example of a search in a skip list. The positions visited when searching for key 50 are highlighted in blue. 560 We give a pseudo-code description of the skip-list search algorithm, SkipSearch, in Code Fragment 9.10. Given this method, it is now easy to implement the operation find(k)we simply perform p ← SkipSearch(k) and test whether or not key(p) = k. If these two keys are equal, we return p; otherwise, we return null. Code Fragment 9.10: Search in a skip list S. Variable s holds the start position of S. As it turns out, the expected running time of algorithm SkipSearch on a skip list with n entries is O(logn). We postpone the justification of this fact, however, until after we discuss the implementation of the update methods for skip lists. Insertion in a Skip List The insertion algorithm for skip lists uses randomization to decide the height of the tower for the new entry. We begin the insertion of a new entry (k,v) by performing a SkipSearch(k) operation. This gives us the position p of the bottom-level entry with the largest key less than or equal to k (note that p may hold the special entry with key −∞). We then insert (k, v) immediately after position p. After inserting the new entry at the bottom level, we "flip" a coin. If the flip comes up tails, then we stop here. Else (the flip comes up heads), we backtrack to the previous (next higher) level and insert (k,v) in this level at the appropriate position. We again flip a coin; if it comes up heads, we go to the next higher level and repeat. Thus, we continue to insert the new entry (k,v) in lists until we finally get a flip that comes up tails. We link together all the references to the new entry (k, v) created in this process to create the tower for the new entry. A coin flip can be simulated with Java's built-in pseudo-random number generator java.util.Random by calling nextInt(2), which returns 0 of 1, each with probability 1/2. We give the insertion algorithm for a skip list S in Code Fragment 9.11 and we illustrate it in Figure 9.11. The algorithm uses method insertAfterAbove(p, 561 q, (k, v)) that inserts a position storing the entry (k, v) after position p (on the same level as p) and above position q, returning the position r of the new entry (and setting internal references so that next, prev, above, and below methods will work correctly for p, q, and r). The expected running time of the insertion algorithm on a skip list with n entries is O(logn), which we show in Section 9.4.2. Code Fragment 9.11: Insertion in a skip list. Method coinFlip() returns "heads" or "tails", each with probability 1/2. Variables n, h, and s hold the number of entries, the height, and the start node of the skip list. Figure 9.11: Insertion of an entry with key 42 into the skip list of Figure 9.9. We assume that the random "coin flips" for the new entry came up heads three times in a row, followed by tails. The positions visited are highlighted in blue. The positions inserted to hold 562 the new entry are drawn with thick lines, and the positions preceding them are flagged. Removal in a Skip List Like the search and insertion algorithms, the removal algorithm for a skip list is quite simple. In fact, it is even easier than the insertion algorithm. That is, to perform a remove(k) operation, we begin by executing method SkipSearch(k). If the position p stores an entry with key different from k, we return null. Otherwise, we remove p and all the positions above p, which are easily accessed by using above operations to climb up the tower of this entry in S starting at position p. The removal algorithm is illustrated in Figure 9.12 and a detailed description of it is left as an exercise (R-9.16). As we show in the next subsection, operation remove in a skip list with n entries has O(logn) expected running time. Before we give this analysis, however, there are some minor improvements to the skip list data structure we would like to discuss. First, we don't actually need to store references to entries at the levels of the skip list above the bottom level, because all that is needed at these levels are references to keys. Second, we don't actually need the above method. In fact, we don't need the prev method either. We can perform entry insertion and removal in strictly a top-down, scan-forward fashion, thus saving space for "up" and "prev" references. We explore the details of this optimization in Exercise C-9.10. Neither of these optimizations improve the asymptotic performance of skip lists by more than a constant factor, but these improvements can, nevertheless, be meaningful in practice. In fact, experimental evidence suggests that optimized skip lists are faster in practice than AVL trees and other balanced search trees, which are discussed in Chapter 10. The expected running time of the removal algorithm is O(logn), which we show in Section 9.4.2. Figure 9.12: Removal of the entry with key 25 from the skip list of Figure 9.11. The positions visited after 563 the search for the position of S0 holding the entry are highlighted in blue. The positions removed are drawn with dashed lines. Maintaining the Top-most Level A skip-list S must maintain a reference to the start position (the top-most, left position in S) as an instance variable, and must have a policy for any insertion that wishes to continue inserting a new entry past the top level of S. There are two possible courses of action we can take, both of which have their merits. One possibility is to restrict the top level, h, to be kept at some fixed value that is a function of n, the number of entries currently in the dictionary (from the analysis we will see that h = max{ 10,2 log n} is a reasonable choice, and picking h = 3 logn is even safer). Implementing this choice means that we must modify the insertion algorithm to stop inserting a new position once we reach the top-most level (unless logn < log(n + 1), in which case we can now go at least one more level, since the bound on the height is increasing). The other possibility is to let an insertion continue inserting a new position as long as heads keeps getting returned from the random number generator. This is the approach taken in Algorithm SkipInsert of Code Fragment 9.11. As we show in the analysis of skip lists, the probability that an insertion will go to a level that is more than O(logn) is very low, so this design choice should also work. Either choice will still result in the expected O(logn) time to perform search, insertion, and removal, however, which we show in the next section. 9.4.2 A Probabilistic Analysis of Skip Lists  As we have shown above, skip lists provide a simple implementation of an ordered dictionary. In terms of worst-case performance, however, skip lists are not a superior data structure. In fact, if we don't officially prevent an insertion from continuing significantly past the current highest level, then the insertion algorithm 564 can go into what is almost an infinite loop (it is not actually an infinite loop, however, since the probability of having a fair coin repeatedly come up heads forever is 0). Moreover, we cannot infinitely add positions to a list without eventually running out of memory. In any case, if we terminate position insertion at the highest level h, then the worst-case running time for performing the find, insert, and remove operations in a skip list S with n entries and height h is O(n + h). This worst-case performance occurs when the tower of every entry reaches level h−1, where h is the height of S. However, this event has very low probability. Judging from this worst case, we might conclude that the skip list structure is strictly inferior to the other dictionary implementations discussed earlier in this chapter. But this would not be a fair analysis, for this worst-case behavior is a gross overestimate. Bounding the Height of a Skip List Because the insertion step involves randomization, a more accurate analysis of skip lists involves a bit of probability. At first, this might seem like a major undertaking, for a complete and thorough probabilistic analysis could require deep mathematics (and, indeed, there are several such deep analyses that have appeared in data structures research literature). Fortunately, such an analysis is not necessary to understand the expected asymptotic behavior of skip lists. The informal and intuitive probabilistic analysis we give below uses only basic concepts of probability theory. Let us begin by determining the expected value of the height h of a skip list S with n entries (assuming that we do not terminate insertions early). The probability that a given entry has a tower of height i ≥ 1 is equal to the probability of getting i consecutive heads when flipping a coin, that is, this probability is 1/2i. Hence, the probability PP i that level i has at least one position is at most Pi ≤ n/2i, for the probability that any one of n different events occurs is at most the sum of the probabilities that each occurs. The probability that the height h of S is larger than i is equal to the probability that level i has at least one position, that is, it is no more than Pi This means that h is larger than, say, 3 log n with probability at most P3 log n ≤ n/23 log n = n/n3 = 1/n2. For example, if n = 1000, this probability is a one-in-a-million long shot. More generally, given a constant c > 1, h is larger than c log n with probability at most 1/nc−1. That is, the probability that h is smaller than c log n is at least 1 − 1/nc−1. Thus, with high probability, the height h of S is O(logn). 565 Analyzing Search Time in a Skip List Next, consider the running time of a search in skip list S, and recall that such a search involves two nested while loops. The inner loop performs a scan forward on a level of S as long as the next key is no greater than the search key k, and the outer loop drops down to the next level and repeats the scan forward iteration. Since the height h of S is O(logn) with high probability, the number of drop-down steps is O(logn) with high probability. So we have yet to bound the number of scan-forward steps we make. Let ni be the number of keys examined while scanning forward at level i. Observe that, after the key at the starting position, each additional key examined in a scan-forward at level i cannot also belong to level i+1. If any of these keys were on the previous level, we would have encountered them in the previous scan-forward step. Thus, the probability that any key is counted in ni is 1/2. Therefore, the expected value of ni is exactly equal to the expected number of times we must flip a fair coin before it comes up heads. This expected value is 2. Hence, the expected amount of time spent scanning forward at any level i is O(1). Since S has O(logn) levels with high probability, a search in S takes expected time O(logn). By a similar analysis, we can show that the expected running time of an insertion or a removal is O(logn). Space Usage in a Skip List Finally, let us turn to the space requirement of a skip list S with n entries. As we observed above, the expected number of positions at level i is n/2i, which means that the expected total number of positions in S is . Using Proposition 4.5 on geometric summations, we have for all h ≥ 0. Hence, the expected space requirement of S is O(n). Table 9.4 summarizes the performance of a dictionary realized by a skip list. Table 9.4: Performance of a dictionary implemented with a skip list. We denote the number 566 of entries in the dictionary at the time the operation is performed with n, and the size of the collection returned by operation findAll with s. The expected space requirement is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) entries O(n) find, insert, remove O(logn) (expected) findAll O(logn + s) (expected) 9.5 Extensions and Applications of Dictionaries In this section, we explore several extensions and applications of dictionaries. 9.5.1 Supporting Location-Aware Dictionary Entries As we did for priority queues (Section 8.4.2), we can also use location-aware entries to speed up the running time for some operations in a dictionary. In particular, a location-aware entry can greatly speed up entry removal in a dictionary. For in removing a location-aware entry e, we can simply go directly to the place in our data structure where we are storing e and remove it. We could implement a location-aware entry, for example, by augmenting our entry class with a private location variable and protected methods, location() and setLocation(p), which return and set this variable respectively. We then require that the location variable for an entry e, always refer to e's position or index in the data structure implementing our dictionary. We would, of course, have to update this variable any time we moved an entry, so it would probably make the most sense for this entry class to be closely related to the class implementing the dictionary (the location-aware entry class could even be nested inside the dictionary 567 class). Below, we show how to set up location-aware entries for several data structures presented in this chapter. • Unordered list : In an unordered list, L, implementing a dictionary, we can maintain the location variable of each entry e to point to e's position in the underlying linked list for L. This choice allows us to perform remove(e) as L.remove(e.location()), which would run in O(1) time. • Hash table with separate chaining : Consider a hash table, with bucket array A and hash function h, that uses separate chaining for handling collisions. We use the location variable of each entry e to point to e's position in the list L implementing the mini-map A[h(k)]. This choice allows us to perform the main work of a remove(e) as L.remove(e.location()), which would run in constant expected time. • Ordered search table : In an ordered table, T, implementing a dictionary, we should maintain the location variable of each entry e to be e's index in T. This choice would allow us to perform remove(e) as T.remove(e.location()). (Recall that location() now returns an integer.) This approach would run fast if entry e was stored near the end of T. • Skip list : In a skip list, S, implementing a dictionary, we should maintain the location variable of each entry e to point to e's position in the bottom level of S. This choice would allow us to skip the search step in our algorithm for performing remove(e) in a skip list. We summarize the performance of entry removal in a dictionary with location- aware entries in Table 9.5. Table 9.5: Performance of the remove method in dictionaries implemented with location-aware entries. We use n to denote the number of entries in the dictionary. List Hash Table Search Table Skip List O(1) O(1) (expected) 568 O(n) O(logn) (expected) 9.5.2 The Ordered Dictionary ADT In an ordered dictionary, we want to perform the usual dictionary operations, but also maintain an order relation for the keys in our dictionary. We can use a comparator to provide the order relation among keys, as we did for the ordered search table and skip list dictionary implementations described above. Indeed, all of the dictionary implementations discussed in Chapter 10 use a comparator to store the dictionary in nondecreasing key order. When the entries of a dictionary are stored in order, we can provide efficient implementations for additional methods in the dictionary ADT. For example, we could consider adding the following methods to the dictionary ADT so as to define the ordered dictionary ADT. first(): Return an entry with smallest key. last(): Return an entry with largest key. successors(k): Return an iterator of the entries with keys greater than or equal to k, in nondecreasing order. predecessors(k): Return an iterator of the entries with keys less than or equal to k, in nonincreasing order. Implementing an Ordered Dictionary The ordered nature of the operations above makes the use of an unordered list or a hash table inappropriate for implementing the dictionary, because neither of these data structures maintains any ordering information for the keys in the dictionary. Indeed, hash tables achieve their best search speeds when their keys are distributed almost at random. Thus, we should consider an ordered search table or skip list (or a data structure from Chapter 10) when dealing with ordered dictionaries. for example, using a skip list to implement an ordered dictionary, we can implement methods first() and last() in O(1) time by accessing the second and second to last positions of the bottom list. Also methods successors(k) and predecessors(k) can be implemented to run in O(logn) expected time. Moreover, the iterators returned by the successors(k) and predecessors(k) methods could be implemented using a reference to a current 569 position in the bottom level of the skip list. Thus, the hasNext and next methods of these iterators would each run in constant time using this approach. The java.util.Sorted Map Interface Java provides an ordered version of the java.util.Map interface in its interface called java.util.SortedMap. This interface extends the java.util.Map interface with methods that take order into account. Like the parent interface, a SortedMap does not allow for duplicate keys. Ignoring the fact that dictionaries allow for multiple entries with the same key, possible correspondences between methods of our ordered dictionary ADT and methods of interface java.util.SortedMap are shown in Table 9.6. Table 9.6: Loose correspondences between methods of the ordered dictionary ADT and methods of the java.util.SortedMap interface, which supports other methods as well. The java.util.SortedMap expression for predecessors(k) is not an exact correspondence, however, as the iterator returned would be by increasing keys and would not include the entry with key equal to k. There appears to be no efficient way of getting a true correspondence to predecessors(k) using java.util.SortedMap methods. Ordered Dictionary Methods java.util.SortedMap Methods first().getKey() firstKey() first().getValue() get(firstKey()) last().getKey() 570 lastKey() last().getValue() get(lastKey()) successors(k) tailMap(k).entrySet().iterator() predecessors(k) headMap(k).entrySet().iterator() 9.5.3 Flight Databases and Maxima Sets As we have mentioned in the preceding sections, unordered and ordered dictionaries have many applications. In this section, we explore some specific applications of ordered dictionaries. Flight Databases There are several web sites on the Internet that allow users to perform queries on flight databases to find flights between various cities, typically with the intent to buy a ticket. To make a query, a user specifies origin and destination cities, a departure date, and a departure time. To support such queries, we can model the flight database as a dictionary, where keys are Flight objects that contain fields corresponding to these four parameters. That is, a key is a tuple k = (origin, destination, date, time). Additional information about a flight, such as the flight number, the number of seats still available in first (F) and coach (Y) class, the flight duration, and the fare, can be stored in the value object. Finding a requested flight is not simply a matter of finding a key in the dictionary matching the requested query, however. The main difficulty is that, although a user typically wants to exactly match the origin and destination cities, as well as the departure date, he or she will probably be content with any departure time that is close to his or her requested departure time. We can handle such a query, of course, by ordering our keys lexicographically. Thus, given a user query key k, we can call successors(k) to return an iteration of all the flights between the desired cities on the desired date, with departure times in strictly increasing order from the requested departure time. A similar use of predecessors(k) would give us flights with times before the requested time. Therefore, an efficient 571 implementation for an ordered dictionary, say, one that uses a skip list, would be a good way to satisfy such queries. For example, calling successors(k) on a query key k = (ORD, PVD, 05May, 09:30), could result in an iterator with the following entries: ((ORD, PVD, 05May, 09:53), (AA 1840, F5, Y15, 02:05, $251)) ((ORD, PVD, 05May, 13:29), (AA 600, F2, Y0, 02:16, $713)) ((ORD, PVD, 05May, 17:39), (AA 416, F3, Y9, 02:09, $365)) ((ORD, PVD, 05May, 19:50), (AA 1828, F9, Y25, 02:13, $186)) Maxima Sets Life is full of trade-offs. We often have to trade off a desired performance measure against a corresponding cost. Suppose, for the sake of an example, we are interested in maintaining a database rating automobiles by their maximum speeds and their cost. We would like to allow someone with a certain amount to spend to query our database to find the fastest car they can possibly afford. We can model such a trade-off problem as this by using a key-value pair to model the two parameters that we are trading off, which in this case would be the pair (cost, speed) for each car. Notice that some cars are strictly better than other cars using this measure. For example, a car with cost-speed pair (20,000,100) is strictly better than a car with cost-speed pair (30,000,90). At the same time, there are some cars that are not strictly dominated by another car. For example, a car with cost-speed pair (20000,100) may be better or worse than a car with cost- speed pair (30000,120), depending on how much money we have to spend. (See Figure 9.13.) Figure 9.13: Illustrating the cost-performance trade- off with key-value pairs represented by points in the plane. Notice that point p is strictly better than points c, d, and e, but may be better or worse than points a, b, f, g, and h, depending on the price we are willing to pay. Thus, if we were to add p to our set, we could remove the points c, d, and e, but not the others. 572 Formally, we say a price-performance pair (a, b) dominates a pair (c, d) if a < c and b > d. A pair (a, b) is called a maximum pair if it is not dominated by any other pairs. We are interested in maintaining the set of maxima of a collection C of price-performance pairs. That is, we would like to add new pairs to this collection (for example, when a new car is introduced), and we would like to query this collection for a given dollar amount d to find the fastest car that costs no more than d dollars. We can store the set of maxima pairs in an ordered dictionary, D, ordered by cost, so that the cost is the key field and performance (speed) is the value field. We can then implement operations add(c,p), which adds a new cost-performance pair (c,p), and best(c), which returns the best pair with cost at most c, as shown in Code Fragment 9.12. Code Fragment 9.12: The methods for maintaining a set of maxima, as implemented with an ordered dictionary D. 573 if we implement D using a skip list, then we can perform best(c) queries in O(logn) expected time and add(c,p) updates in O((1 + r)log n) expected time, where r is the number of points removed. Thus, we are able to achieve good running times for the methods that maintain our set of maxima. 9.6 Exercises for source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-9.1 574 What is the worst-case running time for inserting n key-value entries into an initially empty map M that is implemented with a list? R-9.2 Describe how to use a map to implement the dictionary ADT, assuming that the user does not attempt to insert entries with the same key. R-9.3 Describe how an ordered list implemented as a doubly linked list could be used to implement the map ADT. R-9.4 What would be a good hash code for a vehicle identification number, that is a string of numbers and letters of the form "9X9XX99X9XX999999," where a "9" represents a digit and an "X" represents a letter? R-9.5 Draw the 11-entry hash table that results from using the hash function, h(i) + (2i + 5) mod 11, to hash the keys 12,44, 13, 88, 23, 94, 11, 39, 20, 16, and 5, assuming collisions are handled by chaining. R-9.6 What is the result of the previous exercise, assuming collisions are handled by linear probing? R-9.7 Show the result of Exercise R-9.5, assuming collisions are handled by quadratic probing, up to the point where the method fails. R-9.8 What is the result of Exercise R-9.5 when collisions are handled by double hashing using the secondary hash function h ′(k) = 7 − (k mod 7)? R-9.9 Give a pseudo-code description of an insertion into a hash table that uses quadratic probing to resolve collisions, assuming we also use the trick of replacing deleted entries with a special "deactivated entry" object. R-9.10 575 Give a Java description of the values() and entries() methods that could be included in the hash table implementation of Code Fragments 9.3–9.5. R-9.11 Explain how to modify class HashTableMap given in Code Fragments 9.3– 9.5, so that it implements the dictionary ADT instead of the map ADT. R-9.12 Show the result of rehashing the hash table shown in Figure 9.4 into a table of size 19 using the new hash function h(k) = 2k mod 19. R-9.13 Argue why a hash table is not suited to implement an ordered dictionary. R-9.14 What is the worst-case time for putting n entries in an initially empty hash table, with collisions resolved by chaining? What is the best case? R-9.15 Draw an example skip list that results from performing the following series of operations on the skip list shown in Figure 9.12: remove(38), insert(48,x), insert(24,y), remove(55). Record your coin flips, as well. R-9.16 Give a pseudo-code description of the remove operation in a skip list. R-9.17 What is the expected running time of the methods for maintaining a maxima set if we insert n pairs such that each pair has lower cost and performance than one before it? What is contained in the ordered dictionary at the end of this series of operations? What if each pair had a lower cost and higher performance than the one before it? R-9.18 Argue why location-aware entries are not really needed for a dictionary implemented with a good hash table. Creativity C-9.1 576 Describe how to use a map to implement the dictionary ADT, assuming that the user may attempt to insert entries with the same key. C-9.2 Suppose we are given two ordered search tables S and T, each with n entries (with S and T being implemented with arrays). Describe an O(log2 n)-time algorithm for finding the kth smallest key in the union of the keys from S and T (assuming no duplicates). C-9.3 Give an O(logn)-time solution for the previous problem. C-9.4 Design a variation of binary search for performing operation findAll(k) in a dictionary implemented with an ordered search table, and show that it runs in time O(logn + s), where n is the number of elements in the dictionary and s is the size of the iterator returned. C-9.5 Describe the changes that must be made in the pseudo-code descriptions of the fundamental dictionary methods when we implement a dictionary with a hash table such that collisions are handled via separate chaining, but we add the space optimization that if a bucket stores just a single entry, then we simply have the bucket reference that entry directly. C-9.6 The hash table dictionary implementation requires that we find a prime number between a number M and a number 2M. Implement a method for finding such a prime by using the sieve algorithm. In this algorithm, we allocate a 2M cell Boolean array A, such that cell i is associated with the integer i. We then initialize the array cells to all be "true" and we "mark off all the cells that are multiples of 2, 3, 5, 7, and so on. This process can stop after it reaches a number larger than . (Hint: Consider a bootstrapping method for finding the primes up to .) C-9.7 Describe how to perform a removal from a hash table that uses linear probing to resolve collisions where we do not use a special marker to represent deleted elements. That is, we must rearrange the contents so that it appears that the removed entry was never inserted in the first place. 577 C-9.8 Given a collection C of n cost-performance pairs (c,p), describe an algorithm for finding the maxima pairs of C in O(n logn) time. C-9.9 The quadratic probing strategy has a clustering problem related to the way it looks for open slots. Namely, when a collision occurs at bucket h(k), it checks buckets A[(h(k) + j2) mod N], for j = 1,2,…, N − 1. a. Show that j2 mod N will assume at most (N + 1)/2 distinct values, for N prime, as j ranges from 1 to N − 1. As a part of this justification, note that j2 mod N = (N − j)2 mod N for all j. b. A better strategy is to choose a prime N such that N mod 4 = 3 and then to check the bucketsA[(h(k) ± j2) mod N] as j ranges from 1 to (N − 1)/2, alternating between plus and minus. Show that this alternate version is guaranteed to check every bucket in A. C-9.10 Show that the methods above(p) and prev(p) are not actually needed to efficiently implement a dictionary using a skip list. That is, we can implement entry insertion and removal in a skip list using a strictly top-down, scan-forward approach, without ever using the above or prev methods. (Hint: In the insertion algorithm, first repeatedly flip the coin to determine the level where you should start inserting the new entry.) C-9.11 Describe how to implement successors(k) in an ordered dictionary realized using an ordered search table. What is its running time? C-9.12 Repeat the previous exercise using a skip list. What is the expected running time in this case? C-9.13 Suppose that each row of an n × n array A consists of 1's and 0's such that, in any row of A, all the 1's come before any 0's in that row. Assuming A is already 578 in memory, describe a method running in O(n logn) time (not O(n2) time!) for counting the number of 1's in A. C-9.14 Describe an efficient dictionary structure for storing n entries that have an associated set of r < n keys that comes from a total order. That is, the set of keys is smaller than the number of entries. Your structure should perform operation find All in O(logr + s) expected time, where s is the number of entries returned, operation entries() in O(n) time, and the remaining operations of the dictionary ADT in O(logr) expected time. C-9.15 Describe an efficient dictionary structure for storing n entries whose r < n keys have distinct hash codes. Your structure should perform operation findAll in O(1 + s) expected time, where s is the number of entries returned, operation entries() in O(n) time, and the remaining operations of the dictionary ADT in O(1) expected time. C-9.16 Describe an efficient data structure for implementing the bag ADT, which supports a method add(e), for adding an element e to the bag, and a method remove(), which removes an arbitrary element in the bag. Show that both of these methods can be done in O(1) time. C-9.17 Describe how to modify the skip list data structure to support the method atIndex(i), which returns the position of the element in the "bottom" list S0 at index i, for i  [0, n − 1]. Show that your implementation of this method runs in O(logn) expected time. Projects P-9.1 Implement a class that implements the dictionary ADT by adapting the java.util.HashMap class. P-9.2 Implement the map ADT with a hash table with separate chaining collision handling (do not adapt any java.util classes). P-9.3 579 Implement the ordered dictionary ADT using an ordered list. P-9.4 Implement the methods of the ordered dictionary ADT using a skip list. P-9.5 Extend the previous project by providing a graphical animation of the skip list operations. Visualize how entries move up the skip list during insertions and are linked out of the skip list during removals. Also, in a search operation, visualize the scan-forward and drop-down actions. P-9.6 Implement a dictionary that supports location-aware entries by means of an ordered list. P-9.7 Perform a comparative analysis that studies the collision rates for various hash codes for character strings, such as various polynomial hash codes for different values of the parameter a. Use a hash table to determine collisions, but only count collisions where different strings map to the same hash code (not if they map to the same location in this hash table). Test these hash codes on text files found on the Internet. P-9.8 Perform a comparative analysis as in the previous exercise but for 10-digit telephone numbers instead of character strings. P-9.9 Design a Java class that implements the skip list data structure. Use this class to create implementations of both the map and dictionary ADTs, including location-aware methods for the dictionary. Chapter Notes Hashing is a well-studied technique. The reader interested in further study is encouraged to explore the book by Knuth [63], as well as the book by Vitter and Chen [96]. Interestingly, binary search was first published in 1946, but was not published in a fully correct form until 1962. For further discussions on lessons learned, please see papers by Bentley [12] and Levisse [67]. Skip lists were introduced by Pugh [83]. Our analysis of skip lists is a simplification of a presentation given by Motwani and Raghavan [79]. For a more in-depth analysis of skip lists, 580 please see the various research papers on skip lists that have appeared in the data structures literature [58, 80, 81]. Exercise C-9.9 was contributed by James Lee.  We use a star () to indicate sections containing material more advanced than the material in the rest of the chapter; this material can be considered optional in a first reading. Chapter 10 Search Trees Contents 10.1 Binary Search Trees...................... 418 10.1.1 Searching........................... 419 581 10.1.2 Update Operations........................ 421 10.1.3 Java Implementation..................... 425 10.2 AVL Trees...................... 429 10.2.1 Update Operations...................... 431 10.2.2 Java Implementation....................... 437 10.3 Splay Trees.......................... 440 10.3.1 Splaying........................ 440 10.3.2 When to Splay.............................. 444 10.3.3 582 Amortized Analysis of Splaying ★.............. 446 10.4 (2.4) Trees......................... 451 10.4.1 Multi-Way Search Trees.................. 451 10.4.2 Update Operations for (2,4) Trees.................... 457 10.5 Red-Black Trees............................ 463 10.5.1 Update Operations................... 465 10.5.2 Java Implementation........................ 478 10.6 Exercises......................... 481 java.datastructures.net 583 10.1 Binary Search Trees All of the structures we discuss in this chapter are search trees, that is, tree data structures that can be used to implement a dictionary. Let us, therefore, begin by briefly reviewing the fundamental methods of the dictionary ADT: • find(k): Return an entry with key k, if it exists. • findAll(k): Return an iterable collection of all entries with keys equal to k. • insert(k,x): Insert an entry with key k and value x. • remove(e): Remove an entry e, and return it. • removeAll(k): Remove all entries with key k, returning an iterator of their values. Method find returns null if k is not found. The ordered dictionary ADT includes some additional methods for searching through predecessors and successors of a key or entry, but their performance is similar to that of find. So we will be focusing on find as the primary search operation in this chapter. Binary trees are an excellent data structure for storing the entries of a dictionary, assuming we have an order relation defined on the keys. As mentioned previously (Section 7.3.6), a binary search tree is a binary tree T such that each internal node v of T stores an entry (k,x) such that: • Keys stored at nodes in the left subtree of v are less than or equal to k. • Keys stored at nodes in the right subtree of v are greater than or equal to k. As we show below, the keys stored at the nodes of T provide a way of performing a search by making a comparison at each internal node v, which can stop at v or continue at v's left or right child. Thus, we take the view here that binary search trees are nonempty proper binary trees. That is, we store entries only at the internal nodes of a binary search tree, and the external nodes serve only as "placeholders." This approach simplifies several of our search and update algorithms. Incidentally, we could have allowed for improper binary search trees, which have better space usage, but at the expense of more complicated search and update methods. Independent of whether we view binary search trees as proper or not, the important property of a binary search tree is the realization of an ordered dictionary (or map). That is, a binary search tree should hierarchically represent an ordering of its keys, using relationships between parent and children. Specifically, an inorder traversal (Section 7.3.6) of the nodes of a binary search tree T should visit the keys in nondecreasing order. 584 10.1.1 Searching To perform operation find(k) in a dictionary D that is represented with a binary search tree T, we view the tree T as a decision tree (recall Figure 7.10). In this case, the question asked at each internal node v of T is whether the search key k is less than, equal to, or greater than the key stored at node v, denoted with key(v). If the answer is "smaller," then the search continues in the left subtree. If the answer is "equal," then the search terminates successfully. If the answer is "greater," then the search continues in the right subtree. Finally, if we reach an external node, then the search terminates unsuccessfully. (See Figure 10.1.) Figure 10.1: (a) A binary search tree T representing a dictionary D with integer keys; (b) nodes of T visited when executing operations find(76) (successful) and find(25) (unsuccessful) on D. For simplicity, we show keys but entry values. We describe this approach in detail in Code Fragment 10.1. Given a search key k and a node v of T, this method, TreeSearch, returns a node (position) w of the subtree T(v) of T rooted at v, such that one of the following occurs: • w is an internal node and w's entry has key equal to k. • w is an external node representing k's proper place in an inorder traversal of T(v), but k is not a key contained in T(v). Thus, method find(k) can be performed by calling TreeSearch(k, T.root()). Let w be the node of T returned by this call. If w is an internal node, then we return w's entry; otherwise, we return null. Code Fragment 10.1: Recursive search in a binary search tree. 585 Analysis of Binary Tree Searching The analysis of the worst-case running time of searching in a binary search tree T is simple. Algorithm TreeSearch is recursive and executes a constant number of primitive operations for each recursive call. Each recursive call of TreeSearch is made on a child of the previous node. That is, TreeSearch is called on the nodes of a path of T that starts at the root and goes down one level at a time. Thus, the number of such nodes is bounded by h + 1, where h is the height of T. In other words, since we spend O(1) time per node encountered in the search, method find on dictionary D runs in O(h) time, where h is the height of the binary search tree T used to implement D. (See Figure 10.2.) Figure 10.2: Illustrating the running time of searching in a binary search tree. The figure uses standard visualization shortcuts of viewing a binary search tree as a big triangle and a path from the root as a zig-zag line. 586 We can also show that a variation of the above algorithm performs operation findAll(k) in time O(h + s), where s is the number of entries returned. However, this method is slightly more complicated, and the details are left as an exercise (C-10.1). Admittedly, the height h of T can be as large as n, but we expect that it is usually much smaller. Indeed, we will show how to maintain an upper bound of O(logn) on the height of a search tree T in Section 10.2. Before we describe such a scheme, however, let us describe implementations for dictionary update methods. 10.1.2 Update Operations Binary search trees allow implementations of the insert and remove operations using algorithms that are fairly straightforward, but not trivial. Insertion Let us assume a proper binary tree T supports the following update operation: insertAtExternal(v,e): Insert the element e at the external node v, and expand v to be internal, having new (empty) external node children; 587 an error occurs if v is an internal node. Given this method, we perform insert(k,x) for a dictionary implemented with a binary search tree T by calling TreeInsert(k,x,T.root()), which is given in Code Fragment 10.2. Code Fragment 10.2: Recursive algorithm for insertion in a binary search tree. This algorithm traces a path from T's root to an external node, which is expanded into a new internal node accommodating the new entry. An example of insertion into a binary search tree is shown in Figure 10.3. Figure 10.3: Insertion of an entry with key 78 into the search tree of Figure 10.1. Finding the position to insert is shown in (a), and the resulting tree is shown in (b). Removal 588 The implementation of the remove(k) operation on a dictionary D implemented with a binary search tree T is a bit more complex, since we do not wish to create any "holes" in the tree T. We assume, in this case, that a proper binary tree supports the following additional update operation: removeExternal(v): Remove an external node v and its parent, replacing v's parent with v's sibling; an error occurs if v is not external. Given this operation, we begin our implementation of operation remove(k) of the dictionary ADT by calling TreeSearch(k, T.root()) on T to find a node of T storing an entry with key equal to k. If TreeSearch returns an external node, then there is no entry with key k in dictionary D, and we return null (and we are done). If TreeSearch returns an internal node w instead, then w stores an entry we wish to remove, and we distinguish two cases (of increasing difficulty): • If one of the children of node w is an external node, say node z, we simply remove w and z from T by means of operation removeExternal(z) on T. This operation restructures T by replacing w with the sibling of z, removing both w and z from T. (See Figure 10.4.) • If both children of node w are internal nodes, we cannot simply remove the node w from T, since this would create a "hole" in T. Instead, we proceed as follows (see Figure 10.5): ○ We find the first internal node y that follows w in an inorder traversal of T. Node y is the left-most internal node in the right subtree of w, and is found by going first to the right child of w and then down T from there, following left children. Also, the left child x of y is the external node that immediately follows node w in the inorder traversal of T. ○ We save the entry stored at w in a temporary variable t, and move the entry of y into w. This action has the effect of removing the former entry stored at w. ○ We remove nodes x and y from T by calling removeExternal(x) on T. This action replaces y with x's sibling, and removes both x and y from T. ○ We return the entry previously stored at w, which we had saved in the temporary variable t. As with searching and insertion, this removal algorithm traverses a path from the root to an external node, possibly moving an entry between two nodes of this path, and then performs a removeExternal operation at that external node. 589 Figure 10.4: Removal from the binary search tree of Figure 10.3b, where the entry to remove (with key 32) is stored at a node (w) with an external child: (a) before the removal; (b) after the removal. Figure 10.5: Removal from the binary search tree of Figure 10.3b, where the entry to remove (with key 65) is stored at a node (w) whose children are both internal: (a) before the removal; (b) after the removal. Performance of a Binary Search Tree The analysis of the search, insertion, and removal algorithms are similar. We spend O(1) time at each node visited, and, in the worst case, the number of nodes visited is proportional to the height h of T. Thus, in a dictionary D implemented with a binary search tree T, the find, insert, and remove methods run in 590 O(h) time, where h is the height of T. Thus, a binary search tree T is an efficient implementation of a dictionary with n entries only if the height of T is small. In the best case, T has height h = log(n + 1), which yields logarithmic-time performance for all the dictionary operations. In the worst case, however, T has height n, in which case it would look and feel like an ordered list implementation of a dictionary. Such a worst-case configuration arises, for example, if we insert a series of entries with keys in increasing or decreasing order. (See Figure 10.6.) Figure 10.6: Example of a binary search tree with linear height, obtained by inserting entries with keys in increasing order. The performance of a dictionary implemented with a binary search tree is summarized in the following proposition and in Table 10.1. Proposition 10.1: A binary search tree T with height h for n key-value entries uses O(n) space and executes the dictionary ADT operations with the following running times. Operationssize andisEmpty each take O(1) time. Operationsfind, insert, andremove each take O(h) time. The operationfindAll takes O(h + s) time, where s is the size of the collection returned. Table 10.1: Running times of the main methods of a dictionary realized by a binary search tree. We denote the current height of the tree with h and the size of the collection returned by findAll with s. The space usage is O(n), where n is the number of entries stored in the dictionary. 591 Method Time size,isEmpty O(1) find, insert, remove O(h) findAll O(h + s) Note that the running time of search and update operations in a binary search tree varies dramatically depending on the tree's height. We can nevertheless take comfort that, on average, a binary search tree with n keys generated from a random series of insertions and removals of keys has expected height O(logn). Such a statement requires careful mathematical language to precisely define what we mean by a random series of insertions and removals, and sophisticated probability theory to prove; hence, its justification is beyond the scope of this book. Nevertheless, keep in mind the poor worst-case performance and take care in using standard binary search trees in applications where updates are not random. There are, after all, applications where it is essential to have a dictionary with fast worst-case search and update times. The data structures presented in the next sections address this need. 10.1.3 Java Implementation In Code Fragments 10.3 through 10.5, we describe a binary search tree class, BinarySearchTree, which stores objects of class BSTEntry (implementing the Entry interface) at its nodes. Class BinarySearchTree extends class Linked BinaryTree from Code Fragments 7.16 through 7.18, thus taking advantage of code reuse. This class makes use of several auxiliary methods to do much of the heavy lifting. The auxiliary method treeSearch, based on the TreeSearch algorithm (Code Fragment 10.1), is invoked by the find, findAll, and insert methods. We use a recursive addAll method as the main engine for the findAll(k) method, in that it performs an inorder traversal of all the entries with keys equal to k (although not using the fast algorithm, since it performs a failed search for every entry it finds). We use two additional update methods, insertAtExternal, which inserts a new entry at an external node, and removeExternal, which removes an external node and its parent. 592 Class BinarySearchTree uses location-aware entries (see Section 8.4.2). Thus, its update methods inform any moved BSTEntry objects of their new positions. We also use several simple auxiliary methods for accessing and testing data, such as checkKey, which checks if a key is valid (albeit using a fairly simple rule in this case). We also use an instance variable, actionPos, which stores the position where the most recent search, insertion, or removal ended. This instance variable is not necessary to the implementation of a binary search tree, but is useful to classes that will extend BinarySearchTree (see Code Fragments 10.7, 10.8, 10.10, and 10.11) to identify the position where the previous search, insertion, or removal has taken place. Position action Pos has the intended meaning provided it is used right after executing the method find, insert, or remove. Code Fragment 10.3: Class BinarySearchTree. (Continues in Code Fragment 10.4.) 593 594 Code Fragment 10.4: Class BinarySearchTree. (Continues in Code Fragment 10.5.) 595 596 Code Fragment 10.5: Class BinarySearchTree. (Continued from Code Fragment 10.4.) 597 598 10.2 AVL Trees In the previous section, we discussed what should be an efficient dictionary data structure, but the worst-case performance it achieves for the various operations is linear time, which is no better than the performance of list- and array-based dictionary implementations (such as unordered lists and search tables discussed in Chapter 9). In this section, we describe a simple way of correcting this problem so as to achieve logarithmic time for all the fundamental dictionary operations. Definition of an AVL Tree The simple correction is to add a rule to the binary search tree definition that will maintain a logarithmic height for the tree. The rule we consider in this section is the following height-balance property, which characterizes the structure of a binary search tree T in terms of the heights of its internal nodes (recall from Section 7.2.1 that the height of a node v in a tree is the length of a longest path from v to an external node): Height-Balance Property: For every internal node v of T, the heights of the children of v differ by at most 1. Any binary search tree T that satisfies the height-balance property is said to be an AVL tree, named after the initials of its inventors: Adel'son-Vel'skii and Landis. An example of an AVL tree is shown in Figure 10.7. Figure 10.7: An example of an AVL tree. The keys of the entries are shown inside the nodes, and the heights of the nodes are shown next to the nodes. 599 An immediate consequence of the height-balance property is that a subtree of an AVL tree is itself an AVL tree. The height-balance property has also the important consequence of keeping the height small, as shown in the following proposition. Proposition 10.2: The height of an AVL tree storing n entries is O(logn). Justification: Instead of trying to find an upper bound on the height of an AVL tree directly, it turns out to be easier to work on the "inverse problem" of finding a lower bound on the minimum number of internal nodes n(h) of an AVL tree with height h. We will show that n(h) grows at least exponentially. From this, it will be an easy step to derive that the height of an AVL tree storing n entries is O(logn). To start with, notice that n(1) = 1 and n(2) = 2, because an AVL tree of height 1 must have at least one internal node and an AVL tree of height 2 must have at least two internal nodes. Now, for h ≥ 3, an AVL tree with height h and the minimum number of nodes is such that both its subtrees are AVL trees with the minimum number of nodes: one with height h − 1 and the other with height h − 2. Taking the root into account, we obtain the following formula that relates n(h) to n(h − 1) and n(h − 2), for h ≥ 3: n(h) = 1 + n(h−1) + n(h−2). (10.1) At this point, the reader familiar with the properties of Fibonacci progressions (Section 2.2.3 and Exercise C-4.12) will already see that n(h) is a function exponential in h. For the rest of the readers, we will proceed with our reasoning. Formula 10.1 implies that n(h) is a strictly increasing function of h. Thus, we know that n(h − 1) > n(h − 2). Replacing n(h − 1) with n(h − 2) in Formula 10.1 and dropping the 1, we get, for h ≥ 3, n(h) > 2·n(h − 2). (10.2) Formula 10.2 indicates that n(h) at least doubles each time h increases by 2, which intuitively means that n(h) grows exponentially. To show this fact in a formal way, we apply Formula 10.2 repeatedly, yielding the following series of inequalities: n(h) > 2·n(h − 2) > 4·n(h − 4) > 8·n(h − 6)  600 > 2i · n(h − 2i). (10.3) That is, n(h) > 2i · n(h − 2i), for any integer i, such that h − 2i ≥ 1. Since we already know the values of n(1) and n(2), we pick i so that h − 2i is equal to either 1 or 2. That is, we pick . By substituting the above value of i in formula 10.3, we obtain, for h ≥ 3, . (10.4) By taking logarithms of both sides of formula 10.4, we obtain log n(h) > h/2 − 1, from which we get h < 2logn(h) + 2, (10.5) which implies that an AVL tree storing n entries has height at most 2logn + 2. By Proposition 10.2 and the analysis of binary search trees given in Section 10.1, the operations find and findAll, in a dictionary implemented with an AVL tree, run in time O(logn) and O(logn + s), respectively, where n is the number of entries in the dictionary and s is the size of the collection returned. Of course, we still have to show how to maintain the height-balance property after an insertion or removal. 10.2.1 Update Operations 601 The insertion and removal operations for AVL trees are similar to those for binary search trees, but with AVL trees we must perform additional computations. Insertion An insertion in an AVL tree T begins as in an insert operation described in Section 10.1.2 for a (simple) binary search tree. Recall that this operation always inserts the new entry at a node w in T that was previously an external node, and it makes w become an internal node with operation insertAtExternal. That is, it adds two external node children to w. This action may violate the height- balance property, however, for some nodes increase their heights by one. In particular, node w, and possibly some of its ancestors, increase their heights by one. Therefore, let us describe how to restructure T to restore its height balance. Given a binary search tree T, we say that an internal node v of T is balanced if the absolute value of the difference between the heights of the children of v is at most 1, and we say that it is unbalanced otherwise. Thus, the height-balance property characterizing AVL trees is equivalent to saying that every internal node is balanced. Suppose that T satisfies the height-balance property, and hence is an AVL tree, prior to our inserting the new entry. As we have mentioned, after performing the operation insertAtExternal on T, the heights of some nodes of T, including w, increase. All such nodes are on the path of T from w to the root of T, and these are the only nodes of T that may have just become unbalanced. (See Figure 10.8a.) Of course, if this happens, then T is no longer an AVL tree; hence, we need a mechanism to fix the "unbalance" that we have just caused. Figure 10.8: An example insertion of an entry with key 54 in the AVL tree of Figure 10.7: (a) after adding a new node for key 54, the nodes storing keys 78 and 44 become unbalanced; (b) a trinode restructuring restores the height-balance property. We show the heights of nodes next to them, and we identify the nodes x, y, and z participating in the trinode restructuring. 602 We restore the balance of the nodes in the binary search tree T by a simple "search-and-repair" strategy. In particular, let z be the first node we encounter in going up from w toward the root of T such that z is unbalanced. (See Figure 10.8a.) Also, let y denote the child of z with higher height (and note that node y must be an ancestor of w). Finally, let x be the child of y with higher height (there cannot be a tie and node x must be an ancestor of w). Also, node x is a grandchild of z and could be equal to w. Since z became unbalanced because of an insertion in the subtree rooted at its child y, the height of y is 2 greater than its sibling. We now rebalance the subtree rooted at z by calling the trinode restructuring method, restructure(x), given in Code Fragment 10.6 and illustrated in Figures 10.8 and 10.9. A trinode restructuring temporarily renames the nodes x, y, and z as a, b, and c, so that a precedes b and b precedes c in an inorder traversal of T. There are four possible ways of mapping x, y, and z to a, b, and c, as shown in Figure 10.9, which are unified into one case by our relabeling. The trinode restructuring then replaces z with the node called b, makes the children of this node be a and c, and makes the children of a and c be the four previous children of x, y, and z (other than x andy) while maintaining the inorder relationships of all the nodes in T. Code Fragment 10.6: The trinode restructuring operation in a binary search tree. 603 The modification of a tree T caused by a trinode restructuring operation is often called a rotation, because of the geometric way we can visualize the way it changes T. If b = y, the trinode restructuring method is called a single rotation, for it can be visualized as "rotating" y over z. (See Figure 10.9a and b.) Otherwise, if b = x, the trinode restructuring operation is called a double rotation, for it can be visualized as first "rotating" x over y and then over z. (See Figure 10.9c and d, and Figure 10.8.) Some computer researchers treat these two kinds of rotations as separate methods, each with two symmetric types. We have chosen, however, to unify these four types of rotations into a single trinode restructuring operation. No matter how we view it, though, the trinode restructuring method modifies parent- child relationships of O(1) nodes in T, while preserving the inorder traversal ordering of all the nodes in T. In addition to its order-preserving property, a trinode restructuring changes the heights of several nodes in T, so as to restore balance. Recall that we execute the method restructure(x) because z, the grandparent of x, is unbalanced. Moreover, this unbalance is due to one of the children of x now having too large a height relative to the height of z's other child. As a result of a rotation, we move up the "tall" child of x while pushing down the "short" child of z. Thus, after performing restructure(x), all the nodes in the subtree now rooted at the node we called b are balanced. (See Figure 10.9.) Thus, we restore the height- balance property locally at the nodes x, y, and z. In addition, since after performing the new entry insertion the subtree rooted at b replaces the one formerly rooted at z, which was taller by one unit, all the ancestors of z that were formerly unbalanced become balanced. (See Figure 10.8.) (The justification of this fact is left as Exercise C-10.11.) Therefore, this one restructuring also restores the height-balance property globally. 604 Figure 10.9: Schematic illustration of a trinode restructuring operation (Code Fragment 10.6): (a) and (b) a single rotation; (c) and (d) a double rotation. 605 Removal As was the case for the insert dictionary operation, we begin the implementation of the remove dictionary operation on an AVL tree T by using the algorithm for performing this operation on a regular binary search tree. The added difficulty in using this approach with an AVL tree is that it may violate the height-balance property. In particular, after removing an internal node with operation remove External and elevating one of its children into its place, there may be an unbalanced node in T on the path from the parent w of the previously removed node to the root of T. (See Figure 10.10a.) In fact, there can be one such unbalanced node at most. (The justification of this fact is left as Exercise C-10.10.) Figure 10.10: Removal of the entry with key 32 from the AVL tree of Figure 10.7: (a) after removing the node storing key 32, the root becomes unbalanced; (b) a (single) rotation restores the height- balance property. As with insertion, we use trinode restructuring to restore balance in the tree T. In particular, let z be the first unbalanced node encountered going up from w toward the root of T. Also, let y be the child of z with larger height (note that node y is the child of z that is not an ancestor of w), and let x be the child of y defined as follows: if one of the children of y is taller than the other, let x be the taller child of y; else (both children of y have the same height), let x be the child of y on the same side as y (that is, if y is a left child, let x be the left child of y, else let x be the right child of y). In any case, we then perform a restructure(x) operation, which restores the height-balance property locally, at the subtree that was formerly rooted at z and is now rooted at the node we temporarily called b. (See Figure 10.10b.) Unfortunately, this trinode restructuring may reduce the height of the subtree rooted at b by 1, which may cause an ancestor of b to become unbalanced. So, after rebalancing z, we continue walking up T looking for unbalanced nodes. If we 606 find another, we perform a restructure operation to restore its balance, and continue marching up T looking for more, all the way to the root. Still, since the height of T is O(logn), where n is the number of entries, by Proposition 10.2, O(logn) trinode restructurings are sufficient to restore the height-balance property. Performance of AVL Trees We summarize the analysis of the performance of an AVL tree T as follows. Operations find, insert, and remove visit the nodes along a root-to-leaf path of T, plus, possibly, their siblings, and spend O(1) time per node. Thus, since the height of T is O(logn) by Proposition 10.2, each of the above operations takes O(logn) time. We leave the implementation and analysis of an efficient version of the operation findAll as an interesting exercise. In Table 10.2, we summarize the performance of a dictionary implemented with an AVL tree. We illustrate this performance in Figure 10.11. Table 10.2: Performance of an n-entry dictionary realized by an AVL tree, where s denotes the size of the collection returned by findAll. The space usage is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) find, insert, remove O(logn) findAll O(logn + s) Figure 10.11: Illustrating the running time of searches and updates in an AVL tree. The time performance is O(1) per level, broken into a down phase, which typically involves searching, and an up phase, which 607 typically involves updating height values and performing local trinode restructurings (rotations). 10.2.2 Java Implementation Let us now turn to the implementation details and analysis of using an AVL tree T with n internal nodes to implement an ordered dictionary of n entries. The insertion and removal algorithms for T require that we are able to perform trinode restructurings and determine the difference between the heights of two sibling nodes. Regarding restructurings, we now need to make sure our underlying implementation of a binary search tree includes the method restructure(x), which performs a tri-node restructuring operation (Code Fragment 10.6). It is easy to see that a restructure operation can be performed in O(1) time if T is implemented with a linked structure (Section 7.3.4). In our case, we assume that the BinarySearchTree class includes this method. Regarding height information, we can explicitly store the height of each internal node, v, in the node itself. Alternatively, we can store the balance factor of v at v, which is defined as the height of the left child of v minus the height of the right child of v. Thus, the balance factor of v is always equal to −1, 0, or 1, except during an insertion or removal, when it may become temporarily equal to −2 or +2. During the execution of an insertion or removal, the heights and balance factors of O(logn) nodes are affected and can be maintained in O(logn) time. 608 In Code Fragments 10.7 and 10.8, we show a complete Java class, AVLTree, implementing a dictionary using an AVL tree (assuming the parent class includes an implementation of the restructure method). This class extends BinarySearchTree (Code Fragments 10.3–10.5) and includes a nested class, AVLNode, which extends the BTNode class used to represent the nodes of a binary tree. The AVLNode class defines an additional instance variable height, representing the height of the node. We get our binary tree to use this node class instead of the BTNode class simply by overriding the createNode method, which is used exclusively to create new binary tree nodes. Class AVLTree inherits methods size, isEmpty, find, and findAll from its superclass, BinarySearchTree, but overrides methods insert and remove to keep the search tree balanced. Method insert (Code Fragment 10.8) begins by calling the superclass's insert method, which inserts the new entry and assigns the insertion position (for example, the node storing key 54 in Figure 10.8) to the instance variable actionPos. The auxiliary method rebalance is then used to traverse the path from the insertion position to the root. This traversal updates the heights of all the nodes visited, and performs a trinode restructuring if necessary. Similarly, method remove (Code Fragment 10.8) begins by calling the superclass's remove method, which performs the removal of the entry and assigns the position replacing the deleted one to instance variable actionPos. The auxiliary method rebalance is then used to traverse the path from the removed position to the root, performing any needed restructurings. Code Fragment 10.7: Constructor and auxiliary methods of class AVLTree. 609 610 Code Fragment 10.8: Auxiliary methods tallerChild and rebalance and dictionary methods insert and remove of class AVLTree. 611 612 10.3 Splay Trees Another way we can implement the fundamental dictionary operations is to use a balanced search tree data structure known as a splay tree. This structure is conceptually quite different from the other balanced search trees we discuss in this chapter, for a splay tree does not use any explicit rules to enforce its balance. Instead, it applies a certain move-to-root operation, called splaying, after every access, in order to keep the search tree balanced in an amortized sense. The splaying operation is performed at the bottom-most node x reached during an insertion, deletion, or even a search. The surprising thing about splaying is that it allows us to guarantee an amortized running time, for insertions, deletions, and searches, that is logarithmic. The structure of a splay tree is simply a binary search tree T. In fact, there are no additional height, balance, or color labels that we associate with the nodes of this tree. 10.3.1 Splaying Given an internal node x of a binary search tree T, we splay x by moving x to the root of T through a sequence of restructurings. The particular restructurings we perform are important, for it is not sufficient to move x to the root of T by just any sequence of restructurings. The specific operation we perform to move x up depends upon the relative positions of x, its parent y, and (if it exists) x's grandparent z. There are three cases that we consider. zig-zig: The node x and its parent y are both left children or both right children. (See Figure 10.12.) We replace z by x, making y a child of x and z a child of y, while maintaining the inorder relationships of the nodes in T. Figure 10.12: Zig-zig: (a) before; (b) after. There is another symmetric configuration where x and y are left children. 613 zig-zag: One of x and y is a left child and the other is a right child. (See Figure 10.13.) In this case, we replace z by x and make x have y and z as its children, while maintaining the inorder relationships of the nodes in T. Figure 10.13: Zig-zag: (a) before; (b) after. There is another symmetric configuration where x is a right child and y is a left child. zig: x does not have a grandparent (or we are not considering x's grandparent for some reason). (See Figure 10.14.) In this case, we rotate x over y, making x's children be the node y and one of x's former children w, so as to maintain the relative inorder relationships of the nodes in T. Figure 10.14: Zig: (a) before; (b) after. There is another symmetric configuration where x and w are left children. 614 We perform a zig-zig or a zig-zag when x has a grandparent, and we perform a zig when x has a parent but not a grandparent. A splaying step consists of repeating these restructurings at x until x becomes the root of T. Note that this is not the same as a sequence of simple rotations that brings x to the root. An example of the splaying of a node is shown in Figures 10.15 and 10.16. Figure 10.15: Example of splaying a node: (a) splaying the node storing 14 starts with a zig-zag; (b) after the zig-zag; (c) the next step is a zig-zig. (Continues in Figure 10.16.) 615 616 Figure 10.16: Example of splaying a node:(d) after the zig-zig; (e) the next step is again a zig-zig; (f) after the zig-zig (Continued from Figure 10.16.) 617 618 10.3.2 When to Splay The rules that dictate when splaying is performed are as follows: • When searching for key k, if k is found at a node x, we splay x, else we splay the parent of the external node at which the search terminates unsuccessfully. For example, the splaying in Figures 10.15 and 10.16 would be performed after searching successfully for key 14 or unsuccessfully for key 14.5. • When inserting key k, we splay the newly created internal node where k gets inserted. For example, the splaying in Figures 10.15 and 10.16 would be performed if 14 were the newly inserted key. We show a sequence of insertions in a splay tree in Figure 10.17. Figure 10.17: A sequence of insertions in a splay tree: (a) initial tree; (b) after inserting 2; (c) after splaying; (d) after inserting 3; (e) after splaying; (f) after inserting 4; (g) after splaying. 619 • When deleting a key k, we splay the parent of the node w that gets removed, that is, w is either the node storing k or one of its descendents. (Recall the removal algorithm for binary search trees.) An example of splaying following a deletion is shown in Figure 10.18. Figure 10.18: Deletion from a splay tree: (a) the deletion of 8 from node r is performed by moving to r the key of the right-most internal node v, in the left subtree of r, deleting v, and splaying the parent u of v; (b) splaying u starts with a zig-zig; (c) after the zig-zig; (d) the next step is a zig; (e) after the zig. 620 10.3.3 Amortized Analysis of Splaying  621 After a zig-zig or zig-zag, the depth of x decreases by two, and after a zig the depth of x decreases by one. Thus, if x has depth d, splaying x consists of a sequence of d/2 zig-zigs and/or zig-zags, plus one final zig if d is odd. Since a single zig-zig, zig-zag, or zig affects a constant number of nodes, it can be done in O(1) time. Thus, splaying a node x in a binary search tree T takes time O(d), where d is the depth of x in T. In other words, the time for performing a splaying step for a node x is asymptotically the same as the time needed just to reach that node in a top-down search from the root of T. Worst Case Time In the worst case, the overall running time of a search, insertion, or deletion in a splay tree of height h is O(h), since the node we splay might be the deepest node in the tree. Moreover, it is possible for h to be as large as n, as shown in Figure 10.17. Thus, from a worst-case point of view, a splay tree is not an attractive data structure. In spite of its poor worst-case performance, a splay tree performs well in an amortized sense. That is, in a sequence of intermixed searches, insertions, and deletions, each operation takes on average logarithmic time. We perform the amortized analysis of splay trees using the accounting method. Amortized Performance of Splay Trees For our analysis, we note that the time for performing a search, insertion, or deletion is proportional to the time for the associated splaying. So let us consider only splaying time. Let T be a splay tree with n keys, and let v be a node of T. We define the size n(v) of v as the number of nodes in the subtree rooted at v. Note that this definition implies that the size of an internal node is one more than the sum of the sizes of its two children. We define the rank r(v) of a node v as the logarithm in base 2 of the size of v, that is, r(v) = log(n(v)). Clearly, the root of T has the maximum size (2n + 1) and the maximum rank, log(2n +1), while each external node has size 1 and rank 0. We use cyber-dollars to pay for the work we perform in splaying a node x in T, and we assume that one cyber-dollar pays for a zig, while two cyber-dollars pay for a zig-zig or a zig-zag. Hence, the cost of splaying a node at depth d is d cyber- dollars. We keep a virtual account storing cyber-dollars at each internal node of T. Note that this account exists only for the purpose of our amortized analysis, and does not need to be included in a data structure implementing the splay tree T. An Accounting Analysis of Splaying 622 When we perform a splaying, we pay a certain number of cyber-dollars (the exact value of the payment will be determined at the end of our analysis). We distinguish three cases: • If the payment is equal to the splaying work, then we use it all to pay for the splaying. • If the payment is greater than the splaying work, we deposit the excess in the accounts of several nodes. • If the payment is less than the splaying work, we make withdrawals from the accounts of several nodes to cover the deficiency. We will show, in the rest of this section, that a payment of O(logn) cyber-dollars per operation is sufficient to keep the system working, that is, to ensure that each node keeps a nonnegative account balance. A Cyber-dollar Invariant for Splaying We use a scheme in which transfers are made between the accounts of the nodes to ensure that there will always be enough cyber-dollars to withdraw for paying for splaying work when needed. In order to use the accounting method to perform our analysis of splaying, we maintain the following invariant: Before and after a splaying, each node v of T has r(v) cyber-dollars in its account. Note that the invariant is "financially sound," since it does not require us to make a preliminary deposit to endow a tree with zero keys. Let r(T) be the sum of the ranks of all the nodes of T. To preserve the invariant after a splaying, we must make a payment equal to the splaying work plus the total change in r(T). We refer to a single zig, zig-zig, or zig-zag operation in a splaying as a splaying substep. Also, we denote the rank of a node v of T before and after a splaying substep with r ′(v) and r(v), respectively. The following proposition gives an upper bound on the change of r(T) caused by a single splaying substep. We will repeatedly use this lemma in our analysis of a full splaying of a node to the root. Proposition 10.3: Let δ be the variation ofr(T) caused by a single splaying substep (a zig, zig-zig, or zig-zag) for a node x in T. We have the following: • δ ≤ 3(r ′(x)−r(x))−2 if the substep is a zig-zig or zig-zag. • δ ≤ 3(r ′(x) − r(x)) if the substep is a zig. 623 Justification: We use the fact (see Proposition A.1, Appendix A) that, if a > 0, b > 0, and c > a + b, loga+logb ≤ 2logc−2. (10.6) Let us consider the change in r(T) caused by each type of splaying substep. zig-zig: (Recall Figure 10.12.) Since the size of each node is one more than the size of its two children, note that only the ranks of x, y, and z change in a zig-zig operation, where y is the parent of x and z is the parent of y. Also, Note that n(x)+n ′(z) ≤ n ′(x). Thus, by 10.6, r(x)+r ′(z) ≤ 2r ′(x)−2, that is, r ′(z) ≤ 2r ′(x)−r(x)−2. This inequality and 10.7 imply δ ≤ r ′(x)+(2r ′(x)−r(x)−2)−2r(x) ≤ 3(r ′(x)−r(x))−2. zig-zag: (Recall Figure 10.13.) Again, by the definition of size and rank, only the ranks of x, y, and z change, where y denotes the parent of x and z denotes the parent of y. Also, r ′(x) = r(z) and r(x) ≤ r(y). Thus δ = r ′{x) + r ′{y) + r ′{z)−r{x)−r{y)−r{z) ≤ r ′(y) + r ′(z)−r(x)−r(y) ≤ r ′(y) + r ′(z)−2r(x). (10.8) Note that n ′(y) + n ′(z) ≤ n ′(x); hence, by 10.6, r ′(y)+r ′(z) ≤ 2r ′(x) −2. Thus, δ ≤ 2r ′(x)−2−2r(x) ≤ 3(r ′(x)−r(x))−2. zig: (Recall Figure 10.14.) In this case, only the ranks of x and y change, where y denotes the parent of x. Also, r ′(y) ≤ r(y) and r ′(x) ≥ r(x). Thus δ = r ′(y)+r ′(x)−r(y)−r(x) 624 ≤ r ′(x)−r(x) ≤ 3(r ′(x)−r(x)). Proposition 10.4: Let T be a splay tree with root t, and let Δ be the total variation of r(T) caused by splaying a node x at depth d. We have Δ ≤ 3(r(t) − r(x)) − d+2. Justification: Splaying node x consists of p = d/2 splaying substeps, each of which is a zig-zig or a zig-zag, except possibly the last one, which is a zig if d is odd. Let r0(x) = r(x) be the initial rank of x, and for i = 1, …, p, let ri(x) be the rank of x after the ith substep and δi be the variation of r(T) caused by the ith substep. By Lemma 10.3, the total variation Δ of r(T) caused by splaying x is = 3(rp(x) − r0(x)) − 2p + 2 ≤ 3(r(t) − r(x)) − d + 2 . By Proposition 10.4, if we make a payment of 3(r(t) − r(x)) + 2 cyber-dollars towards the splaying of node x, we have enough cyber-dollars to maintain the invariant, keeping r(v) cyber-dollars at each node v in T, and pay for the entire splaying work, which costs d dollars. Since the size of the root t is 2n + 1, its rank r(t) = log(2n+ 1). In addition, we have r(x) < r(t). Thus, the payment to be made for splaying is O(logn) cyber-dollars. To complete our analysis, we have to compute the cost for maintaining the invariant when a node is inserted or deleted. When inserting a new node v into a splay tree with n keys, the ranks of all the ancestors of v are increased. Namely, let v0, vi, …, vd be the ancestors of v, where v0 = v, vi is the parent of vi−1, and vd is the root. For i = 1,…,d, let n ′(vi) and n(vi) be the size of vi before and after the insertion, respectively, and let r ′(vi) and r(vi) be the rank of vi before and after the insertion, respectively. We have n ′{vi) = n{vi) + 1. 625 Also, since n(vi)+1 ≤ n(vi+1), for i = 0,1,…, d − 1, we have the following for each i in this range: r ′(vi) = log(n ′(vi)) = log(n(vi) + 1) ≤ log(n(vi+1)) = r(vi+1). Thus, the total variation of r(T) caused by the insertion is = r ′(vd)−r(v0) ≤ log(2n+1). Therefore, a payment of O(logn) cyber-dollars is sufficient to maintain the invariant when a new node is inserted. When deleting a node v from a splay tree with n keys, the ranks of all the ancestors of v are decreased. Thus, the total variation of r(T) caused by the deletion is negative, and we do not need to make any payment to maintain the invariant when a node is deleted. Therefore, we may summarize our amortized analysis in the following proposition (which is sometimes called the "balance proposition" for splay trees): Proposition 10.5: Consider a sequence ofm operations on a splay tree, each one a search, insertion, or deletion, starting from a splay tree with zero keys. Also, let ni be the number of keys in the tree after operation i, and n be the total number of insertions. The total running time for performing the sequence of operations is which is O(m log n). In other words, the amortized running time of performing a search, insertion, or deletion in a splay tree is O(logn), where n is the size of the splay tree at the time. Thus, a splay tree can achieve logarithmic-time, amortized performance for implementing an ordered dictionary ADT. This amortized performance matches the worst-case performance of AVL trees, (2,4) trees, and red-black trees, but it does so using a simple binary tree that does not need any extra balance information stored at each of its nodes. In addition, splay trees have a number of other interesting properties that are not shared by these other balanced search trees. We explore one such additional property in the following proposition (which is sometimes called the "Static Optimality" proposition for splay trees): 626 Proposition 10.6: Consider a sequence ofm operations on a splay tree, each one a search, insertion, or deletion, starting from a splay tree T with zero keys. Also, let f(i) denote the number of times the entry i is accessed in the splay tree, that is, its frequency, and let n denote the total number of entries. Assuming that each entry is accessed at least once, then the total running time for performing the sequence of operations is We omit the proof of this proposition, but it is not as hard to justify as one might imagine. The remarkable thing is that this proposition states that the amortized running time of accessing an entry i is O(log(m/f(i))). 10.4 (2,4) Trees Some data structures we discuss in this chapter, including (2,4) trees, are multi-way search trees, that is, trees with internal nodes that have two or more children. Thus, before we define (2,4) trees, let us discuss multi-way search trees. 10.4.1 Multi-Way Search Trees Recall that multi-way trees are defined so that each internal node can have many children. In this section, we discuss how multi-way trees can be used as search trees. Recall that the entries that we store in a search tree are pairs of the form (k,x), where k is the key and x is the value associated with the key. However, we do not discuss how to perform updates in multi-way search trees now, since the details for update methods depend on additional properties we wish to maintain for multi-way trees, which we discuss in Section 14.3.1. Definition of a Multi-way Search Tree Let v be a node of an ordered tree. We say that v is a d-node if v has d children. We define a multi-way search tree to be an ordered tree T that has the following properties, which are illustrated in Figure 10.19a: • Each internal node of T has at least two children. That is, each internal node is a d-node such that d > 2. • Each internal d-node v of T with children v1,…, vd stores an ordered set of d − 1 key-value entries (k1,x1),…, (kd − 1,xd − 1), where k1≤ … ≤ kd − 1. • Let us conventionally define k0 = − ∞ and kd = +∞. For each entry (k,x) stored at a node in the subtree of v rooted at v, i = 1,…,d, we have that ki − 1 ≤k≤ ki. 627 That is, if we think of the set of keys stored at v as including the special fictitious keys k0 = − ∞ and kd = +∞, then a key k stored in the subtree of T rooted at a child node vi must be "in between" two keys stored at v. This simple viewpoint gives rise to the rule that a d-node stores d − 1 regular keys, and it also forms the basis of the algorithm for searching in a multi-way search tree. By the above definition, the external nodes of a multi-way search do not store any entries and serve only as "placeholders," as has been our convention with binary search trees (Section 10.1); hence, a binary search tree can be viewed as a special case of a multi-way search tree, where each internal node stores one entry and has two children. In addition, while the external nodes could be null, we make the simplifying assumption here that they are actual nodes that don't store anything. Figure 10.19: (a) A multi-way search tree T; (b) search path in T for key 12 (unsuccessful search); (c) search path in T for key 24 (successful search). 628 629 Whether internal nodes of a multi-way tree have two children or many, however, there is an interesting relationship between the number of entries and the number of external nodes. Proposition 10.7: An n-entry multi-way search tree has n+1 external nodes. We leave the justification of this proposition as an exercise (C-10.14). Searching in a Multi-Way Tree Given a multi-way search tree T, we note that searching for an entry with key k is simple. We perform such a search by tracing a path in T starting at the root. (See Figure 10.19b and c.) When we are at a d-node v during this search, we compare the key k with the keys k1,…, kd − 1 stored at v. If k = ki for some i, the search is successfully completed. Otherwise, we continue the search in the child vi of v such that ki − 1 ≤ k ≤ ki. (Recall that we conventionally define k0 = - ∞ and kd = +∞.) If we reach an external node, then we know that there is no entry with key k in T, and the search terminates unsuccessfully. Data Structures for Representing Multi-way Search Trees In Section 7.1.3, we discuss a linked data structure for representing a general tree. This representation can also be used for a multi-way search tree. In fact, in using a general tree to implement a multi-way search tree, the only additional information that we need to store at each node is the set of entries (including keys) associated with that node. That is, we need to store with v a reference to some collection that stores the entries for v. Recall that when we use a binary search tree to represent an ordered dictionary D, we simply store a reference to a single entry at each internal node. In using a multi-way search tree T to represent D, we must store a reference to the ordered set of entries associated with v at each internal node v of T. This reasoning may at first seem like a circular argument, since we need a representation of an ordered dictionary to represent an ordered dictionary. We can avoid any circular arguments, however, by using the bootstrapping technique, where we use a previous (less advanced) solution to a problem to create a new (more advanced) solution. In this case, bootstrapping consists of representing the ordered set associated with each internal node using a dictionary data structure that we have previously constructed (for example, a search table based on a sorted array, as shown in Section 9.3.3). In particular, assuming we already have a way of implementing ordered dictionaries, we can realize a multi-way search tree by taking a tree T and storing such a dictionary at each node of T. 630 The dictionary we store at each node v is known as a secondary data structure, for we are using it to support the bigger, primary data structure. We denote the dictionary stored at a node v of T as D(v). The entries we store in D(v) will allow us to find which child node to move to next during a search operation. Specifically, for each node v of T, with children v1,…,vd and entries (k1,x1), …, (k . d−1,xd−1), we store in the dictionary D(v) the entries (k1, (x1, v1)), (k2, (x2, v2)), ..., (kd − 1, (xd − 1, vd − 1)), ( + ∞, (φ, vd)) That is, an entry (ki, (xi,vi)) of dictionary D(v) has key ki and value (xi, vi). Note that the last entry stores the special key +∞. With the realization of the multi-way search tree T above, processing a d-node v while searching for an entry of T with key k can be done by performing a search operation to find the entry (ki,(xi,vi)) in D(v) with smallest key greater than or equal to k. We distinguish two cases: • If k < ki, then we continue the search by processing child vi. (Note that if the special key kd = +∞ is returned, then k is greater than all the keys stored at node v, and we continue the search processing child vd). • Otherwise (k =ki), then the search terminates successfully. Consider the space requirement for the above realization of a multi-way search tree T storing n entries. By Proposition 10.7, using any of the common realizations of ordered dictionaries (Chapter 9) for the secondary structures of the nodes of T, the overall space requirement for T is O(n). Consider next the time spent answering a search in T. The time spent at a d-node v of T during a search depends on how we realize the secondary data structure D(v). If D(v) is realized with a sorted array (that is, an ordered search table), then we can process v in O(logd) time. If instead D(v) is realized using an unsorted list instead, then processing v takes O(d) time. Let dmax denote the maximum number of children of any node of T, and let h denote the height of T. The search time in a multi-way search tree is either O(hdmax) or O(hlogdmax), depending on the specific implementation of the secondary structures at the nodes of T (the dictionaries D(v)). If dmax is a constant, the running time for performing a search is O(h), irrespective of the implementation of the secondary structures. Thus, the primary efficiency goal for a multi-way search tree is to keep the height as small as possible, that is, we want h to be a logarithmic function of n, the total number of entries stored in the dictionary. A search tree with logarithmic height, such as this, is called a balanced search tree. We discuss a balanced search tree that caps dmax at 4 next. Definition of a (2,4) Tree 631 A multi-way search tree that keeps the secondary data structures stored at each node small and also keeps the primary multi-way tree balanced is the (2,4) tree, which is sometimes called 2–4 tree or 2–3–4 tree. This data structure achieves these goals by maintaining two simple properties (see Figure 10.20): Size Property: Every internal node has at most four children. Depth Property: All the external nodes have the same depth. Figure 10.20: A (2,4) tree. Again, we assume that external nodes are empty and, for the sake of simplicity, we describe our search and update methods assuming that external nodes are real nodes, although this latter requirement is not strictly needed. Enforcing the size property for (2,4) trees keeps the nodes in the multi-way search tree simple. It also gives rise to the alternative name "2–3–4 tree," since it implies that each internal node in the tree has 2, 3, or 4 children. Another implication of this rule is that we can represent the dictionary D(v) stored at each internal node v using an unordered list or an ordered array, and still achieve O(1)-time performance for all operations (since dmax = 4). The depth property, on the other hand, enforces an important bound on the height of a (2,4) tree. Proposition 10.8: The height of a (2,4) tree storing n entries is O(log n). Justification: Let h be the height of a (2,4) tree T storing n entries. We justify the proposition by showing that the claims 1/2log(n +1)≤h (10.9) and 632 h≤log(n+1) (10.10) are true. To justify these claims note first that, by the size property, we can have at most 4 nodes at depth 1, at most 42 nodes at depth 2, and so on. Thus, the number of external nodes in T is at most 4h. Likewise, by the depth property and the definition of a (2,4) tree, we must have at least 2 nodes at depth 1, at least 22 nodes at depth 2, and so on. Thus, the number of external nodes in T is at least 2h In addition, by Proposition 10.7, the number of external nodes in T is n+ 1. Therefore, we obtain 2h≤n+1 and n+1≤4h. Taking the logarithm in base 2 of each of the above terms, we get that h≤log(n+1) and log(n+1) ≤2h, which justifies our claims (10.9 and 10.10). Proposition 10.8 states that the size and depth properties are sufficient for keeping a multi-way tree balanced (Section 10.4.1). Moreover, this proposition implies that performing a search in a (2,4) tree takes O(logn) time and that the specific realization of the secondary structures at the nodes is not a crucial design choice, since the maximum number of children dmax is a constant (4). We can, for example, use a simple ordered dictionary implementation, such as an array-list search table, for each secondary structure. 10.4.2 Update Operations for (2,4) Trees Maintaining the size and depth properties requires some effort after performing insertions and removals in a (2,4) tree, however. We discuss these operations next. Insertion To insert a new entry (k,x), with key k, into a (2,4) tree T, we first perform a search for k. Assuming that T has no entry with key k, this search terminates 633 unsuccessfully at an external node z. Let v be the parent of z. We insert the new entry into node v and add a new child w (an external node) to v on the left of z. That is, we add entry (k, x, w) to the dictionary D(v). Our insertion method preserves the depth property, since we add a new external node at the same level as existing external nodes. Nevertheless, it may violate the size property. Indeed, if a node v was previously a 4-node, then it may become a 5-node after the insertion, which causes the tree T to no longer be a (2,4) tree. This type of violation of the size property is called an overflow at node v, and it must be resolved in order to restore the properties of a (2,4) tree. Let v1… ,v5 be the children of v, and let k1,…, k4 be the keys stored at v. To remedy the overflow at node v, we perform a split operation on v as follows (see Figure 10.21): • Replace v with two nodes v ′ and v ′′, where ○ v ′ is a 3-node with children v1, v2, v3 storing keys k1 and k2 ○ v ′′ is a 2-node with children v4,v5 storing key k4. • If v was the root of T, create a new root node u; else, let u be the parent of v. • Insert key k3 into u and make v ′ and v ′′ children of u, so that if v was child i of u, then v ′ and v ′′ become children i and i + 1 of u, respectively. We show a sequence of insertions in a (2,4) tree in Figure 10.22. Figure 10.21: A node split: (a) overflow at a 5-node v; (b) the third key of v inserted into the parent u of v; (c) node v replaced with a 3-node v ′ and a 2-node v ′′. Figure 10.22: A sequence of insertions into a (2,4) tree: (a) initial tree with one entry; (b) insertion of 6; (c) insertion of 12; (d) insertion of 15, which causes an overflow; (e) split, which causes the creation of a new root node; (f) after the split; (g) insertion of 3; (h) 634 insertion of 5, which causes an overflow; (i) split; (j) after the split; (k) insertion of 10; (l) insertion of 8. 635 Analysis of Insertion in a (2,4) Tree 636 A split operation affects a constant number of nodes of the tree and O(1) entries stored at such nodes. Thus, it can be implemented to run in O(1) time. As a consequence of a split operation on node v, a new overflow may occur at the parent u of v. If such an overflow occurs, it triggers in turn a split at node u. (See Figure 10.23.) A split operation either eliminates the overflow or propagates it into the parent of the current node. Hence, the number of split operations is bounded by the height of the tree, which is O(logn) by Proposition 10.8. Therefore, the total time to perform an insertion in a (2,4) tree is O(logn). Figure 10.23: An insertion in a (2,4) tree that causes a cascading split: (a) before the insertion; (b) insertion of 17, causing an overflow; (c) a split; (d) after the split a new overflow occurs; (e) another split, creating a new root node; (f) final tree. Removal 637 Let us now consider the removal of an entry with key k from a (2,4) tree T. We begin such an operation by performing a search in T for an entry with key k. Removing such an entry from a (2,4) tree can always be reduced to the case where the entry to be removed is stored at a node v whose children are external nodes. Suppose, for instance, that the entry with key k that we wish to remove is stored in the ith entry (ki,xi) at a node z that has only internal-node children. In this case, we swap the entry (ki,xi) with an appropriate entry that is stored at a node v w external-node children as follows (see ith Figure 10.24d): 1. We find the right-most internal node v in the subtree rooted at the ith child of z, noting that the children of node v are all external nodes. 2. We swap the entry (ki, xi) at z with the last entry of v. Once we ensure that the entry to remove is stored at a node v with only externalnode children (because either it was already at v or we swapped it into v), we simply remove the entry from v (that is, from the dictionary D(v)) and remove the ith external node of v. Removing an entry (and a child) from a node v as described above preserves the depth property, for we always remove an external node child from a node v with only external-node children. However, in removing such an external node we may violate the size property at v. Indeed, if v was previously a 2-node, then it becomes a 1-node with no entries after the removal (Figure 10.24d and e), which is not allowed in a (2,4) tree. This type of violation of the size property is called an underflow at node v. To remedy an underflow, we check whether an immediate sibling of v is a 3-node or a 4-node. If we find such a sibling w, then we perform a transfer operation, in which we move a child of w to v, a key of w to the parent u of v and w, and a key of u to v. (See Figure 10.24b and c.) If v has only one sibling, or if both immediate siblings of v are 2-nodes, then we perform a fusion operation, in which we merge v with a sibling, creating a new node v ′, and move a key from the parent u of v to v ′. (See Figure 10.25e and f.) A fusion operation at node v may cause a new underflow to occur at the parent u of v, which in turn triggers a transfer or fusion at u. (See Figure 10.25.) Hence, the number of fusion operations is bounded by the height of the tree, which is O(logn) by Proposition 10.8. If an underflow propagates all the way up to the root, then the root is simply deleted. (See Figure 10.25c and d.) We show a sequence of removals from a (2,4) tree in Figures 10.24 and 10.25. Figure 10.24: A sequence of removals from a (2,4) tree: (a) removal of 4, causing an underflow; (b) a transfer operation; (c) after the transfer operation; (d) removal of 12, causing an underflow; (e) a fusion 638 operation; (f) after the fusion operation; (g) removal of 13; (h) after removing 13. 639 Figure 10.25: A propagating sequence of fusions in a (2,4) tree: (a) removal of 14, which causes an underflow; (b) fusion, which causes another underflow; (c) second fusion operation, which causes the root to be removed; (d) final tree. Performance of (2,4) Trees Table 10.3 summarizes the running times of the main operations of a dictionary realized with a (2,4) tree. The time complexity analysis is based on the following: • The height of a (2,4) tree storing n entries is O(logn), by Proposition 10.8. • A split, transfer, or fusion operation takes O(1) time. • A search, insertion, or removal of an entry visits O(logn) nodes. Table 10.3: Performance of an n-entry dictionary realized by a (2,4) tree, where s denotes the size of the 640 collection returned by findAll. The space usage is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) find, insert, remove O(logn) findAll O(logn + s) Thus, (2,4) trees provide for fast dictionary search and update operations. (2,4) trees also have an interesting relationship to the data structure we discuss next. 10.5 Red-Black Trees Although AVL trees and (2,4) trees have a number of nice properties, there are some dictionary applications for which they are not well suited. For instance, AVL trees may require many restructure operations (rotations) to be performed after a removal, and (2,4) trees may require many fusing or split operations to be performed after either an insertion or removal. The data structure we discuss in this section, the red- black tree, does not have these drawbacks, however, as it requires that only O(1) structural changes be made after an update in order to stay balanced. A red-black tree is a binary search tree (see Section 10.1) with nodes colored red and black in a way that satisfies the following properties: Root Property: The root is black. External Property: Every external node is black. Internal Property: The children of a red node are black. Depth Property: All the external nodes have the same black depth, defined as the number of black ancestors minus one. (Recall that a node is an ancestor of itself.) An example of a red-black tree is shown in Figure 10.26. 641 Figure 10.26: Red-black tree associated with the (2,4) tree of Figure 10.20. Each external node of this red-black tree has 4 black ancestors (including itself); hence, it has black depth 3. We use the color blue instead of red. Also, we use the convention of giving an edge of the tree the same color as the child node. As for previous types of search trees, we assume that entries are stored at the internal nodes of a red-black tree, with the external nodes being empty placeholders. Also, we assume that the external nodes are actual nodes, but we note that, at the expense of slightly more complicated methods, external nodes could be null. We can make the red-black tree definition more intuitive by noting an interesting correspondence between red-black trees and (2,4) trees, as illustrated in Figure 10.27. Namely, given a red-black tree, we can construct a corresponding (2,4) tree by merging every red node v into its parent and storing the entry from v at its parent. Conversely, we can transform any (2,4) tree into a corresponding red-black tree by coloring each node black and performing the following transformation for each internal node v: • If v is a 2-node, then keep the (black) children of v as is. • If v is a 3-node, then create a new red node w, give v's first two (black) children to w, and make w and v's third child be the two children of v. • If v is a 4-node, then create two new red nodes w and z, give v's first two (black) children to w, give v's last two (black) children to z, and make w and z be the two children of v. 642 Figure 10.27: Correspondence between a (2,4) tree and a red-black tree: (a) 2-node; (b) 3-node; (c) 4-node. The correspondence between (2,4) trees and red-black trees provides important intuition that we will use in our discussion of how to perform updates in red-black trees. In fact, the update algorithms for red-black trees are mysteriously complex without this intuition. Proposition 10.9: The height of a red-black tree storing n entries is O(logn). Justification: Let T be a red-black tree storing n entries, and let h be the height of T. We justify this proposition by establishing the following fact: log(n + 1) ≤ h ≤ 2log(n + 1). Let d be the common black depth of all the external nodes of T. Let T ′ be the (2,4) tree associated with T, and let h ′ be the height of T ′. Because of the correspondence between red-black trees and (2,4) trees, we know that h ′ = d. Hence, by Proposition 10.8, d = h ′ ≤ log(n + 1). By the internal node property, h ≤ 2d. Thus, we obtain h ≤ 643 2log(n + 1). The other inequality, log(n + 1) ≤ h, follows from Proposition 7.10 and the fact that T has n internal nodes. We assume that a red-black tree is realized with a linked structure for binary trees (Section 7.3.4), in which we store a dictionary entry and a color indicator at each node. Thus the space requirement for storing n keys is O(n). The algorithm for searching in a red-black tree T is the same as that for a standard binary search tree (Section 10.1). Thus, searching in a red-black tree takes O(logn) time. 10.5.1 Update Operations Performing the update operations in a red-black tree is similar to that of a binary search tree, except that we must additionally restore the color properties. Insertion Now consider the insertion of an entry with key k into a red-black tree T, keeping in mind the correspondence between T and its associated (2,4) tree T ′ and the insertion algorithm for T ′. The algorithm initially proceeds as in a binary search tree (Section 10.1.2). Namely, we search for k in T until we reach an external node of T, and we replace this node with an internal node z, storing (k,x) and having two external-node children. If z is the root of T, we color z black, else we color z red. We also color the children of z black. This action corresponds to inserting (k,x) into a node of the (2,4) tree T ′ with external children. In addition, this action preserves the root, external and depth properties of T, but it may violate the internal property. Indeed, if z is not the root of T and the parent v of z is red, then we have a parent and a child (namely, v and z) that are both red. Note that by the root property, v cannot be the root of T, and by the internal property (which was previously satisfied), the parent u of v must be black. Since z and its parent are red, but z's grandparent u is black, we call this violation of the internal property a double red at node z. To remedy a double red, we consider two cases. Case 1: The Sibling w of v is Black. (See Figure 10.28.) In this case, the double red denotes the fact that we have created in our red-black tree T a malformed replacement for a corresponding 4-node of the (2,4) tree T1, which has as its children the four black children of u, v, and z. Our malformed replacement has one red node (v) that is the parent of another red node (z), while we want it to have the two red nodes as siblings instead. To fix this problem, we perform a trinode restructuring of T. The trinode restructuring is done by the operation restructure(z), which consists of the following steps (see again Figure 10.28; this operation is also discussed in Section 10.2): 644 • Take node z, its parent v, and grandparent u, and temporarily relabel them as a, b, and c, in left-to-right order, so that a, b, and c will be visited in this order by an inorder tree traversal. • Replace the grandparent u with the node labeled b, and make nodes a and c the children of b, keeping inorder relationships unchanged. After performing the restructure(z) operation, we color b black and we color a and c red. Thus, the restructuring eliminates the double red problem. Figure 10.28: Restructuring a red-black tree to remedy a double red: (a) the four configurations for u, v, and z before restructuring; (b) after restructuring. Case 2: The Sibling w of v is Red. (See Figure 10.29.) In this case, the double red denotes an overflow in the corresponding (2,4) tree T. To fix the problem, we 645 perform the equivalent of a split operation. Namely, we do a recoloring: we color v and w black and their parent u red (unless u is the root, in which case, it is colored black). It is possible that, after such a recoloring, the double red problem reappears, albeit higher up in the tree T, since u may have a red parent. If the double red problem reappears at u, then we repeat the consideration of the two cases at u. Thus, a recoloring either eliminates the double red problem at node z, or propagates it to the grandparent u of z. We continue going up T performing recolorings until we finally resolve the double red problem (with either a final recoloring or a trinode restructuring). Thus, the number of recolorings caused by an insertion is no more than half the height of tree T, that is, no more than log(n + 1) by Proposition 10.9. Figure 10.29: Recoloring to remedy the double red problem: (a) before recoloring and the corresponding 5-node in the associated (2,4) tree before the split; (b) after the recoloring (and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree after the split). 646 Figures 10.30 and 10.31 show a sequence of insertion operations in a red-black tree. Figure 10.30: A sequence of insertions in a red- black tree: (a) initial tree; (b) insertion of 7; (c) insertion of 12, which causes a double red; (d) after restructuring; (e) insertion of 15, which causes a double red; (f) after recoloring (the root remains black); (g) insertion of 3; (h) insertion of 5; (i) insertion of 14, which causes a double red; (j) after restructuring; (k) insertion of 18, which causes a double red; (l) after recoloring. (Continues in Figure 10.31.) 647 Figure 10.31: A sequence of insertions in a red- black tree: (m) insertion of 16, which causes a double red; (n) after restructuring; (o) insertion of 17, which causes a double red; (p) after recoloring there is again a double red, to be handled by a restructuring; (q) after restructuring. (Continued from Figure 10.30.) 648 The cases for insertion imply an interesting property for red-black trees. Namely, since the Case 1 action eliminates the double-red problem with a single trinode restructuring and the Case 2 action performs no restructuring operations, at most one restructuring is needed in a red-black tree insertion. By the above analysis and the fact that a restructuring or recoloring takes O(1) time, we have the following: Proposition 10.10: The insertion of a key-value entry in a red-black tree storing n entries can be done in O(logn) time and requires O(logn) recolorings and one trinode restructuring (a restructure operation). 649 Removal Suppose now that we are asked to remove an entry with key k from a red-black tree T. Removing such an entry initially proceeds as for a binary search tree (Section 10.1.2). First, we search for a node u storing such an entry. If node u does not have an external child, we find the internal node v following u in the inorder traversal of T, move the entry at v to u, and perform the removal at v. Thus, we may consider only the removal of an entry with key k stored at a node v with an external child w. Also, as we did for insertions, we keep in mind the correspondence between red-black tree T and its associated (2,4) tree T ′ (and the removal algorithm for T ′). To remove the entry with key k from a node v of T with an external child w we proceed as follows. Let r be the sibling of w and x be the parent of v. We remove nodes v and w, and make r a child of x. If v was red (hence r is black) or r is red (hence v was black), we color r black and we are done. If, instead, r is black and v was black, then, to preserve the depth property, we give r a fictitious double black color. We now have a color violation, called the double black problem. A double black in T denotes an underflow in the corresponding (2,4) tree T. Recall that x is the parent of the double black node r. To remedy the double-black problem at r, we consider three cases. Case 1: The Sibling y of r is Black and has a Red Child z. (See Figure 10.32.) Resolving this case corresponds to a transfer operation in the (2,4) tree T ′. We perform a trinode restructuring by means of operation restructure(z). Recall that the operation restructure(z) takes the node z, its parent y, and grandparent x, labels them temporarily left to right as a, b, and c, and replaces x with the node labeled b, making it the parent of the other two. (See also the description of restructure in Section 10.2.) We color a and c black, give b the former color of x, and color r black. This trinode restructuring eliminates the double black problem. Hence, at most one restructuring is performed in a removal operation in this case. Figure 10.32: Restructuring of a red-black tree to remedy the double black problem: (a) and (b) configurations before the restructuring, where r is a right child and the associated nodes in the corresponding (2,4) tree before the transfer (two other symmetric configurations where r is a left child are possible); (c) configuration after the restructuring and the associated nodes in the corresponding (2,4) tree after the transfer. The grey color for node x in parts (a) 650 and (b) and for node b in part (c) denotes the fact that this node may be colored either red or black. 651 652 Case 2: The Sibling y of r is Black and Both Children of y are Black. (See Figures 10.33 and 10.34.) Resolving this case corresponds to a fusion operation in the corresponding (2,4) tree T ′. We do a recoloring; we color r black, we color y red, and, if x is red, we color it black (Figure 10.33); otherwise, we color x double black (Figure 10.34). Hence, after this recoloring, the double black problem may reappear at the parent x of r. (See Figure 10.34.) That is, this recoloring either eliminates the double black problem or propagates it into the parent of the current node. We then repeat a consideration of these three cases at the parent. Thus, since Case 1 performs a trinode restructuring operation and stops (and, as we will soon see, Case 3 is similar), the number of recolorings caused by a removal is no more than log(n+ 1). Figure 10.33: Recoloring of a red-black tree that fixes the double black problem: (a) before the recoloring and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree before the fusion (other similar configurations are possible); (b) after the recoloring and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree after the fusion. 653 Figure 10.34: Recoloring of a red-black tree that propagates the double black problem: (a) configuration before the recoloring and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree before the fusion (other similar configurations are possible); (b) configuration after the recoloring and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree after the fusion. 654 Case 3: The Sibling y of r is Red. (See Figure 10.35.) In this case, we perform an adjustment operation, as follows. If y is the right child of x, let z be the right child of y; otherwise, let z be the left child of y. Execute the trinode restructuring operation restructure(z), which makes y the parent of x. Color y black and x red. An adjustment corresponds to choosing a different representation of a 3-node in the (2,4) tree T ′. After the adjustment operation, the sibling of r is black, and either Case 1 or Case 2 applies, with a different meaning of x and y. Note that if Case 2 applies, the double-black problem cannot reappear. Thus, to complete Case 3 we make one more application of either Case 1 or Case 2 above and we are done. Therefore, at most one adjustment is performed in a removal operation. Figure 10.35: Adjustment of a red-black tree in the presence of a double black problem: (a) 655 configuration before the adjustment and corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree (a symmetric configuration is possible); (b) configuration after the adjustment with the same corresponding nodes in the associated (2,4) tree. From the above algorithm description, we see that the tree updating needed after a removal involves an upward march in the tree T, while performing at most a 656 constant amount of work (in a restructuring, recoloring, or adjustment) per node. Thus, since any changes we make at a node in T during this upward march takes O(1) time (because it affects a constant number of nodes), we have the following: Proposition 10.11: The algorithm for removing an entry from a red-black tree with n entries takes O(logn) time and performs O(logn) recolorings and at most one adjustment plus one additional trinode restructuring. Thus, it performs at most two restructure operations. In Figures 10.36 and 10.37, we show a sequence of removal operations on a red- black tree. We illustrate Case 1 restructurings in Figure 10.36c and d. We illustrate Case 2 recolorings at several places in Figures 10.36 and 10.37. Finally, in Figure 10.37i and j, we show an example of a Case 3 adjustment. Figure 10.36: Sequence of removals from a red- black tree: (a) initial tree; (b) removal of 3; (c) removal of 12, causing a double black (handled by restructuring); (d) after restructuring. (Continues in Figure 10.37.) Figure 10.37: Sequence of removals in a red- black tree (continued): (e) removal of 17; (f) removal of 657 18, causing a double black (handled by recoloring); (g) after recoloring; (h) removal of 15; (i) removal of 16, causing a double black (handled by an adjustment); (j) after the adjustment the double black needs to be handled by a recoloring; (k) after the recoloring. (Continued from Figure 10.36.) 658 Performance of Red-Black Trees Table 10.4 summarizes the running times of the main operations of a dictionary realized by means of a red-black tree. We illustrate the justification for these bounds in Figure 10.38. 659 Table 10.4: Performance of an n-entry dictionary realized by a red-black tree, where s denotes the size of the collection returned by findAll. The space usage is O(n). Operation Time size, isEmpty O(1) find, insert, remove O(logn) findAll O(logn +s) Figure 10.38: Illustrating the running time of searches and updates in a red-black tree. The time performance is O(1) per level, broken into a down phase, which typically involves searching, and an up phase, which typically involves recolorings and performing local trinode restructurings (rotations). 660 Thus, a red-black tree achieves logarithmic worst-case running times for both searching and updating in a dictionary. The red-black tree data structure is slightly more complicated than its corresponding (2,4) tree. Even so, a red-black tree has a conceptual advantage that only a constant number of trinode restructurings are ever needed to restore the balance in a red-black tree after an update. 10.5.2 Java Implementation In Code Fragments 10.9 through 10.11, we show the major portions of a Java implementation of a dictionary realized by means of a red-black tree. The main class includes a nested class, RBNode, shown in Code Fragment 10.9, which extends the BTNode class used to represent a key-value entry of a binary search tree. It defines an additional instance variable isRed, representing the color of the node, and methods to set and return it. Code Fragment 10.9: Instance variables, nested class, and constructor for RBTree. 661 Class RBTree (Code Fragments 10.9 through 10.11) extends BinarySearchTree (Code Fragments 10.3 through 10.5). We assume the parent class supports the method restructure for performing trinode restructurings (rotations); its implementation is left as an exercise (P-10.3). Class RBTree inherits methods size, isEmpty, find, and findAll from BinarySearchTree but overrides methods insert and remove. It implements these two operations by first calling the corresponding method of the parent class and then remedying any color violations that this update may have caused. Several auxiliary methods of class RBTree are not shown, but their names suggest their meanings and their implementations are straightforward. Code Fragment 10.10: The dictionary ADT method insert and auxiliary methods createNode and remedyDoubleRed of class RBTree. 662 Methods insert (Code Fragment 10.10) and remove (Code Fragment 10.11) call the corresponding methods of the superclass first and then rebalance the tree by calling 663 auxiliary methods to perform rotations along the path from the update position (given by the actionPos variable inherited from the superclass) to the root. Code Fragment 10.11: Method remove and auxiliary method remedyDoubleBlack of class RBTree. 664 665 10.6 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-10.1 We defined a binary search tree so that keys equal to a node's key can be in either the left or right subtree of that node. Suppose we change the definition so that we restrict equal keys to the right subtree. What must a subtree of a binary search tree containing only equal keys look like in this case? R-10.2 How many different binary search trees can store the keys {1,2,3}? R-10.3 How many different binary search trees can store the keys {1,2,3,4}? R-10.4 Insert, into an empty binary search tree, entries with keys 30, 40, 24, 58, 48, 26, 11, 13 (in this order). Draw the tree after each insertion. R-10.5 Suppose that the methods of BinarySearchTree (Code Fragments 10.3– 10.5) are used to perform the updates shown in Figures 10.3, 10.4, and 10.5. What is the node referenced by action Pos after each update? R-10.6 Dr. Amongus claims that the order in which a fixed set of entries is inserted into a binary search tree does not matter—the same tree results every time. Give a small example that proves he is wrong. R-10.7 Dr. Amongus claims that the order in which a fixed set of entries is inserted into an AVL tree does not matter—the same AVL tree results every time. Give a small example that proves he is wrong. R-10.8 666 Are the rotations in Figures 10.8 and 10.10 single or double rotations? R-10.9 Draw the AVL tree resulting from the insertion of an entry with key 52 into the AVL tree of Figure 10.10b. R-10.10 Draw the AVL tree resulting from the removal of the entry with key 62 from the AVL tree of Figure 10.10b. R-10.11 Explain why performing a rotation in an n-node binary tree represented using an array list takes Ω(n) time. R-10.12 Is the search tree of Figure 10.19a a (2,4) tree? Why or why not? R-10.13 An alternative way of performing a split at a node v in a (2,4) tree is to partition v into v ′ and v ′′, with v ′ being a 2-node and v ′′ a 3-node. Which of the keys k1, k2, k3, or k4 do we store at v's parent in this case? Why? R-10.14 Dr. Amongus claims that a (2,4) tree storing a set of entries will always have the same structure, regardless of the order in which the entries are inserted. Show that he is wrong. R-10.15 Draw four different red-black trees that correspond to the same (2,4) tree. R-10.16 Consider the set of keys K = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15}. a. Draw a (2,4) tree storing K as its keys using the fewest number of nodes. b. Draw a (2,4) tree storing K as its keys using the maximum number of nodes. 667 R-10.17 Consider the sequence of keys (5,16,22,45,2,10,18,30,50,12,1). Draw the result of inserting entries with these keys (in the given order) into a. An initially empty (2,4) tree. b. An initially empty red-black tree. R-10.18 For the following statements about red-black trees, provide a justification for each true statement and a counterexample for each false one. a. A subtree of a red-black tree is itself a red-black tree. b. The sibling of an external node is either external or it is red. c. There is a unique (2,4) tree associated with a given red-black tree. d. There is a unique red-black tree associated with a given (2,4) tree. R-10.19 Draw an example red-black tree that is not an AVL tree. R-10.20 Consider a tree T storing 100,000 entries. What is the worst-case height of T in the following cases? a. T is an AVL tree. b. 668 T is a (2,4) tree. c. T is a red-black tree. d. T is a splay tree. e. T is a binary search tree. R-10.21 Perform the following sequence of operations in an initially empty splay tree and draw the tree after each set of operations. a. Insert keys 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, in this order. b. Search for keys 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, in this order. c. Delete keys 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, in this order. R-10.22 What does a splay tree look like if its entries are accessed in increasing order by their keys? R-10.23 Explain how to use an AVL tree or a red-black tree to sort n comparable elements in O(nlogn) time in the worst case. R-10.24 Can we use a splay tree to sort n comparable elements in O(nlogn) time in the worst case? Why or why not? Creativity 669 C-10.1 Design a variation of algorithm TreeSearch for performing the operation findAl(k) in an ordered dictionary implemented with a binary search tree T, and show that it runs in time O(h + s), where h is the height of T and s is the size of the collection returned. C-10.2 Describe how to perform an operation removeAll(k), which removes all the entries whose keys equal k in an ordered dictionary implemented with a binary search tree T, and show that this method runs in time O(h + s), where h is the height of T and s is the size of the iterator returned. C-10.3 Draw a schematic of an AVL tree such that a single remove operation could require Ω(logn) trinode restructurings (or rotations) from a leaf to the root in order to restore the height-balance property. C-10.4 Show how to perform an operation, removeAll(k), which removes all entries with keys equal to K, in a dictionary implemented with an AVL tree in time O(slogn), where n is the number of entries in the dictionary and s is the size of the iterator returned. C-10.5 If we maintain a reference to the position of the left-most internal node of an AVL tree, then operation first (Section 9.5.2) can be performed in O(1) time. Describe how the implementation of the other dictionary methods needs to be modified to maintain a reference to the left-most position. C-10.6 Show that any n-node binary tree can be converted to any other n-node binary tree using O(n) rotations. C-10.7 Let D be an ordered dictionary with n entries implemented by means of an AVL tree. Show how to implement the following operation on D in time O(logn + s), where s is the size of the iterator returned: findAllInRange(k1,k2): Return an iterator of all the entries in D with key k such that k1 ≤ k ≤ k2. 670 C-10.8 Let D be an ordered dictionary with n entries. Show how to modify the AVL tree to implement the following method for D in time O(logn): countAllInRange(k1,k2): Compute and return the number of entries in D with key k such that k1 ≤ k ≤ k2. C-10.9 Show that the nodes that become unbalanced in an AVL tree after operation insertAtExternal is performed, within the execution of an insert operation, may be nonconsecutive on the path from the newly inserted node to the root. C-10.10 Show that at most one node in an AVL tree becomes unbalanced after operation removeExternal is performed within the execution of a remove dictionary operation. C-10.11 Show that at most one trinode restructuring operation is needed to restore balance after any insertion in an AVL tree. C-10.12 Let T and U be (2,4) trees storing n and m entries, respectively, such that all the entries in T have keys less than the keys of all the entries in U. Describe an O(logn + logm) time method for joining Tand U into a single tree that stores all the entries in T and U. C-10.13 Repeat the previous problem for red-black trees T and U. C-10.14 Justify Proposition 10.7. C-10.15 The Boolean indicator used to mark nodes in a red-black tree as being "red" or "black" is not strictly needed when we have distinct keys. Describe a scheme for implementing a red-black tree without adding any extra space to standard binary search tree nodes. How does your scheme affect the search and update times? 671 C-10.16 Let T be a red-black tree storing n entries, and let k be the key of an entry in T. Show how to construct from T, in O(logn) time, two red-black trees T ′ and T ′′, such that T ′ contains all the keys of T less than k, and T ′′ contains all the keys of T greater than k. This operation destroys T. C-10.17 Show that the nodes of any AVL tree T can be colored "red" and "black" so that T becomes a red-black tree. C-10.18 The mergeable heap ADT consists of operations insert(k,x), removeMin(), unionWith(h), and min(), where the unionWith(h) operation performs a union of the mergeable heap h with the present one, destroying the old versions of both. Describe a concrete implementation of the mergeable heap ADT that achieves O(logn) performance for all its operations. C-10.19 Consider a variation of splay trees, called half-splay trees, where splaying a node at depth d stops as soon as the node reaches depth [d/2\. Perform an amortized analysis of half-splay trees. C-10.20 The standard splaying step requires two passes, one downward pass to find the node x to splay, followed by an upward pass to splay the node x. Describe a method for splaying and searching for x in one downward pass. Each substep now requires that you consider the next two nodes in the path down to x, with a possible zig substep performed at the end. Describe how to perform the zig-zig, zig-zag, and zig steps. C-10.21 Describe a sequence of accesses to an n-node splay tree T, where n is odd, that results in T consisting of a single chain of internal nodes with external node children, such that the internal-node path down T alternates between left children and right children. C-10.22 Explain how to implement an array list of n elements so that the methods add and get take O(logn) time in the worst case (with no need for an expandable array). 672 Projects P-10.1 N-body simulations are an important modeling tool in physics, astronomy, and chemistry. In this project, you are to write a program that performs a simple n- body simulation called "Jumping Leprechauns." This simulation involves n leprechauns, numbered 1 to n. It maintains a gold value g for each leprechaun i, which begins with each leprechaun starting out with a million dollars worth of gold, that is, g = 1000000 for eachi= 1,2,... ,n. In addition, the simulation also maintains, for each leprechaun i, a place on the horizon, which is represented as a double-precision floating point number, xi. In each iteration of the simulation, the simulation processes the leprechauns in order. Processing a leprechaun i during this iteration begins by computing a new place on the horizon for i, which is determined by the assignment xi←xi + rgi, where r is a random floating-point number between −1 and 1. Leprechaun i then steals half the gold from the nearest leprechauns on either side of him and adds this gold to his gold value, gi. Write a program that can perform a series of iterations in this simulation for a given number, n, of leprechauns. Try to include a visualization of the leprechauns in this simulation, including their gold values and horizon positions. You must maintain the set of horizon positions using an ordered dictionary data structure described in this chapter. P-10.2 Extend class BinarySearchTree (Code Fragments 10.3–10.5) to support the methods of the ordered dictionary ADT (see Section 9.5.2). P-10.3 Implement a class RestructurableNodeBinaryTree that supports the methods of the binary tree ADT, plus a method restructure for performing a rotation operation. This class is a component of the implementation of an AVL tree given in Section 10.2.2. P-10.4 Write a Java class that implements all the methods of the ordered dictionary ADT (see Section 9.5.2) using an AVL tree. P-10.5 Write a Java class that implements all the methods of the ordered dictionary ADT (see Section 9.5.2) using a (2,4) tree. 673 P-10.6 Write a Java class that implements all the methods of the ordered dictionary ADT (see Section 9.5.2) using a red-black tree. P-10.7 Form a three-programmer team and have each member implement a different one of the previous three projects. Perform extensive experimental studies to compare the speed of these three implementations. Design three sets of experiments, each favoring a different implementation. P-10.8 Write a Java class that can take any red-black tree and convert it into its corresponding (2,4) tree and can take any (2,4) tree and convert it into its corresponding red-black tree. P-10.9 Perform an experimental study to compare the performance of a red-black tree with that of a skip list. P-10.10 Prepare an implementation of splay trees that uses bottom-up splaying as described in this chapter and another that uses top-down splaying as described in Exercise C-10.20. Perform extensive experimental studies to see which implementation is better in practice, if any. Chapter Notes Some of the data structures discussed in this chapter are extensively covered by Knuth in his Sorting and Searching book [63], and by Mehlhorn in [74]. AVL trees are due to Adel'son-Vel'skii and Landis [1], who invented this class of balanced search trees in 1962. Binary search trees, AVL trees, and hashing are described in Knuth's Sorting and Searching [63] book. Average-height analyses for binary search trees can be found in the books by Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman [5] and Cormen, Leiserson, and Rivest [25]. The handbook by Gonnet and Baeza-Yates [41] contains a number of theoretical and experimental comparisons among dictionary implementations. Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman [4] discuss (2,3) trees, which are similar to (2,4) trees. Red-black trees were defined by Bayer [10]. Variations and interesting properties of red-black trees are presented in a paper by Guibas and Sedgewick [46]. The reader interested in learning more about different balanced tree data structures is referred to the books by Mehlhorn [74] and Tarjan [91], and the book chapter by Mehlhorn and Tsakalidis [76]. Knuth [63] is excellent additional reading that includes 674 early approaches to balancing trees. Splay trees were invented by Sleator and Tarjan [86] (see also [91]). Chapter 11 Sorting, Sets, and Selection. Contents 11.1 Merge-Sort........................ 488 11.1.1 Divide-and-Conquer.................. 488 11.1.2 Merging Arrays and Lists............... 493 11.1.3 The Running Time of Merge-Sort.......... 496 11.1.4 Java Implementations of Merge-Sort......... 675 497 11.1.5 Merge-Sort and Recurrence Equations ★ ....... 500 11.2 Quick-Sort........................ 501 11.2.1 Randomized Quick-Sort................ 508 11.2.2 In-Place Quick-Sort.................. 510 11.3 A Lower Bound on Sorting............... 513 11.4 Bucket-Sort and Radix-Sort............... 515 11.4.1 Bucket-Sort...................... 515 11.4.2 Radix-Sort....................... 516 676 11.5 Comparison of Sorting Algorithms........... 518 11.6 The Set ADT and Union/Find Structures....... 520 11.6.1 A Simple Set Implementation............. 521 11.6.2 Partitions with Union-Find Operations........ 524 11.6.3 A Tree-Based Partition Implementation ★...... 526 11.7 Selection......................... 529 11.7.1 Prune-and-Search................... 529 11.7.2 Randomized Quick-Select............... 530 11.7.3 677 Analyzing Randomized Quick-Select......... 531 11.8 Exercises......................... 532 java.datastructures.net 11.1 Merge-Sort In this section, we present a sorting technique, called merge-sort, which can be described in a simple and compact way using recursion. 11.1.1 Divide-and-Conquer Merge-sort is based on an algorithmic design pattern called divide-and-conquer. The divide-and-conquer pattern consists of the following three steps: 1. Divide: If the input size is smaller than a certain threshold (say, one or two elements), solve the problem directly using a straightforward method and return the solution so obtained. Otherwise, divide the input data into two or more disjoint subsets. 2. Recur: Recursively solve the subproblems associated with the subsets. 3. Conquer: Take the solutions to the subproblems and "merge" them into a solution to the original problem. Using Divide-and-Conquer for Sorting Recall that in a sorting problem we are given a sequence of n objects, stored in a linked list or an array, together with some comparator defining a total order on these objects, and we are asked to produce an ordered representation of these objects. To allow for sorting of either representation, we will describe our sorting algorithm at a high level for sequences and explain the details needed to implement it for linked lists and arrays. To sort a sequence S with n elements using the three divide-and-conquer steps, the merge-sort algorithm proceeds as follows: 1. Divide:If S has zero or one element, return S immediately; it is already sorted. Otherwise (S has at least two elements), remove all the elements from S and put them into two sequences, S1 and S2, each containing about half of the 678 elements of S; that is, S1 contains the first n/2 elements of S, and S2 contains the remaining n/2 elements. 2. Recur: Recursively sort sequences S1 and S2. 3. Conquer: Put back the elements into S by merging the sorted sequences S1 and S2 into a sorted sequence. In reference to the divide step, we recall that the notation x indicates the ceiling of x, that is, the smallest integer m, such that x ≤ m. Similarly, the notation x indicates the floor of x, that is, the largest integer k, such that k ≤ x. We can visualize an execution of the merge-sort algorithm by means of a binary tree T, called the merge-sort tree. Each node of T represents a recursive invocation (or call) of the merge-sort algorithm. We associate with each node v of T the sequence S that is processed by the invocation associated with v. The children of node v are associated with the recursive calls that process the subsequences S1 and S2 of S. The external nodes of T are associated with individual elements of S, corresponding to instances of the algorithm that make no recursive calls. Figure 11.1 summarizes an execution of the merge-sort algorithm by showing the input and output sequences processed at each node of the merge-sort tree. The step-by-step evolution of the merge-sort tree is shown in Figures 11.2 through 11.4. This algorithm visualization in terms of the merge-sort tree helps us analyze the running time of the merge-sort algorithm. In particular, since the size of the input sequence roughly halves at each recursive call of merge-sort, the height of the merge-sort tree is about log n (recall that the base of log is 2 if omitted). Figure 11.1: Merge-sort tree T for an execution of the merge-sort algorithm on a sequence with 8 elements: (a) input sequences processed at each node of T; (b) output sequences generated at each node of T. 679 Figure 11.2: Visualization of an execution of merge- sort. Each node of the tree represents a recursive call of merge-sort. The nodes drawn with dashed lines represent calls that have not been made yet. The node drawn with thick lines represents the current call. The empty nodes drawn with thin lines represent completed calls. The remaining nodes (drawn with thin lines and not empty) represent calls that are waiting 680 for a child invocation to return. (Continues in Figure 11.3.) Figure 11.3: Visualization of an execution of merge- sort. (Continues in Figure 11.4.) 681 Figure 11.4: Visualization of an execution of merge- sort. Several invocations are omitted between (l) and (m) and between (m) and (n). Note the conquer step performed in step (p). (Continued from Figure 11.3.). 682 Proposition 11.1: The merge-sort tree associated with an execution of merge-sort on a sequence of size n has height log n. We leave the justification of Proposition 11.1 as a simple exercise (R-11.3). We will use this proposition to analyze the running time of the merge-sort algorithm. Having given an overview of merge-sort and an illustration of how it works, let us consider each of the steps of this divide-and-conquer algorithm in more detail. The divide and recur steps of the merge-sort algorithm are simple; dividing a sequence of size n involves separating it at the element with index n/2, and the recursive calls simply involve passing these smaller sequences as parameters. The difficult step is the conquer step, which merges two sorted sequences into a single sorted sequence. Thus, before we present our analysis of merge-sort, we need to say more about how this is done. 11.1.2 Merging Arrays and Lists To merge two sorted sequences, it is helpful to know if they are implemented as arrays or lists. Thus, we give detailed pseudo-code describing how to merge two sorted sequences represented as arrays and as linked lists in this section. Merging Two Sorted Arrays 683 We begin with the array implementation, which we show in Code Fragment 11.1. We illustrate a step in the merge of two sorted arrays in Figure 11.5. Code Fragment 11.1: Algorithm for merging two sorted array-based sequences. Figure 11.5: A step in the merge of two sorted arrays. We show the arrays before the copy step in (a) and after it in (b). Merging Two Sorted Lists. In Code Fragment 11.2, we give a list-based version of algorithm merge, for merging two sorted sequences, S1 and S2, implemented as linked lists. The main 684 idea is to iteratively remove the smallest element from the front of one of the two lists and add it to the end of the output sequence, S, until one of the two input lists is empty, at which point we copy the remainder of the other list to S. We show an example execution of this version of algorithm merge in Figure 11.6. Code Fragment 11.2: Algorithm merge for merging two sorted sequences implemented as linked lists. The Running Time for Merging We analyze the running time of the merge algorithm by making some simple observations. Let n1 and n2 be the number of elements of S1 and S2, respectively. Algorithm merge has three while loops. Independent of whether we are analyzing the array-based version or the list-based version, the operations performed inside each loop take O(1) time each. The key observation is that during each iteration of one of the loops, one element is copied or moved from either S n2). 1 or S2 into S (and that element is considered no further). Since no insertions are performed into S1 or S2, this observation implies that the overall number of iterations of the three loops is n1 +n2. Thus, the running time of algorithm merge is 0(n1 + Figure 11.6: Example of an execution of the algorithm merge shown in Code Fragment 11.2. 685 11.1.3 The Running Time of Merge-Sort Now that we have given the details of the merge-sort algorithm, in both its arraybased and list-based versions, and we have analyzed the running time ofthe crucial merge algorithm used in the conquer step, let us analyze the running time of the entire merge-sort algorithm, assuming it is given an input sequence of n elements. For simplicity, we restrict our attention to the case where n is a power of 2. We leave it to an exercise (R-11.6) to show that the result of our analysis also holds when n is not a power of 2. As we did in the analysis of the merge algorithm, we assume that the input sequence S and the auxiliary sequences S1 and S2, created by each recursive call of 686 merge-sort, are implemented by either arrays or linked lists (the same as S), so that merging two sorted sequences can be done in linear time. As we mentioned earlier, we analyze the merge-sort algorithm by referring to the merge-sort tree T. (Recall Figures 11.2 through 11.4.) We call the time spent at a node v of T the running time of the recursive call associated with v, excluding the time taken waiting for the recursive calls associated with the children of v to terminate. In other words, the time spent at node v includes the running times of the divide and conquer steps, but excludes the running time of the recur step. We have already observed that the details of the divide step are straightforward; this step runs in time proportional to the size of the sequence for v. In addition, as discussed above, the conquer step, which consists of merging two sorted subsequences, also takes linear time, independent of whether we are dealing with arrays or linked lists. That is, letting i denote the depth of node v, the time spent at node v is O(n/2i), since the size of the sequence handled by the recursive call associated with v is equal to n/2i. Looking at the tree T more globally, as shown in Figure 11.7, we see that, given our definition of "time spent at a node," the running time of merge-sort is equal to the sum of the times spent at the nodes of T. Observe that T has exactly 2i nodes at depth i. This simple observation has an important consequence, for it implies that the overall time spent at all the nodes of T at depth i is O(2i • n/2i), which is O(n). By Proposition 11.1, the height of T is …logn…. Thus, since the time spent at each of the …logn… + 1 levels of T is O(n), we have the following result: Proposition 11.2: Algorithm merge-sort sorts a sequence S of size n in O(nlogn) time, assuming two elements of S can be compared in O(1) time. In other words, the merge-sort algorithm asymptotically matches the fast running time of the heap-sort algorithm. Figure 11.7: A visual time analysis of the merge-sort tree T. Each node is shown labeled with the size of its subproblem. 687 11.1.4 Java Implementations of Merge-Sort In this section, we present two Java implementations of the merge-sort algorithm, one for lists and the other for arrays. A Recursive List-Based Implementation of Merge-Sort In Code Fragment 11.3, we show a complete Java implementation of the list- based merge-sort algorithm as a static recursive method, mergeSort. A comparator (see Section 8.1.2) is used to decide the relative order of two elements. In this implementation, the input is a list, L, and auxiliary lists, L1 and L2, are processed by the recursive calls. Each list is modified by insertions and deletions only at the head and tail; hence, each list update takes O(1) time, assuming the lists are implemented with doubly linked lists (see Table 6.4). In our code, we use class NodeList (Code Fragments 6.9–6.11) for the auxiliary lists. Thus, for a list L of size n, method mergeSort(L,c) runs in time O(nlogn) provided the list L is implemented with a doubly linked list and the comparator c can compare two elements of L in O(1) time. 688 Code Fragment 11.3: Methods mergeSort and merge implementing the recursive merge-sort algorithm. 689 690 A Nonrecursive Array-Based Implementation of Merge- Sort There is a nonrecursive version of array-based merge-sort, which runs in O(n log n) time. It is a bit faster than recursive list-based merge-sort in practice, as it avoids the extra overheads of recursive calls and node creation. The main idea is to perform merge-sort bottom-up, performing the merges level-by-level going up the merge-sort tree. Given an input array of elements, we begin by merging every odd-even pair of elements into sorted runs of length two. We merge these runs into runs of length four, merge these new runs into runs of length eight, and so on, until the array is sorted. To keep the space usage reasonable, we deploy an output array that stores the merged runs (swapping input and output arrays after each iteration). We give a Java implementation in Code Fragment 11.4, where we use the built-in method System.arraycopy to copy a range of cells between two arrays. Code Fragment 11.4: An implementation of the nonrecursive merge-sort algorithm. 691 11.1.5. Merge-Sort and Recurrence Equations  There is another way to justify that the running time of the merge-sort algorithm is O(n log n) (Proposition 11.2). Namely, we can deal more directly with the recursive nature of the merge-sort algorithm. In this section, we present such an analysis of the running time of merge-sort, and in so doing introduce the mathematical concept of a recurrence equation (also known as recurrence relation). Let the function t(n) denote the worst-case running time of merge-sort on an input sequence of size n. Since merge-sort is recursive, we can characterize function t(n) by means of an equation where the function t(n) is recursively expressed in terms of itself. In order to simplify our characterization of t (n), let us restrict our attention to 692 the case when n is a power of 2. (We leave the problem of showing that our asymptotic characterization still holds in the general case as an exercise.) In this case, we can specify the definition of t(n) as An expression such as the one above is called a recurrence equation, since the function appears on both the left- and right-hand sides of the equal sign. Although such a characterization is correct and accurate, what we really desire is a big-Oh type of characterization of t(n) that does not involve the function t(n) itself. That is, we want a closed-form characterization of t(n). We can obtain a closed-form solution by applying the definition of a recurrence equation, assuming n is relatively large. For example, after one more application of the equation above, we can write a new recurrence for t(n) as t(n) = 2(2t(n/22) + (cn/2)) + cn = 22t(n/22) + 2(cn/2) + cn = 22t(n/22) + 2cn. If we apply the equation again, we get t(n) = 23t(n/23) + 3cn. At this point, we should see a pattern emerging, so that after applying this equation i times we get t(n) = 2it(n/2i) + icn. The issue that remains, then, is to determine when to stop this process. To see when to stop, recall that we switch to the closed form t(n) = b when n ≤ 1, which will occur when 2i = n. In other words, this will occur when i = log n. Making this substitution, then, yields t(n) = 2lognt(n/2logn) + (logn)cn = nt(1) + cnlogn = nb + cnlogn. That is, we get an alternative justification of the fact that t(n) is O(nlogn). 11.2 Quick-Sort The next sorting algorithm we discuss is called quick-sort. Like merge-sort, this algorithm is also based on the divide-and-conquer paradigm, but it uses this technique in a somewhat opposite manner, as all the hard work is done before the recursive calls. High-Level Description of Quick-Sort 693 The quick-sort algorithm sorts a sequence S using a simple recursive approach. The main idea is to apply the divide-and-conquer technique, whereby we divide S into subsequences, recur to sort each subsequence, and then combine the sorted subsequences by a simple concatenation. In particular, the quick-sort algorithm consists of the following three steps (see Figure 11.8): 1. Divide: If S has at least two elements (nothing needs to be done if S has zero or one element), select a specific element x from S, which is called the pivot. As is common practice, choose the pivot x to be the last element in S. Remove all the elements from S and put them into three sequences: • L, storing the elements in S less than x • E, storing the elements in S equal to x • G, storing the elements in S greater than x. Of course, if the elements of S are all distinct, then E holds just one element—the pivot itself. 2. Recur: Recursively sort sequences L and G. 3. Conquer: Put back the elements into S in order by first inserting the elements of L, then those of E, and finally those of G. Figure 11.8: A visual schematic of the quick-sort algorithm. Like merge-sort, the execution of quick-sort can be visualized by means of a binary recursion tree, called the quick-sort tree. Figure 11.9 summarizes an execution of the quick-sort algorithm by showing the input and output sequences processed at 694 each node of the quick-sort tree. The step-by-step evolution of the quick-sort tree is shown in Figures 11.10, 11.11, and 11.12. Unlike merge-sort, however, the height of the quick-sort tree associated with an execution of quick-sort is linear in the worst case. This happens, for example, if the sequence consists of n distinct elements and is already sorted. Indeed, in this case, the standard choice of the pivot as the largest element yields a subsequence L of size n − 1, while subsequence E has size 1 and subsequence G has size 0. At each invocation of quick-sort on subsequence L, the size decreases by 1. Hence, the height of the quick-sort tree is n − 1. Figure 11.9: Quick-sort tree T for an execution of the quick-sort algorithm on a sequence with 8 elements: (a) input sequences processed at each node of T; (b) output sequences generated at each node of T. The pivot used at each level of the recursion is shown in bold. 695 Figure 11.10: Visualization of quick-sort. Each node of the tree represents a recursive call. The nodes drawn with dashed lines represent calls that have not been made yet. The node drawn with thick lines represents the running invocation. The empty nodes drawn with thin lines represent terminated calls. The remaining nodes represent suspended calls (that is, active invocations that are waiting for a child invocation to 696 return). Note the divide steps performed in (b), (d), and (f). (Continues in Figure 11.11.) Figure 11.11: Visualization of an execution of quick- sort.Note the conquer step performed in (k). (Continues in Figure 11.12.) 697 Figure 11.12: Visualization of an execution of quick- sort. Several invocations between (p) and (q) have been omitted. Note the conquer steps performed in (o) and (r). (Continued from Figure 11.11.) 698 Performing Quick-Sort on Arrays and Lists In Code Fragment 11.5, we give a pseudo-code description of the quick-sort algorithm that is efficient for sequences implemented as arrays or linked lists. The algorithm follows the template for quick-sort given above, adding the detail of scanning the input sequence S backwards to divide it into the lists L, E, and G of elements that are respectively less than, equal to, and greater than the pivot. We perform this scan backwards, since removing the last element in a sequence is a constant-time operation independent of whether the sequence is implemented as an array or a linked list. We then recur on the L and G lists, and copy the sorted lists L, E, and G back to S We perform this latter set of copies in the forward direction, 699 since inserting elements at the end of a sequence is a constant-time operation independent of whether the sequence is implemented as an array or a linked list. Code Fragment 11.5: Quick-sort for an input sequence S implemented with a linked list or an array. Running Time of Quick-Sort We can analyze the running time of quick-sort with the same technique used for merge-sort in Section 11.1.3. Namely, we can identify the time spent at each node of the quick-sort tree T and sum up the running times for all the nodes. Examining Code Fragment 11.5, we see that the divide step and the conquer step of quick-sort can be implemented in linear time. Thus, the time spent at a node v of T is proportional to the input size s(v) of v, defined as the size of the sequence handled by the invocation of quick-sort associated with node v. Since subsequence 700 E has at least one element (the pivot), the sum of the input sizes of the children of v is atmosts(v) − 1. Given a quick-sort tree T, let si denote the sum of the input sizes of the nodes at depth i in T. Clearly, s0 = n, since the root r of T is associated with the entire sequence. Also, s1 ≤ n − 1, since the pivot is not propagated to the children of r. Consider next s2. If both children of r have nonzero input size, then s2 = n − 3. Otherwise (one child of the root has zero size, the other has size n − 1), s2 = n − 2. Thus, s2 ≤ n − 2. Continuing this line of reasoning, we obtain that si ≤ n − i. As observed in Section 11.2, the height of T is n − 1 in the worst case. Thus, the worst- case running time of quick-sort is , which is , that is, . By Proposition 4.3, . Thus, quick-sort runs in O(n2) worst-case time. Given its name, we would expect quick-sort to run quickly. However, the quadratic bound above indicates that quick-sort is slow in the worst case. Paradoxically, this worst-case behavior occurs for problem instances when sorting should be easy—if the sequence is already sorted. Going back to our analysis, note that the best case for quick-sort on a sequence of distinct elements occurs when subsequences L and G happen to have roughly the same size. That is, in the best case, we have s0 = n s1 = n − 1 s2 = n − (1 + 2) = n − 3  si = 701 n − (1 + 2 + 22 + … + 2i−1) = n − (2i − 1). Thus, in the best case, T has height O(logn) and quick-sort runs in O(nlogn) time; we leave the justification of this fact as an exercise (R-11.11). The informal intuition behind the expected behavior of quick-sort is that at each invocation the pivot will probably divide the input sequence about equally. Thus, we expect the average running time quick-sort to be similar to the best-case running time, that is, O(nlogn). We will see in the next section that introducing randomization makes quick-sort behave exactly in this way. 11.2.1 Randomized Quick-Sort One common method for analyzing quick-sort is to assume that the pivot will always divide the sequence almost equally. We feel such an assumption would presuppose knowledge about the input distribution that is typically not available, however. For example, we would have to assume that we will rarely be given "almost" sorted sequences to sort, which are actually common in many applications. Fortunately, this assumption is not needed in order for us to match our intuition to quick-sort's behavior. In general, we desire some way of getting close to the best-case running time for quick-sort. The way to get close to the best-case running time, of course, is for the pivot to divide the input sequence S almost equally. If this outcome were to occur, then it would result in a running time that is asymptotically the same as the best- case running time. That is, having pivots close to the "middle" of the set of elements leads to an O(nlogn) running time for quick-sort. Picking Pivots at Random Since the goal of the partition step of the quick-sort method is to divide the sequence S almost equally, let us introduce randomization into the algorithm and pick as the pivot a random element of the input sequence. That is, instead of picking the pivot as the last element of S, we pick an element of S at random as the pivot, keeping the rest of the algorithm unchanged. This variation of quick- sort is called randomized quick-sort. The following proposition shows that the expected running time of randomized quick-sort on a sequence with n elements is O(nlogn). This expectation is taken over all the possible random choices the algorithm makes, and is independent of any assumptions about the distribution of the possible input sequences the algorithm is likely to be given. Proposition 11.3: The expected running time of randomized quick-sort on a sequence S of size n is O(nlogn). Justification: We assume two elements of S can be compared in O(1) time. Consider a single recursive call of randomized quick-sort, and let n denote 702 the size of the input for this call. Say that this call is "good" if the pivot chosen is such that subsequences L and G have size at least n/4 and at most 3n/4 each; otherwise, a call is "bad." Now, consider the implications of our choosing a pivot uniformly at random. Note that there are n/2 possible good choices for the pivot for any given call of size n of the randomized quick-sort algorithm. Thus, the probability that any call is good is 1/2. Note further that a good call will at least partition a list of size n into two lists of size 3n/4 and n/4, and a bad call could be as bad as producing a single call of size n − 1. Now consider a recursion trace for randomized quick-sort. This trace defines a binary tree, T, such that each node in T corresponds to a different recursive call on a subproblem of sorting a portion of the original list. Say that a node v in T is in size group i if the size of v's subproblem is greater than (3/4)i + 1n and at most (3/4)in. Let us analyze the expected time spent working on all the subproblems for nodes in size group i. By the linearity of expectation (Proposition A.19), the expected time for working on all these subproblems is the sum of the expected times for each one. Some of these nodes correspond to good calls and some correspond to bad calls. But note that, since a good call occurs with probability 1/2, the expected number of consecutive calls we have to make before getting a good call is 2. Moreover, notice that as soon as we have a good call for a node in size group i, its children will be in size groups higher than i. Thus, for any element x from in the input list, the expected number of nodes in size group i containing x in their subproblems is 2. In other words, the expected total size of all the subproblems in size group i is 2n. Since the nonrecursive work we perform for any subproblem is proportional to its size, this implies that the total expected time spent processing subproblems for nodes in size group i is O(n). The number of size groups is log4/3n, since repeatedly multiplying by 3/4 is the same as repeatedly dividing by 4/3. That is, the number of size groups is O(logn). Therefore, the total expected running time of randomized quick-sort is O(nlogn). (See Figure 11.13.) Figure 11.13: A visual time analysis of the quick- sort tree T. Each node is shown labeled with the size of its subproblem. 703 Actually, we can show that the running time of randomized quick-sort is O(nlogn) with high probability. (See Exercise C-11.10.) 11.2.2 In-Place Quick-Sort Recall from Section 8.3.5 that a sorting algorithm is in-place if it uses only a small amount of memory in addition to that needed for the objects being sorted themselves. The merge-sort algorithm, as we have described it above, is not in- place, and making it be in-place requires a more complicated merging method than the one we discuss in Section 11.1.2. In-place sorting is not inherently difficult, however. For, as with heap-sort, quick-sort can be adapted to be in-place. Performing the quick-sort algorithm in-place requires a bit of ingenuity, however, for we must use the input sequence itself to store the subsequences for all the recursive calls. We show algorithm inPlaceQuickSort, which performs in- place quick-sort, in Code Fragment 11.6. Algorithm inPlaceQuickSort assumes that the input sequence, S, is given as an array of distinct elements. The reason for this restriction is explored in Exercise R-11.14. The extension to the general case is discussed in Exercise C-11.8. Code Fragment 11.6: In-place quick-sort for an input array S. 704 In-place quick-sort modifies the input sequence using element swapping and does not explicitly create subsequences. Indeed, a subsequence of the input sequence is implicitly represented by a range of positions specified by a left-most index l and a right-most index r. The divide step is performed by scanning the array simultaneously from l forward and from r backward, swapping pairs of elements that are in reverse order, as shown in Figure 11.14. When these two indices "meet," subarrays L and G are on opposite sides of the meeting point. The algorithm completes by recurring on these two subarrays. In-place quick-sort reduces the running time caused by the creation of new sequences and the movement of elements between them by a constant factor. We show a Java version of in-place quick-sort in Code Fragment 11.7. Figure 11.14: Divide step of in-place quick-sort. Index l scans the sequence from left to right, and index r scans the sequence from right to left. A swap is performed when l is at an element larger than the pivot 705 and r is at an element smaller than the pivot. A final swap with the pivot completes the divide step. Code Fragment 11.7: A coding of in-place quick- sort, assuming distinct elements. 706 Unfortunately, the implementation above is not guaranteed to be in-place. Recalling Section 14.1.1, we note that we need space for a stack proportional to the depth of the recursion tree, which in this case can be as large as n − 1. Admittedly, the expected stack depth is O(logn), which is small compared to n. Nevertheless, a simple trick lets us guarantee the stack size is O(logn). The main idea is to design a nonrecursive version of in-place quick-sort using an explicit stack to iteratively process subproblems (each of which can be represented with a pair of indices marking subarray boundaries. Each iteration involves popping the top subproblem, splitting it in two (if it is big enough), and pushing the two new subproblems. The trick is that when pushing the new subproblems, we should first push the larger subproblem and then the smaller one. In this way, the sizes of the subproblems will at least double as we go down the stack; hence, the stack can have depth at most O(logn). We leave the details of this implementation to an exercise (C-11.9). 707 11.3 A Lower Bound on Sorting Recapping our discussions on sorting to this point, we have described several methods with either a worst-case or expected running time of O(nlogn) on an input sequence of size n. These methods include merge-sort and quick-sort, described in this chapter, as well as heap-sort, described in Section 8.3.5. A natural question to ask, then, is whether it is possible to sort any faster than in O(nlogn) time. In this section, we show that if the computational primitive used by a sorting algorithm is the comparison of two elements, then this is the best we can do— comparison-based sorting has an Ω(nlogn) worst-case lower bound on its running time. (Recall the notation Ω(·) from Section 4.2.3.) To focus on the main cost of comparison-based sorting, let us only count the comparisons that a sorting algorithm performs. Since we want to derive a lower bound, this will be sufficient. Suppose we are given a sequence S = (x0,x1,<…>,xn−1) that we wish to sort, and assume that all the elements of S are distinct (this is not really a restriction since we are deriving a lower bound). We do not care if S is implemented as an array or a linked list, for the sake of our lower bound, since we are only counting comparisons. Each time a sorting algorithm compares two elements xi and xj (that is, it asks, “is xi < xj?”), there are two outcomes: "yes" or "no." Based on the result of this comparison the sorting algorithm may perform some internal calculations (which we are not counting here) and will eventually perform another comparison between two other elements of S, which again will have two outcomes. Therefore, we can represent a comparison-based sorting algorithm with a decision tree T (recall , Example 7.8). That is, each internal node v in T corresponds to a comparison and the edges from node to its children correspond to the computations resulting from either a "yes" or "no" answer (see Figure 11.15). It is important to note that the hypothetical sorting algorithm in question probably has no explicit knowledge of the tree T. We simply use T to represent all the possible sequences of comparisons that a sorting algorithm might make, starting from the first comparison (associated with the root) and ending with the last comparison (associated with the parent of an external node) just before the algorithm terminates its execution. Each possible initial ordering, or permutation, of the elements in S will cause our hypothetical sorting algorithm to execute a series of comparisons, traversing a path in T from the root to some external node. Let us associate with each external node v in T, then, the set of permutations of S that cause our sorting algorithm to end up in v. The most important observation in our lower-bound argument is that each external node v in T can represent the sequence of comparisons for at most one permutation of S. The justification for this claim is simple: if two different permutations P1 and P2 of S are associated with the same external node, then there are at least two objects xi and xj, such that xi is before xj in P1 but xi is after xj in P2. At the same time, the output associated with v must be a specific reordering of S, with either xi or xj appearing before the other. But if P1 and P2 both cause the sorting 708 algorithm to output the elements of S in this order, then that implies there is a way trick the algorithm into outputting x to following result: i and xj in the wrong order. Since this cannot be allowed by a correct sorting algorithm, each external node of T must be associated with exactly one permutation of S. We use this property of the decision tree associated with a sorting algorithm to prove the Proposition 11.4: The running time of any comparison-based algorithm for sorting an n-element sequence is Ω(nlogn)in the worst case. Justification: The running time of a comparison-based sorting algorithm must be greater than or equal to the height of the decision tree T associated with this algorithm, as described above. (See Figure 11.15.) By the argument above, each external node in T must be associated with one permutation of S. Moreover, each permutation of S must result in a different external node of T. The number of permutations of n objects is n! = n(n − 1)(n − 2) … 2 · 1. Thus, T must have at least n! external nodes. By Proposition 7.10, the height of T is at least log(n!). This immediately justifies the proposition, because there are at least n/2 terms that are greater than or equal to n/2 in the product n!; hence which is Ω(nlogn). Figure 11.15: Visualizing the lower bound for comparison-based sorting. 709 11.4 Bucket-Sort and Radix-Sort In the previous section, we showed that Ω(nlogn) time is necessary, in the worst case, to sort an n-element sequence with a comparison-based sorting algorithm. A natural question to ask, then, is whether there are other kinds of sorting algorithms that can be designed to run asymptotically faster than O(nlogn) time. Interestingly, such algorithms exist, but they require special assumptions about the input sequence to be sorted. Even so, such scenarios often arise in practice, so discussing them is worthwhile. In this section, we consider the problem of sorting a sequence of entries, each a key-value pair. 11.4.1 Bucket-Sort Consider a sequence S of n entries whose keys are integers in the range [0,N − 1], for some integer N ≥ 2, and suppose that S should be sorted according to the keys of the entries. In this case, it is possible to sort S in O(n + N) time. It might seem surprising, but this implies, for example, that if N is O(n), then we can sort S in O(n) time. Of course, the crucial point is that, because of the restrictive assumption about the format of the elements, we can avoid using comparisons. The main idea is to use an algorithm called bucket-sort, which is not based on comparisons, but on using keys as indices into a bucket array B that has cells indexed from 0 to N − 1. An entry with key k is placed in the "bucket" B[k], which 710 itself is a sequence (of entries with key k). After inserting each entry of the input sequence S into its bucket, we can put the entries back into S in sorted order by enumerating the contents of the buckets B[0], B[1],…,B[N − 1] in order. We describe the bucket-sort algorithm in Code Fragment 11.8. Code Fragment 11.8: Bucket-sort. It is easy to see that bucket-sort runs in O(n + N) time and uses O(n + N) space. Hence, bucket-sort is efficient when the range N of values for the keys is small compared to the sequence size n, say N = O(n) or N = O(nlogn). Still, its performance deteriorates as N grows compared to n. An important property of the bucket-sort algorithm is that it works correctly even if there are many different elements with the same key. Indeed, we described it in a way that anticipates such occurrences. Stable Sorting When sortting key-value pairs, an important issue is how equal keys are handled. Let S = ((k0,x0),…,(kn−1,xn−1)) be a sequence of such entries. We say that a sorting algorithm is stable if, for any two entries (k i,xi) and (kj,xj) of S, such that ki = kj and (ki,xi) precedes (kj,xj) in S before sorting (that is, i < j), entry (ki,xi) also precedes entry (kj,xj) after sorting. Stability is important for a sorting algorithm because applications may want to preserve the initial ordering of elements with the same key. Our informal description of bucket-sort in Code Fragment 11.8 does not guarantee stability. This is not inherent in the bucket-sort method itself, however, for we can easily modify our description to make bucket-sort stable, while still preserving its O(n + N) running time. Indeed, we can obtain a stable bucket-sort algorithm by always removing the first element from sequence S and from the sequences B[i] during the execution of the algorithm. 711 11.4.2 Radix-Sort One of the reasons that stable sorting is so important is that it allows the bucket-sort approach to be applied to more general contexts than to sort integers. Suppose, for example, that we want to sort entries with keys that are pairs (k,l), where k and l are integers in the range [0,N − 1], for some integer N ≥ 2. In a context such as this, it is natural to define an ordering on these keys using the lexicographical (dictionary) convention, where (k1,l1) < (k2,l2) if k1 < k2 or if k1 = k2 and l1 < l2 (Section 8.1.2). This is a pair-wise version of the lexicographic comparison function, usually applied to equal-length character strings (and it easily generalizes to tuples of d numbers for d > 2). The radix-sort algorithm sorts a sequence S of entries with keys that are pairs, by applying a stable bucket-sort on the sequence twice; first using one component of the pair as the ordering key and then using the second component. But which order is correct? Should we first sort on the k’s (the first component) and then on the l’s (the second component), or should it be the other way around? Before we answer this question, we consider the following example. Example 11.5: Consider the following sequence S (we show only the keys): S = ((3,3),(1,5), (2,5), (1,2), (2,3), (1,7), (3,2),(2,2)). If we sort S stably on the first component, then we get the sequence S1 = ((1,5), (1,2), (1,7), (2,5), (2,3), (2,2), (3,3), (3,2)). If we then stably sort this sequence S1 using the second component, then we get the sequence S1,2 = ((1,2), (2,2), (3,2), (2,3), (3,3), (1,5), (2,5), (1,7)), which is not exactly a sorted sequence. On the other hand, if we first stably sort S using the second component, then we get the sequence S2 = ((1,2), (3,2), (2,2), (3,3), (2,3), (1,5), (2,5), (1,7)). If we then stably sort sequence S2 using the first component, then we get the sequence S2,1 = ((1,2), (1,5), (1,7), (2,2), (2,3), (2,5), (3,2), (3,3)), which is indeed sequence S lexicographically ordered. So, from this example, we are led to believe that we should first sort using the second component and then again using the first component. This intuition is exactly right. By first stably sorting by the second component and then again by the 712 first component, we guarantee that if two entries are equal in the second sort (by the first component), then their relative order in the starting sequence (which is sorted by the second component) is preserved. Thus, the resulting sequence is guaranteed to be sorted lexicographically every time. We leave to a simple exercise (R-11.19) the determination of how this approach can be extended to triples and other d-tuples of numbers. We can summarize this section as follows: Proposition 11.6: Let S be a sequence of n key-value pairs, each of which has a key (k1,k2,…,kd), where ki is an integer in the range [0,N − 1] for some integer N ≥ 2. We can sort S lexicographically in time O(d(n + N)) using radix-sort. As important as it is, sorting is not the only interesting problem dealing with a total order relation on a set of elements. There are some applications, for example, that do not require an ordered listing of an entire set, but nevertheless call for some amount of ordering information about the set. Before we study such a problem (called "selection"), let us step back and briefly compare all of the sorting algorithms we have studied so far. 11.5 Comparison of Sorting Algorithms At this point, it might be useful for us to take a breath and consider all the algorithms we have studied in this book to sort an n-element array list, node list, or general sequence. Considering Running Time and Other Factors We have studied several methods, such as insertion-sort, and selection-sort, that have O(n2)-time behavior in the average and worst case. We have also studied several methods with O(nlogn)-time behavior, including heap-sort, merge-sort, and quick-sort. Finally, we have studied a special class of sorting algorithms, namely, the bucket-sort and radix-sort methods, that run in linear time for certain types of keys. Certainly, the selection-sort algorithm is a poor choice in any application, since it runs in O(n2) time even in the best case. But, of the remaining sorting algorithms, which is the best? As with many things in life, there is no clear "best" sorting algorithm from the remaining candidates. The sorting algorithm best suited for a particular application depends on several properties of that application. We can offer some guidance and observations, therefore, based on the known properties of the "good" sorting algorithms. Insertion-Sort If implemented well, the running time of insertion-sort is O(n + m), where m is the number of inversions (that is, the number of pairs of elements out of order). Thus, 713 insertion-sort is an excellent algorithm for sorting small sequences (say, less than 50 elements), because insertion-sort is simple to program, and small sequences necessarily have few inversions. Also, insertion-sort is quite effective for sorting sequences that are already "almost" sorted. By "almost," we mean that the number of inversions is small. But the O(n2)-time performance of insertion-sort makes it a poor choice outside of these special contexts. Merge-Sort Merge-sort, on the other hand, runs in O(nlogn) time in the worst case, which is optimal for comparison-based sorting methods. Still, experimental studies have shown that, since it is difficult to make merge-sort run in-place, the overheads needed to implement merge-sort make it less attractive than the in-place implementations of heap-sort and quick-sort for sequences that can fit entirely in a computer's main memory area. Even so, merge-sort is an excellent algorithm for situations where the input cannot all fit into main memory, but must be stored in blocks on an external memory device, such as a disk. In these contexts, the way that merge-sort processes runs of data in long merge streams makes the best use of all the data brought into main memory in a block from disk. Thus, for external memory sorting, the merge-sort algorithm tends to minimize the total number of disk reads and writes needed, which makes the merge-sort algorithm superior in such contexts. Quick-Sort Experimental studies have shown that if an input sequence can fit entirely in main memory, then the in-place versions of quick-sort and heap-sort run faster than merge-sort. The extra overhead needed for copying nodes or entries puts mergesort at a disadvantage to quick-sort and heap-sort in these applications. In fact, quick- sort tends, on average, to beat heap-sort in these tests. So, quick-sort is an excellent choice as a general-purpose, in-memory sorting algorithm. Indeed, it is included in the qsort sorting utility provided in C language libraries. Still, its O(n2) time worst-case performance makes quick-sort a poor choice in real-time applications where we must make guarantees on the time needed to complete a sorting operation. Heap-Sort In real-time scenarios where we have a fixed amount of time to perform a sorting operation and the input data can fit into main memory, the heap-sort algorithm is probably the best choice. It runs in O(nlogn) worst-case time and can easily be made to execute in-place. 714 Bucket-Sort and Radix-Sort Finally, if our application involves sorting entries with small integer keys or d- tuples of small integer keys, then bucket-sort or radix-sort is an excellent choice, for it runs in O(d(n + N)) time, where [0,N − 1] is the range of integer keys (and d = 1 for bucket sort). Thus, if d(n + N) is significantly "below" the nlogn function, then this sorting method should run faster than even quick-sort or heap-sort. Thus, our study of all these different sorting algorithms provides us with a versatile collection of sorting methods in our algorithm engineering "toolbox." 11.6 The Set ADT and Union/Find Structures In this section, we introduce the set ADT. A set is a collection of distinct objects. That is, there are no duplicate elements in a set, and there is no explicit notion of keys or even an order. Even so, we include our discussion of sets here in a chapter on sorting, because sorting can play an important role in efficient implementations of the operations of the set ADT. Sets and Some of Their Uses First, we recall the mathematical definitions of the union, intersection, and subtraction of two sets A and B: A  B = {x:xis in A or x is in B}, A ∩ B = {x:x is in A and x is in B}, A − B = {x:x is in A and x /is in B}. Example 11.7: Most Internet search engines store, for each word x in their dictionary database, a set, W(x), of Web pages that contain x, where each Web page is identified by a unique Internet address. When presented with a query for a word x, such a search engine need only return the Web pages in the set W(x), sorted according to some proprietary priority ranking of page "importance." But when presented with a two-word query for words x and y, such a search engine must first compute the intersection W(x) ∩ W(y), and then return the Web pages in the resulting set sorted by priority. Several search engines use the set intersection algorithm described in this section for this computation. Fundamental Methods of the Set ADT The fundamental methods of the set ADT, acting on a set A, are as follows: union(B): Replace A with the union of A and B, that is, execute A←A  B. 715 intersect(B): Replace A with the intersection of A and B, that is, execute A←A ∩ B. subtract(B): Replace A with the difference of A and B, that is, execute A←A − B. 11.6.1 A Simple Set Implementation One of the simplest ways of implementing a set is to store its elements in an ordered sequence. This implementation is included in several software libraries for generic data structures, for example. Therefore, let us consider implementing the set ADT with an ordered sequence (we consider other implementations in several exercises). Any consistent total order relation among the elements of the set can be used, provided the same order is used for all the sets. We implement each of the three fundamental set operations using a generic version of the merge algorithm that takes, as input, two sorted sequences representing the input sets, and constructs a sequence representing the output set, be it the union, intersection, or subtraction of the input sets. Incidentally, we have defined these operations so that they modify the contents of the set A involved. Alternatively, we could have defined these methods so that they do not modify A but return a new set instead. The generic merge algorithm iteratively examines and compares the current elements a and b of the input sequence A and B, respectively, and finds out whether a < b, a = b, or a > b. Then, based on the outcome of this comparison, it determines whether it should copy one of the elements a and b to the end of the output sequence C. This determination is made based on the particular operation we are performing, be it a union, intersection, or subtraction. For example, in a union operation, we proceed as follows: • If a < b, we copy a to the end of C and advance to the next element of A. • If a = b, we copy a to the end of C and advance to the next elements of A and B. • If a > b, we copy b to the end of C and advance to the next element of B. Performance of Generic Merging Let us analyze the running time of generic merging. At each iteration, we compare two elements of the input sequences A and B, possibly copy one element to the output sequence, and advance the current element of A, B, or both. Assuming that comparing and copying elements takes O(1) time, the total running time is O(nA + nB), where nA is the size of A and nB is the size of B; that is, 716 generic merging takes time proportional to the number of elements. Thus, we have the following: Proposition 11.8: The set ADT can be implemented with an ordered sequence and a generic merge scheme that supports operationsunion, intersect, andsubtract in O(n) time, where n denotes the sum of sizes of the sets involved. Generic Merging as a Template Method Pattern The generic merge algorithm is based on the template method pattern (see Section 7.3.7). The template method pattern is a software engineering design pattern describing a generic computation mechanism that can be specialized by redefining certain steps. In this case, we describe a method that merges two sequences into one and can be specialized by the behavior of three abstract methods. Code Fragment 11.9 shows the class Merge providing a Java implementation of the generic merge algorithm. Code Fragment 11.9: Class Merge for generic merging. 717 To convert the generic Merge class into useful classes, we must extend it with classes that redefine the three auxiliary methods, aIsLess, bothAreEqual, and bIsLess. We show how union, intersection, and subtraction can be easily described in terms of these methods in Code Fragment 11.10. The auxiliary methods are redefined so that the template method merge performs as follows: 718 • In class Union Merge, merge copies every element from A and B into C, but does not duplicate any element. • In class IntersectMerge, merge copies every element that is in both A and B into C, but "throws away" elements in one set but not in the other. • In class SubtractMerge, merge copies every element that is in A and not in B into C. Code Fragment 11.10: Classes extending the Merge class by specializing the auxiliary methods to perform set union, intersection, and subtraction, respectively. 719 11.6.2 Partitions with Union-Find Operations A partition is a collection of disjoint sets. We define the methods of the partition ADT using position objects (Section 6.2.2), each of which stores an element x. The parition ADT supports the following methods. makeSet(x): Create a singleton set containing the element x and return the position storing x in this set. union(A, B): Return the set A  B, destroying the old A and B. find(p): Return the set containing the element in position p. A simple implementation of a partition with a total of n elements is with a collection of sequences, one for each set, where the sequence for a set A stores set positions as its elements. Each position object stores a variable, element, which references its associated element x and allows the execution of the element() method in O(1) time. In addition, we also store a variable, set, in each position, which references the sequence storing p, since this sequence is representing the set containing p's element. (See Figure 11.16.) Thus, we can perform operation find(p) in O(1) time, by following the set reference for p. Likewise, makeSet also takes O(1) time. Operation union(A,B) requires that we join two sequences into one and update the set references of the positions in one of the two. We choose to implement this operation by removing all the positions from the sequence with smaller size, and inserting them in the sequence with larger size. Each time we take a position p from the smaller set s and insert it into the larger set t, we update the set reference for p to now point to t. Hence, the operation union(A,B) takes time O(min(|A|,|B|)), which is O(n), because, in the worst case, |A| = |B| = n/2. Nevertheless, as shown below, an amortized analysis shows this implementation to be much better than appears from this worst-case analysis. Figure 11.16: Sequence-based implementation of a partition consisting of three sets: A = 1,4,7, B = 2,3,6,9, and C = 5,8,10,11,12. 720 Performance of the Sequence Implementation The sequence implementation above is simple, but it is also efficient, as the following theorem shows. Proposition 11.9: Performing a series of nmakeSet, union, andfind operations, using the sequence-based implementation above, starting from an initially empty partition takes O(nlogn) time. Justification: We use the accounting method and assume that one cyber- dollar can pay for the time to perform a find operation, a makeSet operation, or the movement of a position object from one sequence to another in a union operation. In the case of a find or makeSet operation, we charge the operation itself 1 cyber-dollar. In the case of a union operation, however, we charge 1 cyber-dollar to each position that we move from one set to another. Note that we charge nothing to the union operations themselves. Clearly, the total charges to find and makeSet operations sum to be O(n). Consider, then, the number of charges made to positions on behalf of union operations. The important observation is that each time we move a position from one set to another, the size of the new set at least doubles. Thus, each position is moved from one set to another at most logn times; hence, each position can be charged at most O(logn) times. Since we assume that the partition is initially empty, there are O(n) different elements referenced in the given series of operations, which implies that the total time for all the union operations is O(nlogn). The amortized running time of an operation in a series of makeSet, union, and find operations, is the total time taken for the series divided by the number of operations. We conclude from the proposition above that, for a partition implemented using sequences, the amortized running time of each operation is 721 O(logn). Thus, we can summarize the performance of our simple sequence-based partition implementation as follows. Proposition 11.10: Using a sequence-based implementation of a partition, in a series of nmakeSet, union, andfind operations starting from an initially empty partition, the amortized running time of each operation is O(logn). Note that in this sequence-based implementation of a partition, each find operation takes worst-case O(1) time. It is the running time of the union operations that is the computational bottleneck. In the next section, we describe a tree-based implementation of a partition that does not guarantee constant-time find operations, but has amortized time much better than O(logn) per union operation. 11.6.3 A Tree-Based Partition Implementation  An alternative data structure uses a collection of trees to store the n elements in sets, where each tree is associated with a different set. (See Figure 11.17.) In particular, we implement each tree with a linked data structure whose nodes are themselves the set position objects. We still view each position p as being a node having a variable, element, referring to its element x, and a variable, set, referring to a set containing x, as before. But now we also view each position p as being of the "set" data type. Thus, the set reference of each position p can point to a position, which could even be p itself. Moreover, we implement this approach so that all the positions and their respective set references together define a collection of trees. We associate each tree with a set. For any position p, if p's set reference points back to p, then p is the root of its tree, and the name of the set containing p is "p" (that is, we will be using position names as set names in this case). Otherwise, the set reference for p points to p's parent in its tree. In either case, the set containing p is the one associated with the root of the tree containing p. Figure 11.17: Tree-based implementation of a partition consisting of three disjoint sets: A = 1,4,7, B = 2,3,6,9, and C = 5,8,10,11,12. 722 With this partition data structure, operation union(A,B) is called with position arguments p and q that respectively represent the sets A and B (that is, A = p and B = q). We perform this operation by making one of the trees a subtree of the other (Figure 11.18b), which can be done in O(1) time by setting the set reference of the root of one tree to point to the root of the other tree. Operation find for a position p is performed by walking up to the root of the tree containing the position p (Figure 11.18a), which takes O(n) time in the worst case. Note that this representation of a tree is a specialized data structure used to implement a partition, and is not meant to be a realization of the tree abstract data type (Section 7.1). Indeed, the representation has only "upward" links, and does not provide a way to access the children of a given node. Figure 11.18: Tree-based implementation of a partition: (a) operation union(A,B); (b) operation find(p), where p denotes the position object for element 12. 723 At first, this implementation may seem to be no better than the sequence-based data structure, but we add the following simple heuristics to make it run faster: Union-by-Size: Store, with each position node p, the size of the subtree rooted at p. In a union operation, make the tree of the smaller set become a subtree of the other tree, and update the size field of the root of the resulting tree. Path Compression: In a find operation, for each node v that the find visits, reset the parent pointer from v to point to the root. (See Figure 11.19.) These heuristics increase the running time of an operation by a constant factor, but as we discuss below, they significantly improve the amortized running time. Figure 11.19: Path-compression heuristic: (a) path traversed by operation find on element 12; (b) restructured tree. 724 The Log-Star and Inverse Ackermann Functions A surprising property of the tree-based partition data structure, when implemented using the union-by-size and path-compression heuristics, is that performing a series of nunion and find operations takes 0(nlog*n) time, where log*n is the log-star function, which is the inverse of the tower-of-twos function. Intuitively, log*n is the number of times that one can iteratively take the logarithm (base 2) of a number before getting a number smaller than 2. Table 11.1 shows a few sample values. Table 11.1: Some values of log* n and critical values for its inverse. As is demonstrated in Table 11.1, for all practical purposes, log* n ≤ 5. It is an amazingly slow-growing function (but one that is growing nonetheless). In fact, the running time of a series of n partition operations implemented as above can actually be shown to be O(nα(n)), where α(n) is the inverse of the Ackermann function,A, which grows asymptotically even slower than log* n. Although we will not prove this fact, let us define the Ackermann function here, so as to appreciate just how quickly it grows; hence, how slowly its inverse grows. We first define an indexed Ackermann function, Ai, as follows: A0(n)= 2n for n≥0 725 Ai(1)= Ai−1(2) for i≥1 Ai(n)= Ai−1(Ai(n − 1)) for i ≥ 1 and n ≥ 2. In other words, the Ackermann functions define a progression of functions: • A0(n) = 2n is the multiply-by-two function • A1 (n) = 2n is the power-of-two function • A2(n) =Math (with n 2's) is the tower-of-twos function • and so on. We then define the Ackermann function as A(n) = An(n), which is an incredibly fast growing function. Likewise, the inverse Ackermann function, α(n) = min{m: A(m) ≥ n}, is an incredibly slow growing function. It grows much slower than the log* n function (which is the inverse of A2(n)), for example, and we have already noted that log* n is a very slow-growing function. 11.7 Selection There are a number of applications in which we are interested in identifying a single element in terms of its rank relative to an ordering of the entire set. Examples include identifying the minimum and maximum elements, but we may also be interested in, say, identifying the median element, that is, the element such that half of the other elements are smaller and the remaining half are larger. In general, queries that ask for an element with a given rank are called order statistics. Defining the Selection Problem In this section, we discuss the general order-statistic problem of selecting the kth smallest element from an unsorted collection of n comparable elements. This is known as the selection problem. Of course, we can solve this problem by sorting the collection and then indexing into the sorted sequence at index k−1. Using the best comparison-based sorting algorithms, this approach would take O(nlogn) time, which is obviously an overkill for the cases where k = 1 or k = n (or even k = 2, k = 3, k = n − 1, or k = n − 5), because we can easily solve the selection problem for these values of k in O(n) time. Thus, a natural question to ask is whether we can achieve an O(n) running time for all values of k (including the interesting case of finding the median, where k =floorln/2 floorr;). 11.7.1 Prune-and-Search 726 This may come as a small surprise, but we can indeed solve the selection problem in O(n) time for any value of k. Moreover, the technique we use to achieve this result involves an interesting algorithmic design pattern. This design pattern is known as prune-and-search or decrease-and-conquer. In applying this design pattern, we solve a given problem that is defined on a collection of n objects by pruning away a fraction of the n objects and recursively solving the smaller problem. When we have finally reduced the problem to one defined on a constant- sized collection of objects, then we solve the problem using some brute-force method. Returning back from all the recursive calls completes the construction. In some cases, we can avoid using recursion, in which case we simply iterate the prune-and-search reduction step until we can apply a brute-force method and stop. Incidentally, the binary search method described in Section 9.3.3 is an example of the prune-andsearch design pattern. 11.7.2 Randomized Quick-Select Code Fragment 11.11: Randomized quick-select algorithm. In applying the prune-and-search pattern to the selection problem, we can design a simple and practical method, called randomized quick-select, for finding the kth smallest element in an unordered sequence of n elements on which a total order relation is defined. Randomized quick-select runs in O(n) expected time, taken over all possible random choices made by the algorithm, and this expectation does not depend whatsoever on any randomness assumptions about the input distribution. We note though that randomized quick-select runs in O(n2) time in the worst case, the justification of which is left as an exercise (R-11.25). We also provide an 727 Exercise (C-1 1.31) for modifying randomized quick-select to get a deterministic selection algorithm that runs in O(n) worst-case time. The existence of this deterministic algorithm is mostly of theoretical interest, however, since the constant factor hidden by the big-Oh notation is relatively large in this case. Suppose we are given an unsorted sequence S of n comparable elements together with an integer k > [1,n]. At a high level, the quick-select algorithm for finding the kth smallest element in S is similar in structure to the randomized quicksort algorithm described in Section 11.2.1. We pick an element x from S at random and use this as a "pivot" to subdivide S into three subsequences L, E, and G, storing the elements of S less than x, equal to x, and greater than x, respectively. This is the prune step. Then, based on the value of k, we then determine which of these sets to recur on. Randomized quick-select is described in Code Fragment 11.11. Algorithm quickSelect(S,k): Input: Sequence S of n comparable elements, and an integer k [1,n] Output: The kth smallest element of S if n = 1 then return the (first) element of S. pick a random (pivot) element x of S and divide S into three sequences: •L, storing the elements in S less than x •E, storing the elements in S equal to x •G, storing the elements in S greater than x. if k≤|L| then quickSelect(L,k) else if k≤ |L| + |E| then return x {each element in E is equal to x} else quickSelect(G,k − |L| — |E|) {note the new selection parameter} 11.7.3 Analyzing Randomized Quick-Select Showing that randomized quick-select runs in O(n) time requires a simple probabilistic argument. The argument is based on the linearity of expectation, which states that if X and Y are random variables and c is a number, then E(X + Y)=E(X)+E(Y) and E(cX)=cE(X), where we use E(Z) to denote the expected value of the expression Z. Let t (n) be the running time of randomized quick-select on a sequence of size n. Since this algorithm depends on random events, its running time, t(n), is a random variable. We want to bound E(t(n)), the expected value of t(n). Say that a recursive invocation of our algorithm is "good" if it partitions S so that the size of L and G is at most 3n/4. Clearly, a recursive call is good with probability 1/2. Let g(n) denote the number of consecutive recursive calls we make, including the present one, before we get a good one. Then we can characterize t (n) using the following recurrence equation: t(n)≤bn·g(n) + t(3n/4), where b ≥ 1 is a constant. Applying the linearity of expectation for n > 1, we get E (t(n)) ≤E(bn·g(n) + t(3n/4)) =bn·E (g(n)) + E (t(3n/4)). Since a recursive call is good with probability 1/2, and whether a recursive call is good or not is independent of its parent call being good, the expected value of g(n) 728 is the same as the expected number of times we must flip a fair coin before it comes up "heads." That is, E(g(n)) = 2. Thus, if we let T(n) be shorthand for E(t(n)), then we can write the case for n > 1 as T(n)≤T(3n/4) + 2bn. To convert this relation into a closed form, let us iteratively apply this inequality assuming n is large. So, for example, after two applications, T(n) ≤T((3/4)2n) + 2b(3/4)n + 2bn. At this point, we should see that the general case is In other words, the expected running time is at most 2bn times a geometric sum whose base is a positive number less than 1. Thus, by Proposition 4.5, T(n) is O(n). Proposition 11.11: The expected running time of randomized quick-select on a sequence S of size n is O(n), assuming two elements of S can be compared in O(1) time. 11.8 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. Reinforcement R-11.1 Suppose S is a list of n bits, that is, n 0's and 1's. How long will it take to sort S with the merge-sort algorithm? What about quick-sort? R-11.2 Suppose S is a list of n bits, that is, n 0's and 1's. How long will it take to sort S stably with the bucket-sort algorithm? R-11.3 Give a complete justification of Proposition 11.1. R-11.4 729 In the merge-sort tree shown in Figures 11.2 through 11.4, some edges are drawn as arrows. What is the meaning of a downward arrow? How about an upward arrow? R-11.5 Give a complete pseudo-code description of the recursive merge-sort algorithm that takes an array as its input and output. R-11.6 Show that the running time of the merge-sort algorithm on an n-element sequence is O(nlogn), even when n is not a power of 2. R-11.7 Suppose we are given two n-element sorted sequences A and B that should not be viewed as sets (that is, A and B may contain duplicate entries). Describe an O(n)-time method for computing a sequence representing the set A > B (with no duplicates). R-11.8 Show that (X − A) (X − B) = X − (A ∩ B), for any three sets X, A, and B. R-11.9 Suppose we modify the deterministic version of the quick-sort algorithm so that, instead of selecting the last element in an n-element sequence as the pivot, we choose the element at index … ln/2…. What is the running time of this version of quick-sort on a sequence that is already sorted? R-11.10 Consider again the modification of the deterministic version of the quicksort algorithm so that, instead of selecting the last element in an n-element sequence as the pivot, we choose the element at index …ln/2…. Describe the kind of sequence that would cause this version of quick-sort to run in (n2) time. R-11.11 Show that the best-case running time of quick-sort on a sequence of size n with distinct elements is O(nlogn). R-11.12 Describe a randomized version of in-place quick-sort in pseudo-code. R-11.13 730 Show that the probability that any given input element x belongs to more than 2logn subproblems in size group i, for randomized quick-sort, is at most 1/n2. R-11.14 Suppose algorithm inPlaceQuickSort (Code Fragment 11.6) is executed on a sequence with duplicate elements. Show that the algorithm still correctly sorts the input sequence, but the result of the divide step may differ from the high- level description given in Section 11.2 and may result in inefficiencies. In particular, what happens in the partition step when there are elements equal to the pivot? Is the sequence E (storing the elements equal to the pivot) actually computed? Does the algorithm recur on the subsequences L and G, or on some other subsequences? What is the running time of the algorithm if all the input elements are equal? R-11.15 Of the n# possible inputs to a given comparison-based sorting algorithm, what is the absolute maximum number of inputs that could be sorted with just n comparisons? R-11.16 Jonathan has a comparison-based sorting algorithm that sorts the first k elements in sequence of size n in O(n) time. Give a big-Oh characterization of the biggest that k can be? R-11.17 Is the merge-sort algorithm in Section 11.1 stable? Why or why not? R-11.18 An algorithm that sorts key-value entries by key is said to be straggling if, any time two entries ei and ej have equal keys, but ei appears before ej in the input, then the algorithm places ei after ej in the output. Describe a change to the merge-sort algorithm in Section 11.1 to make it straggling. R-11.19 Describe a radix-sort method for lexicographically sorting a sequence S of triplets (k,l,m), where k, l, and m are integers in the range [0,N − 1], for some N≥2. How could this scheme be extended to sequences of d-tuples (k1,k2,...,kd), where each ki is an integer in the range [0, N − 1] ? R-11.20 Is the bucket-sort algorithm in-place? Why or why not? 731 R-11.21 Give an example input list that requires merge-sort and heap-sort to take O(nlogn) time to sort, but insertion-sort runs in O(n) time. What if you reverse this list? R-11.22 Describe, in pseudo-code, how to perform path compression on a path of length h in O(h) time in a tree-based partition union/find structure. R-11.23 George claims he has a fast way to do path compression in a partition structure, starting at a node v. He puts v into a list L, and starts following parent pointers. Each time he encounters a new node, u, he adds u to L and updates the parent pointer of each node in L to point to u'S parent. Show that George's algorithm runs in (h2) time on a path of length h. R-11.24 Describe an in-place version of the quick-select algorithm in pseudo-code. R-11.25 Show that the worst-case running time of quick-select on an n-element sequence is (n2). Creativity C-11.1 Linda claims to have an algorithm that takes an input sequence S and produces an output sequence T that is a sorting of the n elements in S. a. Give an algorithm, isSorted, for testing in O(n) time if T is sorted. b. Explain why the algorithm isSorted is not sufficient to prove a particular output T to Linda's algorithm is a sorting of S. c. 732 Describe what additional information Linda's algorithm could output so that her algorithm's correctness could be established on any given S and T in O(n) time. C-11.2 Given two sets A and B represented as sorted sequences, describe an efficient algorithm for computing A > B, which is the set of elements that are in A or B, but not in both. C-11.3 Suppose that we represent sets with balanced search trees. Describe and analyze algorithms for each of the methods in the set ADT, assuming that one of the two sets is much smaller than the other. C-11.4 Describe and analyze an efficient method for removing all duplicates from a collection A of n elements. C-11.5 Consider sets whose elements are integers in the range [0,N − 1]. A popular scheme for representing a set A of this type is by means of a Boolean array, B, where we say that x is in A if and only if B[x] = true. Since each cell of B can be represented with a single bit, B is sometimes referred to as a bit vector. Describe and analyze efficient algorithms for performing the methods of the set ADT assuming this representation. C-11.6 Consider a version of deterministic quick-sort where we pick as our pivot the median of the d last elements in the input sequence of n elements, for a fixed, constant odd number d ≥ 3. Argue informally why this should be a good choice for pivot. What is the asymptotic worst-case running time of quick-sort in this case, in terms of n and d? C-11.7 Another way to analyze randomized quick-sort is to use a recurrence equation. In this case, we let T(n) denote the expected running time of randomized quick- sort, and we observe that, because of the worst-case partitions for good and bad splits, we can write T(n) ≤ 1/2 (T(3n/4) + T(n/4)) + (T(n − 1)) + bn, 733 where bn is the time needed to partition a list for a given pivot and concatenate the result sublists after the recursive calls return. Show, by induction, that T(n) is O(nlogn). C-11.8 Modify inPlaceQuickSort (Code Fragment 11.6) to handle the general case efficiently when the input sequence, S, may have duplicate keys. C-11.9 Describe a nonrecursive, in-place version of the quick-sort algorithm. The algorithm should still be based on the same divide-and-conquer approach, but use an explicit stack to process subproblems. Your algorithm should also guarantee the stack depth is at most O(logn). C-11.10 Show that randomized quick-sort runs in O(nlogn) time with probability at least 1 − 1/n, that is, with high probability, by answering the following: a. For ach input element x, define Ci,j(x) to be a 0/1 random variable that is 1 if and only if element x is in j + 1 subproblems that belong to size group i. Argue why we need not define Ci,j for j > n. b. Let Xi,j be a 0/1 random variable that is 1 with probability 1/2j, independent of any other events, and let L = …log4/3 n…. Argue why . c. Show t the expected value of d. Show that the probability that is at most 1/n2 using the Chernoff bound that states that if X is the sum of a finite number of independent 0/1 random variables with expected value μ > 0, then Pr(X > 2……) < (4/e)−…, where e = 2.71828128.... e. 734 Argue why the previous claim proves randomized quick-sort runs in O(nlogn) time with probability at least 1 − 1/n. C-11.11 Given an array A of n entries with keys equal to 0 or 1, describe an in-place method for ordering A so that all the 0's are before every 1. C-11.12 Suppose we are given an n-element sequence S such that each element in S represents a different vote for president, where each vote is given as an integer representing a particular candidate. Design an O(nlogn)time algorithm to see who wins the election S represents, assuming the candidate with the most votes wins (even if there are O(n) candidates). C-11.13 Consider the voting problem from Exercise C-11.12, but now suppose that we know the number k < n of candidates running. Describe an O(nlogk)time algorithm for determining who wins the election. C-11.14 Consider the voting problem from Exercise C-11.12, but now suppose a candidate wins only if he or she gets a majority of the votes cast. Design and analyze a fast algorithm for determining the winner if there is one. C-11.15 Show that any comparison-based sorting algorithm can be made to be stable without affecting its asymptotic running time. C-11.16 Suppose we are given two sequences A and B of n elements, possibly containing duplicates, on which a total order relation is defined. Describe an efficient algorithm for determining if A and B contain the same set of elements. What is the running time of this method? C-11.17 Given an array A of n integers in the range [0,n2 − 1], describe a simple method for sorting A in O(n) time. C-11.18 Let S1,S2,...,Sk be k different sequences whose elements have integer keys in the range [0,N − 1], for some parameter N ≥ 2. Describe an algorithm running in 735 O(n + N) time for sorting all the sequences (not as a union), where n denotes the total size of all the sequences. C-11.19 Given a sequence S of n elements, on which a total order relation is defined, describe an efficient method for determining whether there are two equal elements in S. What is the running time of your method? C-11.20 Let S be a sequence of n elements on which a total order relation is defined. Recall that an inversion in S is a pair of elements x and y such that x appears before y in S but x > y. Describe an algorithm running in O(nlogn) time for determining the number of inversions in S. C-11.21 Let S be a sequence of n integers. Describe a method for printing out all the pairs of inversions in S in O(n + k) time, where k is the number of such inversions. C-11.22 Let S be a random permutation of n distinct integers. Argue that the expected running time of insertion-sort on S is (n2) . (Hint: Note that half of the elements ranked in the top half of a sorted version of S are expected to be in the first half of S.) C-11.23 Let A and B be two sequences of n integers each. Given an integer m, describe an O(n log n) -time algorithm for determining if there is an integer a in A and an integer b in B such that m = a + b. C-11.24 Given a set of n integers, describe and analyze a fast method for finding the …logn… integers closest to the median. C-11.25 Bob has a set A of n nuts and a set B of n bolts, such that each nut in A has a unique matching bolt in B. Unfortunately, the nuts in A all look the same, and the bolts in B all look the same as well. The only kind of a comparison that Bob can make is to take a nut-bolt pair (a, b), such that a is in A and b is in B, and test it to see if the threads of a are larger, smaller, or a perfect match with the 736 threads of b. Describe and analyze an efficient algorithm for Bob to match up all of his nuts and bolts. C-11.26 Show how to use a deterministic O(n)-time selection algorithm to sort a sequence of n elements in O(n log n) worst-case time. C-11.27 Given an unsorted sequence S of n comparable elements, and an integer k, give an O(nlogk) expected-time algorithm for finding the O(k) elements that have rank …n/k…, 2…n/k…, 3 …n/k…, and so on. C-11.28 Let S be a sequence of n insert and removeMin operations, where all the keys involved are integers in the range [0,n − 1]. Describe an algorithm running in O(nlog* n) for determining the answer to each removeMin. C-11.29 Space aliens have given us a program, alienSplit, that can take a sequence S of n integers and partition S in O(n) time into sequences s1, S2, …, Sk of size at most …n/k… each, such that the elements in Si are less than or equal to every element in Si+1, for i = 1,2,…, k − 1, for a fixed number, k < n. Show how to use alienSplit to sort S in O(nlogn/logk) time. C-11.30 Karen has a new way to do path compression in a tree-based union/find partition data structure starting at a node v. She puts all the nodes that are on the path from v to the root in a set S. Then she scans through S and sets the parent pointer of each node in S to its parent's parent pointer (recall that the parent pointer of the root points to itself). If this pass changed the value of any node's parent pointer, then she repeats this process, and goes on repeating this process until she makes a scan through S that does not change any node's parent value. Show that Karen's algorithm is correct and analyze its running time for a path of length h. C-11.31 This problem deals with modification of the quick-select algorithm to make it deterministic yet still run in O(n) time on an n-element sequence. The idea is to modify the way we choose the pivot so that it is chosen deterministically, not randomly, as follows: 737 Partition the set S into …n/5… groups of size 5 each (except possibly for one group). Sort each little set and identify the median element in this set. From this set of …n/5… "baby" medians, apply the selection algorithm recursively to find the median of the baby medians. Use this element as the pivot and proceed as in the quick-select algorithm. Show that this deterministic method runs in O(n) time by answering the following questions (please ignore floor and ceiling functions if that simplifies the mathematics, for the asymptotics are the same either way): a. How many baby medians are less than or equal to the chosen pivot? How many are greater than or equal to the pivot? b. For each baby median less than or equal to the pivot, how many other elements are less than or equal to the pivot? Is the same true for those greater than or equal to the pivot? c. Argue why the method for finding the deterministic pivot and using it to partition S takes O(n) time. d. Based on these estimates, write a recurrence equation to bound the worst- case running time t(n) for this selection algorithm (note that in the worst case there are two recursive calls—one to find the median of the baby medians and one to recur on the larger of L and G). e. Using this recurrence equation, show by induction that t(n) is O(n). Projects P-11.1 Experimentally compare the performance of in-place quick-sort and a version of quick-sort that is not in-place. P-11.2 738 Design and implement a stable version of the bucket-sort algorithm for sorting a sequence of n elements with integer keys taken from the range [0,N − 1], for N ≥ 2. The algorithm should run in O(n + N) time. P-11.3 Implement merge-sort and deterministic quick-sort and perform a series of benchmarking tests to see which one is faster. Your tests should include sequences that are "random" as well as "almost" sorted. P-11.4 Implement deterministic and randomized versions of the quick-sort algorithm and perform a series of benchmarking tests to see which one is faster. Your tests should include sequences that are very "random" looking as well as ones that are "almost" sorted. P-11.5 Implement an in-place version of insertion-sort and an in-place version of quick-sort. Perform benchmarking tests to determine the range of values of n where quick-sort is on average better than insertion-sort. P-11.6 Design and implement an animation for one of the sorting algorithms described in this chapter. Your animation should illustrate the key properties of this algorithm in an intuitive manner. P-11.7 Implement the randomized quick-sort and quick-select algorithms, and design a series of experiments to test their relative speeds. P-11.8 Implement an extended set ADT that includes the methods union(B), intersect(B), subtract(B), size(), isEmpty(), plus the methods equals(B), contains(e), insert(e), and remove(e) with obvious meaning. P-11.9 Implement the tree-based union/find partition data structure with both the union-by-size and path-compression heuristics. Chapter Notes 739 Knuth's classic text on Sorting and Searching [63] contains an extensive history of the sorting problem and algorithms for solving it. Huang and Langston [52] describe how to merge two sorted lists in-place in linear time. Our set ADT is derived from the set ADT of Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman [5]. The standard quick-sort algorithm is due to Hoare [49]. More information about randomization, including Chernoff bounds, can be found in the appendix and the book by Motwani and Raghavan [79]. The quick-sort analysis given in this chapter is a combination of an analysis given in a previous edition of this book and the analysis of Kleinberg and Tardos [59]. The quick-sort analysis of Exercise C-11.7 is due to Littman. Gonnet and Baeza-Yates [41] provide experimental comparisons and theoretical analyses of a number of different sorting algorithms. The term "prune-and-search" comes originally from the computational geometry literature (such as in the work of Clarkson [22] and Megiddo [72, 73]). The term "decrease-and-conquer" is from Levitin [68]. Chapter 12 Text Processing 740 Contents 12.1 String Operations .................... 540 12.1.1 The Java String Class ................. 541 12.1.2 The Java StringBuffer Class ............. 542 12.2 PatternMatching Algorithms .............. 543 12.2.1 Brute Force ...................... 543 12.2.2 The Boyer-Moore Algorithm ............. 545 12.2.3 741 The Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm .......... 549 12.3 Tries ............................ 554 12.3.1 Standard Tries ..................... 554 12.3.2 Compressed Tries ................... 558 12.3.3 Suffix Tries ...................... 560 12.3.4 Search Engines .................... 564 12.4 Text Compression .................... 565 12.4.1 The Huffman Coding Algorithm ........... 566 12.4.2 The Greedy Method .................. 742 567 12.5 Text Similarity Testing ................. 568 12.5.1 The Longest Common Subsequence Problem .... 568 12.5.2 Dynamic Programming ................ 569 12.5.3 Applying Dynamic Programming to the LCS Problem 569 12.6 12.6 Exercises ......................... 573 java.datastructures.net 12.1 String Operations Document processing is rapidly becoming one of the dominant functions of computers. Computers are used to edit documents, to search documents, to transport documents over the Internet, and to display documents on printers and computer screens. For example, the Internet document formats HTML and XML are primarily text formats, with added tags for multimedia content. Making sense of the many terabytes of information on the Internet requires a considerable amount of text processing. In addition to having interesting applications, text processing algorithms also highlight some important algorithmic design patterns. In particular, the pattern matching problem gives rise to the brute-force method, which is often inefficient but has wide applicability. For text compression, we can apply the greedy method, which 743 often allows us to approximate solutions to hard problems, and for some problems (such as in text compression) actually gives rise to optimal algorithms. Finally, in discussing text similarity, we introduce the dynamic programming design pattern, which can be applied in some special instances to solve a problem in polynomial time that appears at first to require exponential time to solve. Text Processing At the heart of algorithms for processing text are methods for dealing with character strings. Character strings can come from a wide variety of sources, including scientific, linguistic, and Internet applications. Indeed, the following are examples of such strings: P = "CGTAAACTGCTTTAATCAAACGC" S = "http://java.datastructures.net". The first string, P, comes from DNA applications, and the second string, S, is the Internet address (URL) for the Web site that accompanies this book. Several of the typical string processing operations involve breaking large strings into smaller strings. In order to be able to speak about the pieces that result from such operations, we use the term substring of an m-character string P to refer to a string of the form P[i]P[i + 1]P[i + 2] … P[j], for some 0 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ m− 1, that is, the string formed by the characters in P from index i to index j, inclusive. Technically, this means that a string is actually a substring of itself (taking i = 0 and j = m − 1), so if we want to rule this out as a possibility, we must restrict the definition to proper substrings, which require that either i > 0 or j − 1. To simplify the notation for referring to substrings, let us use P[i..j] to denote the substring of P from index i to index j, inclusive. That is, P[i..j]=P[i]P[i+1]…P[j]. We use the convention that if i > j, then P[i..j] is equal to the null string, which has length 0. In addition, in order to distinguish some special kinds of substrings, let us refer to any substring of the form P [0.. i], for 0 ≤ i ≤ m −1, as a prefix of P, and any substring of the form P[i..m − 1], for 0 ≤ i ≤ m − 1, as a suffix of P. For example, if we again take P to be the string of DNA given above, then "CGTAA" is a prefix of P, "CGC" is a suffix of P, and "TTAATC" is a (proper) substring of P. Note that the null string is a prefix and a suffix of any other string. To allow for fairly general notions of a character string, we typically do not restrict the characters in T and P to explicitly come from a well-known character set, like the Unicode character set. Instead, we typically use the symbol σ to denote the character set, or alphabet, from which characters can come. Since most document processing algorithms are used in applications where the underlying character set is 744 finite, we usually assume that the size of the alphabet σ, denoted with |σ|, is a fixed constant. String operations come in two flavors: those that modify the string they act on and those that simply return information about the string without actually modifying it. Java makes this distinction precise by defining the String class to represent immutable strings, which cannot be modified, and the StringBuffer class to represent mutable strings, which can be modified. 12.1.1 The Java String Class The main operations of the Java String class are listed below: length(): Return the length, n, of S. charAt(i): Return the character at index i in S. startsWith(Q): Determine if Q is a prefix of S. endsWith(Q): Determine if Q is a suffix of S. substring(i,j): Return the substring S[i,j]. concat(Q): Return the concatenation of S and Q, that is, S+Q. equals(Q): Determine if Q is equal to S. indexOf(Q): If Q is a substring of S, return the index of the beginning of the first occurrence of Q in S, else return −1. This collection forms the typical operations for immutable strings. 745 Example 12.1: Consider the following set of operations, which are performed on the string S = "abcdefghijklmnop": Operation Output length() 16 charAt(5) 'f' concat("qrs") "abcdefghijklmnopqrs" endsWith("javapop") false indexOf("ghi") 6 startsWith("abcd") true substring(4,9) "efghij" With the exception of the indexOf(Q) method, which we discuss in Section 12.2, all the methods above are easily implemented simply by representing the string as an array of characters, which is the standard String implementation in Java. 12.1.2 The Java StringBuffer Class The main methods of the Java StringBuffer class are listed below: append(Q): Return S+Q, replacing S with S + Q. insert(i, Q): 746 Return and update S to be the string obtained by inserting Q inside S starting at index i. reverse(): Reverse and return the string S. setCharAt(i,ch): Set the character at index i in S to be ch. charAt(i): Return the character at index i in S. Error conditions occur when the index i is out of the bounds of the indices of the string. With the exception of the charAt method, most of the methods of the String class are not immediately available to a StringBuffer object S in Java. Fortunately, the Java StringBuffer class provides a toString() method that returns a String version of S, which can be used to access String methods. Example 12.2: Consider the following sequence of operations, which are performed on the mutable string that is initially S = abcdefghijklmnop": Operation S append("qrs") "abcdefghijklmnopqrs" insert(3,"xyz") "abcxyzdefghijklmnopqrs" reverse() "srqponmlkjihgfedzyxcba" setCharAt(7,'W') "srqponmWkjihgfedzyxcba" 12.2 Pattern Matching Algorithms 747 In the classic pattern matching problem on strings, we are given a text string T of length n and apattern string P of length m, and want to find whether P is a substring of T. The notion of a "match" is that there is a substring of T starting at some index i that matches P, character by character, so that T[i] = P[0], T[i + 1] = P[1], …, T[i + m− 1] = P[m − 1]. That is, P = T[i..i + m − 1]. Thus, the output from a pattern matching algorithm could either be some indication that the pattern P does not exist in T or an integer indicating the starting index in T of a substring matching P. This is exactly the computation performed by the indexOf method of the Java String interface. Alternatively, one may want to find all the indices where a substring of T matching P begins. In this section, we present three pattern matching algorithms (with increasing levels of difficulty). 12.2.1 Brute Force. The brute force algorithmic design pattern is a powerful technique for algorithm design when we have something we wish to search for or when we wish to optimize some function. In applying this technique in a general situation we typically enumerate all possible configurations of the inputs involved and pick the best of all these enumerated configurations. In applying this technique to design the brute-force pattern matching algorithm, we derive what is probably the first algorithm that we might think of for solving the pattern matching problem—we simply test all the possible placements of P relative to T. This algorithm, shown in Code Fragment 12.1, is quite simple. Algorithm BruteForceMatch(T,P): Input: Strings T (text) with n characters and P (pattern) with m characters Output: Starting index of the first substring of T matching P, or an indication that P is not a substring of T for i ← 0 to n − m {for each candidate index in T} do j ← 0 while (j and T[i + j] = P[j]) do j ← j + 1 if j = m then return i return "There is no substring of T matching P." Code Fragment 12.1: Brute-force pattern matching. 748 Performance The brute-force pattern matching algorithm could not be simpler. It consists of two nested loops, with the outer loop indexing through all possible starting indices of the pattern in the text, and the inner loop indexing through each character of the pattern, comparing it to its potentially corresponding character in the text. Thus, the correctness of the brute-force pattern matching algorithm follows immediately from this exhaustive search approach. The running time of brute-force pattern matching in the worst case is not good, however, because, for each candidate index in T, we can perform up to m character comparisons to discover that P does not match T at the current index. Referring to Code Fragment 12.1, we see that the outer for loop is executed at most n − m+ 1 times, and the inner loop is executed at most m times. Thus, the running time of the brute-force method is O((n − m+ 1)m), which is simplified as O(nm). Note that when m = n/2, this algorithm has quadratic running time O(n2). Example 12.3: Suppose we are given the text string T = "abacaabaccabacabaabb" and the pattern string P= "abacab". In Figure 12.1 we illustrate the execution of the brute-force pattern matching algorithm on T and P. Figure 12.1: Example run of the brute-force pattern matching algorithm. The algorithm performs 27 character comparisons, indicated above with numerical labels. 749 12.2.2 The Boyer-Moore Algorithm At first, we might feel that it is always necessary to examine every character in T in order to locate a pattern P as a substring. But this is not always the case, for the Boyer-Moore (BM) pattern matching algorithm, which we study in this section, can sometimes avoid comparisons between P and a sizable fraction of the characters in T. The only caveat is that, whereas the brute-force algorithm can work even with a potentially unbounded alphabet, the BM algorithm assumes the alphabet is of fixed, finite size. It works the fastest when the alphabet is moderately sized and the pattern is relatively long. Thus, the BM algorithm is ideal for searching words in documents. In this section, we describe a simplified version of the original algorithm by Boyer and Moore. The main idea of the BM algorithm is to improve the running time of the brute- force algorithm by adding two potentially time-saving heuristics. Roughly stated, these heuristics are as follows: Looking-Glass Heuristic: When testing a possible placement of P against T, begin the comparisons from the end of P and move backward to the front of P. Character-Jump Heuristic: During the testing of a possible placement of P against T, a mismatch of text character T[i] = c with the corresponding pattern character P[j] is handled as follows. If c is not contained anywhere in P, then shift P completely past T[i] (for it cannot match any character in P). Otherwise, shift P until an occurrence of character c in P gets aligned with T[i]. 750 We will formalize these heuristics shortly, but at an intuitive level, they work as an integrated team. The looking-glass heuristic sets up the other heuristic to allow us to avoid comparisons between P and whole groups of characters in T. In this case at least, we can get to the destination faster by going backwards, for if we encounter a mismatch during the consideration of P at a certain location in T, then we are likely to avoid lots of needless comparisons by significantly shifting P relative to T using the character-jump heuristic. The character-jump heuristic pays off big if it can be applied early in the testing of a potential placement of P against T. Let us therefore get down to the business of defining how the character-jump heuristics can be integrated into a string pattern matching algorithm. To implement this heuristic, we define a function last(c) that takes a character c from the alphabet and characterizes how far we may shift the pattern P if a character equal to c is found in the text that does not match the pattern. In particular, we define last(c) as • If c is in P, last(c) is the index of the last (right-most) occurrence of c in P. Otherwise, we conventionally define last(c) = − 1. If characters can be used as indices in arrays, then the last function can be easily implemented as a look-up table. We leave the method for computing this table in O(m+|σ|) time, given P, as a simple exercise (R-12.6). This last function will give us all the information we need to perform the character-jump heuristic. In Code Fragment 12.2, we show the BM pattern matching algorithm. Code Fragment 12.2: The Boyer-Moore pattern matching algorithm. 751 The jump step is illustrated in Figure 12.2. Figure 12.2: Illustration of the jump step in the algorithm of Code Fragment 12.2, where we let l = last(T[i]). We distinguish two cases: (a) 1 +l ≤ j, where we shift the pattern by j − l units; (b) j < 1 + l, where we shift the pattern by one unit. 752 In Figure 12.3, we illustrate the execution of the Boyer-Moore pattern matching algorithm on an input string similar to Example 12.3. Figure 12.3: An illustration of the BM pattern matching algorithm. The algorithm performs 13 character comparisons, which are indicated with numerical labels. 753 The correctness of the BM pattern matching algorithm follows from the fact that each time the method makes a shift, it is guaranteed not to "skip" over any possible matches. For last(c) is the location of the last occurrence of c in P. The worst-case running time of the BM algorithm is O(nm+|σ|). Namely, the computation of the last function takes time O(m+|σ|) and the actual search for the pattern takes O(nm) time in the worst case, the same as the brute-force algorithm. An example of a text-pattern pair that achieves the worst case is The worst-case performance, however, is unlikely to be achieved for English text, for, in this case, the BM algorithm is often able to skip large portions of text. (See Figure 12.4.) Experimental evidence on English text shows that the average number of comparisons done per character is 0.24 for a five-character pattern string. Figure 12.4: An example of a Boyer-Moore execution on English text. 754 A Java implementation of the BM pattern matching algorithm is shown in Code Fragment 12.3. Code Fragment 12.3: Java implementation of the BM pattern matching algorithm. The algorithm is expressed by two static methods: Method BMmatch performs the matching and calls the auxiliary method build LastFunction to compute the last function, expressed by an array indexed by the ASCII code of the character. Method BMmatch indicates the absence of a match by returning the conventional value − 1. 755 We have actually presented a simplified version of the Boyer-Moore (BM) algorithm. The original BM algorithm achieves running time O(n + m + |σ|) by 756 using an alternative shift heuristic to the partially matched text string, whenever it shifts the pattern more than the character-jump heuristic. This alternative shift heuristic is based on applying the main idea from the Knuth-Morris-Pratt pattern matching algorithm, which we discuss next. 12.2.3 The Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm In studying the worst-case performance of the brute-force and BM pattern matching algorithms on specific instances of the problem, such as that given in Example 12.3, we should notice a major inefficiency. Specifically, we may perform many comparisons while testing a potential placement of the pattern against the text, yet if we discover a pattern character that does not match in the text, then we throw away all the information gained by these comparisons and start over again from scratch with the next incremental placement of the pattern. The Knuth-Morris-Pratt (or "KMP") algorithm, discussed in this section, avoids this waste of information and, in so doing, it achieves a running time of O(n + m), which is optimal in the worst case. That is, in the worst case any pattern matching algorithm will have to examine all the characters of the text and all the characters of the pattern at least once. The Failure Function The main idea of the KMP algorithm is to preprocess the pattern string P so as to compute failure function f that indicates the proper shift of P so that, to the largest extent possible, we can reuse previously performed comparisons. Specifically, the failure function f(j) is defined as the length of the longest prefix of P that is a suffix of P[1..j] (note that we did not put P[0..j] here). We also use the convention that f(0) = 0. Later, we will discuss how to compute the failure function efficiently. The importance of this failure function is that it "encodes" repeated substrings inside the pattern itself. Example 12.4: Consider the pattern string P = "abacab" from Example 12.3. The Knuth-Morris-Pratt (KMP) failure function f(j) for the string P is as shown in the following table: The KMP pattern matching algorithm, shown in Code Fragment 12.4, incrementally processes the text string T comparing it to the pattern string P. Each time there is a match, we increment the current indices. On the other hand, if there is a mismatch and we have previously made progress in P, then we consult the failure function to determine the new index in P where we need to continue checking P against T. Otherwise (there was a mismatch and we are at the 757 beginning of P), we simply increment the index for T (and keep the index variable for P at its beginning). We repeat this process until we find a match of P in T or the index for T reaches n, the length of T (indicating that we did not find the pattern PinT). Code Fragment 12.4: The KMP pattern matching algorithm. The main part of the KMP algorithm is the while loop, which performs a comparison between a character in T and a character in P each iteration. Depending upon the outcome of this comparison, the algorithm either moves on to the next characters in T and P, consults the failure function for a new candidate character in P, or starts over with the next index in T. The correctness of this algorithm follows from the definition of the failure function. Any comparisons that are skipped are actually unnecessary, for the failure function guarantees that all the ignored comparisons are redundant—they would involve comparing the same matching characters over again. Figure 12.5: An illustration of the KMP pattern matching algorithm. The failure function f for this pattern is given in Example 12.4. The algorithm performs 19 character comparisons, which are indicated with numerical labels. 758 In Figure 12.5, we illustrate the execution of the KMP pattern matching algorithm on the same input strings as in Example 12.3. Note the use of the failure function to avoid redoing one of the comparisons between a character of the pattern and a character of the text. Also note that the algorithm performs fewer overall comparisons than the brute-force algorithm run on the same strings (Figure 12.1). Performance Excluding the computation of the failure function, the running time of the KMP algorithm is clearly proportional to the number of iterations of the while loop. For the sake of the analysis, let us define k = i − j. Intuitively, k is the total amount by which the pattern P has been shifted with respect to the text T. Note that throughout the execution of the algorithm, we have k ≤ n. One of the following three cases occurs at each iteration of the loop. • If T[i] = P[j], then i increases by 1, and k does not change, since j also increases by 1. • If T[i] ≠ P[j] and j > 0, then i does not change and k increases by at least 1, since in this case k changes from i − j to i − f(j − 1), which is an addition of j − f(j − 1), which is positive because f(j − 1) < j. • If T[i] ≠ P[j] and j = 0, then i increases by 1 and k increases by 1, since j does not change. Thus, at each iteration of the loop, either i or k increases by at least 1 (possibly both); hence, the total number of iterations of the while loop in the KMP pattern matching algorithm is at most 2n. Achieving this bound, of course, assumes that we have already computed the failure function for P. 759 Constructing the KMP Failure Function To construct the failure function, we use the method shown in Code Fragment 12.5, which is a "bootstrapping" process quite similar to the KMPMatch algorithm. We compare the pattern to itself as in the KMP algorithm. Each time we have two characters that match, we set f(i) = j + 1. Note that since we have i > j throughout the execution of the algorithm, f(j − 1) is always defined when we need to use it. Code Fragment 12.5: Computation of the failure function used in the KMP pattern matching algorithm. Note how the algorithm uses the previous values of the failure function to efficiently compute new values. Algorithm KMPFailureFunction runs in O(m) time. Its analysis is analogous to that of algorithm KMPMatch. Thus, we have: Proposition 12.5: The Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm performs pattern matching on a text string of length n and a pattern string of length m in O(n + m) time. 760 A Java implementation of the KMP pattern matching algorithm is shown in Code Fragment 12.6. Code Fragment 12.6: Java implementation of the KMP pattern matching algorithm. The algorithm is expressed by two static methods: method KMPmatch performs the matching and calls the auxiliary method computeFailFunction to compute the failure function, expressed by an array. Method KMPmatch indicates the absence of a match by returning the conventional value −1. 761 762 12.3 Tries The pattern matching algorithms presented in the previous section speed up the search in a text by preprocessing the pattern (to compute the failure function in the KMP algorithm or the last function in the BM algorithm). In this section, we take a complementary approach, namely, we present string searching algorithms that preprocess the text. This approach is suitable for applications where a series of queries is performed on a fixed text, so that the initial cost of preprocessing the text is compensated by a speedup in each subsequent query (for example, a Web site that offers pattern matching in Shakespeare's Hamlet or a search engine that offers Web pages on the Hamlet topic). A trie (pronounced "try") is a tree-based data structure for storing strings in order to support fast pattern matching. The main application for tries is in information retrieval. Indeed, the name "trie" comes from the word "retrieval." In an information retrieval application, such as a search for a certain DNA sequence in a genomic database, we are given a collection S of strings, all defined using the same alphabet. The primary query operations that tries support are pattern matching and prefix matching. The latter operation involves being given a string X, and looking for all the strings in S that contain X as a prefix. 12.3.1 Standard Tries Let S be a set of s strings from alphabet σ such that no string in S is a prefix of another string. A standard trie for S is an ordered tree T with the following properties (see Figure 12.6): • Each node of T, except the root, is labeled with a character of σ. • The ordering of the children of an internal node of T is determined by a canonical ordering of the alphabet σ. • T has s external nodes, each associated with a string of S, such that the concatenation of the labels of the nodes on the path from the root to an external node v of T yields the string of S associated with v. Thus, a trie T represents the strings of S with paths from the root to the external nodes of T. Note the importance of assuming that no string in S is a prefix of another string. This ensures that each string of S is uniquely associated with an external node of T. We can always satisfy this assumption by adding a special character that is not in the original alphabet σ at the end of each string. An internal node in a standard trie T can have anywhere between 1 and d children, where d is the size of the alphabet. There is an edge going from the root r to one of its children for each character that is first in some string in the collection S. In addition, a path from the root of T to an internal node v at depth i corresponds to 763 Figure 12.6: Standard trie for the strings {bear, bell, bid, bull, buy, sell, stock, stop}. an i-character prefix X[0..i − 1] of a string X of S. In fact, for each character c that can follow the prefix X[0..i − 1] in a string of the set S, there is a child of v labeled with character c. In this way, a trie concisely stores the common prefixes that exist among a set of strings. If there are only two characters in the alphabet, then the trie is essentially a binary tree, with some internal nodes possibly having only one child (that is, it may be an improper binary tree). In general, if there are d characters in the alphabet, then the trie will be a multi-way tree where each internal node has between 1 and d children. In addition, there are likely to be several internal nodes in a standard trie that have fewer than d children. For example, the trie shown in Figure 12.6 has several internal nodes with only one child. We can implement a trie with a tree storing characters at its nodes. The following proposition provides some important structural properties of a standard trie: Proposition 12.6: A standard trie storing a collection S of s strings of total length n from an alphabet of size d has the following properties: • Every internal node of T has at most d children. • T has s external nodes. • The height of T is equal to the length of the longest string in S. • The number of nodes of T is O(n). 764 The worst case for the number of nodes of a trie occurs when no two strings share a common nonempty prefix; that is, except for the root, all internal nodes have one child. A trie T for a set S of strings can be used to implement a dictionary whose keys are the strings of S. Namely, we perform a search in T for a string X by tracing down from the root the path indicated by the characters in X. If this path can be traced and terminates at an external node, then we know X is in the dictionary. For example, in the trie in Figure 12.6, tracing the path for "bull" ends up at an external node. If the path cannot be traced or the path can be traced but terminates at an internal node, then X is not in the dictionary. In the example in Figure 12.6, the path for "bet" cannot be traced and the path for "be" ends at an internal node. Neither such word is in the dictionary. Note that in this implementation of a dictionary, single characters are compared instead of the entire string (key). It is easy to see that the running time of the search for a string of size m is O(dm), where d is the size of the alphabet. Indeed, we visit at most m + 1 nodes of T and we spend O(d) time at each node. For some alphabets, we may be able to improve the time spent at a node to be O(1) or O(logd) by using a dictionary of characters implemented in a hash table or search table. However, since d is a constant in most applications, we can stick with the simple approach that takes O(d) time per node visited. From the discussion above, it follows that we can use a trie to perform a special type of pattern matching, called word matching, where we want to determine whether a given pattern matches one of the words of the text exactly. (See Figure 12.7.) Word matching differs from standard pattern matching since the pattern cannot match an arbitrary substring of the text, but only one of its words. Using a trie, word matching for a pattern of length m takes O(dm) time, where d is the size of the alphabet, independent of the size of the text. If the alphabet has constant size (as is the case for text in natural languages and DNA strings), a query takes O(m) time, proportional to the size of the pattern. A simple extension of this scheme supports prefix matching queries. However, arbitrary occurrences of the pattern in the text (for example, the pattern is a proper suffix of a word or spans two words) cannot be efficiently performed. To construct a standard trie for a set S of strings, we can use an incremental algorithm that inserts the strings one at a time. Recall the assumption that no string of S is a prefix of another string. To insert a string X into the current trie T, we first try to trace the path associated with X in T. Since X is not already in T and no string in S is a prefix of another string, we will stop tracing the path at an internal node v of T before reaching the end of X. We then create a new chain of node descendents of v to store the remaining characters of X. The time to insert X is O(dm), where m is the length of X and d is the size of the alphabet. Thus, constructing the entire trie for set S takes O(dn) time, where n is the total length of the strings of S. Figure 12.7: Word matching and prefix matching with a standard trie: (a) text to be searched; (b) standard 765 trie for the words in the text (articles and prepositions, which are also known as stop words, excluded), with external nodes augmented with indications of the word positions. There is a potential space inefficiency in the standard trie that has prompted the development of the compressed trie, which is also known (for historical reasons) as the Patricia trie. Namely, there are potentially a lot of nodes in the standard trie that have only one child, and the existence of such nodes is a waste. We discuss the compressed trie next. 12.3.2 Compressed Tries 766 A compressed trie is similar to a standard trie but it ensures that each internal node in the trie has at least two children. It enforces this rule by compressing chains of single-child nodes into individual edges. (See Figure 12.8.) Let T be a standard trie. We say that an internal node v of T is redundant if v has one child and is not the root. For example, the trie of Figure 12.6 has eight redundant nodes. Let us also say that a chain of k ≥ 2 edges, (v0,v1)(v1,v2)…(vk−1,vk), ith the is redundant if: • vi is redundant for i = 1, …, k−1 1. • v0 and vk are not redundant. We can transform T into a compressed trie by replacing each redundant chain (v0,v1) … (vk−1,vk) of k ≥ 2 edges into a single edge (v0, vk), relabeling vk w concatenation of the labels of nodes v1,…, vk. Figure 12.8: Compressed trie for the strings bear, bell, bid, bull, buy, sell, stock, stop. Compare this with the standard trie shown in Figure 12.6. Thus, nodes in a compressed trie are labeled with strings, which are substrings of strings in the collection, rather than with individual characters. The advantage of a compressed trie over a standard trie is that the number of nodes of the compressed trie is proportional to the number of strings and not to their total length, as shown in the following proposition (compare with Proposition 12.6). Proposition 12.7: A compressed trie storing a collection S of s strings from an alphabet of size d has the following properties: • Every internal node of T has at least two children and most d children. 767 • T has s external nodes. • The number of nodes of T is O(s). The attentive reader may wonder whether the compression of paths provides any significant advantage, since it is offset by a corresponding expansion of the node labels. Indeed, a compressed trie is truly advantageous only when it is used as an auxiliary index structure over a collection of strings already stored in a primary structure, and is not required to actually store all the characters of the strings in the collection. Suppose, for example, that the collection S of strings is an array of strings S[0], S[1], …, S[s − 1]. Instead of storing the label X of a node explicitly, we represent it implicitly by a triplet of integers (i, j, k), such that X = S[i][j..k]; that is, X is the substring of S[i] consisting of the characters from the jth to the kth included. (See the example in Figure 12.9. Also compare with the standard trie of Figure 12.7.) Figure 12.9: (a) Collection S of strings stored in an array. (b) Compact representation of the compressed trie for S. This additional compression scheme allows us to reduce the total space for the trie itself from O(n) for the standard trie to O(s) for the compressed trie, where n is the total length of the strings in S and s is the number of strings in S. We must still store the different strings in S, of course, but we nevertheless reduce the space for the 768 trie. In the next section, we present an application where the collection of strings can also be stored compactly. 12.3.3 Suffix Tries One of the primary applications for tries is for the case when the strings in the collection S are all the suffixes of a string X. Such a trie is called the suffix trie (also known as a suffix tree or position tree) of string X. For example, Figure 12.10a shows the suffix trie for the eight suffixes of string "minimize." For a suffix trie, the compact representation presented in the previous section can be further simplified. Namely, the label of each vertex is a pair (i,j) indicating the string X[i..j]. (See Figure 12.10b.) To satisfy the rule that no suffix of X is a prefix of another suffix, we can add a special character, denoted with $, that is not in the original alphabet σ at the end of X (and thus to every suffix). That is, if string X has length n, we build a trie for the set of n strings X[i..n − 1]$, for i = 0,... ,n − 1. Saving Space Using a suffix trie allows us to save space over a standard trie by using several space compression techniques, including those used for the compressed trie. The advantage of the compact representation of tries now becomes apparent for suffix tries. Since the total length of the suffixes of a string X of length n is storing all the suffixes of X explicitly would take O(n2) space. Even so, the suffix trie represents these strings implicitly in O(n) space, as formally stated in the following proposition. Proposition 12.8: The compact representation of a suffix trie T for a string X of length n uses O(n) space. Construction We can construct the suffix trie for a string of length n with an incremental algorithm like the one given in Section 12.3.1. This construction takes O(dn2) time because the total length of the suffixes is quadratic in n. However, the (compact) suffix trie for a string of length n can be constructed in O(n) time with a specialized algorithm, different from the one for general tries. This linear-time construction algorithm is fairly complex, however, and is not reported here. Still, we can take advantage of the existence of this fast construction algorithm when we want to use a suffix trie to solve other problems. 769 Figure 12.10: (a) Suffix trie T for the string X = "minimize''. (b) Compact representation of T, where pair (i,j) denotes X[i..j]. Using a Suffix Trie The suffix trie T for a string X can be used to efficiently perform pattern matching queries on text X. Namely, we can determine whether a pattern P is a substring of X by trying to trace a path associated with P in T. P is a substring of X if and only 770 if such a path can be traced. The details of the pattern matching algorithm are given in Code Fragment 12.7, which assumes the following additional property on the labels of the nodes in the compact representation of the suffix trie: If node v has label (i,j) and Y is the string of length y associated with the path from the root to v (included), then X [j − y + 1. .j] =Y. This property ensures that we can easily compute the start index of the pattern in the text when a match occurs. Code Fragment 12.7: Pattern matching with a suffix trie. We denote the label of a node v with (start(v),end(v)), that is, the pair of indices specifying the substring of the text associated with v. 771 The correctness of algorithm suffixTrieMatch follows from the fact that we search down the trie T, matching characters of the pattern P one at a time until one of the following events occurs: • We completely match the pattern p. • We get a mismatch (caught by the termination of the for loop without a break out). • We are left with characters of P still to be matched after processing an external node. 772 Let m be the size of pattern P and d be the size of the alphabet. In order to determine the running time of algorithm suffixTrieMatch, we make the following observations: • We process at most m + 1 nodes of the trie. • Each node processed has at most d children. • At each node v processed, we perform at most one character comparison for each child w of v to determine which child of v needs to be processed next (which may possibly be improved by using a fast dictionary to index the children of v). • We perform at most m character comparisons overall in the processed nodes. • We spend O(1) time for each character comparison. Performance We conclude that algorithm suffixTrieMatch performs pattern matching queries in O(dm) time (and would possibly run even faster if we used a dictionary to index children of nodes in the suffix trie). Note that the running time does not depend on the size of the text X. Also, the running time is linear in the size of the pattern, that is, it is O(m), for a constant-size alphabet. Hence, suffix tries are suited for repetitive pattern matching applications, where a series of pattern matching queries is performed on a fixed text. We summarize the results of this section in the following proposition. Proposition 12.9: Let X be a text string with n characters from an alphabet of size d. We can perform pattern matching queries on X in O(dm) time, where m is the length of the pattern, with the suffix trie of X, which uses O(n) space and can be constructed in O(dn) time. We explore another application of tries in the next subsection. 12.3.4 Search Engines The World Wide Web contains a huge collection of text documents (Web pages). Information about these pages are gathered by a program called a Web crawler, which then stores this information in a special dictionary database. A Web search engine allows users to retrieve relevant information from this database, thereby identifying relevant pages on the Web containing given keywords. In this section, we present a simplified model of a search engine. 773 Inverted Files The core information stored by a search engine is a dictionary, called an inverted index or inverted file, storing key-value pairs (w,L), where w is a word and L is a collection of pages containing word w. The keys (words) in this dictionary are called index terms and should be a set of vocabulary entries and proper nouns as large as possible. The elements in this dictionary are called occurrence lists and should cover as many Web pages as possible. We can efficiently implement an inverted index with a data structure consisting of: 1. An array storing the occurrence lists of the terms (in no particular order). 2. A compressed trie for the set of index terms, where each external node stores the index of the occurrence list of the associated term. The reason for storing the occurrence lists outside the trie is to keep the size of the trie data structure sufficiently small to fit in internal memory. Instead, because of their large total size, the occurrence lists have to be stored on disk. With our data structure, a query for a single keyword is similar to a word matching query (See Section 12.3.1.). Namely, we find the keyword in the trie and we return the associated occurrence list. When multiple keywords are given and the desired output are the pages containing all the given keywords, we retrieve the occurrence list of each keyword using the trie and return their intersection. To facilitate the intersection computation, each occurrence list should be implemented with a sequence sorted by address or with a dictionary (see, for example, the generic merge computation discussed in Section 11.6). In addition to the basic task of returning a list of pages containing given keywords, search engines provide an important additional service by ranking the pages returned by relevance. Devising fast and accurate ranking algorithms for search engines is a major challenge for computer researchers and electronic commerce companies. 12.4 Text Compression In this section, we consider an important text processing task, text compression. In this problem, we are given a string X defined over some alphabet, such as the ASCII or Unicode character sets, and we want to efficiently encode X into a small binary string Y (using only the characters 0 and 1). Text compression is useful in any situation where we are communicating over a low-bandwidth channel, such as a modem line or infrared connection, and we wish to minimize the time needed to 774 transmit our text. Likewise, text compression is also useful for storing collections of large documents more efficiently, so as to allow for a fixed-capacity storage device to contain as many documents as possible. The method for text compression explored in this section is the Huffman code. Standard encoding schemes, such as the ASCII and Unicode systems, use fixed- length binary strings to encode characters (with 7 bits in the ASCII system and 16 in the Unicode system). A Huffman code, on the other hand, uses a variablelength encoding optimized for the string X. The optimization is based on the use of character frequencies, where we have, for each character c, a count f(c) of the number of times c appears in the string X. The Huffman code saves space over a fixed-length encoding by using short code-word strings to encode high-frequency characters and long code- word strings to encode low-frequency characters. To encode the string X, we convert each character in X from its fixed-length code word to its variable-length code word, and we concatenate all these code words in order to produce the encoding Y for X. In order to avoid ambiguities, we insist that no code word in our encoding is a prefix of another code word in our encoding. Such a code is called a prefix code, and it simplifies the decoding of Y in order to get back X. (See Figure 12.11.) Even with this restriction, the savings produced by a variable- length prefix code can be significant, particularly if there is a wide variance in character frequencies (as is the case for natural language text in almost every spoken language). Huffman's algorithm for producing an optimal variable-length prefix code for X is based on the construction of a binary tree T that represents the code. Each node in T, except the root, represents a bit in a code word, with each left child representing a "0" and each right child representing a "1." Each external node v is associated with a specific character, and the code word for that character is defined by the sequence of bits associated with the nodes in the path from the root of T to v. (See Figure 12.11.) Each external node v has a frequency f(v), which is simply the frequency in X of the character associated with v. In addition, we give each internal node v in T a frequency, f(v), that is the sum of the frequencies of all the external nodes in the subtree rooted at v. Figure 12.11: An illustration of an example Huffman code for the input string X = "a fast runner need never be afraid of the dark": (a) frequency of each character of X; (b) Huffman tree T for string X. The code for a character c is obtained by tracing the path from the root of T to the external node where c is stored, and associating a left child with 0 and a right child with 1. 775 For example, the code for "a" is 010, and the code for "f" is 1100. 12.4.1 The Huffman Coding Algorithm The Huffman coding algorithm begins with each of the d distinct characters of the string X to encode being the root node of a single-node binary tree. The algorithm proceeds in a series of rounds. In each round, the algorithm takes the two binary trees with the smallest frequencies and merges them into a single binary tree. It repeats this process until only one tree is left. (See Code Fragment 12.8.) Each iteration of the while loop in Huffman's algorithm can be implemented in O(logd) time using a priority queue represented with a heap. In addition, each iteration takes two nodes out of Q and adds one in, a process that will be repeated d − 1 times before exactly one node is left in Q. Thus, this algorithm runs in O(n + dlogd) time. Although a full justification of this algorithm's correctness is beyond our scope here, we note that its intuition comes from a simple idea—any optimal code can be converted into an optimal code in which the code words for the two lowest-frequency characters, a and b, differ only in their last bit. Repeating the argument for a string with a and b replaced by a character c, gives the following: Proposition 12.10: Huffman's algorithm constructs an optimal prefix code for a string of length n with d distinct characters in O(n + dlogd) time. Code Fragment 12.8: Huffman coding algorithm. 776 12.4.2 The Greedy Method Huffman's algorithm for building an optimal encoding is an example application of an algorithmic design pattern called the greedy method. This design pattern is applied to optimization problems, where we are trying to construct some structure while minimizing or maximizing some property of that structure. The general formula for the greedy method pattern is almost as simple as that for the brute-force method. In order to solve a given optimization problem using the greedy method, we proceed by a sequence of choices. The sequence starts from some well-understood starting condition, and computes the cost for that initial condition. The pattern then asks that we iteratively make additional choices by identifying the decision that achieves the best cost improvement from all of the choices that are currently possible. This approach does not always lead to an optimal solution. But there are several problems that it does work for, and such problems are said to possess the greedy-choice property. This is the property that a global optimal condition can be reached by a series of locally optimal choices (that is, choices that are each the current best from among the possibilities available at the time), starting from a well-defined starting condition. The problem of computing an optimal variable-length prefix code is just one example of a problem that possesses the greedy-choice property. 777 12.5 Text Similarity Testing A common text processing problem, which arises in genetics and software engineering, is to test the similarity between two text strings. In a genetics application, the two strings could correspond to two strands of DNA, which could, for example, come from two individuals, who we will consider genetically related if they have a long subsequence common to their respective DNA sequences. Likewise, in a software engineering application, the two strings could come from two versions of source code for the same program, and we may wish to determine which changes were made from one version to the next. Indeed, determining the similarity between two strings is considered such a common operation that the Unix and Linux operating systems come with a program, called diff, for comparing text files. 12.5.1 The Longest Common Subsequence Problem There are several different ways we can define the similarity between two strings. Even so, we can abstract a simple, yet common, version of this problem using character strings and their subsequences. Given a string X = x0x1x2 … xn−1, a subsequence of X is any string that is of the form x i1 xi2 …xik where ij < ij+1; that is, it is a sequence of characters that are not necessarily contiguous but are nevertheless taken in order from X. For example, the string AAAG is a subsequence of the string CGATAATTGAGA. Note that the concept of subsequence of a string is different from the one of substring of a string, defined in Section 12.1. Problem Definition The specific text similarity problem we address here is the longest common subsequence (LCS) problem. In this problem, we are given two character strings, X = x0x1x2 …xn−1 and Y = y0y1y2 … ym−1, over some alphabet (such as the alphabet {A,C, G, T} common in computational genetics) and are asked to find a longest string S that is a subsequence of both X and Y. One way to solve the longest common subsequence problem is to enumerate all subsequences of X and take the largest one that is also a subsequence of Y. Since each character of X is either in or not in a subsequence, there are potentially 2n different subsequences of X, each of which requires O(m) time to determine whether it is a subsequence of Y. Thus, this brute-force approach yields an exponential-time algorithm that runs in O(2nm) time, which is very inefficient. In this section, we discuss how to use an algorithmic design pattern called dynamic programming to solve the longest common subsequence problem much faster than this. 12.5.2 Dynamic Programming 778 There are few algorithmic techniques that can take problems that seem to require exponential time and produce polynomial-time algorithms to solve them. Dynamic programming is one such technique. In addition, the algorithms that result from applications of the dynamic programming technique are usually quite simple— often needing little more than a few lines of code to describe some nested loops for filling in a table. The Components of a Dynamic Programming Solution The dynamic programming technique is used primarily for optimization problems, where we wish to find the "best" way of doing something. Often the number of different ways of doing that "something" is exponential, so a brute- force search for the best is computationally infeasible for all but the smallest problem sizes. We can apply the dynamic programming technique in such situations, however, if the problem has a certain amount of structure that we can exploit. This structure involves the following three components: Simple Subproblems: There has to be some way of repeatedly breaking the global optimization problem into subproblems. Moreover, there should be a simple way of defining subproblems with just a few indices, like i, j, k, and so on. Subproblem Optimization: An optimal solution to the global problem must be a composition of optimal subproblem solutions. We should not be able to find a globally optimal solution that contains suboptimal subproblems. Subproblem Overlap: Optimal solutions to unrelated subproblems can contain subproblems in common. Having given the general components of a dynamic programming algorithm, we next show how to apply it to the longest common subsequence problem. 12.5.3 Applying Dynamic Programming to the LCS Problem We can solve the longest common subsequence problem much faster than exponential time using the dynamic programming technique. As mentioned above, one of the key components of the dynamic programming technique is the definition of simple subproblems that satisfy the subproblem optimization and subproblem overlap properties. Recall that in the LCS problem, we are given two character strings, X and Y, of length n and m, respectively, and are asked to find a longest string S that is a subsequence of both X and Y. Since X and Y are character strings, we have a natural set of indices with which to define subproblems—indices into the strings X and Y. Let us define a subproblem, therefore, as that of computing the value L[i, j], 779 which we will use to denote the length of a longest string that is a subsequence of both X[0..i] = x0x1x2… xi and Y[0..j] = y0y1y2 … yj. This definition allows us to rewrite L[i,j] in terms of optimal subproblem solutions. This definition depends on which of two cases we are in. (See Figure 12.12.) • xi = yj. In this case, we have a match between the last character of X[0..i] and the last character of Y[0..j]. We claim that this character belongs to a longest common subsequence of X[0..i] and Y[0..j]. To justify this claim, let us suppose it is not true. There has to be some longest common subsequence xi1xi2…xik = yj1yj2 e set set … yjk. If xik = xi or yjk = yj, then we get the same sequence by setting ik = i and jk = j. Alternately, if xjk ≠ xi, then we can get an even longer common subsequence by adding xi to the end. Thus, a longest common subsequence of X[0..i] and Y[0..j] ends with xi. Therefore, w L[i,j]=L[i−1,j − 1] + 1 if xi = yj. • xi ≠ yj. In this case, we cannot have a common subsequence that includes both xi and yj. That is, we can have a common subsequence end with xi or one that ends with yj (or possibly neither), but certainly not both. Therefore, we L[i, j] = max{L[i −1,j], L[i, j−1]} if xi ≠yj. In order to make both of these equations make sense in the boundary cases when i = 0 or j = 0, we assign L[i, − 1] = 0 for i = −1, 0, 1,…n − 1 and L[−1, j] = 0 for j = −1,0,1,…,m−1. The definition of L[i,j] above satisfies subproblem optimization, for we cannot have a longest common subsequence without also having longest common subsequences for the subproblems. Also, it uses subproblem overlap, because a subproblem solution L[i, j] can be used in several other problems (namely, the problems L[i+ 1, j], L[i,j+ 1], and L[i+ 1,j+ 1]). Figure 12.12: The two cases in the longest common subsequence algorithm: (a) xi = yj; (b) xi ≠ yj. Note that the algorithm stores only the L[i,j] values, not the matches. The LCS Algorithm 780 Turning this definition of L[i, j] into an algorithm is actually quite straightforward. We initialize an (n+ 1) × (m + 1) array, L, for the boundary cases when i = 0 or j = 0. Namely, we initialize L[i, − 1] = 0 for i = −1,0,1,…, n − 1 and L[− 1, j] = 0 for j = −1,0,1,…, m − 1. (This is a slight abuse of notation, since in reality, we would have to index the rows and columns of L starting with 0.) Then, we iteratively build up values in L until we have L[n − 1, m − 1], the length of a longest common subsequence of X and Y. We give a pseudo-code description of how this approach results in a dynamic programming solution to the longest common subsequence (LCS) problem in Code Fragment 12.9. Code Fragment 12.9: Dynamic programming algorithm for the LCS problem. Performance The running time of the algorithm of Code Fragment 12.9 is easy to analyze, for it is dominated by two nested for loops, with the outer one iterating n times and the inner one iterating m times. Since the if-statement and assignment inside the loop each requires O(1) primitive operations, this algorithm runs in O(nm) time. Thus, the dynamic programming technique can be applied to the longest common subsequence problem to improve significantly over the exponential-time brute- force solution to the LCS problem. Algorithm LCS (Code Fragment 12.9) computes the length of the longest common subsequence (stored in L[n − 1,m − 1]), but not the subsequence itself. As shown in the following proposition, a simple postprocessing step can extract the longest common subsequence from the array L returned by algorithm. 781 Proposition 12.11: Given a string X ofn characters and a string Y of m characters, we can find the longest common subsequence of X and Y in O(nm) time. Justification: Algorithm LCS computes L[n − 1,m − 1], the length of a longest common subsequence, in O(nm) time. Given the table of L[i, j] values, constructing a longest common subsequence is straightforward. One method is to start from L[n, m] and work back through the table, reconstructing a longest common subsequence from back to front. At any position L[i, j], we can determine whether xi = yj. If this is true, then we can take xi as the next character of the subsequence (noting that xi is before the previous character we found, if any), moving next to L[i − 1, j − 1]. If xi ≠ yj, then we can move to the larger of L[i, j − 1] and L[i −1,j]. (See Figure 12.13.) We stop when we reach a boundary cell (with i = − 1 or j = −1). This method constructs a longest common subsequence in O(n + m) additional time. Figure 12.13: Illustration of the algorithm for constructing a longest common subsequence from the array L. 12.6 Exercises For source code and help with exercises, please visit java.datastructures.net. 782 Reinforcement R-12.1 List the prefixes of the stringP = "aaabbaaa" that are also suffixes of P. R-12.2 Draw a figure illustrating the comparisons done by brute-force pattern matching for the text "aaabaadaabaaa" and pattern "aabaaa". R-12.3 Repeat the previous problem for the BM pattern matching algorithm, not counting the comparisons made to compute the last(c) function. R-12.4 Repeat the previous problem for the KMP pattern matching algorithm, not counting the comparisons made to compute the failure function. R-12.5 Compute a table representing the last function used in the BM pattern matching algorithm for the pattern string "the quick brown fox jumped over a lazy cat" assuming the following alphabet (which starts with the space character): σ = { ,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z}. R-12.6 Assuming that the characters in alphabet σ can be enumerated and can be used to index arrays, give an O(m+ |σ|)-time method for constructing the last function from an m-length pattern string P. R-12.7 Compute a table representing the KMP failure function for the pattern string "cgtacgttcgt ac". R-12.8 Draw a standard trie for the following set of strings: {abab,baba, ccccc,bbaaaa, caa,bbaacc,cbcc,cbca}. R-12.9 Draw a compressed trie for the set of strings given in Exercise R-12.8. 783 R-12.10 Draw the compact representation of the suffix trie for the string "minimize minime". R-12.11 What is the longest prefix of the string "cgtacgttcgtacg" that is also a suffix of this string? R-12.12 Draw the frequency array and Huffman tree for the following string: "dogs do not spot hot pots or cats". R-12.13 Show the longest common subsequence array L for the two strings X = "skullandbones" Y = "lullabybabies". What is a longest common subsequence between these strings? Creativity C-12.1 Give an example of a text T of length n and a pattern P of length m that force the brute-force pattern matching algorithm to have a running time that is Ω(nm). C-12.2 Give a justification of why the KMPFailureFunction method (Code Fragment 12.5) runs in O(m) time on a pattern of length m. C-12.3 Show how to modify the KMP string pattern matching algorithm so as to find every occurrence of a pattern string P that appears as a substring in T, while still running in O(n+m) time. (Be sure to catch even those matches that overlap.) C-12.4 Let T be a text of length n, and let P be a pattern of length m. Describe an O(n+m)time method for finding the longest prefix of P that is a substring ofT. 784 C-12.5 Say that a pattern P of length m is a circular substring of a text T of length n if there is an index 0 ≤ i < m, such that P = T[n − m + i..n − 1] + T[0..i − 1], that is, if P is a (normal) substring of T or P is equal to the concatenation of a suffix of T and a prefix of T. Give an O(n + m)-time algorithm for determining whether P is a circular substring of T. C-12.6 The KMP pattern matching algorithm can be modified to run faster on binary strings by redefining the failure function as , where denotes the complement of the kth bit of P. Describe how to modify the KMP algorithm to be able to take advantage of this new failure function and also give a method for computing this failure function. Show that this method makes at most n comparisons between the text and the pattern (as opposed to the 2n comparisons needed by the standard KMP algorithm given in Section 12.2.3). C-12.7 Modify the simplified BM algorithm presented in this chapter using ideas from the KMP algorithm so that it runs in O(n + m) time. C-12.8 Given a string X of length n and a string Y of length m, describe an O(n + m)- time algorithm for finding the longest prefix of X that is a suffix of Y. C-12.9 Give an efficient algorithm for deleting a string from a standard trie and analyze its running time. C-12.10 Give an efficient algorithm for deleting a string from a compressed trie and analyze its running time. C-12.11 Describe an algorithm for constructing the compact representation of a suffix trie, given its noncompact representation, and analyze its running time. C-12.12 Let T be a text string of length n. Describe an O(n)-time method for finding the longest prefix of T that is a substring of the reversal of T. 785 C-12.13 Describe an efficient algorithm to find the longest palindrome that is a suffix of a string T of length n. Recall that apalindrome is a string that is equal to its reversal. What is the running time of your method? C-12.14 Given a sequence S = (x0, x1, x2,…, xn−1) of numbers, describe an O(n2)-time algorithm for finding a longest subsequence T = (x i 0,xi 1, xi 2,…xi k−1) of numbers, such that ij < ij+1 and xij > xij+1. That is, T is a longest decreasing subsequence of S. C-12.15 Define the edit distance between two strings X and Y of length n and m, respectively, to be the number of edits that it takes to change X into Y. An edit consists of a character insertion, a character deletion, or a character replacement. For example, the strings "algorithm" and "rhythm" have edit distance 6. Design an O(nm)-time algorithm for computing the edit distance between X and Y. C-12.16 Design a greedy algorithm for making change after someone buys some candy costing x cents and the customer gives the clerk $1. Your algorithm should try to minimize the number of coins returned. a. Show that your greedy algorithm returns the minimum number of coins if the coins have denominations $0.25, $0.10, $0.05, and $0.01. b. Give a set of denominations for which your algorithm may not return the minimum number of coins. Include an example where your algorithm fails. C-12.17 Give an efficient algorithm for determining if a pattern P is a subsequence (not substring) of a text T. What is the running time of your algorithm? C-12.18 Let x and y be strings of length n and m respectively. Define B(i,j) to be the length of the longest common substring of the suffix of length i in x and the 786 suffix of length j in y. Design an O(nm)-time algorithm for computing all the values of B(i,j) for i =1,…,n and j = 1,…,m. C-12.19 Anna has just won a contest that allows her to take n pieces of candy out of a candy store for free. Anna is old enough to realize that some candy is expensive, costing dollars per piece, while other candy is cheap, costing pennies per piece. The jars of candy are numbered 0, 1, …, m − 1, so that jar j has nj pieces in it, with a price of cj per piece. Design an O(n + m)time algorithm that allows Anna to maximize the value of the pieces of candy she takes for her winnings. Show that your algorithm produces the maximum value for Anna. C-12.20 Let three integer arrays, A, B, and C, be given, each of size n. Given an arbitrary integer x, design an O(n2 log n)-time algorithm to determine if there exist numbers, a in A, b in B, and c in C, such that x = a + b + c. C-12.21 Give an O(n2)-time algorithm for the previous problem. Projects P-12.1 Perform an experimental analysis, using documents found on the Internet, of the efficiency (number of character comparisons performed) of the brute-force and KMP pattern matching algorithms for varying-length patterns. P-12.2 Perform an experimental analysis, using documents found on the Internet, of the efficiency (number of character comparisons performed) of the brute-force and BM pattern matching algorithms for varying-length patterns. P-12.3 Perform an experimental comparison of the relative speeds of the bruteforce, KMP, and BM pattern matching algorithms. Document the time taken for coding up each of these algorithms as well as their relative running times on documents found on the Internet that are then searched using varying-length patterns. P-12.4 787 Implement a compression and decompression scheme that is based on Huffman coding. P-12.5 Create a class that implements a standard trie for a set of ASCII strings. The class should have a constructor that takes as argument a list of strings, and the class should have a method that tests whether a given string is stored in the trie. P-12.6 Create a class that implements a compressed trie for a set of ASCII strings. The class should have a constructor that takes as argument a list of strings, and the class should have a method that tests whether a given string is stored in the trie. P-12.7 Create a class that implements a prefix trie for an ASCII string. The class should have a constructor that takes as argument a string and a method for pattern matching on the string. P-12.8 Implement the simplified search engine described in Section 12.3.4 for the pages of a small Web site. Use all the words in the pages of the site as index terms, excluding stop words such as articles, prepositions, and pronouns. P-12.9 Implement a search engine for the pages of a small Web site by adding a page- ranking feature to the simplified search engine described in Section 12.3.4. Your page-ranking feature should return the most relevant pages first. Use all the words in the pages of the site as index terms, excluding stop words, such as articles, prepositions, and pronouns. P-12.10 Write a program that takes two character strings (which could be, for example, representations of DNA strands) and computes their edit distance, showing the corresponding pieces. (See Exercise C-12.15.) Chapter Notes The KMP algorithm is described by Knuth, Morris, and Pratt in their journal article [64], and Boyer and Moore describe their algorithm in a journal article published the same year [15]. In their article, however, Knuth et al. [64] also prove that the BM algorithm runs in linear time. More recently, Cole [23] shows that the BM algorithm makes at most 3n character comparisons in the worst case, and this bound is tight. All of the algorithms discussed above are also discussed in the book chapter by Aho [3], albeit in a more theoretical framework, including the methods for regular-expression 788 pattern matching. The reader interested in further study of string pattern matching algorithms is referred to the book by Stephen [87] and the book chapters by Aho [3] and Crochemore and Lecroq [27]. The trie was invented by Morrison [78] and is discussed extensively in the classic Sorting and Searching book by Knuth [63]. The name "Patricia" is short for "Practical Algorithm to Retrieve Information Coded in Alphanumeric" [78]. McCreight [70] shows how to construct suffix tries in linear time. An introduction to the field of information retrieval, which includes a discussion of search engines for the Web is provided in the book by Baeza-Yates and Ribeiro-Neto [8]. Chapter 13 Graphs Contents 13.1 The Graph Abstract Data Type ............ 580 13.1.1 The Graph ADT .................... 585 13.2 Data Structures for Graphs ............... 586 789 13.2.1 The Edge List Structure ................ 586 13.2.2 The Adjacency List Structure ............. 589 13.2.3 The Adjacency Matrix Structure ........... 591 13.3 Graph Traversals ..................... 593 13.3.1 Depth-First Search .................. 593 13.3.2 Implementing Depth-First Search ........... 597 13.3.3 Breadth-First Search ................. 605 13.4 Directed Graphs ..................... 608 13.4.1 790 Depth-First Search Traversing a Digraph ................. 610 13.4.2 Transitive Closure ................... 612 13.4.3 Directed Acyclic Graphs ................ 615 13.5 Weighted Graphs .................... 619 13.6 Shortest Paths ...................... 620 13.6.1 Dijkstra's Algorithm .................. 621 13.7 Minimum Spanning Trees ................ 630 13.7.1 Kruskal's Algorithm .................. 632 13.7.2 The Prim-Jarník Algorithm .............. 791 636 13.8 Exercises ......................... 639 java.datastructures.net 13.1 The Graph Abstract Data Type A graph is a way of representing relationships that exist between pairs of objects. That is, a graph is a set of objects, called vertices, together with a collection of pairwise connections between them. By the way, this notion of a "graph" should not be confused with bar charts and function plots, as these kinds of "graphs" are unrelated to the topic of this chapter. Graphs have applications in a host of different domains, including mapping, transportation, electrical engineering, and computer networks. Viewed abstractly, a graph G is simply a set V of vertices and a collection E of pairs of vertices from V, called edges. Thus, a graph is a way of representing connections or relationships between pairs of objects from some set V. Incidentally, some books use different terminology for graphs and refer to what we call vertices as nodes and what we call edges as arcs. We use the terms "vertices" and "edges." Edges in a graph are either directed or undirected. An edge (u, v) is said to be directed from u to v if the pair (u, v) is ordered, with u preceding v. An edge (u, v) is said to be undirected if the pair (u, v) is not ordered. Undirected edges are sometimes denoted with set notation, as {u,v} but for simplicity we use the pair notation (u, v), noting that in the undirected case (u, v) is the same as (v, u). Graphs are typically visualized by drawing the vertices as ovals or rectangles and the edges as segments or curves connecting pairs of ovals and rectangles. The following are some examples of directed and undirected graphs. Example 13.1: We can visualize collaborations among the researchers of a certain discipline by constructing a graph whose vertices are associated with the researchers themselves, and whose edges connect pairs of vertices associated with researchers who have coauthored a paper or book. (See Figure 13.1.) Such edges are undirected because coauthorship is a symmetric relation; that is, if A has coauthored something with B, then B necessarily has coauthored something with A. Figure 13.1: Graph of coauthorship among some authors. 792 Example 13.2: We can associate with an object-oriented program a graph whose vertices represent the classes defined in the program, and whose edges indicate inheritance between classes. There is an edge from a vertex v to a vertex u if the class for v extends the class for u. Such edges are directed because the inheritance relation only goes in one direction (that is, it is asymmetric). If all the edges in a graph are undirected, then we say the graph is an undirected graph. Likewise, a directed graph, also called a digraph, is a graph whose edges are all directed. A graph that has both directed and undirected edges is often called a mixed graph. Note that an undirected or mixed graph can be converted into a directed graph by replacing every undirected edge (u, v) by the pair of directed edges (u,v) and (v,u). It is often useful, however, to keep undirected and mixed graphs represented as they are, for such graphs have several applications, such as that of the following example. Example 13.3: A city map can be modeled by a graph whose vertices are intersections or dead-ends, and whose edges are stretches of streets without intersections. This graph has both undirected edges, which correspond to stretches of twoway streets, and directed edges, which correspond to stretches of one-way streets. Thus, in this way, a graph modeling a city map is a mixed graph. Example 13.4: Physical examples of graphs are present in the electrical wiring and plumbing networks of a building. Such networks can be modeled as graphs, where each connector, fixture, or outlet is viewed as a vertex, and each uninterrupted stretch of wire or pipe is viewed as an edge. Such graphs are actually components of much larger graphs, namely the local power and water distribution networks. Depending on the specific aspects of these graphs that we are interested in, we may consider their edges as undirected or directed, for, in principle, water can flow in a pipe and current can flow in a wire in either direction. 793 The two vertices joined by an edge are called the end vertices (or endpoints) of the edge. If an edge is directed, its first endpoint is its origin and the other is the destination of the edge. Two vertices u and v are said to be adjacent if there is an edge whose end vertices are u and v. An edge is said to be incident on a vertex if the vertex is one of the edge's endpoints. The outgoing edges of a vertex are the directed edges whose origin is that vertex. The incoming edges of a vertex are the directed edges whose destination is that vertex. The degree of a vertex v, denoted deg(v), is the number of incident edges of v. The in-degree and out-degree of a vertex v are the number of the incoming and outgoing edges of v, and are denoted indeg(v) and outdeg(v), respectively. Example 13.5: We can study air transportation by constructing a graph G, called a flight network, whose vertices are associated with airports, and whose edges are associated with flights. (See Figure 13.2.) In graph G, the edges are directed because a given flight has a specific travel direction (from the origin airport to the destination airport). The endpoints of an edge e in G correspond respectively to the origin and destination for the flight corresponding to e. Two airports are adjacent in G if there is a flight that flies between them, and an edge e is incident upon a vertex v in G if the flight for e flies to or from the airport for v. The outgoing edges of a vertex v correspond to the outbound flights from v's airport, and the incoming edges correspond to the inbound flights to v 's airport. Finally, the in-degree of a vertex vofG corresponds to the number of inbound flights to v's airport, and the out-degree of a vertex v in G corresponds to the number of outbound flights. The definition of a graph refers to the group of edges as a collection, not a set, thus allowing for two undirected edges to have the same end vertices, and for two directed edges to have the same origin and the same destination. Such edges are called parallel edges or multiple edges. Parallel edges can be in a flight network (Example 13.5), in which case multiple edges between the same pair of vertices could indicate different flights operating on the same route at different times of the day. Another special type of edge is one that connects a vertex to itself. Namely, we say that an edge (undirected or directed) is a self-loop if its two endpoints coincide. A self-loop may occur in a graph associated with a city map (Example 13.3), where it would correspond to a "circle" (a curving street that returns to its starting point). With few exceptions, graphs do not have parallel edges or self-loops. Such graphs are said to be simple. Thus, we can usually say that the edges of a simple graph are a set of vertex pairs (and not just a collection). Throughout this chapter, we assume that a graph is simple unless otherwise specified. Figure 13.2: Example of a directed graph representing a flight network. The endpoints of edge UA 120 are LAX and ORD; hence, LAX and ORD are adjacent. The in-degree of DFW is 3, and the out-degree of DFW is 2. 794 In the propositions that follow, we explore a few important properties of graphs. Proposition 13.6: If G is a graph with m edges, then Justification: An edge (u,v) is counted twice in the summation above; once by its endpoint u and once by its endpoint v. Thus, the total contribution of the edges to the degrees of the vertices is twice the number of edges. Proposition 13.7: If G is a directed graph with m edges, then Justification: In a directed graph, an edge (u,v) contributes one unit to the out- degree of its origin u and one unit to the in-degree of its destination v. Thus, the total contribution of the edges to the out-degrees of the vertices is equal to the number of edges, and similarly for the out-degrees. We next show that a simple graph with n vertices has O(n2) edges. Proposition 13.8: Let G be a simple graph with n vertices and m edges. If G is undirected, then m ≤ n(n − 1)/2, and if G is directed, then m ≤ n(n − 1). 795 Justification: Suppose that G is undirected. Since no two edges can have the same endpoints and there are no self-loops, the maximum degree of a vertex in G is n − 1 in this case. Thus, by Proposition 13.6, 2m ≤ n(n − 1). Now suppose that G is directed. Since no two edges can have the same origin and destination, and there are no self-loops, the maximum in-degree of a vertex in G is n − 1 in this case. Thus, by Proposition 13.7, m ≤ n(n − 1). A path is a sequence of alternating vertices and edges that starts at a vertex and ends at a vertex such that each edge is incident to its predecessor and successor vertex. A cycle is a path with at least one edge that has its start and end vertices the same. We say that a path is simple if each vertex in the path is distinct, and we say that a cycle is simple if each vertex in the cycle is distinct, except for the first and last one. A directed path is a path such that all edges are directed and are traversed along their direction. A directed cycle is similarly defined. For example, in Figure 13.2, (BOS, NW 35, JFK, AA 1387, DFW) is in a directed simple path, and (LAX, UA 120, ORD, UA 877, DFW, AA 49, LAX) is a directed simple cycle. If a path P or cycle C is a simple graph, we may omit the edges in P or C, as these are well defined, in which case P is a list of adjacent vertices and C is a cycle of adjacent vertices. Example 13.9: Given a graph G representing a city map (see Example 13.3), we can model a couple driving to dinner at a recommended restaurant as traversing a path though G. If they know the way, and don't accidentally go through the same intersection twice, then they traverse a simple path in G. Likewise, we can model the entire trip the couple takes, from their home to the restaurant and back, as a cycle. If they go home from the restaurant in a completely different way than how they went, not even going through the same intersection twice, then their entire round trip is a simple cycle. Finally, if they travel along one-way streets for their entire trip, we can model their night out as a directed cycle. A subgraph of a graph G is a graph H whose vertices and edges are subsets of the vertices and edges of G, respectively. For example, in the flight network of Figure 13.2, vertices BOS, JFK, and MIA, and edges AA 903 and DL 247 form a subgraph. A spanning subgraph of G is a subgraph of G that contains all the vertices of the graph G. A graph is connected if, for any two vertices, there is a path between them. If a graph G is not connected, its maximal connected subgraphs are called the connected components of G. A forest is a graph without cycles. A tree is a connected forest, that is, a connected graph without cycles. Note that this definition of a tree is somewhat different from the one given in Chapter 7. Namely, in the context of graphs, a tree has no root. Whenever there is ambiguity, the trees of Chapter 7 should be referred to as rooted trees, while the trees of this chapter should be referred to as free trees. The connected components of a forest are (free) trees. A spanning tree of a graph is a spanning subgraph that is a (free) tree. Example 13.10: Perhaps the most talked about graph today is the Internet, which can be viewed as a graph whose vertices are computers and whose (undirected) edges 796 are communication connections between pairs of computers on the Internet. The computers and the connections between them in a single domain, like wiley.com, form a subgraph of the Internet. If this subgraph is connected, then two users on computers in this domain can send e-mail to one another without having their information packets ever leave their domain. Suppose the edges of this subgraph form a spanning tree. This implies that, if even a single connection goes down (for example, because someone pulls a communication cable out of the back of a computer in this domain), then this subgraph will no longer be connected. There are a number of simple properties of trees, forests, and connected graphs. Proposition 13.11: Let G be an undirected graph with n vertices and m edges. • If G is connected, then m≥n − 1. • If G is a tree, then m = n − 1. • If G is a forest, then m≤n − 1. We leave the justification of this proposition as an exercise (C-13.2). 13.1.1 The Graph ADT As an abstract data type, a graph is a collection of elements that are stored at the graph's positions—its vertices and edges. Hence, we can store elements in a graph at either its edges or its vertices (or both). In Java, this means we can define Vertex and Edge interfaces that each extend the Position interface. Let us then introduce the following simplified graph ADT, which is suitable for vertex and edge positions in undirected graphs, that is, graphs whose edges are all undirected. Additional methods for dealing with directed edges are discussed in Section 13.4. vertices(): Return an iterable collection of all the vertices of the graph. edges(): Return an iterable collection of all the edges of the graph. incidentEdges(v): Return an iterable collection of the edges incident upon vertex v. opposite(v,e): Return the endvertex of edge e distinct from vertex v; an error occurs if e is not incident on v. 797 endVertices(e): Return an array storing the end vertices of edge e. areAdjacent(v,w): Test whether vertices v and w are adjacent. replace(v,x): Replace the element stored at vertex v with x. replace(e,x): Replace the element stored at edge e with x. insertVertex(x): Insert and return a new vertex storing element x. insertEdge(v, w,x): Insert and return a new undirected edge with end vertices v and w and storing element x. removeVertex(v): Remove vertex v and all its incident edges and return the element stored at v. removeEdge(e): Remove edge e and return the element stored at e. There are several ways to realize the graph ADT. We explore three such ways in the next section. 13.2 Data Structures for Graphs In this section, we discuss three popular ways of representing graphs, which are usually referred to as the edge list structure, the adjacency list structure, and the adjacency matrix. In all three representations, we use a collection to store the vertices of the graph. Regarding the edges, there is a fundamental difference between the first two structures and the latter. The edge list structure and the adjacency list structure only store the edges actually present in the graph, while the adjacency matrix stores a placeholder for every pair of vertices (whether there is an edge between them or not). As we will explain in this section, this difference implies that, for a graph G with n 798 vertices and m edges, an edge list or adjacency list representation uses O(n + m) space, whereas an adjacency matrix representation uses O(n2) space. 13.2.1 The Edge List Structure The edge list structure is possibly the simplest, though not the most efficient, representation of a graph G. In this representation, a vertex v of G storing an element o is explicitly represented by a vertex object. All such vertex objects are stored in a collection V, such as an array list or node list. If V is an array list, for example, then we naturally think of the vertices as being numbered. Vertex Objects The vertex object for a vertex v storing element o has instance variables for: • A reference to o. • A reference to the position (or entry) of the vertex-object in collection V. The distinguishing feature of the edge list structure is not how it represents vertices, however, but the way in which it represents edges. In this structure, an edge e of G storing an element o is explicitly represented by an edge object. The edge objects are stored in a collection E, which would typically be an array list or node list. Edge Objects The edge object for an edge e storing element o has instance variables for: • A reference to o. • References to the vertex objects associated with the endpoint vertices of e. • A reference to the position (or entry) of the edge-object in collection E. Visualizing the Edge List Structure We illustrate an example of the edge list structure for a graph G in Figure 13.3. Figure 13.3: (a) A graph G; (b) schematic representation of the edge list structure for G. We visualize the elements stored in the vertex and edge 799 objects with the element names, instead of with actual references to the element objects. The reason this structure is called the edge list structure is that the simplest and most common implementation of the edge collection E is with a list. Even so, in order to be able to conveniently search for specific objects associated with edges, we may wish to implement E with a dictionary (whose entries store the element as the key and the edge as the value) in spite of our calling this the "edge list." We may also wish to implement the collection V as a dictionary for the same reason. Still, in keeping with tradition, we call this structure the edge list structure. 800 The main feature of the edge list structure is that it provides direct access from edges to the vertices they are incident upon. This allows us to define simple algorithms for methods endVertices(e) and opposite(v, e). Performance of the Edge List Structure One method that is inefficient for the edge list structure, however, is that of accessing the edges that are incident upon a vertex. Determining this set of vertices requires an exhaustive inspection of all the edge objects in the collection E. That is, in order to determine which edges are incident to a vertex v, we must examine all the edges in the edge list and check, for each one, if it happens to be incident to v. Thus, method incidentEdges(v) runs in time proportional to the number of edges in the graph, not in time proportional to the degree of vertex v. In fact, even to check if two vertices v and w are adjacent by the areAdjacent(v,w) method, requires that we search the entire edge collection looking for an edge with end vertices v and w. Moreover, since removing a vertex involves removing all of its incident edges, method removeVertex also requires a complete search of the edge collection E. Table 13.1 summarizes the performance of the edge list structure implementation of a graph under the assumption that collections V and E are realized with doubly linked lists (Section 6.4.2). Table 13.1: Running times of the methods of a graph implemented with the edge list structure. The space used is O(n + m), where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges. Operation Time vertices O(n) edges O(m) endVertices, opposite O(1) incidentEdges, areAdjacent 801 O(m) replace O(1) insertVertex, insert Edge, removeEdge, O(1) removeVertex O(m) Details for selected methods of the graph ADT are as follows: • Methods vertices() and edges() are implemented by calling V.iterator() and E.iterator(), respectively. • Methods incidentEdges and areAdjacent all take O(m) time, since to determine which edges are incident upon a vertex v we must inspect all edges. • Since the collections V and E are lists implemented with a doubly linked list, we can insert vertices, and insert and remove edges, in O(1) time. • The update method removeVertex(v) takes O(m) time, since it requires that we inspect all the edges to find and remove those incident upon v. Thus, the edge list representation is simple but has significant limitations. 13.2.2 The Adjacency List Structure The adjacency list structure for a graph G adds extra information to the edge list structure that supports direct access to the incident edges (and thus to the adjacent vertices) of each vertex. This approach allows us to use the adjacency list structure to implement several methods of the graph ADT much faster than what is possible with the edge list structure, even though both of these two representations use an amount of space proportional to the number of vertices and edges in the graph. The adjacency list structure includes all the structural components of the edge list structure plus the following: • A vertex object v holds a reference to a collection I(v), called the incidence collection of v, whose elements store references to the edges incident on v. 802 • The edge object for an edge e with end vertices v and w holds references to the positions (or entries) associated with edge e in the incidence collections I(v)and I(w). Traditionally, the incidence collection I(v) for a vertex v is a list, which is why we call this way of representing a graph the adjacency list structure. The adjacency list structure provides direct access both from the edges to the vertices and from the vertices to their incident edges. We illustrate the adjacency list structure of a graph in Figure 13.4. Figure 13.4: (a) A graph G; (b) schematic representation of the adjacency list structure of G. As in Figure 13.3, we visualize the elements of collections with names. Performance of the Adjacency List Structure 803 All of the methods of the graph ADT that can be implemented with the edge list structure in O(1) time can also be implemented in O(1) time with the adjacency list structure, using essentially the same algorithms. In addition, being able to provide access between vertices and edges in both directions allows us to speed up the performance of a number of the graph methods by using an adjacency list structure instead of an edge list structure. Table 13.2 summarizes the performance of the adjacency list structure implementation of a graph, assuming that collections V and E and the incidence collections of the vertices are all implemented with doubly linked lists. For a vertex v, the space used by the incidence collection of v is proportional to the degree of v, that is, it is O(deg(v)). Thus, by Proposition 13.6, the space requirement of the adjacency list structure is O(n + m). Table 13.2: Running times of the methods of a graph implemented with the adjacency list structure. The space used is O(n + m), where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges. Operation Time vertices O(n) edges O(m) endVertices, opposite O(1) incidentEdges(v) O(deg(v)) areAdjacent(v,w) O(min(deg(v),deg(w)) replace O(1) 804 insertVertex, insertEdge, removeEdge, O(1) removeVertex O(deg(v)) In contrast to the edge-list way of doing things, the adjacency list structure provides improved running times for the following methods: • Method incidentEdges(v) takes time proportional to the number of incident vertices of v, that is, O(deg(v)) time. • Method areAdjacent(u,v) can be performed by inspecting either the incidence collection of u or that of v. By choosing the smaller of the two, we get O(min(deg(u),deg(v))) running time. • Method removeVertex(v) takes O(deg(v)) time. 13.2.3 The Adjacency Matrix Structure Like the adjacency list structure, the adjacency matrix structure of a graph also extends the edge list structure with an additional component. In this case, we augment the edge list with a matrix (a two-dimensional array) A that allows us to determine adjacencies between pairs of vertices in constant time. In the adjacency matrix representation, we think of the vertices as being the integers in the set {0,1,..., n − 1} and the edges as being pairs of such integers. This allows us to store references to edges in the cells of a two-dimensional n × n array A. Specifically, the adjacency matrix representation extends the edge list structure as follows (see Figure 13.5): • A vertex object v stores a distinct integer i in the range 0,1,..., n − 1, called the index of v. • We keep a two-dimensional n × n array A such that the cell A[i,j] holds a reference to the edge (v, w), if it exists, where v is the vertex with index i and w is the vertex with index j. If there is no such edge, then A[i,j] = null. Figure 13.5: (a) A graph G without parallel edges; (b) schematic representation of the simplified adjacency matrix structure for G. 805 Performance of the Adjacency Matrix Structure For graphs with parallel edges, the adjacency matrix representation must be extended so that, instead of having A [i, j] storing a pointer to an associated edge (v, w), it must store a pointer to an incidence collection I(v, w), which stores all the edges from v to w. Since most of the graphs we consider are simple, will not consider this complication here. The (simple) adjacency matrix A allows us to perform method areAdjacent(v, w) in O(1) time. We achieve this running time by accessing vertices v and w to determine their respective indices i and j, and then testing if A[i, j] is null or 806 not. The optimal performance of method areAdjacent is counteracted by an increase in space usage, however, which is now O(n2), and in the running time of other methods. For example, method incidentEdges(v) now requires that we examine an entire row or column of array A and thus runs in O(n) time. Moreover, any vertex insertions or deletions now require creating a whole new array A, of larger or smaller size, respectively, which takes O(n2) time. Table 13.3 summarizes the performance of the adjacency matrix structure implementation of a graph. From this table, we observe that the adjacency list structure is superior to the adjacency matrix in space, and is superior in time for all methods except for the areAdjacent method. Table 13.3: Running times for a graph implemented with an adjacency matrix. Operation Time vertices O(n) edges O(m) endVertices, opposite, areAdjacent O(1) incidentEdges(v) O(n + deg(v)) replace, insertEdge, removeEdge, O(1) insert Vertex, remove Vertex O(n2) Historically, Boolean adjacency matrices were the first representations used for graphs (so that A[i, j] = true if and only if (i, j) is an edge). We should not find this fact surprising, however, for the adjacency matrix has a natural appeal as a mathematical structure (for example, an undirected graph has a symmetric 807 adjacency matrix). The adjacency list structure came later, with its natural appeal in computing due to its faster methods for most algorithms (many algorithms do not use method areAdjacent) and its space efficiency. Most of the graph algorithms we examine will run efficiently when acting upon a graph stored using the adjacency list representation. In some cases, however, a trade-off occurs, where graphs with few edges are most efficiently processed with an adjacency list structure and graphs with many edges are most efficiently processed with an adjacency matrix structure. 13.3 Graph Traversals Greek mythology tells of an elaborate labyrinth that was built to house the monstrous Minotaur, which was part bull and part man. This labyrinth was so complex that neither beast nor human could escape it. No human, that is, until the Greek hero, Theseus, with the help of the king's daughter, Ariadne, decided to implement a graph traversal algorithm. Theseus fastened a ball of thread to the door of the labyrinth and unwound it as he traversed the twisting passages in search of the monster. Theseus obviously knew about good algorithm design, for, after finding and defeating the beast, Theseus easily followed the string back out of the labyrinth to the loving arms of Ariadne. Formally, a traversal is a systematic procedure for exploring a graph by examining all of its vertices and edges. 13.3.1 Depth-First Search The first traversal algorithm we consider in this section is depth-first search (DFS) in an undirected graph. Depth-first search is useful for testing a number of properties of graphs, including whether there is a path from one vertex to another and whether or not a graph is connected. Depth-first search in an undirected graph G is analogous to wandering in a labyrinth with a string and a can of paint without getting lost. We begin at a specific starting vertex s in G, which we initialize by fixing one end of our string to s and painting s as "visited." The vertex s is now our "current" vertex—call our current vertex u. We then traverse G by considering an (arbitrary) edge (u,v) incident to the current vertex u. If the edge (u,v) leads us to an already visited (that is, painted) vertex v, we immediately return to vertex u. If, on the other hand, (u, v) leads to an unvisited vertex v, then we unroll our string, and go to v. We then paint v as "visited," and make it the current vertex, repeating the computation aboce. Eventually, we will get to a "dead-end," that is, a current vertex u such that all the edges incident on u lead to vertices already visited. Thus, taking any edge incident on u will cause us to return to u. To get out of this impasse, we roll our string back up, backtracking along the edge that brought us to u, going back to a previously visited vertex v. We then make v our current vertex and repeat the computation above for any edges incident upon v that we have not looked at before. If all of v's incident edges lead to visited vertices, then we again roll up our string and backtrack to the vertex we 808 came from to get to v, and repeat the procedure at that vertex. Thus, we continue to backtrack along the path that we have traced so far until we find a vertex that has yet unexplored edges, take one such edge, and continue the traversal. The process terminates when our backtracking leads us back to the start vertex s, and there are no more unexplored edges incident on s. This simple process traverses all the edges of G. (See Figure 13.6.) Figure 13.6: Example of depth-first search traversal on a graph starting at vertex A. Discovery edges are shown with solid lines and back edges are shown with dashed lines: (a) input graph; (b) path of discovery edges traced from A until back edge (B,A) is hit; (c) reaching F, which is a dead end; (d) after backtracking to C, resuming with edge (C,G), and hitting another dead end, J; (e) after backtracking to G; (f) after backtracking to N. 809 Discovery Edges and Back Edges 810 We can visualize a DFS traversal by orienting the edges along the direction in which they are explored during the traversal, distinguishing the edges used to discover new vertices, called discovery edges, or tree edges, from those that lead to already visited vertices, called back edges. (See Figure 13.6f). In the analogy above, discovery edges are the edges where we unroll our string when we traverse them, and back edges are the edges where we immediately return without unrolling any string. As we will see, the discovery edges form a spanning tree of the connected component of the starting vertex s. We call the edges not in this tree "back edges" because, assuming that the tree is rooted at the start vertex, each such edge leads back from a vertex in this tree to one of its ancestors in the tree. The pseudo-code for a DFS traversal starting at a vertex v follows our analogy with string and paint. We use recursion to implement the string analogy, and we assume that we have a mechanism (the paint analogy) to determine if a vertex or edge has been explored or not, and to label the edges as discovery edges or back edges. This mechanism will require additional space and may affect the running time of the algorithm. A pseudo-code description of the recursive DFS algorithm is given in Code Fragment 13.1. Code Fragment 13.1: The DFS algorithm. There are a number of observations that we can make about the depth-first search algorithm, many of which derive from the way the DFS algorithm partitions the edges of the undirected graph G into two groups, the discovery edges and the back edges. For example, since back edges always connect a vertex v to a previously visited vertex u, each back edge implies a cycle in G, consisting of the discovery edges from u to v plus the back edge (u, v). Proposition 13.12: Let G be an undirected graph on which a DFS traversal starting at a vertex s has been performed. Then the traversal visits all 811 vertices in the connected component of s, and the discovery edges form a spanning tree of the connected component of s. Justification: Suppose there is at least one vertex v in s's connected component not visited, and let w be the first unvisited vertex on some path from s to v (we may have v = w). Since w is the first unvisited vertex on this path, it has a neighbor u that was visited. But when we visited u, we must have considered the edge (u,w); hence, it cannot be correct that w is unvisited. Therefore, there are no unvisited vertices in s's connected component. Since we only mark edges when we go to unvisited vertices, we will never form a cycle with discovery edges, that is, discovery edges form a tree. Moreover, this is a spanning tree because, as we have just seen, the depth-first search visits each vertex in the connected component of s In terms of its running time, depth-first search is an efficient method for traversing a graph. Note that DFS is called exactly once on each vertex, and that every edge is examined exactly twice, once from each of its end vertices. Thus, if ns vertices and ms edges are in the connected component of vertex s, a DFS starting at s runs in O(ns + ms) time, provided the following conditions are satisfied: • The graph is represented by a data structure such that creating and iterating through the incidentEdges(v) iterable collection takes O(degree(v)) time, and the opposite(v,e) method takes O(1) time. The adjacency list structure is one such structure, but the adjacency matrix structure is not. • We have a way to "mark" a vertex or edge as explored, and to test if a vertex or edge has been explored in O(1) time. We discuss ways of implementing DFS to achieve this goal in the next section. Given the assumptions above, we can solve a number of interesting problems. Proposition 13.13: Let G be a graph with n vertices and m edges represented with an adjacency list. A DFS traversal of G can be performed in O(n + m) time, and can be used to solve the following problems in O(n + m) time: • Testing whether G is connected. • Computing a spanning tree of G, if G is connected. • Computing the connected components of G. • Computing a path between two given vertices of G, if it exists. 812 • Computing a cycle in G, or reporting that G has no cycles. The justification of Proposition 13.13 is based on algorithms that use slightly modified versions of the DFS algorithm as subroutines. 13.3.2 Implementing Depth-First Search As we have mentioned above, the data structure we use to represent a graph impacts the performance of the DFS algorithm. For example, an adjacency list can be used to yield a running time of O(n + m) for traversing a graph with n vertices and m edges. Using an adjacency matrix, on the other hand, would result in a running time of O(n2), since each of the n calls to the inciden