[iPhone开发书籍大全] Programming in Objective-C 2.0


Programming in Objective-C 2.0 Stephen G. Kochan Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco New York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • Madrid Cape Town • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City Programming in Objective-C 2.0 Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the informa- tion contained herein. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-56615-7 ISBN-10: 0-321-56615-7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Kochan, Stephen G. Programming in Objective-C 2.0 / Stephen G. Kochan. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-321-56615-7 (pbk.) 1. Objective-C (Computer program language) 2. Object-oriented programming (Computer science) 3. Macintosh (Computer)--Programming. I. Title. QA76.73.O115K63 2009 005.1'17--dc22 2008049771 Printed in the United States of America First Printing December 2008 Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Sams Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this infor- mation. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Warning and Disclaimer Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book. Bulk Sales Pearson offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com For sales outside of the U.S., please contact International Sales international@pearsoned.com Acquisitions Editor Mark Taber Development Editor Michael Thurston Managing Editor Patrick Kanouse Project Editor Mandie Frank Copy Editor Krista Hansing Editorial Services, Inc. Indexer Ken Johnson Proofreader Arle Writing and Editing Technical Editor Michael Trent Publishing Coordinator Vanessa Evans Designer Gary Adair Compositor Mark Shirar Table of Contents Copyright..................................................................................................... 1 Developer’s Library..................................................................................... 4 About the Author......................................................................................... 5 About the Technical Reviewers................................................................... 5 We Want to Hear from You!........................................................................ 6 Reader Services.......................................................................................... 6 Chapter 1. Introduction............................................................................... 8 What You Will Learn from This Book............................................................................................................................................ 9 How This Book Is Organized......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Acknowledgments......................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Part I: The Objective-C 2.0 Language......................................................... 14 Chapter 2. Programming in Objective-C....................................................................................................................................... 16 Compiling and Running Programs............................................................................................................................................ 16 Explanation of Your First Program........................................................................................................................................... 25 Displaying the Values of Variables............................................................................................................................................ 29 Summary................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 3. Classes, Objects, and Methods.................................................................................................................................... 34 What Is an Object, Anyway?..................................................................................................................................................... 34 Instances and Methods............................................................................................................................................................. 35 An Objective-C Class for Working with Fractions.................................................................................................................... 37 The @interface Section............................................................................................................................................................. 40 The @implementation Section................................................................................................................................................. 44 The program Section................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Accessing Instance Variables and Data Encapsulation............................................................................................................. 51 Summary.................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Chapter 4. Data Types and Expressions....................................................................................................................................... 56 Data Types and Constants......................................................................................................................................................... 56 Arithmetic Expressions............................................................................................................................................................. 63 Assignment Operators............................................................................................................................................................... 71 A Calculator Class...................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Bit Operators............................................................................................................................................................................. 74 Types: _Bool, _Complex, and _Imaginary.............................................................................................................................. 80 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 Chapter 5. Program Looping........................................................................................................................................................ 84 The for Statement...................................................................................................................................................................... 85 The while Statement.................................................................................................................................................................. 96 The do Statement..................................................................................................................................................................... 101 The break Statement............................................................................................................................................................... 102 The continue Statement.......................................................................................................................................................... 103 Summary.................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 103 Chapter 6. Making Decisions...................................................................................................................................................... 106 The if Statement...................................................................................................................................................................... 106 The switch Statement............................................................................................................................................................... 127 Boolean Variables.................................................................................................................................................................... 130 The Conditional Operator........................................................................................................................................................ 135 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 136 Chapter 7. More on Classes......................................................................................................................................................... 140 Separate Interface and Implementation Files........................................................................................................................ 140 Synthesized Accessor Methods................................................................................................................................................ 146 Accessing Properties Using the Dot Operator......................................................................................................................... 147 Multiple Arguments to Methods............................................................................................................................................. 148 Local Variables......................................................................................................................................................................... 153 The self Keyword...................................................................................................................................................................... 156 Allocating and Returning Objects from Methods................................................................................................................... 157 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 163 Chapter 8. Inheritance................................................................................................................................................................ 164 It All Begins at the Root........................................................................................................................................................... 164 Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods......................................................................................................... 169 Overriding Methods................................................................................................................................................................. 182 Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Instance Variables......................................................................................... 188 Abstract Classes....................................................................................................................................................................... 190 Exercises................................................................................................................................................................................... 191 Chapter 9. Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding......................................................................................... 194 Polymorphism: Same Name, Different Class.......................................................................................................................... 194 Dynamic Binding and the id Type........................................................................................................................................... 198 Compile Time Versus Runtime Checking............................................................................................................................... 200 The id Data Type and Static Typing........................................................................................................................................ 201 Asking Questions About Classes............................................................................................................................................. 202 Exception Handling Using @try............................................................................................................................................. 207 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 210 Chapter 10. More on Variables and Data Types......................................................................................................................... 212 Initializing Classes................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Scope Revisited........................................................................................................................................................................ 214 Storage Class Specifiers.......................................................................................................................................................... 220 Enumerated Data Types.......................................................................................................................................................... 222 The typedef Statement............................................................................................................................................................ 225 Data Type Conversions............................................................................................................................................................ 227 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 229 Chapter 11. Categories and Protocols......................................................................................................................................... 232 Categories................................................................................................................................................................................ 232 Protocols.................................................................................................................................................................................. 238 Composite Objects................................................................................................................................................................... 242 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 243 Chapter 12. The Preprocessor..................................................................................................................................................... 246 The #define Statement............................................................................................................................................................ 246 The #import Statement........................................................................................................................................................... 254 Conditional Compilation......................................................................................................................................................... 257 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 260 Chapter 13. Underlying C Language Features............................................................................................................................ 262 Arrays...................................................................................................................................................................................... 263 Functions................................................................................................................................................................................. 269 Structures................................................................................................................................................................................ 278 Pointers................................................................................................................................................................................... 290 Unions..................................................................................................................................................................................... 309 They’re Not Objects!................................................................................................................................................................ 312 Miscellaneous Language Features........................................................................................................................................... 312 How Things Work.................................................................................................................................................................... 317 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 319 Part II: The Foundation Framework........................................................ 322 Chapter 14. Introduction to the Foundation Framework.......................................................................................................... 324 Foundation Documentation.................................................................................................................................................... 324 Chapter 15. Numbers, Strings, and Collections.......................................................................................................................... 328 Number Objects....................................................................................................................................................................... 329 String Objects.......................................................................................................................................................................... 333 Array Objects........................................................................................................................................................................... 348 Synthesized AddressCard Methods........................................................................................................................................ 356 Dictionary Objects................................................................................................................................................................... 374 Set Objects............................................................................................................................................................................... 377 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 382 Chapter 16. Working with Files.................................................................................................................................................. 384 Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager.................................................................................................................. 385 Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h.................................................................................................................................. 396 Basic File Operations: NSFileHandle..................................................................................................................................... 404 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 409 Chapter 17. Memory Management.............................................................................................................................................. 412 The Autorelease Pool............................................................................................................................................................... 412 Reference Counting................................................................................................................................................................. 413 An Autorelease Example......................................................................................................................................................... 425 Summary of Memory-Management Rules............................................................................................................................. 426 Garbage Collection.................................................................................................................................................................. 427 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 429 Chapter 18. Copying Objects...................................................................................................................................................... 430 The copy and mutableCopy Methods...................................................................................................................................... 431 Shallow Versus Deep Copying................................................................................................................................................. 433 Implementing the Protocol............................................................................................................................. 436 Copying Objects in Setter and Getter Methods...................................................................................................................... 439 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 441 Chapter 19. Archiving................................................................................................................................................................. 442 Archiving with XML Property Lists........................................................................................................................................ 442 Archiving with NSKeyedArchiver........................................................................................................................................... 444 Writing Encoding and Decoding Methods............................................................................................................................. 447 Using NSData to Create Custom Archives.............................................................................................................................. 454 Using the Archiver to Copy Objects........................................................................................................................................ 457 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 459 Part III: Cocoa and the iPhone SDK........................................................ 460 Chapter 20. Introduction to Cocoa............................................................................................................................................. 462 Framework Layers................................................................................................................................................................... 462 Cocoa Touch............................................................................................................................................................................ 463 Chapter 21. Writing iPhone Applications................................................................................................................................... 466 The iPhone SDK...................................................................................................................................................................... 466 Your First iPhone Application................................................................................................................................................ 466 An iPhone Fraction Calculator................................................................................................................................................ 483 Summary................................................................................................................................................................................. 498 Exercises.................................................................................................................................................................................. 499 Part IV: Appendixes................................................................................ 502 Glossary....................................................................................................................................................................................... 504 Appendix B. Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary...................................................................................................................... 512 Digraphs and Identifiers.......................................................................................................................................................... 512 Comments................................................................................................................................................................................ 516 Constants.................................................................................................................................................................................. 517 Data Types and Declarations.................................................................................................................................................. 520 Expressions.............................................................................................................................................................................. 531 Storage Classes and Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 546 Functions................................................................................................................................................................................. 550 Classes...................................................................................................................................................................................... 553 Statements............................................................................................................................................................................... 563 Exception Handling................................................................................................................................................................ 568 Preprocessor............................................................................................................................................................................ 568 Appendix C. Address Book Source Code.................................................................................................................................... 576 AddressCard Interface File...................................................................................................................................................... 576 AddressBook Interface File..................................................................................................................................................... 577 AddressCard Implementation File.......................................................................................................................................... 577 AddressBook Implementation File......................................................................................................................................... 579 Appendix D. Resources............................................................................................................................................................... 582 Answers to Exercises, Errata, and Such................................................................................................................................. 582 Objective-C Language............................................................................................................................................................. 582 C Programming Language....................................................................................................................................................... 583 Cocoa....................................................................................................................................................................................... 583 iPhone and iTouch Application Development........................................................................................................................ 584 ❖ To Roy and Ve, two people whom I dearly miss ❖ informit.com/devlibrary Developer’s Library ESSENTIAL REFERENCES FOR PROGRAMMING PROFESSIONALS Developer’s Library books are designed to provide practicing programmers with unique, high-quality references and tutorials on the programming languages and technologies they use in their daily work. All books in the Developer’s Library are written by expert technology practitioners who are especially skilled at organizing and presenting information in a way that’s useful for other programmers. Key titles include some of the best, most widely acclaimed books within their topic areas: PHP & MySQL Web Development Luke Welling & Laura Thomson ISBN 978-0-672-32916-6 MySQL Paul DuBois ISBN-13: 978-0-672-32938-8 Linux Kernel Development Robert Love ISBN-13: 978-0-672-32946-3 Python Essential Reference David Beazley ISBN-13: 978-0-672-32862-6 Programming in Objective-C Stephen G. Kochan ISBN-13: 978-0-321-56615-7 PostgreSQL Korry Douglas ISBN-13: 978-0-672-33015-5 Developer’s Library books are available at most retail and online bookstores, as well as by subscription from Safari Books Online at safari.informit.com Developer’s Library About the Author Stephen Kochan is the author and coauthor of several bestselling titles on the C lan- guage, including Programming in C (Sams, 2004), Programming in ANSI C (Sams, 1994), and Topics in C Programming (Wiley, 1991), and several Unix titles, including Exploring the Unix System (Sams, 1992) and Unix Shell Programming (Sams 2003). He has been pro- gramming on Macintosh computers since the introduction of the first Mac in 1984, and he wrote Programming C for the Mac as part of the Apple Press Library. In 2003 Kochan wrote Programming in Objective-C (Sams, 2003), and followed that with another Mac- related title, Beginning AppleScript (Wiley, 2004). About the Technical Reviewers Michael Trent has been programming in Objective-C since 1997—and programming Macs since well before that. He is a regular contributor to Steven Frank’s www.cocoadev.com Web site, a technical reviewer for numerous books and magazine articles, and an occasional dabbler in Mac OS X open source projects. Currently, he is using Objective-C and Apple Computer’s Cocoa frameworks to build professional video applications for Mac OS X. Michael holds a Bachelor of Science degree in computer science and a Bachelor of Arts degree in music from Beloit College of Beloit,Wisconsin. He lives in Santa Clara, California, with his lovely wife,Angela. We Want to Hear from You! As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator.We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way. You can email or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books stronger. Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book, and that due to the high volume of mail I receive, I might not be able to reply to every message. When you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author, as well as your name and phone or email address. I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book. E-mail: feedback@developers-library.info Mail: Mark Taub Associate Publisher Sams Publishing 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA Reader Services Visit our website and register this book at www.informit.com/title/9780321566157 for convenient access to any updates, downloads, or errata that might be available for this book. 1 Introduction Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Laboratories pioneered the C programming language in the early 1970s. However, this programming language did not begin to gain widespread popularity and support until the late 1970s.This was because, until that time, C compilers were not readily available for commercial use outside of Bell Laboratories. Initially,this growth in popularity was also partly spurred by the equal, if not faster, growth in popular- ity of the UNIX operating system, which was written almost entirely in C. Brad J. Cox designed the Objective-C language in the early 1980s.The language was based on a language called SmallTalk-80.Objective-C was layered on top of the C lan- guage, meaning that extensions were added to C to create a new programming language that enabled objects to be created and manipulated. NeXT Software licensed the Objective-C language in 1988 and developed its libraries and a development environment called NEXTSTEP.In 1992, Objective-C support was added to the Free Software Foundation’s GNU development environment.This software is in the public domain, which means that anyone who wants to learn how to program in Objective-C can do so by downloading its tools at no charge. In 1994, NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems released a standardized specification of the NEXTSTEP system, called OPENSTEP.The Free Software Foundation’s imple- mentation of OPENSTEP is called GNUStep.A Linux version, which also includes the Linux kernel and the GNUStep development environment, is called, appropriately enough, LinuxSTEP. On December 20, 1996,Apple Computer announced that it was acquiring NeXT Software, and the NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP environment became the basis for the next major release of Apple’s operating system, OS X.Apple’s version of this development en- vironment was called Cocoa.With built-in support for the Objective-C language, cou- pled with development tools such as Project Builder (or its successor Xcode) and Interface Builder,Apple created a powerful development environment for application de- velopment on Mac OS X. In 2007,Apple released an update to the Objective-C language and labeled it Objective-C 2.0.That version of the language is covered in this second edition of the book. 2 Chapter 1 Introduction When the iPhone was released in 2007, developers clamored for the opportunity to develop applications for this revolutionary device.At first,Apple did not welcome third- party application development.The company’s way of placating wannabe iPhone devel- opers was to allow them to develop web-based applications.A web-based application runs under the iPhone’s built-in Safari web browser and requires the user to connect to the website that hosts the application in order to run it. Developers were not satisfied with the many inherent limitations of web-based applications, and Apple shortly thereafter an- nounced that developers would be able to develop so-called native applications for the iPhone. A native application is one that resides on the iPhone and runs under the iPhone’s op- erating system, in the same way that the iPhone’s built-in applications (such as Contacts, iPod, and Weather) run on the device.The iPhone’s OS is actually a version of Mac OS X, which meant that applications could be developed and debugged on a MacBook Pro, for example. In fact,Apple soon provided a powerful Software Development Kit (SDK) that allowed for rapid iPhone application development and debugging.The availability of an iPhone simulator made it possible for developers to debug their applications directly on their development system, obviating the need to download and test the program on an actual iPhone or iPod Touch device. What You Will Learn from This Book When I contemplated writing a tutorial on Objective-C, I had to make a fundamental decision.As with other texts on Objective-C, I could write mine to assume that the reader already knew how to write C programs. I could also teach the language from the perspective of using the rich library of routines, such as the Foundation and Application Kit frameworks. Some texts also take the approach of teaching how to use the develop- ment tools, such as the Mac’s Xcode and Interface Builder. I had several problems adopting this approach. First, learning the entire C language be- fore learning Objective-C is wrong. C is a procedural language containing many features that are not necessary for programming in Objective-C, especially at the novice level. In fact, resorting to some of these features goes against the grain of adhering to a good ob- ject-oriented programming methodology.It’s also not a good idea to learn all the details of a procedural language before learning an object-oriented one.This starts the program- mer in the wrong direction, and gives the wrong orientation and mindset for fostering a good object-oriented programming style. Just because Objective-C is an extension to the C language doesn’t mean you have to learn C first. So I decided neither to teach C first nor to assume prior knowledge of the language. Instead, I decided to take the unconventional approach of teaching Objective-C and the underlying C language as a single integrated language, from an object-oriented program- ming perspective.The purpose of this book is as its name implies: to teach you how to program in Objective-C 2.0. It does not profess to teach you in detail how to use the de- velopment tools that are available for entering and debugging programs, or to provide in- 3How This Book Is Organized depth instructions on how to develop interactive graphical applications with Cocoa.You can learn all that material in greater detail elsewhere, after you’ve learned how to write programs in Objective-C. In fact, mastering that material will be much easier when you have a solid foundation of how to program in Objective-C.This book does not assume much, if any,previous programming experience. In fact, if you’re a novice programmer, you should be able to learn Objective-C as your first programming language. This book teaches Objective-C by example.As I present each new feature of the lan- guage, I usually provide a small complete program example to illustrate the feature. Just as a picture is worth a thousand words, so is a properly chosen program example.You are strongly encouraged to run each program (all of which are available online) and compare the results obtained on your system to those shown in the text. By doing so, you will learn the language and its syntax, but you will also become familiar with the process of compiling and running Objective-C programs. How This Book Is Organized This book is divided into three logical parts. Part I,“The Objective-C 2.0 Language,” teaches the essentials of the language. Part II,“The Foundation Framework,”teaches how to use the rich assortment of predefined classes that form the Foundation framework. Part III,“Cocoa Programming and the iPhone SDK,”gives you an overview of Cocoa’s Appli- cation Kit framework and then walks you through the process of developing a simple iPhone application using the UIKit framework, and developing and debugging the code with Xcode and Interface Builder. A framework is a set of classes and routines that have been logically grouped together to make developing programs easier. Much of the power of programming in Objective-C rests on the extensive frameworks that are available. Chapter 2,“Programming in Objective-C,”begins by teaching you how to write your first program in Objective-C. Because this is not a book on Cocoa programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are not extensively taught and are hardly even mentioned until Part III. So an approach was needed to get input into a program and produce output. Most of the examples in this text take input from the keyboard and produce their output in a window: a Terminal window if you’re using gcc from the command line, or a Console window if you’re using Xcode. Chapter 3,“Classes, Objects, and Methods,”covers the fundamentals of object-ori- ented programming.This chapter introduces some terminology,but it’s kept to a mini- mum. I also introduce the mechanism for defining a class and the means for sending messages to instances or objects. Instructors and seasoned Objective-C programmers will notice that I use static typing for declaring objects. I think this is the best way for the stu- dent to get started because the compiler can catch more errors, making the programs more self-documenting and encouraging the new programmer to explicitly declare the data types when they are known.As a result, the notion of the id type and its power is not fully explored until Chapter 9,“Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing,and Dynamic Binding.” 4 Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions,”describes the basic Objective-C data types and how to use them in your programs. Chapter 5,“Program Looping,”introduces the three looping statements you can use in your programs: for, while, and do. Making decisions is fundamental to any computer programming language. Chapter 6, “Making Decisions,”covers the Objective-C language’s if and switch statements in detail. Chapter 7,“More on Classes,”delves more deeply into working with classes and ob- jects. Details about methods, multiple arguments to methods, and local variables are dis- cussed here. Chapter 8,“Inheritance,”introduces the key concept of inheritance.This feature makes the development of programs easier because you can take advantage of what comes from above. Inheritance and the notion of subclasses make modifying and extending existing class definitions easy. Chapter 9 discusses three fundamental characteristics of the Objective-C language. Polymorphism, dynamic typing, and dynamic binding are the key concepts covered here. Chapters 10–13 round out the discussion of the Objective-C language, covering issues such as initialization of objects, protocols, categories, the preprocessor, and some of the underlying C features, including functions, arrays, structures, and pointers.These underly- ing features are often unnecessary (and often best avoided) when first developing object- oriented applications. It’s recommended that you skim Chapter 13,“Underlying C Features,”the first time through the text and return to it only as necessary to learn more about a particular feature of the language. Part II begins with Chapter 14,“Introduction to the Foundation Framework,”which gives an introduction to the Foundation framework and how to access its documentation. Chapters 15–19 cover important features of the Foundation framework.These include number and string objects, collections, the file system, memory management, and the process of copying and archiving objects. By the time you’re done with Part II, you will be able to develop fairly sophisticated programs in Objective-C that work with the Foundation framework. Part III starts with Chapter 20,“Introduction to Cocoa.”Here you’ll get a quick overview of the Application Kit that provides the classes you need to develop sophisti- cated graphical applications on the Mac. Chapter 21,“Writing iPhone Applications,”introduces the iPhone SDK and the UIKit framework.This chapter illustrates a step-by-step approach to writing a simple iPhone (or iTouch) application,followed by a calculator application that enables you to use your iPhone to perform simple arithmetic calculations with fractions. Because object-oriented parlance involves a fair amount of terminology,Appendix A, “Glossary,”provides definitions of some common terms. Appendix B,“Objective-C Language Summary,”gives a summary of the Objective-C language, for your quick reference. Appendix C,“Address Book Source Code,”gives the source code listing for two classes that are developed and used extensively in Part II of this text.These classes define address 5Acknowledgments card and address book classes. Methods enable you to perform simple operations such as adding and removing address cards from the address book, looking up someone, listing the contents of the address book, and so on. After you’ve learned how to write Objective-C programs, you can go in several direc- tions.You might want to lean more about the underlying C programming language—or you might want to start writing Cocoa programs to run on Mac OS X, or develop more sophisticated iPhone applications. In any case,Appendix D,“Resources,”will guide you in the right direction. Acknowledgments I would like to acknowledge several people for their help in the preparation of the first edition of this text. First, I want to thank Tony Iannino and Steven Levy for reviewing the manuscript. I am also grateful to Mike Gaines for providing his input. I’d also like to thank my technical editors, Jack Purdum (first edition) and Mike Trent. I was lucky enough to have Mike review both editions of this text. He provided the most thorough review of any book I’ve ever written. Not only did he point out weaknesses, but he was also generous enough to offer his suggestions. Because of Mike’s comments in the first edition, I changed my approach to teaching memory management and tried to make sure that every program example in this book was “leak free.”Mike also provided invaluable input for my chapter on iPhone programming. From the first edition, Catherine Babin supplied the cover photograph and provided me with many wonderful pictures to choose from. Having the cover art from a friend made the book even more special. I am so grateful to Mark Taber from Pearson for putting up with all delays and for be- ing kind enough to work around my schedule and to tolerate my consistent missing of deadlines while working on this second edition. From Pearson I’d also like to thank my development editor, Michael Thurston, my copy editor, Krista Hansing, and my project editor, Mandie Frank, who expertly managed the mad dash to the finish line. As always, my children showed an incredible amount of maturity and patience while I pulled this book together over the summer (and then into the fall)! To Gregory,Linda, and Julia, I love you! Stephen G. Kochan October 2008 Part I The Objective-C 2.0 Language 1 Introduction 2 Programming in Objective-C 3 Classes, Objects, and Methods 4 Data Types and Expressions 5 Program Looping 6 Making Decisions 7 More on Classes 8 Inheritance 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding 10 More on Variables and Data Types 11 Categories and Protocols 12 The Preprocessor 13 Underlying C Language Features 2 Programming in Objective-C In this chapter, we dive right in and show you how to write your first Objective-C pro- gram.You won’t work with objects just yet; that’s the topic of the next chapter.We want you to understand the steps involved in keying in a program and compiling and running it.We give special attention to this process both under Windows and on a Macintosh computer. To begin, let’s pick a rather simple example: a program that displays the phrase “Pro- gramming is fun!” on your screen.Without further ado, Program 2.1 shows an Objective- C program to accomplish this task: Program 2.1 // First program example #import Foundation/Foundation.h> int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Programming is fun!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Compiling and Running Programs Before we go into a detailed explanation of this program, we need to cover the steps in- volved in compiling and running it.You can both compile and run your program using Xcode, or you can use the GNU Objective-C compiler in a Terminal window.Let’s go through the sequence of steps using both methods.Then you can decide how you want to work with your programs throughout the rest of this book. 10 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C Note These tools should be preinstalled on all Macs that came with OS X. If you separately in- stalled OS X, make sure you install the Developer Tools as well. Using Xcode Xcode is a sophisticated application that enables you to easily type in, compile, debug, and execute programs. If you plan on doing serious application development on the Mac, learning how to use this powerful tool is worthwhile.We just get you started here. Later we return to Xcode and take you through the steps involved in developing a graphical ap- plication with it. First, Xcode is located in the Developer folder inside a subfolder called Applications. Figure 2.1 shows its icon. Start Xcode. Under the File menu, select New Project (see Figure 2.2). A window appears, as shown in Figure 2.3. Figure 2.1 Xcode Icon Figure 2.2 Starting a new project 11Compiling and Running Programs Scroll down the left pane until you get to Command Line Utility.In the upper-right pane, highlight Foundation Tool.Your window should now appear as shown in Figure 2.4. Click Choose.This brings up a new window,shown in Figure 2.5. Figure 2.3 Starting a new project: selecting the application type Figure 2.4 Starting a new project: creating a Foundation tool 12 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C We’ll call the first program prog1, so type that into the Save As field.You may want to create a separate folder to store all your projects in. On my system, I keep the projects for this book in a folder called ObjC Progs. Click the Save button to create your new project.This gives you a project window such as the one shown in Figure 2.6. Note that your window might display differently if you’ve used Xcode before or have changed any of its options. Now it’s time to type in your first program. Select the file prog1.m in the upper-right pane.Your Xcode window should now appear as shown in Figure 2.7. Objective-C source files use .m as the last two characters of the filename (known as its extension).Table 2.1 lists other commonly used filename extensions. Figure 2.5 Xcode file list window Table 2.1 Common Filename Extensions Extension Meaning .c C language source file .cc, .cpp C++ language source file .h Header file .m Objective-C source file .mm Objective-C++ source file .pl Perl source file .o Object (compiled) file 13Compiling and Running Programs Figure 2.6 Xcode prog1 project window Figure 2.7 File prog1.m and edit window 14 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C Returning to your Xcode project window,the bottom-right side of the window shows the file called prog1.m and contains the following lines: #import int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; // insert code here... NSLog (@”Hello World!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Note If you can’t see the file’s contents displayed, you might have to click and drag up the bottom- right pane to get the edit window to appear. Again, this might be the case if you’ve previously used Xcode. You can edit your file inside this window.Xcode has created a template file for you to use. Make changes to the program shown in the Edit window to match Program 2.1.The line you add at the beginning of prog1.m that starts with two slash characters (//) is called a comment; we talk more about comments shortly. Your program in the edit window should now look like this: // First program example int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Programming is fun!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Don’t worry about all the colors shown for your text onscreen. Xcode indicates values, reserved words, and so on with different colors. Now it’s time to compile and run your first program—in Xcode terminology,it’s called build and run.You need to save your program first, however, by selecting Save from the File menu. If you try to compile and run your program without first saving your file, Xcode asks whether you want to save it. 15Compiling and Running Programs Under the Build menu, you can select either Build or Build and Run. Select the latter because that automatically runs the program if it builds without any errors.You can also click the Build and Go icon that appears in the toolbar. Note Build and Go means “Build and then do the last thing I asked you to do,” which might be Run, Debug, Run with Shark or Instruments, and so on. The first time you use this for a proj- ect, Build and Go means to build and run the program, so you should be fine using this op- tion. However, just be aware of the distinction between “Build and Go” and “Build and Run.” If you made mistakes in your program, you’ll see error messages listed during this step. In this case, go back, fix the errors, and repeat the process.After all the errors have been removed from the program, a new window appears, labeled prog1 – Debugger Console. This window contains the output from your program and should look similar to Figure 2.8. If this window doesn’t automatically appear, go to the main menu bar and select Con- sole from the Run menu.We discuss the actual contents of the Console window shortly. You’re now done with the procedural part of compiling and running your first pro- gram with Xcode (whew!).The following summarizes the steps involved in creating a new program with Xcode: 1. Start the Xcode application. 2. If this is a new project, select File, New Project. 3. For the type of application, select Command Line Utility,Foundation Tool,and click Choose. Figure 2.8 Xcode Debugger Console window 16 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C 4. Select a name for your project, and optionally a directory to store your project files in. Click Save. 5. In the top-right pane, you will see the file prog1.m (or whatever name you assigned to your project, followed by .m. Highlight that file.Type your program into the edit window that appears directly below that pane. 6. Save the changes you’ve entered by selecting File, Save. 7. Build and run your application by selecting Build, Build and Run, or by clicking the Build and Go Button. 8. If you get any compiler errors or the output is not what you expected, make your changes to the program and repeat steps 6 and 7. Using Terminal Some people might want to avoid having to learn Xcode to get started programming with Objective-C. If you’re used to using the UNIX shell and command-line tools, you might want to edit, compile, and run your programs using the Terminal application. Here we examine how to go about doing that. The first step is to start the Terminal application on your Mac.The Terminal application is located in the Applications folder, stored under Utilities. Figure 2.9 shows its icon. Start the Terminal application.You’ll see a window that looks like Figure 2.10. You type commands after the $ (or %, depending on how your Terminal application is configured) on each line. If you’re familiar with using UNIX, you’ll find this straightforward. First, you need to enter the lines from Program 2.1 into a file.You can begin by creat- ing a directory in which to store your program examples.Then you must run a text edi- tor, such as vi or emacs, to enter your program: sh-2.05a$ mkdir Progs Create a directory to store programs in sh-2.05a$ cd Progs Change to the new directory sh-2.05a$ vi prog1.m Start up a text editor to enter program .. Figure 2.9 Terminal program icon 17Compiling and Running Programs Figure 2.10 Terminal window Note In the previous example and throughout the remainder of this text, commands that you, the user, enter are indicated in boldface. For Objective-C files, you can choose any name you want; just make sure the last two characters are .m.This indicates to the compiler that you have an Objective-C program. After you’ve entered your program into a file, you can use the GNU Objective-C compiler, which is called gcc, to compile and link your program.This is the general format of the gcc command: gcc –framework Foundation files -o progname This option says to use information about the Foundation framework: -framework Foundation Just remember to use this option on your command line. files is the list of files to be compiled. In our example, we have only one such file, and we’re calling it prog1.m. progname is the name of the file that will contain the executable if the program compiles without any errors. We’ll call the program prog1; here, then, is the command line to compile your first Objective-C program: $ gcc –framework Foundation prog1.m -o prog1 Compile prog1.m & call it prog1 $ The return of the command prompt without any messages means that no errors were found in the program. Now you can subsequently execute the program by typing the name prog1 at the command prompt: $ prog1 Execute prog1 18 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C sh: prog1: command not found $ This is the result you’ll probably get unless you’ve used Terminal before.The UNIX shell (which is the application running your program) doesn’t know where prog1 is lo- cated (we don’t go into all the details of this here), so you have two options: One is to precede the name of the program with the characters ./ so that the shell knows to look in the current directory for the program to execute.The other is to add the directory in which your programs are stored (or just simply the current directory) to the shell’s PATH variable. Let’s take the first approach here: $ ./prog1 Execute prog1 2008-06-08 18:48:44.210 prog1[7985:10b] Programming is fun! $ You should note that writing and debugging Objective-C programs from the terminal is a valid approach. However, it’s not a good long-term strategy.If you want to build Mac OS X or iPhone applications, there’s more to just the executable file that needs to be “packaged” into an application bundle. It’s not easy to do that from the Terminal applica- tion, and it’s one of Xcode’s specialties.Therefore, I suggest you start learning to use Xcode to develop your programs.There is a learning curve to do this, but the effort will be well worth it in the end. Explanation of Your First Program Now that you are familiar with the steps involved in compiling and running Objective-C programs, let’s take a closer look at this first program. Here it is again: // First program example int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Programming is fun!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } In Objective-C, lowercase and uppercase letters are distinct.Also, Objective-C doesn’t care where on the line you begin typing—you can begin typing your statement at any position on the line.You can use this to your advantage in developing programs that are easier to read. The first line of the program introduces the concept of the comment: // First program example 19Explanation of Your First Program A comment statement is used in a program to document a program and enhance its readability.Comments tell the reader of the program—whether it’s the programmer or someone else whose responsibility it is to maintain the program—just what the program- mer had in mind when writing a particular program or a particular sequence of statements. You can insert comments into an Objective-C program in two ways. One is by using two consecutive slash characters (//).The compiler ignores any characters that follow these slashes, up to the end of the line. You can also initiate a comment with the two characters / and *.This marks the be- ginning of the comment.These types of comments have to be terminated.To end the comment, you use the characters * and /, again without any embedded spaces.All charac- ters included between the opening /* and the closing */ are treated as part of the com- ment statement and are ignored by the Objective-C compiler.This form of comment is often used when comments span many lines of code, as in the following: /* This file implements a class called Fraction, which represents fractional numbers. Methods allow manipulation of fractions, such as addition, subtraction, etc. For more information, consult the document: /usr/docs/classes/fractions.pdf */ Which style of comment you use is entirely up to you. Just note that you can’t nest the /* style comments. Get into the habit of inserting comment statements in the program as you write it or type it into the computer, for three good reasons. First, documenting the program while the particular program logic is still fresh in your mind is far easier than going back and re- thinking the logic after the program has been completed. Second, by inserting comments into the program at such an early stage of the game, you can reap the benefits of the com- ments during the debug phase, when program logic errors are isolated and debugged. Not only can a comment help you (and others) read through the program, but it also can help point the way to the source of the logic mistake. Finally,I haven’t yet discovered a pro- grammer who actually enjoys documenting a program. In fact, after you’ve finished de- bugging your program, you will probably not relish the idea of going back to the program to insert comments. Inserting comments while developing the program makes this some- times tedious task a bit easier to handle. This next line of Program 2.1 tells the compiler to locate and process a file named Foundation.h: #import This is a system file—that is, not a file that you created. #import says to import or in- clude the information from that file into the program, exactly as if the contents of the file were typed into the program at that point.You imported the file Foundation.h because it has information about other classes and functions that are used later in the program. 20 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C In Program 2.1, this line specifies that the name of the program is main: int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) main is a special name that indicates precisely where the program is to begin execu- tion.The reserved word int that precedes main specifies the type of value main returns, which is an integer (more about that soon).We ignore what appears between the open and closed parentheses for now; these have to do with command-line arguments, a topic we address in Chapter 13,“Underlying C Language Features.” Now that you have identified main to the system, you are ready to specify precisely what this routine is to perform.This is done by enclosing all the program statements of the routine within a pair of curly braces. In the simplest case, a statement is just an expression that is terminated with a semicolon.The system treats all the program statements included between the braces as part of the main routine. Program 2.1 has four statements. The first statement in Program 2.1 reads NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; It reserves space in memory for an autorelease pool.We discuss this thoroughly in Chapter 17,“Memory Management.”Xcode puts this line into your program automati- cally as part of the template, so just leave it there for now. The next statement specifies that a routine named NSLog is to be invoked, or called.The parameter, or argument, to be passed or handed to the NSLog routine is the following string of characters: @”Programming is fun!” Here, the @ sign immediately precedes a string of characters enclosed in a pair of dou- ble quotes. Collectively,this is known as a constant NSString object. Note If you have C programming experience, you might be puzzled by the leading @ character. Without that leading @ character, you are writing a constant C-style string; with it, you are writing an NSString string object. The NSLog routine is a function in the Objective-C library that simply displays or logs its argument (or arguments, as you will see shortly). Before doing so, however, it displays the date and time the routine is executed, the program name, and some other numbers we don’t describe here.Throughout the rest of this book, we don’t bother to show this text that NSLog inserts before your output. 21Explanation of Your First Program You must terminate all program statements in Objective-C with a semicolon (;).This is why a semicolon appears immediately after the closed parenthesis of the NSLog call. Before you exit your program, you should release the allocated memory pool (and ob- jects that are associated with it) with a line such as the following: [pool drain]; Again, Xcode automatically inserts this line into your program for you.Again, we defer detailed explanation of what this does until later. The final program statement in main looks like this: return 0; It says to terminate execution of main and to send back, or return, a status value of 0. By convention, 0 means that the program ended normally.Any nonzero value typically means some problem occurred—for example, perhaps the program couldn’t locate a file that it needed. If you’re using Xcode and you glance back to your Debug Console window (refer to Figure 2.8), you’ll recall that the following displayed after the line of output from NSLog: The Debugger has exited with status 0. You should understand what that message means now. Now that we have finished discussing your first program, let’s modify it to also display the phrase “And programming in Objective-C is even more fun!”You can do this by sim- ply adding another call to the NSLog routine, as shown in Program 2.2. Remember that every Objective-C program statement must be terminated by a semicolon. Program 2.2 #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Programming is fun!”); NSLog (@”Programming in Objective-C is even more fun!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } 22 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C If you type in Program 2.2 and then compile and execute it, you can expect the fol- lowing output (again, without showing the text that NSLog normally prepends to the out- put): Program 2.2 Output Programming is fun! Programming in Objective-C is even more fun! As you will see from the next program example, you don’t need to make a separate call to the NSLog routine for each line of output. First, let’s talk about a special two-character sequence.The backslash (\) and the letter n are known collectively as the newline character.A newline character tells the system to do precisely what its name implies: go to a new line.Any characters to be printed after the newline character then appear on the next line of the display.In fact, the newline character is very similar in concept to the carriage return key on a typewriter (remember those?). Study the program listed in Program 2.3 and try to predict the results before you ex- amine the output (no cheating, now!). Program 2.3 #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Testing...\n..1\n...2\n....3”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 2.3 Output Testing... ..1 ...2 ....3 Displaying the Values of Variables Not only can simple phrases be displayed with NSLog, but the values of variables and the results of computations can be displayed as well. Program 2.4 uses the NSLog routine to display the results of adding two numbers, 50 and 25. 23Displaying the Values of Variables Program 2.4 #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int sum; sum = 50 + 25; NSLog (@”The sum of 50 and 25 is %i”, sum); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 2.4 Output The sum of 50 and 25 is 75 The first program statement inside main after the autorelease pool is set up defines the variable sum to be of type integer.You must define all program variables before you can use them in a program.The definition of a variable specifies to the Objective-C compiler how the program should use it.The compiler needs this information to generate the cor- rect instructions to store and retrieve values into and out of the variable.A variable de- fined as type int can be used to hold only integral values—that is, values without decimal places. Examples of integral values are 3, 5, –20, and 0. Numbers with decimal places, such as 2.14, 2.455, and 27.0, are known as floating-point numbers and are real numbers. The integer variable sum stores the result of the addition of the two integers 50 and 25.We have intentionally left a blank line following the definition of this variable to visu- ally separate the variable declarations of the routine from the program statements; this is strictly a matter of style. Sometimes adding a single blank line in a program can make the program more readable. The program statement reads as it would in most other programming languages: sum = 50 + 25; The number 50 is added (as indicated by the plus sign) to the number 25, and the re- sult is stored (as indicated by the assignment operator, the equals sign) in the variable sum. The NSLog routine call in Program 2.4 now has two arguments enclosed within the parentheses.These arguments are separated by a comma.The first argument to the NSLog routine is always the character string to be displayed. However, along with the display of the character string, you often want to have the value of certain program variables dis- played as well. In this case, you want to have the value of the variable sum displayed after these characters are displayed: The sum of 50 and 25 is 24 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C The percent character inside the first argument is a special character recognized by the NSLog function.The character that immediately follows the percent sign specifies what type of value is to be displayed at that point. In the previous program, the NSLog routine recognizes the letter i as signifying that an integer value is to be displayed. Whenever the NSLog routine finds the %i characters inside a character string, it auto- matically displays the value of the next argument to the routine. Because sum is the next argument to NSLog, its value is automatically displayed after “The sum of 50 and 25 is”. Now try to predict the output from Program 2.5. Program 2.5 #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int value1, value2, sum; value1 = 50; value2 = 25; sum = value1 + value2; NSLog (@”The sum of %i and %i is %i”, value1, value2, sum); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 2.5 Output The sum of 50 and 25 is 75 The second program statement inside main defines three variables called value1, value2, and sum, all of type int.This statement could have equivalently been expressed using three separate statements, as follows: int value1; int value2; int sum; After the three variables have been defined, the program assigns the value 50 to the variable value1 and then the value 25 to value2.The sum of these two variables is then computed and the result assigned to the variable sum. 25Exercises The call to the NSLog routine now contains four arguments. Once again, the first argu- ment, commonly called the format string, describes to the system how the remaining argu- ments are to be displayed.The value of value1 is to be displayed immediately following the phrase “The sum of.”Similarly,the values of value2 and sum are to be printed at the points indicated by the next two occurrences of the %i characters in the format string. Summary After reading this introductory chapter on developing programs in Objective-C, you should have a good feel of what is involved in writing a program in Objective-C—and you should be able to develop a small program on your own. In the next chapter, you be- gin to examine some of the intricacies of this powerful and flexible programming lan- guage. But first, try your hand at the exercises that follow,to make sure you understand the concepts presented in this chapter. Exercises 1. Type in and run the five programs presented in this chapter. Compare the output produced by each program with the output presented after each program. 2. Write a program that displays the following text: In Objective-C, lowercase letters are significant. main is where program execution begins. Open and closed braces enclose program statements in a routine. All program statements must be terminated by a semicolon. 3. What output would you expect from the following program? #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init; int i; i = 1; NSLog (@”Testing...”); NSLog (@”....%i”, i); NSLog (@”...%i”, i + 1); NSLog (@”..%i”, i + 2); [pool drain]; return 0; } 26 Chapter 2 Programming in Objective-C 4. Write a program that subtracts the value 15 from 87 and displays the result, together with an appropriate message. 5. Identify the syntactic errors in the following program.Then type in and run the corrected program to make sure you have identified all the mistakes: #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[]); ( NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; INT sum; /* COMPUTE RESULT // sum = 25 + 37 - 19 / DISPLAY RESULTS / NSLog (@’The answer is %i’ sum); [pool drain]; return 0; } 6. What output would you expect from the following program? #import int main (int argc, const char *argv[])) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int answer, result; answer = 100; result = answer - 10; NSLog (@”The result is %i\n”, result + 5); [pool drain]; return 0; } 3 Classes, Objects, and Methods In this chapter, you’ll learn about some key concepts in object-oriented programming and start working with classes in Objective-C.You’ll need to learn a little bit of terminol- ogy,but we keep it fairly informal.We also cover only some of the basic terms here be- cause you can easily get overwhelmed. Refer to Appendix A,“Glossary,”at the end of this book, for more precise definitions of these terms. What Is an Object, Anyway? An object is a thing.Think about object-oriented programming as a thing and something you want to do to that thing.This is in contrast to a programming language such as C, known as a procedural programming language. In C, you typically think about what you want to do first and then you worry about the objects, almost the opposite of object ori- entation. Consider an example from everyday life. Let’s assume that you own a car, which is ob- viously an object, and one that you own.You don’t have just any car; you have a particular car that was manufactured in a factory,maybe in Detroit, maybe in Japan, or maybe someplace else.Your car has a vehicle identification number (VIN) that uniquely identi- fies that car. In object-oriented parlance, your car is an instance of a car. Continuing with the termi- nology, car is the name of the class from which this instance was created. So each time a new car is manufactured, a new instance from the class of cars is created, and each in- stance of the car is referred to as an object. Your car might be silver, have a black interior, be a convertible or hardtop, and so on. Additionally,you perform certain actions with your car. For example, you drive your car, fill it with gas, (hopefully) wash it, take it in for service, and so on.Table 3.1 depicts this. The actions listed inTable 3.1 can be done with you car, and they can be done with other cars as well. For example, your sister drives her car, washes it, fills it with gas, and so on. 28 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods Instances and Methods A unique occurrence of a class is an instance, and the actions that are performed on the in- stance are called methods. In some cases, a method can be applied to an instance of the class or to the class itself. For example, washing you car applies to an instance (in fact, all the methods listed in Table 3.1 can be considered instance methods). Finding out how many types of cars a manufacturer makes would apply to the class, so it would be a class method. Suppose you have two cars that came off the assembly line and are seemingly identical: They both have the same interior, same paint color, and so on.They might start out the same, but as each car is used by its respective owner, it acquires its own unique character- istics. For example, one car might end up with a scratch on it and the other might have more miles on it. Each instance or object contains not only information about its initial characteristics acquired from the factory,but also its current characteristics.Those charac- teristics can change dynamically.As you drive your car, the gas tank becomes depleted, the car gets dirtier, and the tires get a little more worn. Applying a method to an object can affect the state of that object. If your method is to “fill up my car with gas,”after that method is performed, your car’s gas tank will be full. The method then will have affected the state of the car’s gas tank. The key concepts here are that objects are unique representations from a class, and each object contains some information (data) that is typically private to that object.The methods provide the means of accessing and changing that data. The Objective-C programming language has the following particular syntax for ap- plying methods to classes and instances: [ ClassOrInstance method ]; In this syntax, a left bracket is followed by the name of a class or instance of that class, which is followed by one or more spaces, which is followed by the method you want to perform. Finally,it is closed off with a right bracket and a terminating semicolon.When you ask a class or an instance to perform some action, you say that you are sending it a message; the recipient of that message is called the receiver. So another way to look at the general format described previously is as follows: [ receiver message ] ; Let’s go back to the previous list and write everything in this new syntax. Before you do that, though, you need to get your new car. Go to the factory for that, like so: yourCar = [Car new]; get a new car Table 3.1 Actions on Objects Object What You Do with It Your car Drive it Fill it with gas Wash it Service it 29Instances and Methods You send a message to the Car class (the receiver of the message) asking it to give you a new car.The resulting object (which represents your unique car) is then stored in the variable yourCar. From now on, yourCar can be used to refer to your instance of the car, which you got from the factory. Because you went to the factory to get the car, the method new is called a factory or class method.The rest of the actions on your new car will be instance methods because they apply to your car. Here are some sample message expressions you might write for your car: [yourCar prep]; get it ready for first-time use [yourCar drive]; drive your car [yourCar wash]; wash your car [yourCar getGas]; put gas in your car if you need it [yourCar service]; service your car [yourCar topDown]; if it’s a convertible [yourCar topUp]; currentMileage = [suesCar currentOdometer]; This last example shows an instance method that returns information—presumably,the current mileage, as indicated on the odometer. Here we store that information inside a variable in our program called currentMileage. Your sister, Sue, can use the same methods for her own instance of a car: [suesCar drive]; [suesCar wash]; [suesCar getGas]; Applying the same methods to different objects is one of the key concepts of object- oriented programming, and you’ll learn more about it later. You probably won’t need to work with cars in your programs.Your objects will likely be computer-oriented things, such as windows, rectangles, pieces of text, or maybe even a calculator or a playlist of songs.And just like the methods used for your cars, your meth- ods might look similar, as in the following: [myWindow erase]; Clear the window [myRect getArea]; Calculate the area of the rectangle [userText spellCheck]; Spell-check some text [deskCalculator clearEntry]; Clear the last entry [favoritePlaylist showSongs]; Show the songs in a playlist of favorites [phoneNumber dial]; Dial a phone number 30 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods An Objective-C Class for Working with Fractions Now it’s time to define an actual class in Objective-C and learn how to work with in- stances of the class. Once again, you’ll learn procedure first.As a result, the actual program examples might not seem very practical.We get into more practical stuff later. Suppose you need to write a program to work with fractions. Maybe you need to deal with adding, subtracting, multiplying, and so on. If you didn’t know about classes, you might start with a simple program that looked like this: Program 3.1 // Simple program to work with fractions #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int numerator = 1; int denominator = 3; NSLog (@”The fraction is %i/%i”, numerator, denominator); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 3.1 Output The fraction is 1/3 In Program 3.1 the fraction is represented in terms of its numerator and denominator. After the autorelease pool is created, the two lines in main both declare the variables numerator and denominator as integers and assign them initial values of 1 and 3, respec- tively.This is equivalent to the following lines: int numerator, denominator; numerator = 1; denominator = 3; We represented the fraction 1/3 by storing 1 in the variable numerator and 3 in the variable denominator. If you needed to store a lot of fractions in your program, this could be cumbersome. Each time you wanted to refer to the fraction, you’d have to refer to the corresponding numerator and denominator.And performing operations on these fractions would be just as awkward. 31An Objective-C Class for Working with Fractions It would be better if you could define a fraction as a single entity and collectively refer to its numerator and denominator with a single name, such as myFraction.You can do that in Objective-C, and it starts by defining a new class. Program 3.2 duplicates the functionality of Program 3.1 using a new class called Fraction. Here, then, is the program, followed by a detailed explanation of how it works. Program 3.2 // Program to work with fractions – class version #import //---- @interface section ---- @interface Fraction: NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; @end //---- @implementation section ---- @implementation Fraction -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } -(void) setDenominator: (int) d { denominator = d; } 32 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods @end //---- program section ---- int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *myFraction; // Create an instance of a Fraction myFraction = [Fraction alloc]; myFraction = [myFraction init]; // Set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; // Display the fraction using the print method NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is:”); [myFraction print]; [myFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 3.2 Output The value of myFraction is: 1/3 As you can see from the comments in Program 3.2, the program is logically divided into three sections: n @interface section n @implementation section n program section The @interface section describes the class, its data components, and its methods, whereas the @implementation section contains the actual code that implements these methods. Finally,the program section contains the program code to carry out the in- tended purpose of the program. 33The @interface Section Each of these sections is a part of every Objective-C program, even though you might not need to write each section yourself.As you’ll see, each section is typically put in its own file. For now,however, we keep it all together in a single file. The @interface Section When you define a new class, you have to do a few things. First, you have to tell the Ob- jective-C compiler where the class came from.That is, you have to name its parent class. Second, you have to specify what type of data is to be stored in the objects of this class. That is, you have to describe the data that members of the class will contain.These mem- bers are called the instance variables. Finally,you need to define the type of operations, or methods, that can be used when working with objects from this class.This is all done in a special section of the program called the @interface section.The general format of this section looks like this: @interface NewClassName: ParentClassName { memberDeclarations; } methodDeclarations; @end By convention, class names begin with an uppercase letter, even though it’s not re- quired.This enables someone reading your program to distinguish class names from other types of variables by simply looking at the first character of the name. Let’s take a short diversion to talk a little about forming names in Objective-C. Choosing Names In Chapter 2,“Programming in Objective-C,”you used several variables to store integer values. For example, you used the variable sum in Program 2.4 to store the result of the addition of the two integers 50 and 25. The Objective-C language allows you to store data types other than just integers in variables as well, as long as the proper declaration for the variable is made before it is used in the program.Variables can be used to store floating-point numbers, characters, and even objects (or, more precisely,references to objects). The rules for forming names are quite simple:They must begin with a letter or under- score (_), and they can be followed by any combination of letters (upper- or lowercase), underscores, or the digits 0–9.The following is a list of valid names: n sum n pieceFlag 34 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods n i n myLocation n numberOfMoves n _sysFlag n ChessBoard On the other hand, the following names are not valid for the stated reasons: n sum$value $—is not a valid character. n piece flag—Embedded spaces are not permitted. n 3Spencer—Names can’t start with a number. n int—This is a reserved word. int cannot be used as a variable name because its use has a special meaning to the Objective-C compiler.This use is known as a reserved name or reserved word. In general, any name that has special significance to the Objective-C compiler cannot be used as a vari- able name.Appendix B,“Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary,”provides a complete list of such reserved names. Always remember that upper- and lowercase letters are distinct in Objective-C.There- fore, the variable names sum, Sum, and SUM each refer to a different variable.As noted, when naming a class, start it with a capital letter. Instance variables, objects, and method names, on the other hand, typically begin with lowercase letters.To aid readability,capital letters are used inside names to indicate the start of a new word, as in the following ex- amples: n AddressBook—This could be a class name. n currentEntry—This could be an object. n current_entry—Some programmers use underscores as word separators. n addNewEntry—This could be a method name. When deciding on a name, keep one recommendation in mind: Don’t be lazy. Pick names that reflect the intended use of the variable or object.The reasons are obvious. Just as with the comment statement, meaningful names can dramatically increase the readabil- ity of a program and will pay off in the debug and documentation phases. In fact, the documentation task will probably be much easier because the program will be more self- explanatory. Here, again, is the @interface section from Program 3.2: //---- @interface section ---- @interface Fraction: NSObject { int numerator; 35The @interface Section int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; @end The name of the new class (NewClassName) is Fraction, and its parent class is NSObject. (We talk in greater detail about parent classes in Chapter 8,“Inheritance.”) The NSObject class is defined in the file NSObject.h, which is automatically included in your program whenever you import Foundation.h. Instance Variables The memberDeclarations section specifies what types of data are stored in a Fraction, along with the names of those data types.As you can see, this section is enclosed inside its own set of curly braces. For your Fraction class, these declarations say that a Fraction object has two integer members, called numerator and denominator: int numerator; int denominator; The members declared in this section are known as the instance variables.As you’ll see, each time you create a new object, a new and unique set of instance variables also is created.Therefore, if you have two Fractions, one called fracA and another called fracB, each will have its own set of instance variables.That is, fracA and fracB each will have its own separate numerator and denominator.The Objective-C system automati- cally keeps track of this for you, which is one of the nicer things about working with objects. Class and Instance Methods You have to define methods to work with your Fractions.You need to be able to set the value of a fraction to a particular value. Because you won’t have direct access to the inter- nal representation of a fraction (in other words, direct access to its instance variables), you must write methods to set the numerator and denominator.You’ll also write a method called print that will display the value of a fraction. Here’s what the declaration for the print method looks like in the interface file: -(void) print; The leading minus sign (-) tells the Objective-C compiler that the method is an in- stance method.The only other option is a plus sign (+), which indicates a class method.A class method is one that performs some operation on the class itself, such as creating a 36 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods new instance of the class.This is similar to manufacturing a new car, in that the car is the class and you want to create a new one, which would be a class method. An instance method performs some operation on a particular instance of a class, such as setting its value, retrieving its value, displaying its value, and so on. Referring to the car example, after you have manufactured the car, you might need to fill it with gas.The op- eration of filling it with gas is performed on a particular car, so it is analogous to an in- stance method. Return Values When you declare a new method, you have to tell the Objective-C compiler whether the method returns a value and, if it does, what type of value it returns.You do this by enclos- ing the return type in parentheses after the leading minus or plus sign. So this declaration specifies that the instance method called retrieveNumerator returns an integer value: –(int) retrieveNumerator; Similarly,this line declares a method that returns a double precision value. (You’ll learn more about this data type in Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions.”) –(double) retrieveDoubleValue; A value is returned from a method using the Objective-C return statement, similar to the way in which we returned a value from main in previous program examples. If the method returns no value, you indicate that using the type void, as in the following: –(void) print; This declares an instance method called print that returns no value. In such a case, you do not need to execute a return statement at the end of your method.Alternatively, you can execute a return without any specified value, as in the following: return; You don’t need to specify a return type for your methods, although it’s better pro- gramming practice if you do. If you don’t specify a type, id is the default.You’ll learn more about the id data type in Chapter 9,“Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing,and Dy- namic Binding.”Basically,you can use the id type to refer to any type of object. Method Arguments Two other methods are declared in the @interface section from Program 3.2: –(void) setNumerator: (int) n; –(void) setDenominator: (int) d; These are both instance methods that return no value. Each method takes an integer argument, which is indicated by the (int) in front of the argument name. In the case of setNumerator, the name of the argument is n.This name is arbitrary and is the name the method uses to refer to the argument.Therefore, the declaration of setNumerator speci- fies that one integer argument, called n, will be passed to the method and that no value 37The @implementation Section will be returned.This is similar for setDenominator, except that the name of its argu- ment is d. Notice the syntax of the declaration for these methods. Each method name ends with a colon, which tells the Objective-C compiler that the method expects to see an argu- ment. Next, the type of the argument is specified, enclosed in a set of parentheses, in much the same way the return type is specified for the method itself. Finally,the symbolic name to be used to identify that argument in the method is specified.The entire declara- tion is terminated with a semicolon. Figure 3.1 depicts this syntax. When a method takes an argument, you also append a colon to the method name when referring to the method.Therefore, setNumerator: and setDenominator: is the correct way to identify these two methods, each of which takes a single argument.Also, identifying the print method without a trailing colon indicates that this method does not take any arguments. In Chapter 7,“More on Classes,”you’ll see how methods that take more than one argument are identified. The @implementation Section As noted, the @implementation section contains the actual code for the methods you de- clared in the @interface section. Just as a point of terminology,you say that you declare the methods in the @interface section and that you define them (that is, give the actual code) in the @implementation section. The general format for the @implementation section is as follows: @implementation NewClassName methodDefinitions; @end NewClassName is the same name that was used for the class in the @interface section. You can use the trailing colon followed by the parent class name, as we did in the @interface section: @implementation Fraction: NSObject However, this is optional and typically not done. The methodDefinitions part of the @implementation section contains the code for each method specified in the @interface section. Similar to the @interface section, each method’s definition starts by identifying the type of method (class or instance), its - (void) setNumerator: (int) n; method type return type method name method takes argument argument type argument name Figure 3.1 Declaring a method 38 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods return type, and its arguments and their types. However, instead of the line ending with a semicolon, the code for the method follows, enclosed inside a set of curly braces. Consider the @implementation section from Program 3.2: //---- @implementation section ---- @implementation Fraction –(void) print { NSLog (“%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } –(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } –(void) setDenominator: (int) d { denominator = d; } @end The print method uses NSLog to display the values of the instance variables numerator and denominator. But to which numerator and denominator does this method refer? It refers to the instance variables contained in the object that is the receiver of the message.That’s an important concept, and we return to it shortly. The setNumerator: method stores the integer argument you called n in the instance variable numerator. Similarly, setDenominator: stores the value of its argument d in the instance variable denominator. The program Section The program section contains the code to solve your particular problem, which can be spread out across many files, if necessary.Somewhere you must have a routine called main, as we’ve previously noted.That’s where your program always begins execution. Here’s the program section from Program 3.2: //---- program section ---- int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 39The @program Section Fraction *myFraction; // Create an instance of a Fraction myFraction = [Fraction alloc]; myFraction = [myFraction init]; // Set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; // Display the fraction using the print method NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is:”); [myFraction print]; [myFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Inside main, you define a variable called myFraction with the following line: Fraction *myFraction; This line says that myFraction is an object of type Fraction; that is, myFraction is used to store values from your new Fraction class.The asterisk (*) in front of myFraction is required, but don’t worry about its purpose now.Technically,it says that myFraction is actually a reference (or pointer) to a Fraction. Now that you have an object to store a Fraction, you need to create one, just as you ask the factory to build you a new car.This is done with the following line: myFraction = [Fraction alloc]; alloc is short for allocate.You want to allocate memory storage space for a new frac- tion.This expression sends a message to your newly created Fraction class: [Fraction alloc] You are asking the Fraction class to apply the alloc method, but you never defined an alloc method, so where did it come from? The method was inherited from a parent class. Chapter 8,“Classes, Objects, and Methods” deals with this topic in detail. When you send the alloc message to a class, you get back a new instance of that class. In Program 3.2, the returned value is stored inside your variable myFraction.The alloc method is guaranteed to zero out all of an object’s instance variables. However, that doesn’t 40 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods mean that the object has been properly initialized for use.You need to initialize an object after you allocate it. This is done with the next statement in Program 3.2, which reads as follows: myFraction = [myFraction init]; Again, you are using a method here that you didn’t write yourself.The init method initializes the instance of a class. Note that you are sending the init message to myFraction.That is, you want to initialize a specific Fraction object here, so you don’t send it to the class—you send it to an instance of the class. Make sure you understand this point before continuing. The init method also returns a value—namely,the initialized object.You store the re- turn value in your Fraction variable myFraction. The two-line sequence of allocating a new instance of class and then initializing it is done so often in Objective-C that the two messages are typically combined, as follows: myFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; This inner message expression is evaluated first: [Fraction alloc] As you know,the result of this message expression is the actual Fraction that is allo- cated. Instead of storing the result of the allocation in a variable, as you did before, you directly apply the init method to it. So, again, first you allocate a new Fraction and then you initialize it.The result of the initialization is then assigned to the myFraction variable. As a final shorthand technique, the allocation and initialization is often incorporated directly into the declaration line, as in the following: Fraction *myFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; We use this coding style often throughout the remainder of this book, so it’s important that you understand it.You’ve seen in every program up to this point with the allocation of the autorelease pool: NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Here an alloc message is sent to the NSAutoreleasePool class requesting that a new instance be created.The init message then is sent to the newly created object to get it initialized. Returning to Program 3.2, you are now ready to set the value of your fraction.These program lines do just that: // Set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; 41The program Section The first message statement sends the setNumerator: message to myFraction.The ar- gument that is supplied is the value 1. Control is then sent to the setNumerator: method you defined for your Fraction class.The Objective-C system knows that it is the method from this class to use because it knows that myFraction is an object from the Fraction class. Inside the setNumerator: method, the passed value of 1 is stored inside the variable n. The single program line in that method stores that value in the instance variable numerator. So you have effectively set the numerator of myFraction to 1. The message that invokes the setDenominator: method on myFraction follows next. The argument of 3 is assigned to the variable d inside the setDenominator: method.This value is then stored inside the denominator instance variable, thus completing the assign- ment of the value 1/3 to myFraction. Now you’re ready to display the value of your fraction, which you do with the following lines of code from Program 3.2: // display the fraction using the print method NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is:”); [myFraction print]; The NSLog call simply displays the following text: The value of myFraction is: The following message expression invokes the print method: [myFraction print]; Inside the print method, the values of the instance variables numerator and denominator are displayed, separated by a slash character. The message in the program releases or frees the memory that was used for the Fraction object: [myFraction release]; This is a critical part of good programming style.Whenever you create a new object, you are asking for memory to be allocated for that object.Also, when you’re done with the object, you are responsible for releasing the memory it uses.Although it’s true that the memory will be released when your program terminates anyway,after you start develop- ing more sophisticated applications, you can end up working with hundreds (or thou- sands) of objects that consume a lot of memory.Waiting for the program to terminate for the memory to be released is wasteful of memory,can slow your program’s execution, and is not good programming style. So get into the habit of releasing memory when you can right now. The Apple runtime system provides a mechanism known as garbage collection that facili- tates automatic cleanup of memory.However, it’s best to learn how to manage your memory usage yourself instead of relying on this automated mechanism. In fact, you can’t 42 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods rely on garbage collection when programming for certain platforms on which garbage collection is not supported, such as the iPhone. For that reason, we don’t talk about garbage collection until much later in this book. It seems as if you had to write a lot more code to duplicate in Program 3.2 what you did in Program 3.1.That’s true for this simple example here; however, the ultimate goal in working with objects is to make your programs easier to write, maintain, and extend. You’ll realize that later. The last example in this chapter shows how you can work with more than one frac- tion in your program. In Program 3.3, you set one fraction to 2/3, set another to 3/7, and display them both. Program 3.3 // Program to work with fractions – cont’d #import //---- @interface section ---- @interface Fraction: NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; @end //---- @implementation section ---- @implementation Fraction -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } -(void) setDenominator: (int) d { 43The @program Section denominator = d; } @end //---- program section ---- int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *frac1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *frac2 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; // Set 1st fraction to 2/3 [frac1 setNumerator: 2]; [frac1 setDenominator: 3]; // Set 2nd fraction to 3/7 [frac2 setNumerator: 3]; [frac2 setDenominator: 7]; // Display the fractions NSLog (@”First fraction is:”); [frac1 print]; NSLog (@”Second fraction is:”); [frac2 print]; [frac1 release]; [frac2 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 3.3 Output First fraction is: 2/3 Second fraction is: 3/7 The @interface and @implementation sections remain unchanged from Program 3.2.The program creates two Fraction objects, called frac1 and frac2, and then assigns the value 2/3 to the first fraction and 3/7 to the second. Realize that when the setNumerator: method is applied to frac1 to set its numerator to 2, the instance vari- able frac1 gets its instance variable numerator set to 2.Also, when frac2 uses the same method to set its numerator to 3, its distinct instance variable numerator is set to the 44 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods Object Instance Variables frac1 numerator 2 denominator 3 frac2 numerator 3 denominator 7 Figure 3.2 Unique instance variables value 3. Each time you create a new object, it gets its own distinct set of instance vari- ables. Figure 3.2 depicts this. Based on which object is getting sent the message, the correct instance variables are referenced.Therefore, here frac1’s numerator is referenced whenever setNumerator: uses the name numerator inside the method: [frac1 setNumerator: 2]; That’s because frac1 is the receiver of the message. Accessing Instance Variables and Data Encapsulation You’ve seen how the methods that deal with fractions can access the two instance vari- ables numerator and denominator directly by name. In fact, an instance method can al- ways directly access its instance variables.A class method can’t, however, because it’s dealing only with the class itself, not with any instances of the class (think about that for a second). But what if you wanted to access your instance variables from someplace else— for example, from inside your main routine? You can’t do that directly because they are hidden.The fact that they are hidden from you is a key concept called data encapsulation.It enables someone writing class definitions to extend and modify the class definitions, without worrying about whether programmers (that is, users of the class) are tinkering with the internal details of the class. Data encapsulation provides a nice layer of insulation between the programmer and the class developer. You can access your instance variables in a clean way by writing special methods to re- trieve their values. For example, you’ll create two new methods called, appropriately enough, numerator and denominator to access the corresponding instance variables of the Fraction that is the receiver of the message.The result is the corresponding integer value, which you return. Here are the declarations for your two new methods: –(int) numerator; –(int) denominator; And here are the definitions: –(int) numerator { return numerator; } 45Accessing Instance Variables and Data Encapsulation –(int) denominator { return denominator; } Note that the names of the methods and the instance variables they access are the same.There’s no problem doing this; in fact, it is common practice. Program 3.4 tests your two new methods. Program 3.4 // Program to access instance variables – cont’d #import //---- @interface section ---- @interface Fraction: NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; -(int) numerator; -(int) denominator; @end //---- @implementation section ---- @implementation Fraction -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } -(void) setDenominator: (int) d { denominator = d; } -(int) numerator { return numerator; } 46 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods -(int) denominator { return denominator; } @end //---- program section ---- int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *myFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; // Set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; // Display the fraction using our two new methods NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is: %i/%i”, [myFraction numerator], [myFraction denominator]); [myFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 3.4 Output The value of myFraction is 1/3 This NSLog statement displays the results of sending two messages to myFraction: the first to retrieve the value of its numerator, and the second the value of its denominator: NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is: %i/%i”, [myFraction numerator], [myFraction denominator]); Incidentally,methods that set the values of instance variables are often collectively re- ferred to as setters, and methods used to retrieve the values of instance variables are called getters. For the Fraction class, setNumerator: and setDenominator: are the setters, and numerator and denominator are the getters. Note Soon you’ll learn a convenient feature of Objective-C 2.0 that allows for the automatic cre- ation of getter and setter methods. 47Exercises We should also point out that there’s also a method called new that combines the ac- tions of an alloc and init. So this line could be used to allocate and initialize a new Fraction: Fraction *myFraction = [Fraction new]; It’s generally better to use the two-step allocation and initialization approach so you conceptually understand that two distinct events are occurring:You’re first creating a new object and then you’re initializing it. Summary Now you know how to define your own class, create objects or instances of that class, and send messages to those objects.We return to the Fraction class in later chapters.You’ll learn how to pass multiple arguments to your methods, how to divide your class defini- tions into separate files, and also how to use key concepts such as inheritance and dy- namic binding. However, now it’s time to learn more about data types and writing expressions in Objective-C. First, try the exercises that follow to test your understanding of the important points covered in this chapter. Exercises 1. Which of the following are invalid names? Why? Int playNextSong 6_05 _calloc Xx alphaBetaRoutine clearScreen _1312 z ReInitialize _ A$ 2. Based on the example of the car in this chapter, think of an object you use every day.Identify a class for that object and write five actions you do with that object. 3. Given the list in exercise 2, use the following syntax to rewrite your list in this format: [instance method]; 4. Imagine that you owned a boat and a motorcycle in addition to a car. List the ac- tions you would perform with each of these. Do you have any overlap between these actions? 5. Based on question 4, imagine that you had a class called Vehicle and an object called myVehicle that could be either Car, Motorcycle, or Boat. Imagine that you wrote the following: [myVehicle prep]; [myVehicle getGas]; [myVehicle service]; Do you see any advantages of being able to apply an action to an object that could be from one of several classes? 48 Chapter 3: Classes, Objects, and Methods 6. In a procedural language such as C, you think about actions and then write code to perform the action on various objects. Referring to the car example, you might write a procedure in C to wash a vehicle and then inside that procedure write code to handle washing a car, washing a boat, washing a motorcycle, and so on. If you took that approach and then wanted to add a new vehicle type (see the previous exercise), do you see advantages or disadvantages to using this procedural approach over an object-oriented approach? 7. Define a class called XYPoint that will hold a Cartesian coordinate (x, y), where x and y are integers. Define methods to individually set the x and y coordinates of a point and retrieve their values.Write an Objective-C program to implement your new class and test it. 4 Data Types and Expressions In this chapter, we take a look at the basic data types and describe some fundamental rules for forming arithmetic expressions in Objective-C. Data Types and Constants You have already been exposed to the Objective-C basic data type int.As you will recall, a variable declared to be of type int can be used to contain integral values only—that is, values that do not contain decimal places. The Objective-C programming language provides three other basic data types: float, double, and char.A variable declared to be of type float can be used for storing float- ing-point numbers (values containing decimal places).The double type is the same as type float, only with roughly twice the accuracy.Finally,the char data type can be used to store a single character, such as the letter a, the digit character 6, or a semicolon (more on this later). In Objective-C, any number, single character, or character string is known as a constant. For example, the number 58 represents a constant integer value.The string @”Programming in Objective-C is fun.\n” is an example of a constant character string object. Expressions consisting entirely of constant values are called constant expres- sions. So this expression is a constant expression because each of the terms of the expres- sion is a constant value: 128 + 7 - 17 But if i were declared to be an integer variable, this expression would not represent a constant expression: 128 + 7 – i Type int In Objective-C, an integer constant consists of a sequence of one or more digits.A minus sign preceding the sequence indicates that the value is negative.The values 158, –10, and 0 are all valid examples of integer constants. No embedded spaces are permitted between 50 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions the digits, and values larger than 999 cannot be expressed using commas. (So the value 12,000 is not a valid integer constant and must be written as 12000.) Two special formats in Objective-C enable integer constants to be expressed in a base other than decimal (base 10). If the first digit of the integer value is 0, the integer is con- sidered to be expressed in octal notation—that is, in base 8. In this case, the remaining dig- its of the value must be valid base 8 digits and, therefore, must be 0–7. So to express the value 50 in base 8 in Objective-C, which is equivalent to the value 40 in decimal, the no- tation 050 is used. Similarly,the octal constant 0177 represents the decimal value 127 (1 × 64 + 7 × 8 + 7).An integer value can be displayed in octal notation by using the format characters %o in the format string of an NSLog call. In such a case, the value is displayed in octal without a leading zero.The format character %#o does cause a leading zero to be displayed before an octal value. If an integer constant is preceded by a 0 and a letter x (either lower case or upper case), the value is considered to be expressed in hexadecimal (base 16) notation. Immedi- ately following the x are the digits of the hexadecimal value, which can be composed of the digits 0–9 and the letters a–f (or A–F).The letters represent the values 10–15, respec- tively.So to assign the hexadecimal value FFEF0D to an integer variable called rgbColor, you can use this statement: rgbColor = 0xFFEF0D; The format characters %x display a value in hexadecimal format without the leading 0x and using lowercase letters a–f for hexidecimal digits.To display the value with the leading 0x, you use the format characters %#x, as in the following: NSLog (“Color is %#x\n”, rgbColor); An uppercase X, as in %X or %#X, can be used to display the leading x and hexidecimal digits that follow using uppercase letters. Every value, whether it’s a character, an integer, or a floating-point number, has a range of values associated with it.This range has to do with the amount of storage allocated to store a particular type of data. In general, that amount is not defined in the language; it typically depends on the computer you’re running on and is therefore called implementation or machine dependent. For example, an integer can take 32 bits on your com- puter, or perhaps it might be stored in 64. You should never write programs that make assumptions about the size of your data types. However, you are guaranteed that a minimum amount of storage will be set aside for each basic data type. For example, it’s guaranteed that an integer value will be stored in a minimum of 32 bits of storage. However, once again, it’s not guaranteed. See Table B.2 in Appendix B,“Objective-C Language Summary,”for more information about data type sizes. 51Data Types and Constants Type float You can use a variable declared to be of type float to store values containing decimal places.A floating-point constant is distinguished by the presence of a decimal point.You can omit digits before the decimal point or digits after the decimal point, but, obviously, you can’t omit both.The values 3., 125.8, and -.0001 are all valid examples of floating- point constants.To display a floating-point value, the NSLog conversion characters %f are used. Floating-point constants can also be expressed in so-called scientific notation.The value 1.7e4 is a floating-point value expressed in this notation that represents the value 1.7 × 10-4.The value before the letter e is known as the mantissa, whereas the value that follows is called the exponent.This exponent, which can be preceded by an optional plus or minus sign, represents the power of 10 by which the mantissa is to be multiplied. So in the con- stant 2.25e-3, the 2.25 is the value of the mantissa and -3 is the value of the exponent. This constant represents the value 2.25 × 10-3, or 0.00225. Incidentally,the letter e, which separates the mantissa from the exponent, can be written in either lower case or upper case. To display a value in scientific notation, the format characters %e should be specified in the NSLog format string.The format characters %g can be used to let NSLog decide whether to display the floating-point value in normal floating-point notation or in scien- tific notation.This decision is based on the value of the exponent: If it’s less than –4 or greater than 5, %e (scientific notation) format is used; otherwise, %f format is used. A hexadecimal floating constant consists of a leading 0x or 0X, followed by one or more decimal or hexadecimal digits, followed by a p or P, followed by an optionally signed binary exponent. For example, 0x0.3p10 represents the value 3/16 × 210 = 0.5. Type double The type double is similar to the type float, but it is used whenever the range provided by a float variable is not sufficient.Variables declared to be of type double can store roughly twice as many significant digits as can a variable of type float. Most computers represent double values using 64 bits. Unless told otherwise, the Objective-C compiler considers all floating-point constants to be double values.To explicitly express a float constant, append either f or F to the end of the number, like so: 12.5f To display a double value, you can use the format characters %f, %e, or %g, which are the same format characters used to display a float value. Type char You can use a char variable to store a single character.A character constant is formed by enclosing the character within a pair of single quotation marks. So ’a’, ’;’, and ’0’ are all valid examples of character constants.The first constant represents the letter a, the sec- 52 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions ond is a semicolon, and the third is the character zero—which is not the same as the number zero. Do not confuse a character constant, which is a single character enclosed in single quotes, with a C-style character string, which is any number of characters enclosed in double quotes.As mentioned in the last chapter, a string of characters enclosed in a pair of double quotes that is preceded by an @ character is an NSString character string ob- ject. Note Appendix B discusses methods for storing characters from extended character sets, through special escape sequences, universal characters, and wide characters. The character constant ’\n’, the newline character, is a valid character constant even though it seems to contradict the rule cited previously.The reason for this is that the backslash character is a special character in the Objective-C system and does not actually count as a character. In other words, the Objective-C compiler treats the character ’\n’ as a single character, even though it is actually formed by two characters. Other special char- acters are initiated with the backslash character. See Appendix B for a complete list.The format characters %c can be used in an NSLog call to display the value of a char variable. Program 4.1 uses the basic Objective-C data types. Program 4.1 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int integerVar = 100; float floatingVar = 331.79; double doubleVar = 8.44e+11; char charVar = ‘W’; NSLog (@”integerVar = %i”, integerVar); NSLog (@”floatingVar = %f”, floatingVar); NSLog (@”doubleVar = %e”, doubleVar); NSLog (@”doubleVar = %g”, doubleVar); NSLog (@”charVar = %c”, charVar); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.1 Output integerVar = 100 floatingVar = 331.790009 53Data Types and Constants doubleVar = 8.440000e+11 doubleVar = 8.44e+11 charVar = 'W' In the second line of the program’s output, notice that the value of 331.79, which is as- signed to floatingVar, is actually displayed as 331.790009.The reason for this inaccuracy is the particular way in which numbers are internally represented inside the computer.You have probably come across the same type of inaccuracy when dealing with numbers on your calculator. If you divide 1 by 3 on your calculator, you get the result .33333333, with perhaps some additional 3s tacked on at the end.The string of 3s is the calculator’s approx- imation to one third.Theoretically,there should be an infinite number of 3s. But the cal- culator can hold only so many digits, thus the inherent inaccuracy of the machine.The same type of inaccuracy applies here: Certain floating-point values cannot be exactly rep- resented inside the computer’s memory. Qualifiers: long, long long, short, unsigned, and signed If the qualifier long is placed directly before the int declaration, the declared integer vari- able is of extended range on some computer systems.An example of a long int declara- tion might be this: long int factorial; This declares the variable factorial to be a long integer variable.As with floats and doubles, the particular accuracy of a long variable depends on your particular computer system. On many systems, an int and a long int both have the same range and can be used to store integer values up to 32 bits wide (231 – 1, or 2,147,483,647). A constant value of type long int is formed by optionally appending the letter L (in upper or lower case) onto the end of an integer constant. No spaces are permitted be- tween the number and the L. So the declaration declares the variable numberOfPoints to be of type long int with an initial value of 131,071,100: long int numberOfPoints = 131071100L; To display the value of a long int using NSLog, the letter l is used as a modifier be- fore the integer format characters i, o, and x.This means that the format characters %li can be used to display the value of a long int in decimal format, the characters %lo can display the value in octal format, and the characters %lx can display the value in hexadec- imal format. A long long integer data type can be used like this: long long int maxAllowedStorage; This declares the indicated variable to be of the specified extended accuracy,which is guaranteed to be at least 64 bits wide. Instead of using a single letter l,two ls are used in the NSLog string to display long long integers, as in “%lli”. The long qualifier is also allowed in front of a double declaration, like so: long double US_deficit_2004; 54 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions A long double constant is written as a floating constant with an l or L immediately following, like so: 1.234e+7L To display a long double, you use the L modifier. So %Lf would display a long dou- ble value in floating-point notation, %Le would display the same value in scientific nota- tion, and %Lg would tell NSLog to choose between %Lf and %Le. The qualifier short, when placed in front of the int declaration, tells the Objective-C compiler that the particular variable being declared is used to store fairly small integer val- ues.The motivation for using short variables is primarily one of conserving memory space, which can be an issue when the program needs a lot of memory and the amount of available memory is limited. On some machines, a short int takes up half the amount of storage as a regular int variable does. In any case, you are guaranteed that the amount of space allocated for a short int will not be less than 16 bits. No way exists to explicitly write a constant of type short int in Objective-C.To dis- play a short int variable, place the letter h in front of any of the normal integer-conver- sion characters: %hi, %ho, or %hx.Alternatively,you can use any of the integer-conversion characters to display short ints because they can be converted into integers when they are passed as arguments to the NSLog routine. The final qualifier that can be placed in front of an int variable is used when an inte- ger variable will be used to store only positive numbers.The following declares to the compiler that the variable counter is used to contain only positive values: unsigned int counter; Restricting the use of an integer variable to the exclusive storage of positive integers extends the accuracy of the integer variable. An unsigned int constant is formed by placing a u or U after the constant, like so: 0x00ffU You can combine the u (or U) and l (or L) when writing an integer constant, so this tells the compiler to treat the constant 20000 as unsigned long: 20000UL An integer constant that’s not followed by any of the letters u, U, l, or L and that is too large to fit into a normal-sized int is treated as an unsigned int by the compiler. If it’s too small to fit into an unsigned int, the compiler treats it as a long int. If it still can’t fit inside a long int, the compiler makes it an unsigned long int. When declaring variables to be of type long int, short int, or unsigned int,you can omit the keyword int.Therefore, the unsigned variable counter could have been equivalently declared as follows: unsigned counter; You can also declare char variables to be unsigned. 55Data Types and Constants The signed qualifier can be used to explicitly tell the compiler that a particular vari- able is a signed quantity.Its use is primarily in front of the char declaration, and further discussion is beyond the scope of this book. Type id The id data type is used to store an object of any type. In a sense, it is a generic object type. For example, this line declares number to be a variable of type id: id number; Methods can be declared to return values of type id, like so: -(id) newObject: (int) type; This declares an instance method called newObject that takes a single integer argument called type and returns a value of type id. Note that id is the default type for return and argument type declarations. So, the following declares a class method that returns a value of type id: +allocInit; The id data type is an important data type used often in this book.We mention it in passing here for the sake of completeness.The id type is the basis for very important fea- tures in Objective-C know as polymorphism and dynamic binding, which Chapter 9,“Poly- morphism, Dynamic Typing,and Dynamic Binding,”discusses extensively. Table 4.1 summarizes the basic data types and qualifiers. Table 4.1 Basic Data Types Type Constant Examples NSLog chars char ’a’, ’\n’ %c short int — %hi, %hx, %ho unsigned short int — %hu, %hx, %ho int 12, -97, 0xFFE0, 0177 %i, %x, %o unsigned int 12u, 100U, 0XFFu %u, %x, %o long int 12L, -2001, 0xffffL %li, %lx, %lo unsigned long int 12UL, 100ul, 0xffeeUL %lu, %lx, %lo long long int 0xe5e5e5e5LL, 500ll %lli, %llx, &llo unsigned long long int 12ull, 0xffeeULL %llu, %llx, %llo float 12.34f, 3.1e-5f, 0x1.5p10, 0x1P-1 %f, %e, %g, %a double 12.34, 3.1e-5, 0x.1p3 %f, %e, %g, %a long double 12.341, 3.1e-5l %Lf, $Le, %Lg id nil %p 56 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions Arithmetic Expressions In Objective-C, just as in virtually all programming languages, the plus sign (+) is used to add two values, the minus sign (-) is used to subtract two values, the asterisk (*)is used to multiply two values, and the slash (/) is used to divide two values.These opera- tors are known as binary arithmetic operators because they operate on two values or terms. Operator Precedence You have seen how a simple operation such as addition can be performed in Objective-C. The following program further illustrates the operations of subtraction, multiplication, and division.The last two operations performed in the program introduce the notion that one operator can have a higher priority,or precedence, over another operator. In fact, each oper- ator in Objective-C has a precedence associated with it. This precedence is used to determine how an expression that has more than one oper- ator is evaluated:The operator with the higher precedence is evaluated first. Expressions containing operators of the same precedence are evaluated either from left to right or from right to left, depending on the operator.This is known as the associative property of an operator.Appendix B provides a complete list of operator precedences and their rules of association. Program 4.2 // Illustrate the use of various arithmetic operators #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int a = 100; int b = 2; int c = 25; int d = 4; int result; result = a - b; //subtraction NSLog (@”a - b = %i”, result); result = b * c; //multiplication NSLog (@”b * c = %i”, result); result = a / c; //division NSLog (@”a / c = %i”, result); 57Arithmetic Expressions result = a + b * c; //precedence NSLog (@”a + b * c = %i”, result); NSLog (@”a * b + c * d = %i”, a * b + c * d); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.2 Output a - b = 98 b * c = 50 a / c = 4 a + b * c = 150 a * b + c * d = 300 After declaring the integer variables a, b, c, d, and result, the program assigns the re- sult of subtracting b from a to result and then displays its value with an appropriate NSLog call. The next statement has the effect of multiplying the value of b by the value of c and storing the product in result: result = b * c; The result of the multiplication is then displayed using a NSLog call that should be fa- miliar to you by now. The next program statement introduces the division operator, the slash.The NSLog statement displays the result of 4, obtained by dividing 100 by 25, immediately following the division of a by c. Attempting to divide a number by zero results in abnormal termination or an excep- tion when the division is attempted. Even if the program does not terminate abnormally, the results obtained by such a division will be meaningless. In Chapter 6,“Making Deci- sions,”you will see how you can check for division by zero before the division operation is performed. If the divisor is determined to be zero, an appropriate action can be taken and the division operation can be averted. This expression does not produce the result of 2550 (102 × 25); instead, the result dis- played by the corresponding NSLog statement is shown as 150: a + b * c This is because Objective-C, like most other programming languages, has rules for the order of evaluating multiple operations or terms in an expression. Evaluation of an expres- sion generally proceeds from left to right. However, the operations of multiplication and division are given precedence over the operations of addition and subtraction.Therefore, the system evaluates the expression 58 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions a + b * c as follows: a + (b * c) (This is the same way this expression would be evaluated if you applied the basic rules of algebra.) If you want to alter the order of evaluation of terms inside an expression, you can use parentheses. In fact, the expression listed previously is a perfectly valid Objective-C expres- sion.Thus, the following statement could have been substituted in Program 4.2 to achieve identical results: result = a + (b * c); However, if this expression were used instead, the value assigned to result would be 2550: result = (a + b) * c; This is because the value of a (100) would be added to the value of b (2) before multi- plication by the value of Objective-C (25) would take place. Parentheses can also be nested, in which case evaluation of the expression proceeds outward from the innermost set of parentheses. Just be sure to have as many closed parentheses as you have open ones. Notice from the last statement in Program 4.2 that it is perfectly valid to give an ex- pression as an argument to NSLog without having to first assign the result of the expression evaluation to a variable.The expression a * b + c * d is evaluated according to the rules stated previously as (a * b) + (c * d) or (100 * 2) + (25 * 4) The result of 300 is handed to the NSLog routine. Integer Arithmetic and the Unary Minus Operator Program 4.3 reinforces what we have just discussed and introduces the concept of integer arithmetic. Program 4.3 // More arithmetic expressions #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { 59Arithmetic Expressions NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int a = 25; int b = 2; int result; float c = 25.0; float d = 2.0; NSLog (@”6 + a / 5 * b = %i”, 6 + a / 5 * b); NSLog (@”a / b * b = %i”, a / b * b); NSLog (@”c / d * d = %f”, c / d * d); NSLog (@”-a = %i”, -a); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.3 Output 6 + a / 5 * b = 16 a / b * b = 24 c / d * d = 25.000000 -a = -25 We inserted extra blank spaces between int and the declaration of a, b, and result in the first three statements to align the declaration of each variable.This helps make the pro- gram more readable.You also might have noticed in each program presented thus far that a blank space was placed around each operator.This, too, is not required and is done solely for aesthetic reasons. In general, you can add extra blank spaces just about anywhere that a single blank space is allowed.A few extra presses of the spacebar will prove worthwhile if the resulting program is easier to read. The expression in the first NSLog call of Program 4.3 reinforces the notion of operator precedence. Evaluation of this expression proceeds as follows: 1. Because division has higher precedence than addition, the value of a (25) is divided by 5 first.This gives the intermediate result of 4. 2. Because multiplication also has higher precedence than addition, the intermediate re- sult of 5 is next multiplied by 2, the value of b, giving a new intermediate result of 10. 3. Finally,the addition of 6 and 10 is performed, giving a final result of 16. The second NSLog statement introduces a new twist.You would expect that dividing a by b and then multiplying by b would return the value of a, which has been set to 25. But this does not seem to be the case, as shown by the output display of 24. Did the computer lose a bit somewhere along the way? Very unlikely.The fact of the matter is that this ex- pression was evaluated using integer arithmetic. 60 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions If you glance back at the declarations for the variables a and b, you will recall that both were declared to be of type int.Whenever a term to be evaluated in an expression con- sists of two integers, the Objective-C system performs the operation using integer arith- metic. In such a case, all decimal portions of numbers are lost.Therefore, when the value of a is divided by the value of b, or 25 is divided by 2, you get an intermediate result of 12, and not 12.5, as you might expect. Multiplying this intermediate result by 2 gives the final result of 24, thus explaining the “lost” digit. As you can see from the next-to-last NSLog statement in Program 4.3, if you perform the same operation using floating-point values instead of integers, you obtain the ex- pected result. The decision of whether to use a float variable or an int variable should be made based on the variable’s intended use. If you don’t need any decimal places, use an integer variable.The resulting program will be more efficient—that is, it will execute more quickly on many computers. On the other hand, if you need the decimal place accuracy, the choice is clear.The only question you then must answer is whether to use a float or a double.The answer to this question depends on the desired accuracy of the numbers you are dealing with, as well as their magnitude. In the last NSLog statement, the value of the variable a is negated by use of the unary minus operator.A unary operator is one that operates on a single value, as opposed to a bi- nary operator, which operates on two values.The minus sign actually has a dual role:As a binary operator, it is used for subtracting two values; as a unary operator, it is used to negate a value. The unary minus operator has higher precedence than all other arithmetic operators, except for the unary plus operator (+), which has the same precedence. So the following expression results in the multiplication of -a by b: c = -a * b; Once again, you will find a table in Appendix B summarizing the various operators and their precedences. The Modulus Operator The last arithmetic operator to be presented in this chapter is the modulus operator, which is symbolized by the percent sign (%).Try to determine how this operator works by analyzing the output from Program 4.4. Program 4.4 // The modulus operator #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 61Arithmetic Expressions int a = 25, b = 5, c = 10, d = 7; NSLog (@”a %% b = %i”, a % b); NSLog (@”a %% c = %i”, a % c); NSLog (@”a %% d = %i”, a % d); NSLog (@”a / d * d + a %% d = %i”, a / d * d + a % d); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.4 Output a % b = 0 a % c = 5 a % d = 4 a / d * d + a % d = 25 Note the statement inside main that defines and initializes the variables a, b, c, and d in a single statement. As you know, NSLog uses the character that immediately follows the percent sign to de- termine how to print its next argument. However, if it is another percent sign that fol- lows, the NSLog routine takes this as an indication that you really intend to display a percent sign and inserts one at the appropriate place in the program’s output. You are correct if you concluded that the function of the modulus operator % is to give the remainder of the first value divided by the second value. In the first example, the re- mainder, after 25 is divided by 5, is displayed as 0. If you divide 25 by 10, you get a remain- der of 5, as verified by the second line of output. Dividing 25 by 7 gives a remainder of 4, as shown in the third output line. Let’s now turn our attention to the last arithmetic expression evaluated in the last state- ment.You will recall that any operations between two integer values in Objective-C are performed with integer arithmetic.Therefore, any remainder resulting from the division of two integer values is simply discarded. Dividing 25 by 7, as indicated by the expression a / d, gives an intermediate result of 3. Multiplying this value by the value of d, which is 7, produces the intermediate result of 21. Finally,adding the remainder of dividing a by d,as indicated by the expression a % d, leads to the final result of 25. It is no coincidence that this value is the same as the value of the variable a. In general, this expression will always equal the value of a, assuming, of course, that a and b are both integer values: a / b * b + a % b In fact, the modulus operator % is defined to work only with integer values. As far as precedence is concerned, the modulus operator has equal precedence to the multiplication and division operators.This implies, of course, that an expression such as table + value % TABLE_SIZE will be evaluated as table + (value % TABLE_SIZE) 62 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions Integer and Floating-Point Conversions To effectively develop Objective-C programs, you must understand the rules used for the implicit conversion of floating-point and integer values in Objective-C. Program 4.5 demonstrates some of the simple conversions between numeric data types. Program 4.5 // Basic conversions in Objective-C #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; float f1 = 123.125, f2; int i1, i2 = -150; i1 = f1; // floating to integer conversion NSLog (@”%f assigned to an int produces %i”, f1, i1); f1 = i2; // integer to floating conversion NSLog (@”%i assigned to a float produces %f”, i2, f1); f1 = i2 / 100; // integer divided by integer NSLog (@”%i divided by 100 produces %f”, i2, f1); f2 = i2 / 100.0; // integer divided by a float NSLog (@”%i divided by 100.0 produces %f”, i2, f2); f2 = (float) i2 / 100; // type cast operator NSLog (@”(float) %i divided by 100 produces %f”, i2, f2); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.5 Output 123.125000 assigned to an int produces 123 -150 assigned to a float produces -150.000000 -150 divided by 100 produces -1.000000 -150 divided by 100.0 produces -1.500000 (float) -150 divided by 100 produces -1.500000 Whenever a floating-point value is assigned to an integer variable in Objective-C, the decimal portion of the number gets truncated. So when the value of f1 is assigned to i1 in the previous program, the number 123.125 is truncated, which means that only its inte- 63Arithmetic Expressions ger portion, or 123, is stored in i1.The first line of the program’s output verifies that this is the case. Assigning an integer variable to a floating variable does not cause any change in the value of the number; the system simply converts the value and stores it in the floating variable.The second line of the program’s output verifies that the value of i2 (–150) was correctly converted and stored in the float variable f1. The next two lines of the program’s output illustrate two points to remember when forming arithmetic expressions.The first has to do with integer arithmetic, which we have already discussed in this chapter.Whenever two operands in an expression are integers (and this applies to short, unsigned, and long integers as well), the operation is carried out under the rules of integer arithme ic Therefore, any decimal portion resulting from a division operation is discarded, even if the result is assigned to a floating variable (as we did in the program).When the integer variable i2 is divided by the integer constant 100, the system performs the division as an integer division.The result of dividing –150 by 100, which is –1, is, therefore the value tha is stored in the float variable f1 The next division pe formed in the previous program involves an integer variable and a floating-point constant.Any operation between two values in Objective-C is performed as a floating-point operation if either value is a floating-point variable or constant.There- fore, when the value of i2 is divided by 100.0, the system treats the division as a floating- point division and produces the result of –1.5, which is assigned to the float variable f1. The Type Cast Operator You’ve already seen how enclosing a type inside a set of parentheses is used to declare the return and argument types when declaring and defining methods. It serves a different pur- pose when used inside expressions. The last division operation from Program 4.5 that reads as follows introduces the type cast operator: f2 = (float) i2 / 100; // type cast operator The type cast operator has the effect of converting the value of the variable i2 to type float for purposes of evaluating the expression. In no way does this operator perma- nently affect the value of the variable i2; it is a unary operator that behaves like other unary operators. Just as the expression -a has no permanent effect on the value of a, nei- ther does the expression (float) a. The type cast operator has a higher precedence than all the arithmetic operators except the unary minus and unary plus. Of course, if necessary,you can always use parentheses in an expression to force the terms to be evaluated in any desired order. As another example of the use of the type cast operator, the expression (int) 29.55 + (int) 21.99 is evaluated in Objective-C as 29 + 21 Licensed by David Mease 64 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions because the effect of casting a floating value to an integer is one of truncating the float- ing-point value.The expression (float) 6 / (float) 4 produces a result of 1.5, as does the following expression: (float) 6 / 4 The type cast operator is often used to coerce an object that is a generic id type into an object of a particular class. For example, the following lines convert the value of the id variable myNumber to a Fraction object: id myNumber; Fraction *myFraction; ... myFraction = (Fraction *) myNumber; The result of the conversion is assigned to the Fraction variable myFraction. Assignment Operators The Objective-C language permits you to combine the arithmetic operators with the as- signment operator using the following general format: op= In this format, op is any of the arithmetic operators, including +, -, *, /, or %. In addi- tion, op can be any of the bit operators for shifting and masking, discussed later. Consider this statement: count += 10; The effect of the so-called “plus equals” operator += is to add the expression on the right side of the operator to the expression on the left side of the operator, and to store the result back into the variable on the left side of the operator. So the previous statement is equivalent to this statement: count = count + 10; The following expression uses the “minus equals” assignment operator to subtract 5 from the value of counter: counter -= 5 It is equivalent to this expression: counter = counter - 5 This is a slightly more involved expression: a /= b + c It divides a by whatever appears to the right of the equals sign—or by the sum of b and c—and stores the result in a.The addition is performed first because the addition op- 65A Calculator Class erator has higher precedence than the assignment operator. In fact, all operators but the comma operator have higher precedence than the assignment operators, which all have the same precedence. In this case, this expression is identical to the following: a = a / (b + c) The motivation for using assignment operators is threefold. First, the program state- ment becomes easier to write because what appears on the left side of the operator does not have to be repeated on the right side. Second, the resulting expression is usually easier to read.Third, the use of these operators can result in programs that execute more quickly because the compiler can sometimes generate less code to evaluate an expression. A Calculator Class It’s time now to define a new class.We’re going to make a Calculator class, which will be a simple four-function calculator you can use to add, multiply,subtract, and divide num- bers. Similar to a regular calculator, this one must keep track of the running total, or what’s usually called the accumulator. So methods must let you set the accumulator to a specific value, clear it (or set it to zero), and retrieve its value when you’re done. Program 4.6 includes the new class definition and a test program to try your calculator. Program 4.6 // Implement a Calculator class #import @interface Calculator: NSObject { double accumulator; } // accumulator methods -(void) setAccumulator: (double) value; -(void) clear; -(double) accumulator; // arithmetic methods -(void) add: (double) value; -(void) subtract: (double) value; -(void) multiply: (double) value; -(void) divide: (double) value; @end @implementation Calculator -(void) setAccumulator: (double) value { 66 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions accumulator = value; } -(void) clear { accumulator = 0; } -(double) accumulator { return accumulator; } -(void) add: (double) value { accumulator += value; } -(void) subtract: (double) value { accumulator -= value; } -(void) multiply: (double) value { accumulator *= value; } -(void) divide: (double) value { accumulator /= value; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Calculator *deskCalc; deskCalc = [[Calculator alloc] init]; [deskCalc clear]; [deskCalc setAccumulator: 100.0]; [deskCalc add: 200.]; [deskCalc divide: 15.0]; [deskCalc subtract: 10.0]; [deskCalc multiply: 5]; NSLog (@”The result is %g”, [deskCalc accumulator]); [deskCalc release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 67Bit Operators Program 4.6 Output The result is 50 The Calculator class has only one instance variable, a double value that holds the value of the accumulator.The method definitions themselves are quite straightforward. Notice the message that invokes the multiply method: [deskCalc multiply: 5]; The argument to the method is an integer, yet the method expects a double. No prob- lem arises here because numeric arguments to methods are automatically converted to match the type expected.A double is expected by multiply:, so the integer value 5 auto- matically is converted to a double precision floating value when the function is called. Even though this automatic conversion takes place, it’s better programming practice to supply the correct argument types when invoking methods. Realize that, unlike the Fraction class, in which you might work with many different fractions, you might want to work with only a single Calculator object in your program. Yet it still makes sense to define a new class to make working with this object easy.At some point, you might want to add a graphical front end to your calculator so the user can actually click buttons on the screen, such as the calculator application you probably have installed on your system or phone. In several of the exercises that follow,you’ll see that one additional benefit of defining a Calculator class has to do with the ease of extending it. Bit Operators Various operators in the Objective-C language work with the particular bits inside a number.Table 4.2 presents these operators. Table 4.2 Bit Operators Symbol Operation & Bitwise AND | Bitwise inclusive-OR ^ Bitwise OR ~ Ones complement << Left shift >> Right shift 68 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions All the operators listed in Table 4.2, with the exception of the ones complement opera- tor (~), are binary operators and, as such, take two operands. Bit operations can be per- formed on any type of integer value but cannot be performed on floating-point values. The Bitwise AND Operator When two values are ANDed, the binary representations of the values are compared bit by bit. Each corresponding bit that is a 1 in the first value and a 1 in the second value pro- duce a 1 in the corresponding bit position of the result; anything else produces a 0. If b1 and b2 represent corresponding bits of the two operands, the following table, called a truth table, shows the result of b1 ANDed with b2 for all possible values of b1 and b2. b1 b2 b1 & b2 ———————————————————————— 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 For example, if w1 and w2 are defined as short ints, and w1 is set equal to hexadecimal 15 and w2 is set equal to hexadecimal 0c, then the following C statement assigns the value 0x04 to w3: w3 = w1 & w2; You can see this more easily by treating the values of w1, w2, and w3 as binary numbers. Assume that you are dealing with a short int size of 16 bits: w1 0000 0000 0001 0101 0x15 w2 0000 0000 0000 1100 & 0x0c ——————————————————————————————————— w3 0000 0000 0000 0100 0x04 Bitwise ANDing is frequently used for masking operations.That is, this operator can be used to easily set specific bits of a data item to 0. For example, the following statement as- signs to w3 the value of w1 bitwise ANDed with the constant 3. w3 = w1 & 3; This has the effect of setting all the bits in w3, other than the rightmost 2 bits, to 0, and of preserving the rightmost 2 bits from w1. As with all binary arithmetic operators in Objective-C, the binary bit operators can also be used as assignment operators by tacking on an equals sign. So the statement word &= 15; will perform the same function as word = word & 15; and will have the effect of setting all but the rightmost 4 bits of word to 0. 69Bit Operators The Bitwise Inclusive-OR Operator When two values are bitwise Inclusive-ORed in Objective-C, the binary representation of the two values is once again compared bit by bit.This time, each bit that is a 1 in the first value or a 1 in the second value will produce a 1 in the corresponding bit of the re- sult.The truth table for the Inclusive-OR operator is shown next. b1 b2 b1 | b2 ———————————————————————— 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 So if w1 is a short int equal to hexadecimal 19 and w2 is a short int equal to hexa- decimal 6a, then a bitwise Inclusive-OR of w1 and w2 will produce a result of hexadeci- mal 7b, as shown: w1 0000 0000 0001 1001 0x19 w2 0000 0000 0110 1010 | 0x6a ————————————————————————————————————— 0000 0000 0111 1011 0x7b Bitwise Inclusive-ORing, frequently called just bitwise ORing, is used to set some specified bits of a word to 1. For example, the following statement sets the three rightmost bits of w1 to 1, regardless of the state of these bits before the operation was performed. w1 = w1 | 07; Of course, you could have used a special assignment operator in the statement, as in this statement: w1 |= 07; We defer a program example that illustrates the use of the Inclusive-OR operator un- til later. The Bitwise Exclusive-OR Operator The bitwise Exclusive-OR operator, which is often called the XOR operator, works as follows: For corresponding bits of the two operands, if either bit is a 1—but not both bits—the corresponding bit of the result is a 1; otherwise, it is a 0.The truth table for this operator is as shown. b1 b2 b1 ^ b2 ——————————————————————— 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 70 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions If w1 and w2, were set equal to hexadecimal 5e and d6, respectively,the result of w1 Ex- clusive-ORed with w2 would be hexadecimal e8, as illustrated: w1 0000 0000 0101 1110 0x5e w2 0000 0000 1011 0110 ^ 0xd6 ———————————————————————————————————— 0000 0000 1110 1000 0xe8 The Ones Complement Operator The ones complement operator is a unary operator, and its effect is to simply “flip” the bits of its operand. Each bit of the operand that is a 1 is changed to a 0, and each bit that is a 0 is changed to a 1.The truth table is provided here simply for the sake of completeness. b1 ~b1 ———————— 0 1 1 0 If w1 is a short int that is 16 bits long and is set equal to hexadecimal a52f, then tak- ing the ones complement of this value produces a result of hexadecimal 5ab0: w1 1010 0101 0010 1111 0xa52f ~w1 0101 1010 1101 0000 0x5ab0 The ones complement operator is useful when you don’t know the precise bit size of the quantity that you are dealing with in an operation, and its use can help make a pro- gram less dependent on the particular size of an integer data type. For example, to set the low-order bit of an int called w1 to 0, you can AND w1 with an int consisting of all 1s except for a single 0 in the rightmost bit. So a statement in C such as this one works fine on machines on which an integer is represented by 32 bits: w1 &= 0xFFFFFFFE; If you replace the preceding statement with this one, w1 will be ANDed with the cor- rect value on any machine: w1 &= ~1; This is because the ones complement of 1 will be calculated and will consist of as many leftmost 1 bits as necessary to fill the size of an int (31 leftmost bits on a 32-bit in- teger system). Now it is time to show an actual program example that illustrates the use of the vari- ous bit operators (see Program 4.7). Program 4.7 // Bitwise operators illustrated #import 71Bit Operators int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; unsigned int w1 = 0xA0A0A0A0, w2 = 0xFFFF0000, w3 = 0x00007777; NSLog (@”%x %x %x”, w1 & w2, w1 | w2, w1 ^ w2); NSLog (@”%x %x %x”, ~w1, ~w2, ~w3); NSLog (@”%x %x %x”, w1 ^ w1, w1 & ~w2, w1 | w2 | w3); NSLog (@”%x %x”, w1 | w2 & w3, w1 | w2 & ~w3); NSLog (@”%x %x”, ~(~w1 & ~w2), ~(~w1 | ~w2)); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 4.7 Output a0a00000 ffffa0a0 5f5fa0a0 5f5f5f5f ffff ffff8888 0 a0a0 fffff7f7 a0a0a0a0 ffffa0a0 ffffa0a0 a0a00000 Work out each of the operations from Program 4.7 to verify that you understand how the results were obtained. In the fourth NSLog call, it is important to note that the bitwise AND operator has higher precedence than the bitwise OR because this fact influences the resulting value of the expression. For a summary of operator precedence, see Appendix B. The fifth NSLog call illustrates DeMorgan’s rule: ~(~a & ~b) is equal to a | b, and ~(~a | ~b) is equal to a & b.The sequence of statements that follows next in the pro- gram verifies that the exchange operation works as discussed in the section on the exclu- sive-OR operator. The Left Shift Operator When a left shift operation is performed on a value, the bits contained in the value are lit- erally shifted to the left.Associated with this operation is the number of places (bits) that the value is to be shifted. Bits that are shifted out through the high-order bit of the data item are lost, and 0s are always shifted in through the low-order bit of the value. So if w1 is equal to 3, then the expression w1 = w1 << 1; which can also be expressed as w1 <<= 1; 72 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions will result in 3 being shifted one place to the left, which will result in 6 being assigned to w1: w1 ... 0000 0011 0x03 w1 << 1 ... 0000 0110 0x06 The operand on the left of the << operator is the value to be shifted, while the operand on the right is the number of bit positions the value is to be shifted by.If we were to shift w1 one more place to the left, we would end up with hexadecimal 0c: w1 ... 0000 0110 0x06 w1 << 1 ... 0000 1100 0x0c The Right Shift Operator As implied from its name, the right shift operator >> shifts the bits of a value to the right. Bits shifted out of the low-order bit of the value are lost. Right-shifting an unsigned value always results in 0s being shifted in on the left—that is, through the high-order bits.What is shifted in on the left for signed values depends on the sign of the value that is being shifted and also on how this operation is implemented on your computer system. If the sign bit is 0 (meaning the value is positive), 0s will be shifted in no matter what machine is used. However, if the sign bit is 1, on some machines 1s will be shifted in, and on others 0s will be shifted in.This former type of operation is known as an arithmetic right shift, while the latter is known as a logical right shift. Caution Never make any assumptions about whether a system implements an arithmetic or a logical right shift. A program that shifts signed values right might work correctly on one system and then fail on another due to this type of assumption. If w1 is an unsigned int, which is represented in 32 bits, and w1 is set equal to hexa- decimal F777EE22, then shifting w1 one place to the right with the statement w1 >>= 1; will set w1 equal to hexadecimal 7BBBF711, as shown: w1 1111 0111 0111 0111 1110 1110 0010 0010 0xF777EE22 w1 >> 1 0111 1011 1011 1011 1111 0111 0001 0001 0x7BBBF711 If w1 were declared to be a (signed) short int, the same result would be produced on some computers; on others, the result would be FBBBF711 if the operation were per- formed as an arithmetic right shift. It should be noted that the Objective-C language does not produce a defined result if an attempt is made to shift a value to the left or right by an amount that is greater than or equal to the number of bits in the size of the data item. So on a machine that represents 73Exercises integers in 32 bits, for example, shifting an integer to the left or right by 32 or more bits is not guaranteed to produce a defined result in your program.You should also note that if you shift a value by a negative amount, the result is similarly undefined. Types: _Bool, _Complex, and _Imaginary Before leaving this chapter, we should mention three other types in the language: _Bool, for working with Boolean (that is, 0 or 1) values, and _Complex and _Imaginary, for working with complex and imaginary numbers, respectively. Objective-C programmers tend to use the BOOL data type instead of _Bool for working with Boolean values in their programs.This “data type” is actually not a data type unto it- self, but is another name for the char data type.This is done with the language’s special typedef keyword, which is described in Chapter 10,“More onVariables and Data Types.” Exercises 1. Which of the following are invalid constants.Why? 123.456 0x10.5 0X0G1 0001 0xFFFF 123L 0Xab05 0L -597.25 123.5e2 .0001 +12 98.6F 98.7U 17777s 0996 -12E-12 07777 1234uL 1.2Fe-7 15,000 1.234L 197u 100U 0XABCDEFL 0xabcu +123 2. Write a program that converts 27° from degrees Fahrenheit (F) to degrees Celsius (C) using the following formula: C = (F - 32) / 1.8 3. What output would you expect from the following program? #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; char c, d; c = ‘d’; d = c; NSLog (@”d = %c”, d); [pool drain]; return 0; } 74 Chapter 4 Data Types and Expressions 4. Write a program to evaluate the polynomial shown here: 3x3 - 5x2 + 6 for x = 2.55 5. Write a program that evaluates the following expression and displays the results (re- member to use exponential format to display the result): (3.31 x 10-8 x + 2.01 x 10-7) / (7.16 x 10-6 + 2.01 x 10-8) 6. Complex numbers are numbers that contain two components: a real part and an imaginary part. If a is the real component and b is the imaginary component, this notation is used to represent the number: a + b i Write an Objective-C program that defines a new class called Complex. Following the paradigm established for the Fraction class, define the following methods for your new class: -(void) setReal: (double) a; -(void) setImaginary: (double) b; -(void) print; // display as a + bi -(double) real; -(double) imaginary; Write a test program to test your new class and methods. 7. Suppose you are developing a library of routines to manipulate graphical objects. Start by defining a new class called Rectangle. For now,just keep track of the rec- tangle’s width and height. Develop methods to set the rectangle’s width and height, retrieve these values, and calculate the rectangle’s area and perimeter.Assume that these rectangle objects describe rectangles on an integral grid, such as a computer screen. In that case, assume that the width and height of the rectangle are integer values. Here is the @interface section for the Rectangle class: @interface Rectangle: NSObject { int width; int height; } -(void) setWidth: (int) w; -(void) setHeight: (int) h; -(int) width; -(int) height; -(int) area; -(int) perimeter; @end Write the implementation section and a test program to test your new class and methods. 75Exercises 8. Modify the add:, subtract:, multiply:, and divide: methods from Program 4.6 to return the resulting value of the accumulator.Test the new methods. 9. After completing exercise 8, add the following methods to the Calculator class and test them: -(double) changeSign; // change sign of accumulator -(double) reciprocal; // 1/accumulator -(double) xSquared; // accumulator squared 10. Add a memory capability to the Calculator class from Program 4.6. Implement the following method declarations and test them: -(double) memoryClear; // clear memory -(double) memoryStore; // set memory to accumulator -(double) memoryRecall; // set accumulator to memory -(double) memoryAdd; // add accumulator to memory -(double) memorySubtract; // subtract accumulator from memory Have each method return the value of the accumulator. Figure 5.1 Triangle arrangement example 5 Program Looping In Objective-C, you can repeatedly execute a sequence of code in several ways.These looping capabilities are the subject of this chapter, and they consist of the following: n The for statement n The while statement n The do statement We start with a simple example: counting numbers. If you were to arrange 15 marbles into the shape of a triangle, you would end up with an arrangement that might look something like Figure 5.1. The first row of the triangle contains one marble, the second row contains two mar- bles, and so on. In general, the number of marbles required to form a triangle containing n rows would be the sum of the integers from 1 through n.This sum is known as a triangular number. If you started at 1, the fourth triangular number would be the sum of the consecutive integers 1–4 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4), or 10. Suppose you wanted to write a program that calculated and displayed the value of the eighth triangular number at the terminal. Obviously,you could easily calculate this num- ber in your head, but for the sake of argument, let’s assume you wanted to write a pro- gram in Objective-C to perform this task. Program 5.1 illustrates such a program. 78 Chapter 5 Program Looping Program 5.1 #import // Program to calculate the eighth triangular number int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int triangularNumber; triangularNumber = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8; NSLog (@”The eighth triangular number is %i”, triangularNumber); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.1 Output The eighth triangular number is 36 The technique of Program 5.1 works fine for calculating relatively small triangular numbers, but what would happen if you needed to find the value of the 200th triangular number, for example? It certainly would be tedious to have to modify Program 5.1 to ex- plicitly add up all the integers from 1 to 200. Luckily,there is an easier way. One of the fundamental properties of a computer is its capability to repetitively exe- cute a set of statements.These looping capabilities enable programmers to develop concise programs containing repetitive processes that could otherwise require thousands or even millions of program statements to perform.The Objective-C language contains three pro- gram statements for program looping. The for Statement Let’s take a look at a program that uses the for statement.The purpose of Program 5.2 is to calculate the 200th triangular number. See whether you can determine how the for statement works. Program 5.2 // Program to calculate the 200th triangular number // Introduction of the for statement #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) 79The for Statement { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int n, triangularNumber; triangularNumber = 0; for ( n = 1; n <= 200; n = n + 1 ) triangularNumber += n; NSLog (@”The 200th triangular number is %i”, triangularNumber); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.2 Output The 200th triangular number is 20100 Some explanation is needed for Program 5.2.The method employed to calculate the 200th triangular number is really the same as that used to calculate the 8th triangular number in the previous program:The integers from 1 to 200 are summed. The variable triangularNumber is set equal to 0 before the for statement is reached. In general, you need to initialize all variables to some value (just like your objects) before you use them in your program.As you’ll learn later, certain types of variables are given default initial values, but it’s safer not to rely on those and you should set them anyway. The for statement enables you to avoid having to explicitly write each integer from 1 to 200. In a sense, this statement generates these numbers for you. The general format of the for statement is as follows: for ( init_expression; loop_condition; loop_expression ) program statement The three expressions enclosed within the parentheses—init_expression, loop_condition, and loop_expression—set up the environment for the program loop. The program statement that immediately follows (which is, of course, terminated by a semi- colon) can be any valid Objective-C program statement and constitutes the body of the loop.This statement is executed as many times as specified by the parameters set up in the for statement. The first component of the for statement, labeled init_expression, is used to set the initial values before the loop begins. In Program 5.2, this portion of the for statement is used to set the initial value of n to 1.As you can see, an assignment is a valid form of an expression. The second component of the for statement specifies the condition(s) necessary for the loop to continue. In other words, looping continues as long as this condition is satis- fied.Again referring to Program 5.2, the loop_condition of the for is specified by the following relational expression: n <= 200 80 Chapter 5 Program Looping Table 5.1 Relational Operators Operator Meaning Example == Equal to count == 10 != Not equal to flag != DONE < Less than a < b <= Less than or equal to low <= high > Greater than points > POINT_MAX >= Greater than or equal to j >= 0 This expression can be read as “n less than or equal to 200.”The “less than or equal to” operator (which is the less than character [<] followed immediately by the equals sign [=]) is only one of several relational operators provided in the Objective-C programming language.These operators are used to test specific conditions.The answer to the test is yes (or TRUE) if the condition is satisfied and no (or FALSE) if the condition is not satisfied. Table 5.1 lists all the relational operators available in Objective-C. The relational operators have lower precedence than all arithmetic operators.This means, for example, that an expression such as a < b + c is evaluated as a < (b + c) This is as you would expect. It would be TRUE if the value of a were less than the value of b + c, and FALSE otherwise. Pay particular attention to the “is equal to” operator (==) and do not confuse its use with the assignment operator (=).The expression a == 2 tests whether the value of a is equal to 2, whereas the expression a = 2 assigns the number 2 to the variable a. The choice of which relational operator to use depends on the particular test being made and, in some instances, on your particular preferences. For example, the relational expression n <= 200 can be equivalently expressed as n < 201 81The for Statement Returning to the previous example, the program statement that forms the body of the for loop—triangularNumber += n;—is repetitively executed as long as the result of the relational test is TRUE, or, in this case, as long as the value of n is less than or equal to 200. This program statement has the effect of adding the value of n to the value of triangularNumber. When the loop_condition is no longer satisfied, execution of the program continues with the program statement immediately following the for loop. In this program, execu- tion continues with the NSLog statement after the loop has terminated. The final component of the for statement contains an expression that is evaluated each time after the body of the loop is executed. In Program 5.2, this loop_expression adds 1 to the value of n.Therefore, the value of n is incremented by 1 each time after its value has been added into the value of triangularNumber, and it ranges in value from 1 through 201. It is worth noting that the last value that n attains, 201, is not added into the value of triangularNumber because the loop is terminated as soon as the looping condition is no longer satisfied, or as soon as n equals 201. In summary,execution of the for statement proceeds as follows: 1. The initial expression is evaluated first.This expression usually sets a variable that is used inside the loop, generally referred to as an index variable, to some initial value (such as 0 or 1). 2. The looping condition is evaluated. If the condition is not satisfied (the expression is FALSE), the loop immediately terminates. Execution continues with the program statement that immediately follows the loop. 3. The program statement that constitutes the body of the loop is executed. 4. The looping expression is evaluated.This expression is generally used to change the value of the index variable, frequently by adding 1 to it or subtracting 1 from it. 5. Return to step 2. Remember that the looping condition is evaluated immediately on entry into the loop, before the body of the loop has executed one time.Also remember not to put a semicolon after the closed parenthesis at the end of the loop because this immediately ends the loop. Program 5.2 actually generates all the first 200 triangular numbers on its way to its fi- nal goal, so it might be nice to generate a table of these numbers.To save space, however, let’s assume that you want to print a table of just the first 10 triangular numbers. Program 5.3 performs this task. Program 5.3 // Program to generate a table of triangular numbers #import 82 Chapter 5 Program Looping int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int n, triangularNumber; NSLog (@”TABLE OF TRIANGULAR NUMBERS””); NSLog (@” n Sum from 1 to n”); NSLog (@”-- --------””); triangularNumber = 0; for ( n = 1; n <= 10; ++n ) { triangularNumber += n; NSLog (@” %i %i”, n, triangularNumber); } [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.3 Output TABLE OF TRIANGULAR NUMBERS n Sum from 1 to n -- ------------------ 1 1 2 3 3 6 4 10 5 15 6 21 7 28 8 36 9 45 10 55 In Program 5.3, the purpose of the first three NSLog statements is simply to provide a general heading and to label the columns of the output. After the appropriate headings have been displayed, the program calculates the first 10 triangular numbers.The variable n is used to count the current number whose sum from 1 to n you are computing, and the variable triangularNumber is used to store the value of triangular number n. Execution of the for statement commences by setting the value of the variable n to 1. As mentioned earlier, the program statement immediately following the for statement constitutes the body of the program loop. But what happens if you want to repetitively 83The for Statement execute not just a single program statement, but a group of program statements? This can be accomplished by enclosing all such program statements within a pair of braces.The system then treats this group, or block, of statements as a single entity.In general, any place in a Objective-C program that a single statement is permitted, a block of statements can be used, provided that you remember to enclose the block within a pair of braces. Therefore, in Program 5.3, both the expression that adds n into the value of triangularNumber and the NSLog statement that immediately follows constitute the body of the program loop. Pay particular attention to the way the program statements are indented.At a quick glance, you can easily determine which statements form part of the for loop.You should also note that programmers use different coding styles; some prefer to type the loop this way: for ( n = 1; n <= 10; ++n ) { triangularNumber += n; NSLog (@” %i %i”, n, triangularNumber); } Here, the opening brace is placed on the line following the for.This is strictly a mat- ter of taste and has no effect on the program. The next triangular number is calculated by simply adding the value of n to the previ- ous triangular number.The first time through the for loop, the previous triangular num- ber is 0, so the new value of triangularNumber when n is equal to 1 is simply the value of n, or 1.The values of n and triangularNumber are then displayed, with an appropriate number of blank spaces inserted into the format string to ensure that the values of the two variables line up under the appropriate column headings. Because the body of the loop has now been executed, the looping expression is evalu- ated next.The expression in this for statement appears a bit strange, however. Surely you must have made a typographical mistake and meant to insert n = n + 1 instead of this funny-looking expression: ++n But ++n is actually a perfectly valid Objective-C expression. It introduces a new (and rather unique) operator in the Objective-C programming language: the increment operator. The function of the double plus sign, or the increment operator, is to add 1 to its operand.Addition by 1 is such a common operation in programs that a special operator was created solely for this purpose.Therefore, the expression ++n is equivalent to the ex- pression n = n + 1.At first glance, it might appear that n = n + 1 is more readable, but you will soon get used to the function of this operator and even learn to appreciate its succinctness. Of course, no programming language that offers an increment operator to add 1 would be complete without a corresponding operator to subtract 1.As you would guess, the name of this operator is the decrement operator, and it is symbolized by the double mi- nus sign. So an expression in Objective-C that reads bean_counter = bean_counter – 1 84 Chapter 5 Program Looping can be equivalently expressed using the decrement operator, like so: --bean_counter Some programmers prefer to put the ++ or -- after the variable name, as in n++ or bean_counter--.This is acceptable and is a matter of personal preference. You might have noticed that the last line of output from Program 5.3 doesn’t line up. You can correct this minor annoyance by substituting the following NSLog statement in place of the corresponding statement from Program 5.3: NSLog (“%2i %i”, n, triangularNumber); To verify that this change solves the problem, here’s the output from the modified pro- gram (called Program 5.3A). Program 5.3A Output TABLE OF TRIANGULAR NUMBERS n Sum from 1 to n —- ————————————————— 1 1 2 3 3 6 4 10 5 15 6 21 7 28 8 36 9 45 10 55 The primary change made to the NSLog statement is the inclusion of a field width specification.The characters %2i tell the NSLog routine not only that you want to display the value of an integer at that particular point, but also that the size of the integer to be displayed should take up at least two columns in the display. Any integer that would nor- mally take up less than two columns (that is, the integers 0–9) will be displayed with a leading space.This is known as right justification. Thus, by using a field width specification of %2i, you guarantee that at least two columns will be used for displaying the value of n; you also ensure that the values of triangularNumber will be aligned. Keyboard Input Program 5.2 calculates the 200th triangular number, and nothing more.What if you wanted to calculate the 50th or the 100th triangular number instead? Well,if that were the case, you would have to change the program so that the for loop would be executed 85The for Statement the correct number of times.You would also have to change the NSLog statement to dis- play the correct message. An easier solution might be to somehow have the program ask you which triangular number you want to calculate.Then, after you had given your answer, the program could calculate the desired triangular number.You can effect such a solution by using a routine called scanf.The scanf routine is similar in concept to the NSLog routine.Whereas the NSLog routine is used to display values, the purpose of the scanf routine is to enable the programmer to type values into the program. Of course, if you’re writing an Objective-C program that uses a graphical User Interface (UI), such as a Cocoa or iPhone application, you likely won’t be using NSLog or scanf at all in your program. Program 5.4 asks the user which triangular number should be calculated, calculates that number, and then displays the results. Program 5.4 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int n, number, triangularNumber; NSLog (@”What triangular number do you want?”); scanf (“%i”, &number); triangularNumber = 0; for ( n = 1; n <= number; ++n ) triangularNumber += n; NSLog (@”Triangular number %i is %i\n”, number, triangularNumber); [pool drain]; return 0; } In the program output that follows, the number typed in by the user (100) is set in bold type, to distinguish it from the output displayed by the program. Program 5.4 Output What triangular number do you want? 100 Triangular number 100 is 5050 According to the output, the user typed the number 100.The program then calculated the 100th triangular number and displayed the result of 5050 at the terminal.The user 86 Chapter 5 Program Looping could have just as easily typed in the number 10 or 30, for example, if he or she wanted to calculate those particular triangular numbers. The first NSLog statement in Program 5.4 is used to prompt the user to type in a num- ber. Of course, it is always nice to remind the user of what you want entered.After the message is printed, the scanf routine is called.The first argument to scanf is the format string, which does not begin with the @ character. Unlike NSLog, whose first argument is always an NSString object, the first argument to scanf is a C-style string.As noted earlier in this text, C-style character strings are not preceded by the @ character. The format string tells scanf what types of values are to be read in from the console (or terminal window,if you’re compiling your programs using the Terminal application). As with NSLog, the %i characters are used to specify an integer value. The second argument to the scanf routine specifies where the value that the user types in is to be stored.The & character before the variable number is necessary in this case. Don’t worry about its function here, though.We discuss this character, which is actu- ally an operator, in great detail when we talk about pointers in Chapter 13,“Underlying C Language Features.” Given the preceding discussion, you can now see that the scanf call from Program 5.4 specifies that an integer value is to be read and stored into the variable number.This value represents the particular triangular number the user wants to have calculated. After the user has typed in this number (and pressed the Enter key on the keyboard to signal that typing of the number is completed), the program calculates the requested tri- angular number.This is done in the same way as in Program 5.2; the only difference is that, instead of using 200 as the limit, number is used as the limit. After the desired triangular number has been calculated, the results are displayed. Exe- cution of the program is then complete. Nested for Loops Program 5.4 gives the user the flexibility to have the program calculate any triangular number that is desired. But suppose the user had a list of five triangular numbers to be calculated? In such a case, the user could simply execute the program five times, each time typing in the next triangular number from the list to be calculated. Another way to accomplish the same goal, and a far more interesting method, as far as learning about Objective-C is concerned, is to have the program handle the situation. This can best be accomplished by inserting a loop into the program to repeat the entire series of calculations five times.You can use the for statement to set up such a loop. Program 5.5 and its associated output illustrate this technique. Program 5.5 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 87The for Statement int n, number, triangularNumber, counter; for ( counter = 1; counter <= 5; ++counter ) { NSLog (@”What triangular number do you want?”); scanf (“%i”, &number); triangularNumber = 0; for ( n = 1; n <= number; ++n ) triangularNumber += n; NSLog (@”Triangular number %i is %i”, number, triangularNumber); } [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.5 Output What triangular number do you want? 12 Triangular number 12 is 78 What triangular number do you want? 25 Triangular number 25 is 325 What triangular number do you want? 50 Triangular number 50 is 1275 What triangular number do you want? 75 Triangular number 75 is 2850 What triangular number do you want? 83 Triangular number 83 is 3486 The program consists of two levels of for statements.The outermost for statement is as follows: for ( counter = 1; counter <= 5; ++counter ) 88 Chapter 5 Program Looping This specifies that the program loop is to be executed precisely five times.The value of counter is initially set to 1 and is incremented by 1 until it is no longer less than or equal to 5 (in other words, until it reaches 6). Unlike the previous program examples, the variable counter is not used anywhere else within the program. Its function is solely as a loop counter in the for statement. Never- theless, because it is a variable, you must declare it in the program. The program loop actually consists of all the remaining program statements, as indi- cated by the braces.You might be able to more easily comprehend the way this program operates if you conceptualize it as follows: For 5 times { Get the number from the user. Calculate the requested triangular number. Display the results. } The portion of the loop referred to in the preceding as Calculate the requested triangular number actually consists of setting the value of the variable triangularNumber to 0 plus the for loop that calculates the triangular number.Thus, a for statement is actually contained within another for statement.This is perfectly valid in Objective-C, and nesting can con- tinue even further to any desired level. The proper use of indentation becomes even more critical when dealing with more sophisticated program constructs, such as nested for statements.At a quick glance, you can easily determine which statements are contained within each for statement. for Loop Variants Before leaving this discussion of the for loop, we should mention some of the syntactic variations that are permitted in forming this loop.When writing a for loop, you might discover that you want to initialize more than one variable before the loop begins, or per- haps you want to evaluate more than one expression each time through the loop.You can include multiple expressions in any of the fields of the for loop, as long as you separate such expressions by commas. For example, in the for statement that begins for ( i = 0, j = 0; i < 10; ++i ) ... the value of i is set to 0 and the value of j is set to 0 before the loop begins.The two expressions i=0and j=0are separated from each other by a comma, and both expres- sions are considered part of the init_expression field of the loop.As another example, the for loop that starts for ( i = 0, j = 100; i < 10; ++i, j -= 10 ) ... 89The while Statement sets up two index variables: i and j, which initialize to 0 and 100, respectively,before the loop begins. Each time after the body of the loop is executed, the value of i is incre- mented by 1 and the value of j is decremented by 10. Just as you might need to include more than one expression in a particular field of the for statement, you also might need to omit one or more fields from the statement.You can do this simply by omitting the desired field and marking its place with a semicolon. The most common application for the omission of a field in the for statement occurs when no initial expression needs to be evaluated.You can simply leave the init_expression field blank in such a case, as long as you still include the semicolon: for ( ; j != 100; ++j ) ... This statement might be used if j were already set to some initial value before the loop was entered. A for loop that has its looping_condition field omitted effectively sets up an infinite loop—that is, a loop that theoretically will be executed forever. Such a loop can be used as long as some other means is used to exit from the loop (such as executing a return, break, or goto statement, as discussed later in this book). You can also define variables as part of your initial expression inside a for loop.This is done using the typical ways we’ve defined variables in the past. For example, the follow- ing can be used to set up a for loop with an integer variable counter both defined and initialized to the value 1, like so: for ( int counter = 1; counter <= 5; ++counter ) The variable counter is known only throughout the execution of the for loop (it’s called a local variable) and cannot be accessed outside the loop.As another example, the following for loop defines two integer variables and sets their values accordingly: for ( int n = 1, triangularNumber = 0; n <= 200; ++n ) triangularNumber += n; A final for loop variant, for performing what’s known as fast enumerations on collec- tions of objects is described in detail in Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections.” The while Statement The while statement further extends the Objective-C language’s repertoire of looping capabilities.The syntax of this frequently used construct is as follows: while ( expression ) program statement The expression specified inside the parentheses is evaluated. If the result of the expression evaluation is TRUE, the program statement that immediately follows is exe- cuted.After execution of this statement (or statements, if enclosed in braces), expression 90 Chapter 5 Program Looping is again evaluated. If the result of the evaluation is TRUE, the program statement is again executed.This process continues until expression finally evaluates FALSE, at which point the loop is terminated. Execution of the program then continues with the statement that follows program statement. As an example of its use, the following program sets up a while loop, which merely counts from 1 to 5. Program 5.6 // This program introduces the while statement #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int count = 1; while ( count <= 5 ) { NSLog (@”%i”, count); ++count; } [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.6 Output 1 2 3 4 5 The program initially sets the value of count to 1; execution of the while loop then begins. Because the value of count is less than or equal to 5, the statement that immedi- ately follows is executed.The braces define both the NSLog statement and the statement that increments count as the body of the while loop. From the output of the program, you can see that this loop is executed five times or until the value of count reaches 5. You might have realized from this program that you could have readily accomplished the same task by using a for statement. In fact, a for statement can always be translated into an equivalent while statement, and vice versa. For example, the general for statement 91The while Statement for ( init_expression; loop_condition; loop_expression ) program statement can be equivalently expressed in the form of a while statement, like so: init_expression; while ( loop_condition ) { program statement loop_expression; } When you become familiar with the use of the while statement, you will gain a bet- ter feel for when it seems more logical to use a while statement and when you should use a for statement. In general, a loop executed a predetermined number of times is a prime candidate for implementation as a for statement.Also, if the initial expression, looping expression, and looping condition all involve the same variable, the for statement is probably the right choice. The next program provides another example of the use of the while statement.The program computes the greatest common divisor of two integer values.The greatest com- mon divisor (we abbreviate it hereafter as gcd) of two integers is the largest integer value that evenly divides the two integers. For example, the gcd of 10 and 15 is 5 because 5 is the largest integer that evenly divides both 10 and 15. A procedure, or algorithm, that can be followed to arrive at the gcd of two arbitrary integers is based on a procedure originally developed by Euclid around 300 B.C. It can be stated as follows: Problem: Find the greatest common divisor of two nonnegative integers u and v. Step 1: If v equals 0, then we are done and the gcd is equal to u. Step 2: Calculate temp = u % v, u = v, v = temp and go back to step 1. Don’t concern yourself with the details of how the previous algorithm works—simply take it on faith.We are more concerned here with developing a program to find the greatest common divisor than in performing an analysis of how the algorithm works. After expressing the solution to the problem of finding the greatest common divisor in terms of an algorithm, developing the computer program becomes a much simpler task. An analysis of the steps of the algorithm reveals that step 2 is repetitively executed as long as the value of v is not equal to 0.This realization leads to the natural implementation of this algorithm in Objective-C with the use of a while statement. Program 5.7 finds the gcd of two nonnegative integer values typed in by the user. Program 5.7 // This program finds the greatest common divisor // of two nonnegative integer values #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) 92 Chapter 5 Program Looping { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; unsigned int u, v, temp; NSLog (@”Please type in two nonnegative integers.”); scanf (“%u%u”, &u, &v); while ( v != 0 ) { temp = u % v; u = v; v = temp; } NSLog (@”Their greatest common divisor is %u”, u); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.7 Output Please type in two nonnegative integers. 150 35 Their greatest common divisor is 5 Program 5.7 Output (Rerun) Please type in two nonnegative integers. 1026 540 Their greatest common divisor is 54 After the two integer values have been entered and stored in the variables u and v (us- ing the %u format characters to read in an unsigned integer value), the program enters a while loop to calculate their greatest common divisor.After the while loop is exited, the value of u, which represents the gcd of v and of the original value of u, is displayed with an appropriate message. You will use the algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor again in Chapter 7,“More on Classes,”when you return to working with fractions. For the next program that illustrates the use of the while statement, let’s consider the task of reversing the digits of an integer that is entered from the terminal. For example, if the user types in the number 1234, the program should reverse the digits of this number and display the result of 4321. Note Using NSLog calls will cause each digit to appear on a separate line of the output. C pro- grammers who are familiar with the printf function can use that routine instead to get the digits to appear consecutively. 93The while Statement To write such a program, you first must come up with an algorithm that accomplishes the stated task. Frequently,analyzing your own method for solving the problem leads to an algorithm. For the task of reversing the digits of a number, the solution can be simply stated as “successively read the digits of the number from right to left.” You can have a computer program successively read the digits of the number by developing a procedure to successively isolate or extract each digit of the number, beginning with the rightmost digit.The extracted digit can be subsequently displayed at the terminal as the next digit of the reversed number. You can extract the rightmost digit from an integer number by taking the remainder of the integer after it is divided by 10. For example, 1234 % 10 gives the value 4, which is the rightmost digit of 1234 and is also the first digit of the reversed number. (Remember that the modulus operator gives the remainder of one integer divided by another.) You can get the next digit of the number by using the same process if you first divide the number by 10, bearing in mind the way integer division works.Thus, 1234 % 10 gives a result of 123, and 123 % 10 gives you 3, which is the next digit of the reversed number. You can continue this procedure until you’ve extracted the last digit. In the general case, you know that the last digit of the number has been extracted when the result of the last integer division by 10 is 0. Program 5.8 prompts the user to enter a number and then proceeds to display the dig- its from that number from the rightmost to leftmost digit. Program 5.8 // Program to reverse the digits of a number #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number, right_digit; NSLog (@”Enter your number.”); scanf (“%i”, &number); while ( number != 0 ) { right_digit = number % 10; NSLog (@”%i”, right_digit); number /= 10; } [pool drain]; return 0; } 94 Chapter 5 Program Looping Program 5.8 Output Enter your number. 13579 9 7 5 3 1 The do Statement The two looping constructs discussed thus far in this chapter both test the conditions be- fore the loop is executed.Therefore, the body of the loop might never be executed if the conditions are not satisfied.When developing programs, you sometimes want to have the test made at the end of the loop instead of at the beginning. Naturally,the Objective-C language provides a special language construct to handle such a situation, known as the do statement.The syntax of this statement is as follows: do program statement while ( expression ); Execution of the do statement proceeds as follows: program statement is executed first. Next, the expression inside the parentheses is evaluated. If the result of evaluating expression is TRUE, the loop continues and program statement is again executed.As long as the evaluation of expression continues to be TRUE, program statement is re- peatedly executed.When the evaluation of the expression proves FALSE, the loop is termi- nated and the next statement in the program is executed in the normal sequential manner. The do statement is simply a transposition of the while statement, with the looping conditions placed at the end of the loop instead of at the beginning. Program 5.8 used a while statement to reverse the digits of a number. Go back to that program and try to determine what would happen if the user had typed in the number 0 instead of 13579.The loop of the while statement would never have been executed, and nothing would have been displayed for output. If you were to use a do statement instead of a while statement, you would be assured that the program loop would be executed at least once, thus guaranteeing the display of at least one digit in all cases. Program 5.9 illus- trates the use of the do statement. // Program to reverse the digits of a number #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number, right_digit; 95The break Statement NSLog (@”Enter your number.”); scanf (“%i”, &number); do { right_digit = number % 10; NSLog (@”%i”, right_digit); number /= 10; } while ( number != 0 ); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 5.9 Output Enter your number. 135 5 3 1 Program 5.9 Output (Rerun) Enter your number. 0 0 As you can see from the program’s output, when 0 is keyed into the program, the pro- gram correctly displays the digit 0. The break Statement Sometimes when executing a loop, you’ll want to leave the loop as soon as a certain con- dition occurs—for instance, maybe you detect an error condition or reach the end of your data prematurely.You can use the break statement for this purpose. Execution of the break statement causes the program to immediately exit from the loop it is executing, whether it’s a for, while, or do loop. Subsequent statements in the loop are skipped and execution of the loop is terminated. Execution continues with whatever statement fol- lows the loop. If a break is executed from within a set of nested loops, only the innermost loop in which the break is executed is terminated. 96 Chapter 5 Program Looping The format of the break statement is simply the keyword break followed by a semi- colon, like so: break; The continue Statement The continue statement is similar to the break statement, except that it doesn’t cause the loop to terminate.At the point that the continue statement is executed, any statements that appear after the continue statement up to the end of the loop are skipped. Execu- tion of the loop otherwise continues as normal. The continue statement is most often used to bypass a group of statements inside a loop based on some condition, but then to otherwise continue executing the loop.The format of the continue statement is as follows: continue; Don’t use the break or continue statements until you become very familiar with writing program loops and gracefully exiting from them.These statements are too easy to abuse and can result in programs that are hard to follow. Summary Now that you are familiar with all the basic looping constructs the Objective-C language provides, you’re ready to learn about another class of language statements that enables you to make decisions during the execution of a program.The next chapter describes these decision-making capabilities in detail. Exercises 1. Write a program to generate and display a table of n and n2, for integer values of n ranging from 1 through 10. Be sure to print the appropriate column headings. 2. A triangular number can also be generated for any integer value of n by this formula: triangularNumber = n (n + 1) / 2 For example, the 10th triangular number, 55, can be calculated by substituting 10 as the value for n into the previous formula.Write a program that generates a table of triangular numbers using the previous formula. Have the program generate every fifth triangular number between 5 and 50 (that is, 5, 10, 15, ..., 50). 3. The factorial of an integer n, written n!, is the product of the consecutive integers 1 through n. For example, 5 factorial is calculated as follows: 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 Write a program to generate and print a table of the first 10 factorials. 97Exercises 4. A minus sign placed in front of a field width specification causes the field to be dis- played left-justified. Substitute the following NSLog statement for the correspon- ding statement in Program 5.2, run the program, and compare the outputs produced by both programs: NSLog (@”%-2i %i”, n, triangularNumber); 5. Program 5.5 allows the user to type in only five different numbers. Modify that program so that the user can type in the number of triangular numbers to be calcu- lated. 6. Rewrite Programs 5.2 through 5.5, replacing all uses of the for statement with equivalent while statements. Run each program to verify that both versions are identical. 7. What would happen if you typed a negative number into Program 5.8? Try it and see. 8. Write a program that calculates the sum of the digits of an integer. For example, the sum of the digits of the number 2155 is 2 + 1 + 5 + 5, or 13. The program should accept any arbitrary integer the user types. 6 Making Decisions A fundamental feature of any programming language is its capability to make decisions. Decisions were made when executing the looping statements to determine when to ter- minate a loop.The Objective-C programming language also provides several other deci- sion-making constructs, which are covered in this chapter: n The if statement n The switch statement n The conditional operator The if Statement The Objective-C programming language provides a general decision-making capability in the form of a language construct known as the if statement.The general format of this statement is shown here: if ( expression ) program statement Imagine that you could translate a statement such as “If it is not raining, then I will go swimming” into the Objective-C language. Using the previous format for the if state- ment, this might be “written” in Objective-C as follows: if ( it is not raining ) I will go swimming The if statement is used to stipulate execution of a program statement (or statements, if enclosed in braces) based on specified conditions. I will go swimming if it is not rain- ing. Similarly,in the program statement if ( count > MAXIMUM_SONGS ) [playlist maxExceeded]; the maxExceeded message is sent to playlist only if the value of count is greater than the value of MAXIMUM_SONGS; otherwise, it is ignored. 100 Chapter 6: Making Decisions An actual program example will help drive the point home. Suppose you want to write a program that accepts an integer entered from the keyboard and then displays the absolute value of that integer.A straightforward way to calculate the absolute value of an integer is to simply negate the number if it is less than zero.The phrase “if it is less than zero” in the previous sentence signals that the program must make a decision.This deci- sion can be affected by the use of an if statement, as shown in the program that follows. Program 6.1 // Calculate the absolute value of an integer #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number; NSLog (@”Type in your number: “); scanf (“%i”, &number); if ( number < 0 ) number = -number; NSLog (@”The absolute value is %i”, number); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.1 Output Type in your number: -100 The absolute value is 100 Program 6.1 Output (Rerun) Type in your number: 2000 The absolute value is 2000 The program was run twice to verify that it is functioning properly. Of course, it might be desirable to run the program several more times to get a higher level of confi- 101The if Statement dence so that you know it is indeed working correctly, but at least you know that you have checked both possible outcomes of the program’s decision. After a message is displayed to the user and the integer value that is entered is stored in number, the program tests the value of number to see whether it is less than zero. If it is, the following program statement, which negates the value of number, is executed. If the value of number is not less than zero, this program statement is automatically skipped. (If it is already positive, you don’t want to negate it.) The absolute value of number is then dis- played by the program, and program execution ends. Let’s look at another program that uses the if statement.We’ll add one more method to the Fraction class, called convertToNum.This method will provide the value of a frac- tion expressed as a real number. In other words, it will divide the numerator by the de- nominator and return the result as a double precision value. So if you have the fraction 1/2, you want the method to return the value 0.5. The declaration for such a method might look like this: -(double) convertToNum; This is how you could write its definition: -(double) convertToNum { return numerator / denominator; } Well,not quite.As it’s defined,this method actually has two serious problems. Can you spot them? The first has to do with arithmetic conversions. Recall that numerator and denominator are both integer instance variables. So what happens when you divide two inte- gers? Correct, it is done as an integer division! If you wanted to convert the fraction 1/2, the previous code would give you zero! This is easily corrected by using the type cast operator to convert one or both of the operands to a floating-point value before the division takes place: (double) numerator / denominator Recalling the relatively high precedence of this operator, the value of numerator is first converted to double before the division occurs. Furthermore, you don’t need to con- vert the denominator because the rules of arithmetic conversion take care of that for you. The second problem with this method is that you should check for division by zero (you should always check for that!).The invoker of this method could inadvertently have forgotten to set the denominator of the fraction or might have set the denominator of the fraction to zero, and you don’t want your program to terminate abnormally. The modified version of the convertToNum method appears here: -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 0.0; } 102 Chapter 6: Making Decisions We arbitrarily decided to return 0.0 if the denominator of the fraction is zero. Other options are available (such as printing an error message, throwing an exception, and so on), but we won’t go into them here. Let’s put this new method to use in Program 6.2. Program 6.2 #import @interface Fraction: NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; -(int) numerator; -(int) denominator; -(double) convertToNum; @end @implementation Fraction -(void) print { NSLog (@” %i/%i “, numerator, denominator); } -(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } -(void) setDenominator: (int) d { denominator = d; } -(int) numerator { return numerator; } -(int) denominator { 103The if Statement return denominator; } -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 0.0; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *bFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [aFraction setNumerator: 1]; // 1st fraction is 1/4 [aFraction setDenominator: 4]; [aFraction print]; NSLog (@” =”); NSLog (@”%g”, [aFraction convertToNum]); [bFraction print]; // never assigned a value NSLog (@” =”); NSLog (@”%g”, [bFraction convertToNum]); [aFraction release]; [bFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.2 Output 1/4 = 0.25 0/0 = 0 104 Chapter 6: Making Decisions After setting aFraction to 1/4, the program uses the convertToNum method to con- vert the fraction to a decimal value.This value is then displayed as 0.25. In the second case, the value of bFraction is not explicitly set, so its numerator and denominator are initialized to zero, which is the default for instance variables.This ex- plains the result from the print method. It also causes the if statement inside the convertToNum method to return the value 0, as verified from the output. The if-else Construct If someone asks you whether a particular number is even or odd, you will most likely make the determination by examining the last digit of the number. If this digit is 0, 2, 4, 6,or8, you will readily state that the number is even. Otherwise, you will claim that the number is odd. An easier way for a computer to determine whether a particular number is even or odd is effected not by examining the last digit of the number to see whether it is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8, but by simply determining whether the number is evenly divisible by 2. If it is, the number is even; otherwise, it is odd. You have already seen how the modulus operator % is used to compute the remainder of one integer divided by another.This makes it the perfect operator to use in determin- ing whether an integer is evenly divisible by 2. If the remainder after division by 2 is 0,it is even; otherwise, it is odd. Now let’s write a program that determines whether an integer value that the user types in is even or odd and then displays an appropriate message at the terminal—see Program 6.3. Program 6.3 // Program to determine if a number is even or odd #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number_to_test, remainder; NSLog (@”Enter your number to be tested: “); scanf (“%i”, &number_to_test); remainder = number_to_test % 2; if ( remainder == 0 ) NSLog (@”The number is even.”); 105The if Statement if ( remainder != 0 ) NSLog (@”The number is odd.”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.3 Output Enter your number to be tested: 2455 The number is odd. Program 6.3 Output (Rerun) Enter your number to be tested: 1210 The number is even. After the number is typed in, the remainder after division by 2 is calculated.The first if statement tests the value of this remainder to see whether it is equal to zero. If it is, the message “The number is even” displays. The second if statement tests the remainder to see if it’s not equal to zero and, if that’s the case, displays a message stating that the number is odd. Whenever the first if statement succeeds, the second one must fail, and vice versa. If you recall from our discussions of even/odd numbers at the beginning of this section, we said that if the number is evenly divisible by 2, it is even; otherwise, it is odd. When writing programs, this “else” concept is so frequently required that almost all modern programming languages provide a special construct to handle this situation. In Objective-C, this is known as the if-else construct, and the general format is as follows: if ( expression ) program statement 1 else program statement 2 The if-else is actually just an extension of the general format of the if statement. If the result of the expression’s evaluation is TRUE, then program statement 1, which imme- diately follows, is executed; otherwise, program statement 2 is executed. In either case, either program statement 1 or program statement 2 will be executed, but not both. You can incorporate the if-else statement into the previous program, replacing the two if statements by a single if-else statement.You will see how this new program construct actually helps reduce the program’s complexity somewhat and also improves its readability. 106 Chapter 6: Making Decisions Program 6.4 // Determine if a number is even or odd (Ver. 2) #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number_to_test, remainder; NSLog (@”Enter your number to be tested:”); scanf (“%i”, &number_to_test); remainder = number_to_test % 2; if ( remainder == 0 ) NSLog (@”The number is even.”); else NSLog (@”The number is odd.”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.4 Output Enter your number to be tested: 1234 The number is even. Program 6.4 Output (Rerun) Enter your number to be tested: 6551 The number is odd. Don’t forget that the double equals sign (==) is the equality test, and the single equals sign is the assignment operator. Forgetting this and inadvertently using the assignment operator inside the if statement can lead to a lot of headaches. Compound Relational Tests The if statements you’ve used so far in this chapter set up simple relational tests between two numbers. Program 6.1 compared the value of number against zero, whereas Program 6.2 compared the denominator of the fraction to zero. Sometimes it becomes desirable, if not necessary,to set up more sophisticated tests. Suppose, for example, that you want to count the number of grades from an exam that were between 70 and 79, inclusive. In 107The if Statement such a case, you would want to compare the value of a grade not merely against one limit, but against the two limits 70 and 79 to ensure that it fell within the specified range. The Objective-C language provides the mechanisms necessary to perform these types of compound relational tests.A compound relational test is simply one or more simple rela- tional tests joined by either the logical AND or the logical OR operator.These operators are represented by the character pairs && and || (two vertical bar characters), respectively.As an example, the following Objective-C statement increments the value of grades_70_to_79 only if the value of grade is greater than or equal to 70 and less than or equal to 79: if ( grade >= 70 && grade <= 79 ) ++grades_70_to_79; In a similar manner, the following statement causes execution of the NSLog statement if index is less than 0 or greater than 99: if ( index < 0 || index > 99 ) NSLog (@”Error - index out of range”); The compound operators can be used to form extremely complex expressions in Ob- jective-C.The Objective-C language grants the programmer the ultimate flexibility in forming expressions, but this flexibility is a capability that programmers often abuse. Sim- pler expressions are almost always easier to read and debug. When forming compound relational expressions, liberally use parentheses to aid read- ability of the expression and avoid getting into trouble because of a mistaken assumption about the precedence of the operators in the or expression. (The && operator has lower precedence than any arithmetic or relational operator but higher precedence than the || operator.) Blank spaces also can aid in the expression’s readability.An extra blank space around the && and || operators visually sets these operators apart from the expressions they are joining. To illustrate the use of a compound relational test in an actual program example, let’s write a program that tests whether a year is a leap year.We all know that a year is a leap year if it is evenly divisible by 4.What you might not realize, however, is that a year that is divisible by 100 is not a leap year unless it is also divisible by 400. Try to think how you would go about setting up a test for such a condition. First, you could compute the remainders of the year after division by 4, 100, and 400, and assign these values to appropriately named variables, such as rem_4, rem_100, and rem_400,re- spectively.Then you could test these remainders to determine whether the desired criteria for a leap year were met. If we rephrase our previous definition of a leap year, we can say that a year is a leap year if it is evenly divisible by 4 and not by 100 or if it is evenly divisible by 400. Stop for a moment to reflect on this last sentence and to verify to yourself that it is equivalent to the previously stated definition. Now that we have reformulated our definition in these 108 Chapter 6: Making Decisions terms, it becomes a relatively straightforward task to translate it into a program statement, as follows: if ( (rem_4 == 0 && rem_100 != 0) || rem_400 == 0 ) NSLog (@”It’s a leap year.”); The parentheses around the following subexpression are not required: rem_4 == 0 && rem_100 != 0 This is because the expression will be evaluated that way anyway: Remember that && has higher precedence than ||. In fact, in this particular example, the following test would work just as well: if ( rem_4 == 0 && ( rem_100 != 0 || rem_400 == 0 ) ) If you add a few statements in front of the test to declare the variables and to enable the user to key in the year from the terminal, you end up with a program that determines whether a year is a leap year, as shown in Program 6.5. Program 6.5 // This program determines if a year is a leap year #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int year, rem_4, rem_100, rem_400; NSLog (@”Enter the year to be tested: “); scanf (“%i”, &year); rem_4 = year % 4; rem_100 = year % 100; rem_400 = year % 400; if ( (rem_4 == 0 && rem_100 != 0) || rem_400 == 0 ) NSLog (@”It’s a leap year.”); else NSLog (@”Nope, it’s not a leap year.”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.5 Output Enter the year to be tested: 1955 Nope, it’s not a leap year. 109The if Statement Program 6.5 Output (Rerun) Enter the year to be tested: 2000 It’s a leap year. Program 6.5 Output (Rerun) Enter the year to be tested: 1800 Nope, it’s not a leap year. The previous examples use a year that is not a leap year because it isn’t evenly divisible by 4 (1955), a year that is a leap year because it is evenly divisible by 400 (2000), and a year that isn’t a leap year because it is evenly divisible by 100 but not by 400 (1800).To complete the run of test cases, you should also try a year that is evenly divisible by 4 and not by 100.This is left as an exercise for you. We mentioned that Objective-C gives the programmer a tremendous amount of flexi- bility in forming expressions. For instance, in the previous program, you did not have to calculate the intermediate results rem_4, rem_100, and rem_400—you could have per- formed the calculation directly inside the if statement, as follows: if ( ( year % 4 == 0 && year % 100 != 0 ) || year % 400 == 0 ) Using blank spaces to set off the various operators still makes the previous expression readable. If you decided to ignore this and removed the unnecessary set of parentheses, you could end up with an expression that looked like this: if(year%4==0&&year%100!=0)||year%400==0) This expression is perfectly valid and, believe it or not, executes identically to the ex- pression shown immediately before it. Obviously,those extra blanks go a long way toward aiding our understanding of complex expressions. Nested if Statements In discussions of the general format of the if statement, we indicated that if the result of evaluating the expression inside the parentheses is TRUE, the statement that immediately follows is executed. It is perfectly valid for this program statement to be another if state- ment, as in the following statement: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; If the value returned by sending the isOver message to chessGame is NO, the following statement is executed; this statement, in turn, is another if statement.This if statement compares the value returned from the whoseTurn method against YOU. If the two values are equal, the yourMove message is sent to the chessGame object.Therefore, the yourMove 110 Chapter 6: Making Decisions message is sent only if both the game is not done and it’s your turn. In fact, this statement could have been equivalently formulated using compound relationals, like so: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO && [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; A more practical example of nested if statements might involve adding an else clause to the previous example, as shown here: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; else [chessGame myMove]; Executing this statement proceeds as described previously.However, if the game is not over and it’s not your move, the else clause is executed.This sends the message myMove to chessGame. If the game is over, the entire if statement that follows, including its associ- ated else clause, is skipped. Notice how the else clause is associated with the if statement that tests the value re- turned from the whoseTurn method, not with the if statement that tests whether the game is over.The general rule is that an else clause is always associated with the last if statement that doesn’t contain an else. You can go one step further and add an else clause to the outermost if statement in the preceding example.This else clause is executed if the game is over: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; else [chessGame myMove]; else [chessGame finish]; Of course, even if you use indentation to indicate the way you think a statement will be interpreted in the Objective-C language, it might not always coincide with the way the system actually interprets the statement. For instance, removing the first else clause from the previous example will not result in the statement being interpreted as its format indicates: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; else [chessGame finish]; Instead, this statement will be interpreted as follows: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) 111The if Statement if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; else [chessGame finish]; This is because the else clause is associated with the last un-elsed if.You can use braces to force a different association when an innermost if does not contain an else but an outer if does.The braces have the effect of closing off the if statement.Thus, the fol- lowing statement achieves the desired effect: if ( [chessGame isOver] == NO ) { if ( [chessGame whoseTurn] == YOU ) [chessGame yourMove]; } else [chessGame finish]; The else if Construct You have seen how the else statement comes into play when you have a test against two possible conditions—either the number is even or it is odd; either the year is a leap year or it is not. However, programming decisions you have to make are not always so black and white. Consider the task of writing a program that displays –1 if a number the user types is less than zero, 0 if the number is equal to zero, and 1 if the number is greater than zero. (This is actually an implementation of what is commonly called the sign function.) Obviously,you must make three tests in this case to determine whether the number that is keyed in is negative, zero, or positive.The simple if-else construct will not work. Of course, in this case, you can always resort to three separate if statements, but this solution does not always work—especially if the tests are not mutually exclusive. You can handle the situation just described by adding an if statement to your else clause.We mentioned that the statement that follows an else could be any valid Objec- tive-C program statement, so why not another if? Thus,in the general case, you could write the following: if ( expression 1 ) program statement 1 else if ( expression 2 ) program statement 2 else program statement 3 This effectively extends the if statement from a two-valued logic decision to a three- valued logic decision.You can continue to add if statements to the else clauses, in the manner just shown, to effectively extend the decision to an n-valued logic decision. 112 Chapter 6: Making Decisions The preceding construct is so frequently used that it is generally referred to as an else if construct and is usually formatted differently from that shown previously: if ( expression 1 ) program statement 1 else if ( expression 2 ) program statement 2 else program statement 3 This latter method of formatting improves the readability of the statement and makes it clearer that a three-way decision is being made. The next program illustrates the use of the else if construct by implementing the sign function discussed earlier. Program 6.6 // Program to implement the sign function #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int number, sign; NSLog (@”Please type in a number: “); scanf (“%i”, &number); if ( number < 0 ) sign = -1; else if ( number == 0 ) sign = 0; else // Must be positive sign = 1; NSLog (@”Sign = %i”, sign); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.6 Output Please type in a number: 1121 Sign = 1 113The if Statement Program 6.6 Output (Rerun) Please type in a number: -158 Sign = -1 Program 6.6 Output (Rerun) Please type in a number: 0 Sign = 0 If the number that is entered is less than zero, sign is assigned the value -1; if the number is equal to zero, sign is assigned the value 0; otherwise, the number must be greater than zero, so sign is assigned the value 1. The next program analyzes a character that is typed in from the terminal and classifies it as either an alphabetic character (a–z or A–Z), a digit (0–9), or a special character (any- thing else).To read a single character from the terminal, the format characters %c are used in the scanf call. Program 6.7 // This program categorizes a single character // that is entered from the keyboard #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; char c; NSLog (@”Enter a single character:”); scanf (“%c”, &c); if ( (c >= ‘a’ && c <= ‘z’) || (c >= ‘A’ && c <= ‘Z’) ) NSLog (@”It’s an alphabetic character.”); else if ( c >= ‘0’ && c <= ‘9’ ) NSLog (@”It’s a digit.”); else NSLog (@”It’s a special character.”); [pool drain]; return 0; } 114 Chapter 6: Making Decisions Program 6.7 Output Enter a single character: & It’s a special character. Program 6.7 Output (Rerun) Enter a single character: 8 It’s a digit. Program 6.7 Output (Rerun) Enter a single character: B It’s an alphabetic character. The first test that is made after the character is read in determines whether the char variable c is an alphabetic character.This is done by testing whether the character is a lowercase letter or an uppercase letter.The former test is made by the following expres- sion: ( c >= ‘a’ && c <= ‘z’ ) This expression is TRUE if c is within the range of characters ’a’ through ’z’; that is, if c is a lowercase letter.The latter test is made by this expression: ( c >= ‘A’ && c <= ‘Z’ ) This expression is TRUE if c is within the range of characters ’A’ through ’Z’; that is, if c is an uppercase letter.These tests work on computer systems that store characters inside the machine in a format known as ASCII. If the variable c is an alphabetic character, the first if test succeeds and the message “It’s an alphabetic character.”is displayed. If the test fails, the else if clause is executed. This clause determines whether the character is a digit. Note that this test compares the character c against the characters ’0’ and ’9’ and not the integers 0 and 9.This is because a character was read in from the terminal, and the characters ’0’ to ’9’ are not the same as the numbers 0–9. In fact, in ASCII, the character ’0’ is actually represented internally as the number 48, the character ’1’ as the number 49, and so on. If c is a digit character, the phrase “It’s a digit.”is displayed. Otherwise, if c is not al- phabetic and is not a digit, the final else clause is executed and displays the phrase “It’s a special character” at the terminal. Execution of the program is then complete. Note that even though scanf is used here to read just a single character, you still must press the Enter key after the character is typed to send the input to the program. In gen- eral, whenever you’re reading data from the terminal, the program doesn’t see any of the data typed on the line until the Enter key is pressed. 115The if Statement Let’s suppose for the next example that you want to write a program that allows the user to type in simple expressions of the following form:[[STYLE_FIRST]] number operator number The program will evaluate the expression and display the results at the terminal.The operators you want to have recognized are the normal operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Let’s use the Calculator class from Program 4.6 in Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions,”here. Each expression will be given to the calculator for computation. The following program uses a large if statement with many else if clauses to deter- mine which operation is to be performed. Note It’s better to use routines in the standard library called islower and isupper, and avoid the internal representation issue entirely. To do that, include the line #import in your program. However, we’ve put this here for illustrative purposes only. Program 6.8 // Program to evaluate simple expressions of the form // number operator number // Implement a Calculator class #import @interface Calculator: NSObject { double accumulator; } // accumulator methods -(void) setAccumulator: (double) value; -(void) clear; -(double) accumulator; // arithmetic methods -(void) add: (double) value; -(void) subtract: (double) value; -(void) multiply: (double) value; -(void) divide: (double) value; @end @implementation Calculator -(void) setAccumulator: (double) value { accumulator = value; } 116 Chapter 6: Making Decisions -(void) clear { accumulator = 0; } -(double) accumulator { return accumulator; } -(void) add: (double) value { accumulator += value; } -(void) subtract: (double) value { accumulator -= value; } -(void) multiply: (double) value { accumulator *= value; } -(void) divide: (double) value { accumulator /= value; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; double value1, value2; char operator; Calculator *deskCalc = [[Calculator alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Type in your expression.”); scanf (“%lf %c %lf”, &value1, &operator, &value2); [deskCalc setAccumulator: value1]; if ( operator == ‘+’ ) [deskCalc add: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘-’ ) 117The if Statement [deskCalc subtract: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘*’ ) [deskCalc multiply: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘/’ ) [deskCalc divide: value2]; NSLog (@”%.2f”, [deskCalc accumulator]); [deskCalc release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.8 Output Type in your expression. 123.5 + 59.3 182.80 Program 6.8 Output (Rerun) Type in your expression. 198.7 / 26 7.64 Program 6.8 Output (Rerun) Type in your expression. 89.3 * 2.5 223.25 The scanf call specifies that three values are to be read into the variables value1, operator, and value2.A double value can be read in with the %lf format characters.This is the format used to read in the value of the variable value1, which is the first operand of the expression. Next, you read in the operator. Because the operator is a character (’+’, ’-’, ’*’,or ’/’) and not a number, you read it into the character variable operator.The %c format characters tell the system to read in the next character from the terminal.The blank spaces inside the format string indicate that an arbitrary number of blank spaces are to be per- mitted on the input.This enables you to separate the operands from the operator with blank spaces when you type in these values. After the two values and the operator have been read in, the program stores the first value in the calculator’s accumulator. Next, you test the value of operator against the four permissible operators.When a correct match is made, the corresponding message is sent to 118 Chapter 6: Making Decisions the calculator to perform the operation. In the last NSLog, the value of the accumulator is retrieved for display.Execution of the program is then complete. A few words about program thoroughness are in order at this point.Although the pre- ceding program does accomplish the task that we set out to perform, the program is not really complete because it does not account for user mistakes. For example, what would happen if the user typed in a ? for the operator by mistake? The program would simply fall through the if statement and no messages would ever appear at the terminal to alert the user that he had incorrectly typed in his expression. Another overlooked case is when the user types in a division operation with zero as the divisor.You know by now that you should never attempt to divide a number by zero in Objective-C.The program should check for this case. Trying to predict the ways in which a program can fail or produce unwanted results and then taking preventive measures to account for such situations is a necessary part of producing good, reliable programs. Running a sufficient number of test cases against a program can often point a finger to portions of the program that do not account for cer- tain cases. But it goes further than that. It must become a matter of self-discipline while coding a program to always ask,“What would happen if...?” and to insert the necessary program statements to handle the situation properly. Program 6.8A, a modified version of Program 6.8, accounts for division by zero and the keying in of an unknown operator. Program 6.8A // Program to evaluate simple expressions of the form // value operator value #import // Insert interface and implementation sections for // Calculator class here int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; double value1, value2; char operator; Calculator *deskCalc = [[Calculator alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Type in your expression.”); scanf (“%lf %c %lf”, &value1, &operator, &value2); [deskCalc setAccumulator: value1]; if ( operator == ‘+’ ) [deskCalc add: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘-’ ) 119The if Statement [deskCalc subtract: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘*’ ) [deskCalc multiply: value2]; else if ( operator == ‘/’ ) if ( value2 == 0 ) NSLog (@”Division by zero.”); else [deskCalc divide: value2]; else NSLog (@”Unknown operator.”); NSLog (@”%.2f”, [deskCalc accumulator]); [deskCalc release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.8A Output Type in your expression. 123.5 + 59.3 182.80 Program 6.8A Output (Rerun) Type in your expression. 198.7 / 0 Division by zero. 198.7 Program 6.8A Output (Rerun) Type in your expression. 125 $ 28 Unknown operator. 125 When the operator that is typed in is the slash, for division, another test is made to de- termine whether value2 is 0. If it is, an appropriate message is displayed at the terminal; otherwise, the division operation is carried out and the results are displayed. Pay careful at- tention to the nesting of the if statements and the associated else clauses in this case. The else clause at the end of the program catches any fall-throughs.Therefore, any value of operator that does not match any of the four characters tested causes this else clause to be executed, resulting in the display of “Unknown operator.”at the terminal. 120 Chapter 6: Making Decisions A better way to handle the division-by-zero problem is to perform the test inside the method that handles division.You can modify your divide: method as shown here: -(void) divide: (double) value { if (value != 0.0) accumulator /= value; else { NSLog (@”Division by zero.”); accumulator = 99999999.; } } If value is nonzero, you perform the division; otherwise, you display the message and set the accumulator to 99999999.This is arbitrary; you could have set it to zero or perhaps set a special variable to indicate an error condition. In general, it’s better to have the method handle special cases than rely on the resourcefulness of the programmer using the method. The switch Statement The type of if-else statement chain you encountered in the last program example— with the value of a variable successively compared against different values—is so com- monly used when developing programs that a special program statement exists in the Objective-C language for performing precisely this function.The name of the statement is the switch statement, and its general format is as follows: switch ( expression ) { case value1: program statement program statement ... break; case value2: program statement program statement ... break; ... case valuen: program statement program statement ... break; default: program statement program statement ... 121The switch Statement break; } The expression enclosed within parentheses is successively compared against the val- ues value1, value2, ..., valuen, which must be simple constants or constant expressions. If a case is found whose value is equal to the value of expression, the program statements that follow the case are executed. Note that when more than one such program statement is included, they do not have to be enclosed within braces. The break statement signals the end of a particular case and causes execution of the switch statement to be terminated. Remember to include the break statement at the end of every case. Forgetting to do so for a particular case causes program execution to con- tinue into the next case whenever that case is executed. Sometimes this is done intention- ally; if you elect to do so, be sure to insert comments to alert others of your purpose. The special optional case called default is executed if the value of expression does not match any of the case values.This is conceptually equivalent to the catchall else used in the previous example. In fact, the general form of the switch statement can be equiva- lently expressed as an if statement, as follows: if ( expression == value1 ) { program statement program statement ... } else if ( expression == value2 ) { program statement program statement ... } ... else if ( expression == valuen ) { program statement program statement ... } else { program statement program statement ... } Bearing in mind the previous code, you can translate the big if statement from Program 6.8A into an equivalent switch statement.This is shown in Program 6.9. 122 Chapter 6: Making Decisions Program 6.9 // Program to evaluate simple expressions of the form // value operator value #import // Insert interface and implementation sections for // Calculator class here int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; double value1, value2; char operator; Calculator *deskCalc = [[Calculator alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Type in your expression.”); scanf (“%lf %c %lf”, &value1, &operator, &value2); [deskCalc setAccumulator: value1]; switch ( operator ) { case ‘+’: [deskCalc add: value2]; break; case ‘-’: [deskCalc subtract: value2]; break; case ‘*’: [deskCalc multiply: value2]; break; case ‘/’: [deskCalc divide: value2]; break; default: NSLog (@”Unknown operator.”); break; } NSLog (@”%.2f”, [deskCalc accumulator]); [deskCalc release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 123Boolean Variables Program 6.9 Output Type in your expression. 178.99 - 326.8 -147.81 After the expression has been read in, the value of operator is successively compared against the values specified by each case.When a match is found, the statements contained inside the case are executed.The break statement then sends execution out of the switch statement, where execution of the program is completed. If none of the cases matches the value of operator, the default case, which displays “Unknown operator.”,is executed. The break s atement in the defau t case s actually unnecessary in the preceding pro- gram because no statements follow this case inside the switch. Nevertheless, it is a good programming habit to remember to include the break at the end of every case. When writing a switch statement, bear in mind that no two case values can be the same. However, you can associate more than one case value with a particular set of program statements.This is done simply by l sting the multiple case values (with the keyword case before the value and a colon after the value in each case) before the common statements that are to be executed.As an example, in the switch statement that follows, the multiply: method is executed if operator is equal to an asterisk or to the lowercase letter x: switch ( operator ) { ... case ‘*’: case ‘x’: [deskCalc multiply: value2]; break; ... } Boolean Variables Just about anyone learning to program soon faces the task of having to write a program to generate a table of prime numbers.To refresh your memory,a positive integer, p, is a prime number if it is not evenly divisible by any other integers other than 1 and itself.The first prime integer is defined to be 2.The next prime is 3 because it is not evenly divisible by any integers other than 1 and 3; and 4 is not prime because it is evenly divisible by 2. You can take several approaches to generate a table of prime numbers. If you had the task of generating all prime numbers up to 50, for example, the most straightforward (and simplest) algorithm to generate such a table would simply test each integer, p, for divisibility by all integers from 2 through p-1. If any such integer evenly divided p, then p would not be prime; otherwise, it would be a prime number. Program 6.10 generates a list of prime numbers from 2 to 50. 124 Chapter 6: Making Decisions Program 6.10 // Program to generate a table of prime numbers #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int p, d, isPrime; for ( p = 2; p <= 50; ++p ) { isPrime = 1; for ( d = 2; d < p; ++d ) if ( p % d == 0 ) isPrime = 0; if ( isPrime != 0 ) NSLog (@”%i “, p); } [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.10 Output 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 Several points are worth noting about Program 6.10.The outermost for statement sets up a loop to cycle through the integers 2–50.The loop variable p represents the value you 125Boolean Variables are currently testing to see whether it is prime.The first statement in the loop assigns the value 1 to the variable isPrime.The use of this variable will become apparent shortly. A second loop is set up to divide p by the integers 2 through p-1. Inside the loop, a test is performed to see whether the remainder of p divided by d is 0. If it is, you know that p cannot be prime because an integer other than 1 and itself evenly divides it.To signal that p is no longer a candidate as a prime number, the value of the variable isPrime is set equal to 0. When the innermost loop finishes execution, the value of isPrime is tested. If its value is not equal to zero, no integer was found that evenly divided p; therefore, p must be a prime number, and its value is displayed. You might have noticed that the variable isPrime takes on either 0 or 1, and no other values. Its value is 1 as long as p still qualifies as a prime number. But as soon as a single even divisor is found, its value is set to 0 to indicate that p no longer satisfies the criteria for being prime.Variables used in such a manner are generally referred to as Boolean vari- ables.A flag typically assumes only one of two different values. Furthermore, the value of a flag usually is tested at least once in the program to see whether it is on (TRUE or YES) or off (FALSE or NO), and some particular action is taken based on the results of the test. In Objective-C, the notion of a flag being TRUE or FALSE is most naturally translated into the values 1 and 0, respectively.So in Program 6.10, when you set the value of isPrime to 1 inside the loop, you are effectively setting it as TRUE to indicate that p “is prime.”During the course of execution of the inner for loop, if an even divisor is found, the value of isPrime is set FALSE to indicate that p no longer “is prime.” It is no coincidence that the value 1 is typically used to represent the TRUE or on state and 0 is used to represent the FALSE or off state.This representation corresponds to the notion of a single bit inside a computer.When the bit is on, its value is 1; when it is off, its value is 0. But in Objective-C, there is an even more convincing argument in favor of these logic values. It has to do with the way the Objective-C language treats the concept of TRUE and FALSE. When we began our discussions in this chapter, we noted that if the conditions speci- fied inside the if statement are satisfied, the program statement that immediately followed is executed. But what exactly does satisfied mean? In the Objective-C language, satisfied means nonzero, and nothing more.Thus, the statement if ( 100 ) NSLog (@”This will always be printed.”); results in the execution of the NSLog statement because the condition in the if state- ment (in this case, simply the value 100) is nonzero and, therefore, is satisfied. In each of the programs in this chapter, we used the notions of “nonzero means satis- fied” and “zero means not satisfied.”This is because, whenever a relational expression is evaluated in Objective-C, it is given the value 1 if the expression is satisfied and 0 if the expression is not satisfied. So, evaluation of the statement if ( number < 0 ) number = -number; 126 Chapter 6: Making Decisions actually proceeds as follows:The relational expression number < 0 is evaluated. If the condition is satisfied—that is, if number is less than 0—the value of the expression is 1; otherwise, its value is 0. The if statement tests the result of the expression evaluation. If the result is nonzero, the statement that immediately follows is executed; otherwise, the statement is skipped. The preceding discussion also applies to the evaluation of conditions inside the for, while, and do statements. Evaluation of compound relational expressions such as in the following statement also proceeds as outlined previously: while ( char != ‘e’ && count != 80 ) If both specified conditions are valid, the result is 1, but if either condition is not valid, the result of the evaluation is 0.The results of the evaluation are then checked. If the result is 0, the while loop terminates; otherwise, it continues. Returning to Program 6.10 and the notion of flags, it is perfectly valid in Objective-C to test whether the value of a flag is TRUE using an expression such as this one: if ( isPrime ) This expression is equivalent to the following: if ( isPrime != 0 ) To easily test whether the value of a flag is FALSE, you use the logical negation opera- tor, !. In the expression that follows, the logical negation operator is used to test whether the value of isPrime is FALSE (read this statement as “if not isPrime”): if ( ! isPrime ) In general, an expression such as this one negates the logical value of expression: ! expression So if expression is 0, the logical negation operator produces a 1.And if the result of the evaluation of expression is nonzero, the negation operator yields a 0. The logical negation operator can be used to easily flip the value of a flag, as in the fol- lowing expression: my_move = ! my_move; As you might expect, this operator has the same precedence as the unary minus opera- tor, which means that it has higher precedence than all binary arithmetic operators and all relational operators.To test whether the value of a variable x is not less than the value of a variable y, such as in ! ( x < y ) the parentheses are required to ensure proper evaluation of the expression. Of course, you could have equivalently expressed the previous statement as follows: x >= y 127Boolean Variables A couple of built-in features in Objective-C make working with Boolean variables a little easier. One is the special type BOOL, which can be used to declare variables that will contain either a true or a false value.The other is the built-in values YES and NO. Using these predefined values in your programs can make them easier to write and read.Take a look at Program 6.10, rewritten to take advantage of these features. Note The type BOOL is really added by a mechanism known as the preprocessor. Program 6.10A // Program to generate a table of prime numbers // second version using BOOL type and predefined values #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int p, d; BOOL isPrime; for ( p = 2; p <= 50; ++p ) { isPrime = YES; for ( d = 2; d < p; ++d ) if ( p % d == 0 ) isPrime = NO; if ( isPrime == YES ) NSLog (@”%i “, p); } [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 6.10A Output 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 128 Chapter 6: Making Decisions 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 The Conditional Operator Perhaps the most unusual operator in the Objective-C language is one called the condi- tional operator. Unlike all other operators in Objective-C—which are either unary or bi- nary operators—the conditional operator is a ternary operator; that is, it takes three operands.The two symbols used to denote this operator are the question mark (?) and the colon (:).The first operand is placed before the ?, the second between the ? and the :, and the third after the :. The general format of the conditional expression is shown here: condition ? expression1 : expression2 In this syntax, condition is an expression, usually a relational expression, that the Ob- jective-C system evaluates first whenever it encounters the conditional operator. If the re- sult of the evaluation of condition is TRUE (that is, nonzero), expression1 is evaluated and the result of the evaluation becomes the result of the operation. If condition evalu- ates FALSE (that is, zero), expression2 is evaluated and its result becomes the result of the operation. A conditional expression is most often used to assign one of two values to a variable, depending on some condition. For example, suppose you have an integer variable x and another integer variable s. If you wanted to assign -1 to s if x were less than 0, and the value of x2 to s otherwise, you could write the following statement: s = ( x < 0 ) ? -1 : x * x; The condition x < 0 is first tested when the previous statement is executed. Parenthe- ses are generally placed around the condition expression to aid in the statement’s readabil- ity.This is usually not required, though, because the precedence of the conditional operator is very low—lower, in fact, than all other operators but the assignment operators and the comma operator. If the value of x is less than zero, the expression immediately following the ? is evalu- ated.This expression is simply the constant integer value -1, which is assigned to the vari- able s if x is less than zero. 129The Conditional Operator If the value of x is not less than zero, the expression immediately following the : is evaluated and assigned to s. So if x is greater than or equal to zero, the value of x * x,or x2, is assigned to s. As another example of the conditional operator, the following statement assigns to the variable max_value the maximum of a and b: max_value = ( a > b ) ? a : b; If the expression after the : (the “else” part) consists of another conditional operator, you can achieve the effects of an else if clause. For example, the sign function imple- mented in Program 6.6 can be written in one program line using two conditional opera- tors, as follows: sign = ( number < 0 ) ? -1 : (( number == 0 ) ? 0 : 1); If number is less than zero, sign is assigned the value -1; if number is equal to zero, sign is assigned the value 0; otherwise, it is assigned the value 1.The parentheses around the “else” part of the previous expression are actually unnecessary.This is because the con- ditional operator associates from right to left, meaning that multiple uses of this operator in a single expression, such as in e1 ? e2 : e3 ? e4 : e5 group from right to left and therefore are evaluated as follows: e1 ? e2 : ( e3 ? e4 : e5 ) Conditional expressions don’t have to be used on the right side of an assignment— they can be used in any situation in which expressions can be used.This means you can display the sign of the variable number without first assigning it to a variable using a NSLog statement, as shown here: NSLog (@”Sign = %i”, ( number < 0 ) ? -1 : ( number == 0 ) ? 0 : 1); The conditional operator is very handy when writing preprocessor macros in Objec- tive-C.You can see this in detail in Chapter 12,“The Preprocessor.” Exercises 1. Write a program that asks the user to type in two integer values.Test these two numbers to determine whether the first is evenly divisible by the second and then display an appropriate message at the terminal. 2. Program 6.8A displays the value in the accumulator even if an invalid operator is entered or division by zero is attempted. Fix that problem. 3. Modify the print method from the Fraction class so that whole numbers are dis- played as such (so the fraction 5/1 should display as simply 5).Also modify the method to display fractions with a numerator of 0 as simply zero. 130 Chapter 6: Making Decisions 4. Write a program that acts as a simple printing calculator.The program should allow the user to type in expressions of the following form: number operator The program should recognize the following operators: + - * / S E The S operator tells the program to set the accumulator to the typed-in number, and the E operator tells the program that execution is to end.The arithmetic opera- tions are performed on the contents of the accumulator, with the number that was keyed in acting as the second operand.The following is a sample run showing how the program should operate: Begin Calculations 10 S Set Accumulator to 10 = 10.000000 Contents of Accumulator 2 / Divide by 2 = 5.000000 Contents of Accumulator 55 - Subtract 55 -50.000000 100.25 S Set Accumulator to 100.25 = 100.250000 4 * Multiply by 4 = 401.000000 0 E End of program = 401.000000 End of Calculations. Make sure that the program detects division by 0 and also checks for unknown op- erators. Use the Calculator class developed in Program 6.8 for performing your calculations. 5. We developed Program 5.9 to reverse the digits of an integer typed in from the ter- minal. However, this program does not function well if you type in a negative num- ber. Find out what happens in such a case, and then modify the program so that negative numbers are correctly handled. By this, we mean that if the number -8645 were typed in, for example, the output of the program should be 5468-. 6. Write a program that takes an integer keyed in from the terminal and extracts and displays each digit of the integer in English. So if the user types in 932, the pro- gram should display the following: nine three two 131Exercises (Remember to display zero if the user types in just 0.) Note:This exercise is a hard one! 7. Program 6.10 has several inefficiencies. One inefficiency results from checking even numbers. Because any even number greater than 2 obviously cannot be prime, the program could simply skip all even numbers as possible primes and as possible divi- sors.The inner for loop is also inefficient because the value of p is always divided by all values of d from 2 through p 1. You can avoid this inefficiency if you add a test for the value of isPrime in the conditions of the for loop. In this manner, you can set up the for loop to continue as long as no divisor is found and the value of d is less than p. Modify Program 6.10 to incorporate these two changes; then run the program to verify its operation. 7 More on Classes In this chapter, you’ll continue learning how to work with classes and write methods. You’ll also apply some of the concept you learned in the previous chapter, such as com- pleting program looping, making deci ions, and working with expr s ions. First we talk about splitting your program into multiple files to make working with larger programs easier. Separate Interface and Implementation Files It’s time to get used to putting your class declarations and definitions in separate files. If you’re using Xcode, start a new project called FractionTest.Type the following program into the file FractionTest.m: Program 7.1 Main Test Program: FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *myFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; // set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; // display the fraction NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is:”); [myFraction print]; [myFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 134 Chapter 7 More on Classes Figure 7.1 Xcode New File menu. Note that this file does not include the definition of the Fraction class. However, it does import a file called Fraction.h. Typically,a class declaration (that is, the @interface section) is placed in its own file, called class.h.The definition (that is, the @implementation section) is normally placed in a file of the same name, using the extension .m instead. So let’s put the declaration of the Fraction class in the file Fraction.h and the definition in Fraction.m. To do this in Xcode, select New File from the File menu. In the left pane, select Cocoa. In the top-right pane, select Objective-C class.Your window should appear as shown in Figure 7.1. Click Next.Type in Fraction.m for the file name. Leave the box that reads Also Create Fraction.h checked.The location for this file should be the same folder that contains the FractionTest.m file.Your window should look like Figure 7.2. Now click Finish. Xcode has added two files to your project: Fraction.h and Fraction.m. Figure 7.3 shows this. We’re not working with Cocoa here, so change the line in the file Fraction.h that reads #import to read #import 135Separate Interface and Implementation Files Figure 7.2 Adding a new class to your project. Figure 7.3 Xcode creates files for the new class. In that same file (Fraction.h), you will now enter your interface section for the Fraction class, as shown in Program 7.1: 136 Chapter 7 More on Classes Program 7.2 Interface File Fraction.h // // Fraction.h // FractionTest // // Created by Steve Kochan on 7/5/08. // Copyright 2008 __MyCompanyName__. All rights reserved. // #import // The Fraction class @interface Fraction : NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } -(void) print; -(void) setNumerator: (int) n; -(void) setDenominator: (int) d; -(int) numerator; -(int) denominator; -(double) convertToNum; @end The interface file tells the compiler (and other programmers, as you’ll learn later) what a Fraction looks like: It contains two instance variables called numerator and denominator, which are both integers. It also has six instance methods: print, setNumerator:, setDenominator:, numerator, denominator, and convertToNum.The first three methods don’t return a value, the next two return an int, and the last one re- turns a double.The setNumerator: and setDenominator: methods each take an integer argument. The details of the implementation for the Fraction class are in the file Fraction.m. Program 7.1 Implementation File: Fraction.m // // Fraction.m // FractionTest // // Created by Steve Kochan on 7/5/08. // Copyright 2008 __MyCompanyName__. All rights reserved. // #import “Fraction.h” 137Separate Interface and Implementation Files @implementation Fraction -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(void) setNumerator: (int) n { numerator = n; } -(void) setDenominator: (int) d { denominator = d; } -(int) numerator { return numerator; } -(int) denominator { return denominator; } -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 1.0; } @end Note that the interface file is imported into the implementation file with the follow- ing statement: #import “Fraction.h” This is done so that the compiler knows about the class and methods you declared for your Fraction class and so that it can also ensure consistency between the two files. Re- call also that you don’t normally redeclare the class’s instance variables inside the imple- mentation section (although you can), so the compiler needs to get that information from the interface section contained in Fraction.h. Another thing you should note is that the file that is imported is enclosed in a set of double quotes, not < and > characters, as was the case with . The double quotes are used for local files (files that you create) instead of system files, and 138 Chapter 7 More on Classes they tell the compiler where to look for the specified file.When you use double quotes, the compiler typically looks for the specified file first inside your current directory and then in a list of other places. If necessary,you can specify the actual places for the com- piler to search. Here is the test program for our example, which we have typed into the file FractionTest.m. Program 7.1 Main Test Program: FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *myFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; // set fraction to 1/3 [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; // display the fraction NSLog (@”The value of myFraction is:”); [myFraction print]; [myFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Note again that the test program, FractionTest.m, includes the interface file Fraction.h, not the implementation file Fraction.m. Now you have your program split into three separate files.This might seem like a lot of work for a small program example, but the usefulness will become apparent when you start dealing with larger programs and sharing class declarations with other programmers. You can now compile and run your program the same way you did before: Select Build and Go from the Build menu, or click the Build and Go icon in your main Xcode window. If you’re compiling your programs from the command line, give the Objective-C compiler both “.m” filenames. Using gcc, the command line looks like this: gcc –framework Foundation Fraction.m FractionTest.m –o FractionTest 139Synthesized Accessor Methods This builds an executable file called FractionTest. Here’s the output after running the program: Program 7.1 FractionTest Output The value of myFraction is: 1/3 Synthesized Accessor Methods As of Objective-C 2.0, you can have your setter and getter methods (collectively known as accessor methods) automatically generated for you.We haven’t shown you how to do this up to this point because it was important for you to learn how to write these methods on your own. However, it’s a nice convenience provided in the language, so it’s time for you to learn how to take advantage of this feature. The first step is to use the @property directive in your interface section to identify your properties.These properties are often your instance variables. In the case of our Fraction class, the two instance variables numerator and denominator fall into this cate- gory.Following is the new interface section with the new @property directive added. @interface Fraction : NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } @property int numerator, denominator; -(void) print; -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d; -(double) convertToNum; @end Note that we no longer include the definitions for our getter and setter methods: numerator, denominator, setNumerator:, and setDenominator:.We’re going to have the Objective-C compiler automatically generate or synthesize these for us. How is that done? Simply by using the @synthesize directive in the implementation section, as shown. #import “Fraction.h” @implementation Fraction @synthesize numerator, denominator; -(void) print 140 Chapter 7 More on Classes { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 1.0; } @end The following line tells the Objective-C compiler to generate a pair of getter and set- ter methods for each of the two listed instance variables, numerator and denominator: @synthesize numerator, denominator; In general, if you have an instance variable called x, including the following line in your implementation section causes the compiler to automatically synthesize a getter method called x and a setter method called setX:. @synthesize x; Even though this might not seem like a big deal here, having the compiler do this for you is worthwhile because the accessor methods that are generated will be efficient and will run safely with multiple threads, on multiple machines, with multiple cores. Now go back to Program 7.1 and make the changes to the interface and implementa- tion sections as indicated so that the accessor methods are synthesized for you.Verify that you still get the same output from the program without making any changes to FractionTest.m. Accessing Properties Using the Dot Operator The Objective-C language allows you to access properties using a more convenient syn- tax.To get the value of the numerator stored in myFraction, you could write this: [myFraction numerator] This sends the numerator message to the myFraction object, resulting in the return of the desired value.As of Objective-C 2.0, you can now also write the following equivalent expression using the dot operator: myFraction.numerator The general format here is: instance.property 141Multiple Arguments to Methods You can use a similar syntax to assign values as well: instance.property = value This is equivalent to writing the following expression:[instance setProperty: value] In Program 7.1 you set the numerator and denominator of your fraction to 1/3 using the following two lines of code: [myFraction setNumerator: 1]; [myFraction setDenominator: 3]; Here’s an equivalent way to write the same two lines: myFraction.numerator = 1; myFraction.denominator = 3; We use these new features for synthesizing methods and accessing properties through- out the remainder of this text. Multiple Arguments to Methods Let’s continue to work with the Fraction class and make some additions.You have de- fined six methods. It would be nice to have a method to set both the numerator and the denominator with a single message.You define methods that take multiple arguments simply by listing each successive argument followed by a colon.This becomes part of the method name. For example, the method named addEntryWithName:andEmail: takes two arguments, presumably a name and an email address.The method addEntryWithName:andEmail:andPhone: takes three arguments: a name, an email ad- dress, and a phone number. A method to set both the numerator and the denominator could be named setNumerator:andDenominator:, and you might use it like this: [myFraction setNumerator: 1 andDenominator: 3]; That’s not bad.And that was actually the first choice for the method name. But we can come up with a more readable method name. For example, how about setTo:over:? That might not look too appealing at first glance, but compare this message to set myFraction to 1/3 with the previous one: [myFraction setTo: 1 over: 3]; I think that reads a little better, but the choice is up to you (some might actually prefer the first name because it explicitly references the instance variable names contained in the class).Again, choosing good method names is important for program readability.Writing out the actual message expression can help you pick a good one. Let’s put this new method to work. First, add the declaration of setTo:over: to the interface file, as shown in Program 7.2. 142 Chapter 7 More on Classes Program 7.2 Interface File: Fraction.h #import // Define the Fraction class @interface Fraction : NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } @property int numerator, denominator; -(void) print; -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d; -(double) convertToNum; @end Next, add the definition for the new method to the implementation file. Program 7.2 Implementation File: Fraction.m #import “Fraction.h” @implementation Fraction @synthesize numerator, denominator; -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 1.0; } -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d { numerator = n; denominator = d; } @end 143Multiple Arguments to Methods The new setTo:over: method simply assigns its two integer arguments, n and d,to the corresponding instance variables for the fraction, numerator, and denominator. Here’s a test program to try your new method. Program 7.2 Test File: FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; [aFraction setTo: 100 over: 200]; [aFraction print]; [aFraction setTo: 1 over: 3]; [aFraction pr nt]; [aFraction rele se]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 7.2 Output 100/200 1/3 Methods Without Argument Names When creating the name for a method, the argument names are actually optional. For ex- ample, you can declare a method like this: -(int) set: (int) n: (int) d; Note that, unlike in previous examples, no name is given for the second argument to the method here.This method is named set::, and the two colons mean the method takes two arguments, even though they’re not all named. To invoke the set:: method, you use the colons as argument delimiters, as shown here: [aFraction set: 1 : 3]; 144 Chapter 7 More on Classes It’s generally not good programming style to omit argument names when writing new methods because it makes the program harder to follow and makes the purpose of the method’s actual parameters less intuitive. Operations on Fractions Let’s continue to work with the Fraction class. First, you’ll write a method that will en- able you to add one fraction to another.You’ll name the method add:, and you’ll have it take a fraction as an argument. Here’s the declaration for the new method: -(void) add: (Fraction *) f; Note the declaration for the argument f: (Fraction *) f This says that the argument to the add: method is of type class Fraction.The asterisk is necessary,so the following declaration is not correct: (Fraction) f You will be passing one fraction as an argument to your add: method, and you’ll have the method add it to the receiver of the message; the following message expression adds the Fraction bFraction to the Fraction aFraction: [aFraction add: bFraction]; Just as a quick math refresher, to add the fractions a/b and c/d, you perform the calcu- lation as follows: a b + c d ad + bc bd You put this code for the new method into the @implementation section: // add a Fraction to the receiver - (void) add: (Fraction *) f { // To add two fractions: // a/b + c/d = ((a*d) + (b*c)) / (b * d) numerator = numerator * f.denominator + denominator * f.numerator; denominator = denominator * f.denominator; } 145Multiple Arguments to Methods Don’t forget that you can refer to the Fraction that is the receiver of the message by its fields: numerator and denominator. On the other hand, you can’t directly refer to the instance variables of the argument f that way.Instead, you have to obtain them by apply- ing the dot operator to f (or by sending an appropriate message to f). Let’s assume that you added the previous declarations and definitions for your new add: method to your interface and implementation files. Program 7.3 is a sample test program and output. Program 7.3 Test File: FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *bFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; // Set two fractions to 1/4 and 1/2 and add them together [aFraction setTo: 1 over: 4]; [bFraction setTo: 1 over: 2]; // Print the results [aFraction print]; NSLog (@”+”); [bFraction print]; NSLog (@”=”); [aFraction add: bFraction]; [aFraction print]; [aFraction release]; [bFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 7.3 Output 1/4 + 1/2 = 6/8 146 Chapter 7 More on Classes The test program is straightforward enough.Two Fractions, called aFraction and bFraction, are allocated and initialized.Then they are set to the values 1/4 and 1/2,re- spectively.Next, the Fraction bFraction is added to the Fraction aFraction; the re- sult of the addition is then displayed. Note again that the add: method adds the argument to the object of the message, so the object gets modified.This is verified when you print the value of aFraction at the end of main.You had to print the value of aFraction before invoking the add: method to get its value displayed before the method changed it. Later in this chapter, you’ll redefine the add: method so that add: does not affect the value of its argument. Local Variables You might have noticed that the result of adding 1/4 to 1/2 was displayed as 6/8, not as 3/4, which you might have preferred (or even expected!).That’s because your addition routine just does the math and no more—it doesn’t worry about reducing the result. So to continue our exercise of adding new methods to work with fractions, let’s make a new reduce method to reduce a fraction to its simplest terms. Reaching back to your high school math again, you can reduce a fraction by finding the largest number that evenly divides both the numerator and the denominator of your fraction and then dividing them by that number.Technically,you want to find the greatest common divisor (gcd) of the numerator and denominator.You already know how to do that from Program 5.7.You might want to refer to that program example just to refresh your memory. With the algorithm in hand, you can now write your new reduce method: - (void) reduce { int u = numerator; int v = denominator; int temp; while (v != 0) { temp = u % v; u = v; v = temp; } numerator /= u; denominator /= u; } Notice something new about this reduce method: It declares three integer variables called u, v, and temp.These variables are local variables, meaning that their values exist only during execution of the reduce method and that they can be accessed only from within the method in which they are defined. In that sense, they are similar to the variables you have 147Local Variables been declaring inside your main routine; those variables were also local to main and could be accessed directly only from within the main routine. None of the methods you devel- oped could directly access those variables defined in main. Local variables have no default initial value, so you must set them to some value before using them.The three local variables in the reduce method are set to values before they are used, so that’s not a problem here.And unlike your instance variables (which retain their values through method calls), these local variables have no memory.Therefore, after the method returns, the values of these variables disappear. Each time a method is called, each local variable defined in that method is initialized to the value specified (if any) with the variable’s declaration. Method Arguments The names you use to refer to a method’s arguments are also local variables.When the method is executed, whatever arguments are passed to the method are copied into these variables. Because the method is dealing with a copy of the arguments, it cannot change the original values passed to the method. This is an important concept. Suppose you had a method called calculate:, defined as follows: -(void) calculate: (double) x { x *= 2; ... } Also suppose that you used the following message expression to invoke it: [myData calculate: ptVal]; Whatever value was contained in the variable ptVal would be copied into the local variable x when the calculate method was executed. So changing the value of x inside calculate: would have no effect on the value of ptVal—only on the copy of its value stored inside x. Incidentally,in the case of arguments that are objects, you can change the instance variables stored in that object.You’ll learn more about that in the next chapter. The static Keyword You can have a local variable retain its value through multiple invocations of a method by placing the keyword static in front of the variable’s declaration. For example, the fol- lowing declares the integer hitCount to be a static variable: static int hitCount = 0; Unlike other normal local variables, a static one does have an initial value of 0, so the initialization shown previously is redundant. Furthermore, they are initialized only once when program execution begins and retain their values through successive method calls. 148 Chapter 7 More on Classes The following code sequence might appear inside a showPage method that wanted to keep track of the number of times it was invoked (or, in this case, perhaps the number of pages that have been printed, for example): -(void) showPage { static int pageCount = 0; ... ++pageCount; ... } The local static variable would be set to 0 only once when the program started and would retain its value through successive invocations of the showPage method. Note the difference between making pageCount a local static variable and making it an instance variable. In the former case, pageCount could count the number of pages printed by all objects that invoked the showPage method. In the latter case, the variable would count the number of pages printed by each individual object because each object would have its own copy of pageCount. Remember that static or local variables can be accessed only from within the method in which they’re defined. So even the static pageCount variable can be accessed only from within showPage.You can move the declaration of the variable outside any method decla- ration (typically near the beginning of your implementation file) to make it accessible to any methods, like so: #import “Printer.h” static int pageCount; @implementation Printer ... @end Now any instance or class method contained in the file can access the pageCount vari- able. Chapter 10,“More on Variables and Data Types,”covers this topic of variable scope in greater detail. Returning to fractions, you can incorporate the code for the reduce method into your Fraction.m implementation file. Don’t forget to declare the reduce method in your Fraction.h interface file as well.With that done, you can test your new method in Program 7.4. Program 7.4 Test File FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { 149The self Keyword NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *bFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [aFraction setTo: 1 over: 4]; // set 1st fraction to 1/4 [bFraction setTo: 1 over: 2]; // set 2nd fraction to 1/2 [aFraction print]; NSLog (@”+”); [bFraction print]; NSLog (@”=”); [aFraction add: bFraction]; // reduce the result of the addition and print the result [aFraction reduce]; [aFraction print]; [aFraction release]; [bFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 7.4 Output 1/4 + 1/2 = 3/4 That’s better! The self Keyword In Program 7.4, we decided to reduce the fraction outside of the add: method.We could have done it inside add: as well; the decision was completely arbitrary.However, how would we go about identifying the fraction to be reduced to our reduce method? We 150 Chapter 7 More on Classes know how to identify instance variables inside a method directly by name, but we don’t know how to directly identify the receiver of the message. You can use the keyword self to refer to the object that is the receiver of the current method. If inside your add: method you wrote [self reduce]; the reduce method would be applied to the Fraction that was the receiver of the add: method, which is what you want.You will see throughout this book how useful the self keyword can be. For now,use it in your add: method. Here’s what the modified method looks like: - (void) add: (Fraction *) f { // To add two fractions: // a/b + c/d = ((a*d) + (b*c)) / (b * d) numerator = (numerator * [f denominator]) + (denominator * [f numerator]); denominator = denominator * [f denominator]; [self reduce]; } After the addition is performed, the fraction is reduced. Allocating and Returning Objects from Methods We noted that the add: method changes the value of the object that is receiving the mes- sage. Let’s create a new version of add: that will instead make a new fraction to store the result of the addition. In this case, we need to return the new Fraction to the message sender. Here is the definition for the new add: method: -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f { // To add two fractions: // a/b + c/d = ((a*d) + (b*c)) / (b * d) // result will store the result of the addition Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; int resultNum, resultDenom; resultNum = numerator * f.denominator + denominator * f.numerator; resultDenom = denominator * f.denominator; 151Allocating and Returning Objects from Methods [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; [result reduce]; return result; } The first line of your method definition is this: -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; It says that your add: method will return a Fraction object and that it will take one as its argument as well.The argument will be added to the receiver of the message, which is also a Fraction. The method allocates and initializes a new Fraction object called result and then defines two local variables called resultNum and resultDenom.These will be used to store the resulting numerator and denominators from your addition. After performing the addition as before and assigning the resulting numerators and denominators to your local variables, you can set result with the following message expression: [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; After reducing the result, you return its value to the sender of the message with the return statement. Note that the memory occupied by the Fraction result that is allocated inside the add: method is returned and does not get released.You can’t release it from the add: method because the invoker of the method needs it.Therefore, it is imperative that the user of this method know that the object being returned is a new instance and must be subsequently released.This can be communicated through suitable documentation that is made available to users of the class. Program 7.5 tests your new add: method. Program 7.5 Test File main.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *bFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *resultFraction; 152 Chapter 7 More on Classes [aFraction setTo: 1 over: 4]; // set 1st fraction to 1/4 [bFraction setTo: 1 over: 2]; // set 2nd fraction to 1/2 [aFraction print]; NSLog (@”+”); [bFraction print]; NSLog (@”=”); resultFaction = [aFraction add: bFraction]; [resultFraction print]; // This time give the result directly to print // memory leakage here! [[aFraction add: bFraction] print]; [aFraction release]; [bFraction release]; [resultFraction release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 7.5 Output 1/4 + 1/2 = 3/4 3/4 Some explanation is in order here. First, you define two Fractions—aFraction and bFraction—and set their values to 1/4 and 1/2, respectively.You also define a Fraction called resultFraction (why doesn’t it have to be allocated and initialized?).This variable will store the result of your addition operations that follow. The following lines of code first send the add: message to aFraction, passing along the Fraction bFraction as its argument: resultFraction = [aFraction add: bFraction]; [resultFraction print]; The resulting Fraction that the method returns is stored in resultFraction and then displayed by passing it a print message. Note that you must be careful at the end of the program to release resultFraction, even though you didn’t allocate it yourself in 153Allocating and Returning Objects from Methods main.The add: method allocated it, but it’s still your responsibility to clean it up.The fol- lowing message expression might look nice, but it actually creates a problem: [[aFraction add: bFraction] print]; Because you take the Fraction that add: returns and send it a message to print,you have no way of subsequently releasing the Fraction object that add: created.This is an example of memory leakage. If you do this type of nested messaging many times in your program, you’ll end up accumulating storage for fractions whose memory will not be re- leased. Each time, you would be adding, or leaking, just a little bit more memory that you could not direc ly recover. One solution to the problem is to have the print method return its receiver, which you could then release. But that seems a little roundabout.A better solution is to divide the nested messages into two separate messages, as was done earlier in the program. By the way you could have avoided using the temporary variables resultNum and resultDenom complete y in your add method Instead, this s ngle message call would have done the trick: [result setTo: numerator * f.denominator + denominator * f.numerator over: denominator * f.denominator; We’re not suggesting that you write such concise code. However, you might see it when you examine other programmers’ code, so it is useful to learn how to read and un- derstand these powerful expressions. Let’s take one last look at fractions in this chapter. For our example, let’s consider cal- culation of the following series: 1/2i i 1 nΣ The sigma notation is shorthand for a summation. Its use here means to add the values of 1/2i, where i varies from 1 to n. That is, add 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 …. If you make the value of n large enough, the sum of this series should approach 1. Let’s experiment with different values for n to see how close we get. Program 7.6 prompts for the value of n to be entered and performs the indicated calculation. Program 7.6 FractionTest.m #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 154 Chapter 7 More on Classes Fraction *aFraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *sum = [[Fraction alloc] init], *sum2; int i, n, pow2; [sum setTo: 0 over: 1]; // set 1st fraction to 0 NSLog (@”Enter your value for n:”); scanf (“%i”, &n); pow2 = 2; for (i = 1; i <= n; ++i) { [aFraction setTo: 1 over: pow2]; sum2 = [sum add: aFraction]; [sum release]; // release previous sum sum = sum2; pow2 *= 2; } NSLog (@”After %i iterations, the sum is %g”, n, [sum convertToNum]); [aFraction release]; [sum release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 7.6 Output Enter your value for n: 5 After 5 iterations, the sum is 0.96875 Program 7.6 Output (Rerun) Enter your value for n: 10 After 10 iterations, the sum is 0.999023 Program 7.6 Output (Rerun) Enter your value for n: 15 After 15 iterations, the sum is 0.999969 The Fraction sum is set to the value of 0 by setting its numerator to 0 and its de- nominator to 1 (what would happen if you set both its numerator and denominator to 155Allocating and Returning Objects from Methods 0?).The program then prompts the user to enter a value for n and reads it using scanf. You then enter a for loop to calculate the sum of the series. First, you initialize the vari- able pow2 to 2.This variable is used to store the value of 2i. Each time through the loop, its value is multiplied by 2. The for loop starts at 1 and goes through n. Each time through the loop, you set aFraction to 1/pow2, or 1/2i.This value is then added to the cumulative sum by using the previously defined add: method.The result from add: is assigned to sum2 and not to sum, to avoid memory leakage problems. (What would happen if you assigned it di- rectly to sum instead?) The old sum is then released, and the new sum, sum2, is assigned to sum for the next iteration through the loop. Study the way the fractions are released in the code so that you feel comfortable with the strategy used to avoid memory leakage.Also realize that if this were a for loop that was executed hundreds or thousands of times and you weren’t judicious about releasing your fractions, you would quickly accumulate a lot of wasted memory space. When the for loop is completed, you display the final result as a decimal value using the convertToNum method.You have just two objects left to release: aFraction and your final Fraction object stored in sum. Program execution is then complete. The output shows what happens when we ran the program three separate times on a MacBook Air.The first time, the sum of the series was calculated and the resulting value of 0.96875 was displayed.The third time, we ran the program with a value of 15 for n, which gave us a result very close to 1. Extending Class Definitions and the Interface File You’ve now developed a small library of methods for working with fractions. In fact, here is the interface file, listed in its entirety,so you can see all you’ve accomplished with this class: #import // Define the Fraction class @interface Fraction : NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } @property int numerator, denominator; -(void) print; -(double) convertToNum; -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; -(void) reduce; @end 156 Chapter 7 More on Classes You might not need to work with fractions, but these examples have shown how you can continually refine and extend a class by adding new methods.You could hand this in- terface file to someone else working with fractions, and it would be sufficient for that person to be able to write programs to deal with fractions. If that person needed to add a new method, he could do so either directly,by extending the class definition, or indi- rectly,by defining his own subclass and adding his own new methods.You’ll learn how to do that in the next chapter. Exercises 1. Add the following methods to the Fraction class to round out the arithmetic op- erations on fractions. Reduce the result within the method in each case: // Subtract argument from receiver –(Fraction *) subtract (Fraction *) f; // Multiply receiver by argument –(Fraction *) multiply (Fraction *) f; // Divide receiver by argument –(Fraction *) divide (Fraction *) f; 2. Modify the print method from your Fraction class so that it takes an optional BOOL argument that indicates whether the fraction should be reduced for display.If it is to be reduced, be sure you don’t make any permanent changes to the fraction itself. 3. Modify Program 7.7 to also display the resulting sum as a fraction, not just as a real number. 4. Will your Fraction class work with negative fractions? For example, can you add –1/4 and –1/2 and get the correct result? When you think you have the answer, write a test program to try it. 5. Modify the Fraction’s print method to display fractions greater than 1 as mixed numbers. For example, the fraction 5/3 should be displayed as 1 2/3. 6. Exercise 7 in Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions,”defined a new class called Complex for working with complex imaginary numbers.Add a new method called add: that can be used to add two complex numbers.To add two complex numbers, you simply add the real parts and the imaginary parts, as shown here: (5.3 + 7i) + (2.7 + 4i) = 8 + 11i Have the add: method store and return the result as a new Complex number, based on the following method declaration: -(Complex *) add: (Complex * complexNum); Make sure you address any potential memory leakage issues in your test program. 7. Given the Complex class developed in exercise 7 of Chapter 4 and the extension made in exercise 6 of this chapter, create separate Complex.h and Complex.m inter- face and implementation files. Create a separate test program file to test everything. root class subclass NSObject Fraction Figure 8.1 Root and subclass 8 Inheritance In this chapter, you’ll learn about one of the key principles that makes object-oriented programming so powerful.Through the concept of inheritance, you will build on existing class definitions and customize them for your own applications. It All Begins at the Root You learned about the idea of a parent class in Chapter 3,“Classes, Objects, and Meth- ods.”A parent class can itself have a parent.The class that has no parent is at the top of the hierarchy and is known as a root class. In Objective-C, you have the capability to define your own root class, but it’s something you normally won’t want to do. Instead, you’ll want to take advantage of existing classes.All the classes we’ve defined up to this point are descendants of the root class called NSObject, which you specified in your interface file like this: @interface Fraction: NSObject ... @end The Fraction class is derived from the NSObject class. Because NSObject is at the top of the hierarchy (that is, there are no classes above it), it’s called a root class, as shown in Figure 8.1.The Fraction class is known as a child or subclass. 158 Chapter 8 Inheritance From a terminology point of view,we can speak of classes, child classes, and parent classes.Analogously,we can talk about classes, subclasses, and superclasses.You should be- come familiar with both types of terminology. Whenever a new class (other than a new root class) is defined, the class inherits certain properties. For example, all the instance variables and the methods from the parent im- plicitly become part of the new class definition.That means the subclass can access these methods and instance variables directly,as if they were defined directly within the class definition. A simple example, albeit contrived, helps to illustrate this key concept of inheritance. Here’s a declaration for an object called ClassA with one method called initVar: @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; @end The initVar method simply sets the value of ClassA’s instance variable to 100: @implementation ClassA -(void) initVar { x = 100; } @end Now let’s also define a class called ClassB: @interface ClassB: ClassA -(void) printVar; @end The first line of the declaration @interface ClassB: ClassA says that instead of ClassB being a subclass of NSObject, ClassB is a subclass of ClassA. So although ClassA’s parent (or superclass) is NSObject, ClassB’s parent is ClassA. Figure 8.2 illustrates this. As you can see from Figure 8.2, the root class has no superclass and ClassB, which is at the bottom of the hierarchy,has no subclass.Therefore, ClassA is a subclass of NSObject, and ClassB is a subclass of ClassA and also of NSObject (technically,it’s a sub-subclass, or grandchild).Also, NSObject is a superclass of ClassA, which is a superclass of ClassB. NSObject is also a superclass of ClassB because it exists farther down its hierarchy. Here’s the full declaration for ClassB, which defines one method called printVar: @interface ClassB: ClassA 159It All Begins at the Root superclass superclass subclass subclass NSObject ClassA ClassB Figure 8.2 Subclasses and superclasses Class Instance Variables Methods NSObject ClassA ClassB x x initVar initVar printVar Figure 8.3 Inheriting instance variables and methods. -(void) printVar; @end @implementation ClassB -(void) printVar { NSLog (@”x = %i”, x); } @end The printVar method prints the value of the instance variable x, yet you haven’t de- fined any instance variables in ClassB.That’s because ClassB is a subclass of ClassA— therefore, it inherits all of ClassA’s instance variables (in this case, there’s just one). Figure 8.3 depicts this. (Of course, Figure 8.3 doesn’t show any of the methods or instance variables that are inherited from the NSObject class—there are several.) Let’s see how this works by putting it all together in a complete program example. For the sake of brevity,we’ll put all the class declarations and definitions into a single file (see Program 8.1). 160 Chapter 8 Inheritance Program 8.1 // Simple example to illustrate inheritance #import // ClassA declaration and definition @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) initVar { x = 100; } @end // Class B declaration and definition @interface ClassB : ClassA -(void) printVar; @end @implementation ClassB -(void) printVar { NSLog (@”x = %i”, x); } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; ClassB *b = [[ClassB alloc] init]; [b initVar]; // will use inherited method [b printVar]; // reveal value of x; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 161It All Begins at the Root Program 8.1 Output x = 100 You begin by defining b to be a ClassB object.After allocating and initializing b,you send a message to apply the initVar method to it. But looking back at the definition of ClassB, you’ll notice that you never defined such a method. initVar was defined in ClassA, and because ClassA is the parent of ClassB, ClassB gets to use all of ClassA’s methods. So with respect to ClassB, initVar is an inherited method. Note We briefly mentioned it up to this point, but alloc and init are methods you have used all along that are never defined in your classes. That’s because you took advantage of the fact that they were inherited methods. After sending the initVar message to b, you invoke the printVar method to display the value of the instance variable x.The output of x = 100 confirms that printVar was capable of accessing this instance variable.That’s because, as with the initVar method, it was inherited. Remember that the concept of inheritance works all the way down the chain. So if you defined a new class called ClassC, whose parent class was ClassB, like so @interface ClassC: ClassB; ... @end then ClassC would inherit all of ClassB’s methods and instance variables, which in turn inherited all of ClassA’s methods and instance variables, which in turn inherited all of Object’s methods and instance variables. Be sure you understand that each instance of a class gets it own instance variables, even if they’re inherited.A ClassC object and a ClassB object would therefore each have their own distinct instance variables. Finding the Right Method When you send a message to an object, you might wonder how the correct method is chosen to apply to that object.The rules are actually quite simple. First, the class to which the object belongs is checked to see whether a method is explicitly defined in that class with the specific name. If it is, that’s the method that is used. If it’s not defined there, the parent class is checked. If the method is defined there, that’s what is used. If not, the search continues. Parent classes are checked until one of two things happens: Either you find a class that contains the specified method or you don’t find the method after going all the way back to the root class. If the first occurs, you’re all set; if the second occurs, you have a problem, and a warning message is generated that looks like this: warning: ‘ClassB’ may not respond to ‘-inity’ In this case, you inadvertently are trying to send a message called inity to a variable of type class ClassB.The compiler told you that variables of that type of class do not know 162 Chapter 8 Inheritance how to respond to such a method.Again, this was determined after checking ClassB’s methods and its parents’ methods back to the root class (which, in this case, is NSObject). In some cases, a message is not generated if the method is not found.This involves us- ing something known as forwarding, which is briefly discussed in Chapter 9,“Polymor- phism, Dynamic Typing,and Dynamic Binding.” Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods Inheritance often is used to extend a class.As an example, let’s assume that you’ve just been assigned the task of developing some classes to work with 2D graphical objects such as rectangles, circles, and triangles. For now,we’ll worry about just rectangles. Let’s go back to exercise 7 from Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions,”and start with the @interface section from that example: @interface Rectangle: NSObject { int width; int height; } @property int width, height; -(int) area; -(int) perimeter; @end You’ll have synthesized methods to set the rectangle’s width and height and to return those values, and your own methods to calculate its area and perimeter. Let’s add a method that will allow you to set both the width and the height of the rectangle with the same message call, which is as follows: -(void) setWidth: (int) w andHeight: (int) h; Assume that you typed this new class declaration into a file called Rectangle.h. Here’s what the implementation file Rectangle.m might look like: #import “Rectangle.h” @implementation Rectangle @synthesize width, height; -(void) setWidth: (int) w andHeight: (int) h { width = w; height = h; } 163Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods -(int) area { return width * height; } -(int) perimeter { return (width + height) * 2; } @end Each method definition is straightforward enough. Program 8.2 shows a main routine to test it. Program 8.2 #import “Rectangle h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Rectangle *myRect = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; [myRect setWidth: 5 andHeight: 8]; NSLog ( w = %i, h = %i”, myRect.width, myRect.height); NSLog (@”Area = %i, Perimeter = %i”, [myRect area], [myRect perimeter]); [myRect release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.2 Output Rectangle: w = 5, h = 8 Area = 40, Perimeter = 26 myRect is allocated and initialized; then its width is set to 5 and its height to 8.The first printf call verifies this. Next, the area and the perimeter of the rectangle are calculated with the appropriate message calls, and the returned values are handed off to NSLog to be displayed. 164 Chapter 8 Inheritance Suppose that you now need to work with squares.You could define a new class called Square and define similar methods in it as in your Rectangle class.Alternately,you could recognize the fact that a square is just a special case of a rectangle whose width and height just happen to be the same. Thus, an easy way to handle this is to make a new class called Square and have it be a subclass of Rectangle.That way,you get to use all of Rectangle’s methods and variables, in addition to defining your own. For now,the only methods you might want to add would be to set the side of the square to a particular value and retrieve that value. Program 8.3 shows the interface and implementation files for your new Square class. Program 8.3 Square.h Interface File #import “Rectangle.h” @interface Square: Rectangle -(void) setSide: (int) s; -(int) side; @end Program 8.3 Square.m Implementation File #import “Square.h” @implementation Square: Rectangle -(void) setSide: (int) s { [self setWidth: s andHeight: s]; } -(int) side { return width; } @end Notice what you did here.You defined your Square class to be a subclass of Rectangle, which is declared in the header file Rectangle.h.You didn’t need to add any instance variables here, but you did add new methods called setSide: and side. A square has only one side, but you’re internally representing it as two numbers—that’s okay.All that is hidden from the user of the Square class.You can always redefine your Square class later, if necessary; any users of the class don’t have to be concerned with the internal details because of the notion of data encapsulation discussed earlier. The setSide: method takes advantage of the fact that you already have a method in- herited from your Rectangle class to set the values of the width and height of a rectangle. 165Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods So setSide: calls the setWidth:andHeight: method from the Rectangle class, passing the parameter s as the value for both the width and the height.You don’t really have to do anything else. Someone working with a Square object can now set the dimensions of the square by using setSide: and can take advantage of the methods from the Rectangle class to calculate the square’s area, perimeter, and so on. Program 8.3 shows the test pro- gram and output for your new Square class. Program 8.3 Test Program #import “Square.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Square *mySquare = [[Square alloc] init]; [mySquare setSide: 5]; NSLog (@”Square s = %i”, [mySquare side]); NSLog (@”Area = %i, Perimeter = %i”, [mySquare area], [mySquare perimeter]); [mySquare release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.3 Output Square s = 5 Area = 25, Perimeter = 20 The way you defined the Square class is a fundamental technique of working with classes in Objective-C: extending what you or someone else has already done to suit your needs. In addition, a mechanism known as categories enables you to add new methods to an existing class definition in a modular fashion—that is, without having to constantly add new definitions to the same interface and implementation files.This is particularly handy when you want to do this to a class for which you don’t have access to the source code. You’ll learn about categories in Chapter 11,“Tying Up Some Loose Ends.” 166 Chapter 8 Inheritance myRect (x1, y1) (x,y) (0,0) Figure 8.4 A rectangle drawn in a window A Point Class and Memory Allocation The Rectangle class stores only the rectangle’s dimensions. In a real-world graphical ap- plication, you might need to keep track of all sorts of additional information, such as the rectangle’s fill color, line color, location (origin) inside a window,and so on.You can easily extend your class to do this. For now,let’s deal with the idea of the rectangle’s origin.As- sume that the “origin” means the location of the rectangle’s lower-left corner within some Cartesian coordinate system (x, y). If you were writing a drawing application, this point might represent the location of the rectangle inside a window,as depicted in Figure 8.4. In Figure 8.4, the rectangle’s origin is shown at (x1,y1). You could extend your Rectangle class to store the x, y coordinate of the rectangle’s origin as two separate values. Or you might realize that, in the development of your graphics application, you’ll have to deal with a lot of coordinates and, therefore, decide to define a class called XYPoint (you might recall this problem from exercise 7 in Chapter 3): #import @interface XYPoint: NSObject { int x; int y; } @property int x, y; -(void) setX: (int) xVal andY: (int) yVal; @end Now let’s get back to your Rectangle class.You want to be able to store the rectangle’s origin, so you’ll add another instance variable, called origin, to the definition of your Rectangle class: @interface Rectangle: NSObject { 167Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods int width; int height; XYPoint *origin; } ... It seems reasonable to add a method to set the rectangle’s origin and to retrieve it.To illustrate an important point, we’re won’t synthesize the accessor methods for the origin now.Instead, we’ll write them ourselves. The @class Directive Now you can work with rectangles (and squares as well!) with the ability to set their widths, heights, and origins. First, let’s take a complete look at your Rectangle.h inter- face file: #import @class XYPoint; @interface Rectangle: NSObject { int width; int height; XYPoint *origin; } @property int width, height; -(XYPoint *) origin; -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt; -(void) setWidth: (int) w andHeight: (int) h -(int) area; -(int) perimeter; @end You used a new directive in the Rectangle.h header file: @class XYPoint; You needed this because the compiler needs to know what an XYPoint is when it en- counters it as one of the instance variables defined for a Rectangle.The class name is also used in the argument and return type declarations for your setOrigin: and origin methods, respectively. You do have another choice. You can import the header file in- stead, like so: #import “XYPoint.h” 168 Chapter 8 Inheritance Using the @class directive is more efficient because the compiler doesn’t need to process the entire XYPoint.h file (even though it is quite small); it just needs to know that XYPoint is the name of a class. If you need to reference one of the XYPoint classes meth- ods, the @class directive does not suffice because the compiler would need more infor- mation; it would need to know how many arguments the method takes, what their types are, and what the method’s return type is. Let’s fill in the blanks for your new XYPoint class and Rectangle methods so you can test everything in a program. First, Program 8.4 shows the implementation file for your XYPoint class. First, Program 8.4 shows the new methods for the Rectangle class. Program 8.4 Rectangle.m Added Methods #import “XYPoint.h” -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt { origin = pt; } -(XYPoint *) origin { return origin; } @end Following are the complete XYPoint and Rectangle class definitions, followed by a test program to try them out. Program 8.4 XPoint.h Interface File #import @interface XYPoint: NSObject { int x; int y; } @property int x, y; -(void) setX: (int) xVal andY: (int) yVal; @end 169Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods Program 8.4 XYPoint.m Implementation File #import “XYPoint.h” @implementation XYPoint @synthesize x, y; -(void) setX: (int) xVal andY: (int) yVal { x = xVal; y = yVal; } @end Program 8.4 Rectangle.h Interface File #import @class XYPoint; @interface Rectangle: NSObject { int width; int height; XYPoint *origin; } @property int width, height; -(XYPoint *) origin; -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt; -(void) setWidth: (int) w andHeight: (int) h; -(int) area; -(int) perimeter; @end Program 8.4 Rectangle.m Implementation File #import “Rectangle.h” @implementation Rectangle @synthesize width, height; -(void) setWidth: (int) w andHeight: (int) h 170 Chapter 8 Inheritance { width = w; height = h; } –(void) setOrigin: (Point *) pt { origin = pt; } –(int) area { return width * height; } –(int) perimeter { return (width + height) * 2; } –(Point *) origin { return origin; } @end Program 8.4 Test Program #import “Rectangle.h” #import “XYPoint.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Rectangle *myRect = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; XYPoint *myPoint = [[XYPoint alloc] init]; [myPoint setX: 100 andY: 200]; [myRect setWidth: 5 andHeight: 8]; myRect.origin = myPoint; NSLog (@”Rectangle w = %i, h = %i”, myRect.width, myRect.height); 171Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods NSLog (@”Origin at (%i, %i)”, myRect.origin.x, myRect.origin.y); NSLog (@”Area = %i, Perimeter = %i”, [myRect area], [myRect perimeter]); [myRect release]; [myPoint release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.4 Output Rectangle w = 5, h = 8 Origin at (100, 200) Area = 40, Perimeter = 26 Inside the main routine, you allocated and initialized a rectangle identified as myRect and a point called myPoint. Using the setX:andY: method, you set myPoint to (100, 200).After setting the width and the height of the rectangle to 5 and 8, respectively,you invoked the setOrigin method to set the rectangle’s origin to the point indicated by myPoint.The three printf calls then retrieve and print the values.The expression myRect.origin.x takes the XYPoint object returned by the accessor method origin method and applies the dot operator to get the x-coordinate of the rectangle’s origin. In a similar manner, the fol- lowing expression retrieves the y-coordinate of the rectangle’s origin: myRect.origin.y Classes Owning Their Objects Can you explain the output from Program 8.5? Program 8.5 #import “Rectangle.h” #import “XYPoint.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Rectangle *myRect = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; XYPoint *myPoint = [[XYPoint alloc] init]; 172 Chapter 8 Inheritance 100 200 x y myPoint Figure 8.5 The XYPoint myPoint in memory [myPoint setX: 100 andY: 200]; [myRect setWidth: 5 andHeight: 8]; myRect.origin = myPoint; NSLog (@”Origin at (%i, %i)”, myRect.origin.x, myRect.origin.y); [myPoint setX: 50 andY: 50]; NSLog (@”Origin at (%i, %i)”, myRect.origin.x, myRect.origin.y); [myRect release]; [myPoint release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.5 Output Origin at (100, 200) Origin at (50, 50) You changed the XYPoint myPoint from (100, 200) in the program to (50, 50), and apparently it also changed the rectangle’s origin! But why did that happen? You didn’t explicitly reset the rectangle’s origin, so why did the rectangle’s origin change? If you go back to the definition of your setOrigin: method, perhaps you’ll see why: -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt { origin = pt; } When the setOrigin: method is invoked with the expression myRect.origin = myPoint; the value of myPoint is passed as the argument to the method.This value points to where this XYPoint object is stored in memory,as depicted in Figure 8.5. 173Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Methods 100 200 x y myPoint pt Figure 8.6 Passing the rectangle’s origin to the method That value stored inside myPoint, which is a pointer into memory,is copied into the local variable pt as defined inside the method. Now both pt and myPoint reference the same data stored in memory.Figure 8.6 illustrates this. When the origin variable is set to pt inside the method, the pointer stored inside pt is copied into the instance variable origin, as depic ed in Figure 8.7. Because myPoint and the origin variable stored in myRect reference the same area in memory (as does the local variable pt), when you subsequently change the value of myPoint to (50, 50), the rectangle’s origin is changed as well. You can avoid this problem by modifying the setOrigin: method so that it allocates its own point and sets the origin to that point.This is shown here: -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt { origin = [[XYPoint alloc] init]; [origin setX: pt.x andY: pt.y]; } The method first allocates and initializes a new XYPoint.The message expression 100 200 x y 5 8 w h origin myPoint pt myRect Figure 8.7 Setting the rectangle’s origin 174 Chapter 8 Inheritance Figure 8.8 Compiler error messages [origin setX: pt.x andY: pt.y]; sets the newly allocated XYPoint to the x, y coordinate of the argument to the method. Study this message expression until you fully understand how it works. The change to the setOrigin: method means that each Rectangle instance now owns its origin XYPoint instance. Even though it is now responsible for allocating the memory for that XYPoint, it should also now become responsible for releasing that mem- ory.In general, when a class contains other objects, at times you will want to have it own some or all of those objects. In the case of a rectangle, it makes sense for the Rectangle class to own its origin because that is a basic attribute of a rectangle. But how do you release the memory used by your origin? Releasing the rectangle’s memory does not also release the memory you allocated for the origin. One way to re- lease the memory is to insert a line such as the following into main: [[myRect origin] release]; This releases the XYPoint object that the origin method returns.You must do this be- fore you release the memory for the Rectangle object itself because none of the variables contained in an object is valid after an object’s memory is released. So the correct code se- quence would be as follows: [[myRect origin] release]; // Release the origin’s memory [myRect release]; // Release the rectangle’s memory It’s a bit of a burden to have to remember to release the origin’s memory yourself.After all, you weren’t the one who allocated it; the Rectangle class did. In the next section, “Overriding Methods,”you learn how to have the Rectangle release the memory. With your modified method, recompiling and rerunning Program 8.5 produces the er- ror messages shown as Figure 8.8. Oops! The problem here is that you’ve used some methods from the XYPoint class in your modified method, so now the compiler needs more information about it than the @class directive provides. In this case, you must go back and replace that directive with an import instead, like so: #import “XYPoint.h” Program 8.5B Output Origin at (100, 200) Origin at (100, 200) 175Overriding Methods That’s better.This time, changing the value of myPoint to (50, 50) inside main had no effect on the rectangle’s origin because a copy of the point was created inside the Rectangle’s setOrigin: method. Incidentally,we didn’t synthesize the origin methods here because the synthesized set- ter setOrigin: method would have behaved just like the one you originally wrote.That is, by default, the action of a synthesized setter is to simply copy the object pointer, not the object itself. You can synthesize a different type of setter method that instead does make a copy of the object. However, to do that, you need to learn how to write a special copying method.We revisit this topic in Chapter 17,“Memory Management.” Overriding Methods We noted earlier in this chapter that you can’t remove or subtract methods through inher- itance. However, you can change the definition of an inherited method by overriding it. Returning to your two classes, ClassA and ClassB, assume that you want to write your own initVar method for ClassB.You already know that ClassB will inherit the initVar method defined in ClassA, but can you make a new method with the same name to replace the inherited method? The answer is yes, and you do so simply by defin- ing a new method with the same name.A method defined with the same name as that of a parent class replaces, or overrides, the inherited definition.Your new method must have the same return type and take the same number and type of arguments as the method you are overriding. Program 8.6 shows a simple example to illustrate this concept. Program 8.6 // Overriding Methods #import // ClassA declaration and definition @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) initVar { x = 100; } 176 Chapter 8 Inheritance @end // ClassB declaration and definition @interface ClassB: ClassA -(void) initVar; -(void) printVar; @end @implementation ClassB -(void) initVar // added method { x = 200; } -(void) printVar { NSLog (@”x = %i”, x); } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; ClassB *b = [[ClassB alloc] init]; [b initVar]; // uses overriding method in B [b printVar]; // reveal value of x; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.6 Output x = 200 Clearly, the message [b initVar]; causes the initVar method defined in ClassB to be used, and not the one defined in ClassA, as was the case with the previous example. Figure 8.9 illustrates this. 177Overriding Methods Class Instance Variables Methods Object ClassA ClassB x x initVar initVar printVar Figure 8.9 Overriding the initVar method Which Method Is Selected? We covered how the system searches up the hierarchy for a method to apply to an object. If you have methods in different classes with the same name, the correct method is chosen based on the class of the receiver of the message. Program 8.7 uses the same class defini- tion for ClassA and ClassB as before. Program 8.7 #import // insert definitions for ClassA and ClassB here int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; ClassA *a = [[ClassA alloc] init]; ClassB *b = [[ClassB alloc] init]; [a initVar]; // uses ClassA method [a printVar]; // reveal value of x; [b initVar]; // use overriding ClassB method [b printVar]; // reveal value of x; [a release]; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } You’ll get this warning message when you build this program: warning: ‘ClassA’ may not respond to ‘-printVar’ What happened here? We talked about this in an earlier section.Take a look at the dec- laration for ClassA: // ClassA declaration and definition 178 Chapter 8 Inheritance @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; @end Notice that no printVar method is declared.That method is declared and defined in ClassB.Therefore, even though ClassB objects and their descendants can use this method through inheritance, ClassA objects cannot because the method is defined farther down in the hierarchy. Note You can coerce the use of this method in some ways, but we don’t go into that here—be- sides, it’s not good programming practice. Returning to our example, let’s add a printVar method to ClassA so you can display the value of its instance variables: // ClassA declaration and definition @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; -(void) printVar; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) initVar { x = 100; } -(void) printVar { NSLog (@”x = %i”, x); } @end ClassB’s declaration and definition remain unchanged. Let’s try compiling and running this program again. 179Overriding Methods Program 8.7 Output x = 100 x = 200 Now we can talk about the actual example. First, a and b are defined to be ClassA and ClassB objects, respectively.After allocation and initialization, a message is sent to a asking it to apply the initVar method.This method is defined in the definition of ClassA,so this method is selected.The method simply sets the value of the instance variable x to 100 and returns.The printVar method, which you just added to ClassA, is invoked next to display the value of x. As with the ClassA object, the ClassB object b is allocated and initialized, its instance variable x is set to 200, and finally its value displayed. Be sure that you understand how the proper method is chosen for a and b based on which class they belong to.This is a fundamental concept of object-oriented program- ming in Objective-C. As an exercise, consider removing the printVar method from ClassB.Would this work? Why or why not? Overriding the dealloc Method and the Keyword super Now that you know how to override methods, let’s return to Program 8.5B to learn a better approach to releasing the memory occupied by the origin.The setOrigin: method now allocates its own XYPoint origin object, and you are responsible for releas- ing its memory.The approach used in Program 8.6 was to have main release that memory with a statement such as follows: [[myRect origin] release]; You don’t have to worry about releasing all the individual members of a class; you can override the inherited dealloc method (it’s inherited from NSObject) and release the origin’s memory there. Note You don’t override the release method—you override dealloc instead. As you’ll learn in a later chapter, release sometimes gives up the memory an object used, and sometimes it doesn’t. It gives up the memory taken by an object only if no one else is referencing that ob- ject. And it does this by invoking the object’s dealloc method, the method that actually re- leases the memory. If you decide to override dealloc, you also have to be sure to release the memory taken up not only by your own instance variables, but by any inherited ones as well. To do this, you need to take advantage of the special keyword super, which refers to the parent class of the message receiver.You can send a message to super to execute an over- ridden method.This is the most common use for this keyword. So the message expression [super release]; 180 Chapter 8 Inheritance when used inside a method invokes the release method that is defined in (or inherited by) the parent class.The method is invoked on the receiver of the message—in other words, on self. Therefore, the strategy for overriding the dealloc method for your Rectangle class is to first release the memory taken up by your origin and then invoke the dealloc method from the parent class to complete the job.This releases the memory taken up by the Rectangle object itself. Here is the new method: -(id) dealloc { if (origin) [origin release]; return [super dealloc]; } The dealloc method is defined to return a value of type id.You know this by looking inside the header file where it is declared. Inside the dealloc method, a test is made to see if origin is nonzero before releasing it.The origin of the rectangle possibly was never set; in this case, it has its default value of zero.Then we invoke the dealloc method from the parent class, which is the same method the Rectangle class would have inherited if it had not been overridden. You can also write the dealloc method more simply as -(id) dealloc { [origin release]; return [super dealloc]; } because it’s okay to send a message to a nil object.Also, you’re careful to release origin and not dealloc it here. If no one else is using the origin, the release will end up invok- ing the dealloc method on the origin anyway to free up its space. With your new method, you now have to release just the rectangles that you allocate, without having to worry about the XYPoint objects they contain.The two release mes- sages shown in Program 8.5 will now suffice to release all the objects you allocated in the program, including the XYPoint object that setOrigin: creates: [myRect release]; [myPoint release]; One issue remains: If you set the origin of a single Rectangle object to different values during the execution of your program, you must release the memory taken up by the old origin before you allocate and assign the new one. For example, consider the following code sequence: myRect.origin = startPoint; ... 181Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Instance Variables myRect.origin = endPoint; ... [startPoint release]; [endPoint release]; [myRect release]; The copy of the XYPoint startPoint stored in the origin member of myRect will not be released because it is overwritten by the second origin (endPoint) that is stored there.That origin is released properly when the rectangle itself is released, based on your new release method. You would have to ensure that, before you set a new origin in your rectangle, the old one was released.You could handle this in the setOrigin: method, as follows: -(void) setOrigin: (XYPoint *) pt { if (origin) [origin release]; origin = [[XYPoint alloc] init]; [origin setX: pt.x andY: pt.y]; } Luckily,when you synthesize your accessor methods, you can also have the compiler automatically handle this issue for you. Extension Through Inheritance: Adding New Instance Variables Not only can you add new methods to effectively extend the definition of a class, but you can also add new instance variables. In both cases, the effect is cumulative.You can never subtract methods or instance variables through inheritance; you can only add—or, in the case of methods, add or override. Let’s return to your simple ClassA and ClassB classes and make some changes.Add a new instance variable, y, to ClassB, like so: @interface ClassB: ClassA { int y; } -(void) printVar; @end Even though ClassB might appear to have only one instance variable, called y, based on the previous declaration, it actually has two: It inherits the variable x from ClassA and adds its own instance variable y. 182 Chapter 8 Inheritance Note Of course, it also has instance variables that it inherits from the NSObject class, but we choose to ignore this detail for now. Let’s put this together in a simple example to illustrate this concept (see Program 8.8). Program 8.8 // Extension of instance variables #import // Class A declaration and definition @interface ClassA: NSObject { int x; } -(void) initVar; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) initVar { x = 100; } @end // ClassB declaration and definition @interface ClassB: ClassA { int y; } -(void) initVar; -(void) printVar; @end @implementation ClassB -(void) initVar { x = 200; y = 300; } -(void) printVar { 183Abstract Classes NSLog (@”x = %i”, x); NSLog (@”y = %i”, y); } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; ClassB *b = [[ClassB alloc] init]; [b initVar ; // uses overriding method in ClassB [b printVar]; // reveal values of x and y; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 8.8 Output x = 200 y = 300 The ClassB object b is initialized by invoking the initVar method defined within ClassB. Recall that this method overrides the initVar method from ClassA.This method also sets the value of x (which was inherited from ClassA) to 200 and y (which was defined in ClassB) to 300. Next, the printVar method is used to display the value of these two instance variables. Many more subtleties surround the idea of choosing the right method in response to a message, particularly when the receiver can be one of several classes.This is a powerful concept known as dynamic binding, and it is the topic of the next chapter. Abstract Classes What better way to conclude this chapter than with a bit of terminology? We introduce it here because it’s directly related to the notion of inheritance. Sometimes classes are created just to make it easier for someone to create a subclass. For that reason, these classes are called abstract classes or, equivalently, abstract superclasses. Methods and instance variables are defined in the class, but no one is expected to actually create an instance from that class. For example, consider the root object NSObject. Can you think of any use for defining an object from that class? The Foundation framework, covered in Part II,“The Foundation Framework,”has several of these so-called abstract classes.As an example, the Foundation’s NSNumber class is an abstract class that was created for working with numbers as objects. Integers and 184 Chapter 8 Inheritance floating-point numbers typically have different storage requirements. Separate subclasses of NSNumber exist for each numeric type. Because these subclasses, unlike their abstract superclasses, actually exist, they are known as concrete subclasses. Each concrete subclass falls under the NSNumber class umbrella and is collectively referred to as a cluster.When you send a message to the NSNumber class to create a new integer object, the appropriate sub- class is used to allocate the necessary storage for an integer object and to set its value ap- propriately.These subclasses are actually private.You don’t access them directly yourself; they are accessed indirectly through the abstract superclass.The abstract superclass gives a common interface for working with all types of number objects and relieves you of the burden of having to know which type of number you have stored in your number object and how to set and retrieve its value. Admittedly,this discussion might seem a little “abstract” (sorry!); don’t worry—just a basic grasp of the concept is sufficient here. Exercises 1. Add a new class called ClassC, which is a subclass of ClassB, to Program 8.1. Make an initVar method that sets the value of its instance variable x to 300.Write a test routine that declares ClassA, ClassB, and ClassC objects and invokes their corresponding initVar methods. 2. When dealing with higher-resolution devices, you might need to use a coordinate system that enables you to specify points as floating-point values instead of as sim- ple integers. Modify the XYPoint and Rectangle classes from this chapter to deal with floating-point numbers.The rectangle’s width, height, area, and perimeter should all work with floating-point numbers as well. 3. Modify Program 8.1 to add a new class called ClassB2 that, like ClassB, is a sub- class of ClassA. What can you say about the relationship between ClassB and ClassB2? Identify the hierarchical relationship between the Object class, ClassA, ClassB, and ClassB2. What is the superclass of ClassB? What is the superclass of ClassB2? How many subclasses can a class have, and how many superclasses can it have? 4. Write a Rectangle method called translate: that takes a vector called XYPoint (xv,yv) as its argument. Have it translate the rectangle’s origin by the specified vector. 5. Define a new class called GraphicObject, and make it a subclass of NSObject. De- fine instance variables in your new class as follows: int fillColor; // 32-bit color BOOL filled; // Is the object filled? int lineColor; // 32-bit line color 185Exercises Write methods to set and retrieve the variables defined previously. Make the Rectangle class a subclass of GraphicObject. Define new classes, Circle and Triangle, which are also subclasses of GraphicObject. Write methods to set and retrieve the various parameters for these objects and also to calculate the circle’s circumference and area, and the triangle’s perimeter and area. 6. Write a Rectangle method called intersect: that takes a rectangle as an argu- ment and returns a rectangle representing the overlapping area between the two rectangles. For example, given the two rectangles shown in Figure 8.10, the method should return a rectangle whose origin is at (400, 420), whose width is 50, and whose height is 60. If the rectangles do not intersect, return one whose width and height are zero and whose origin is at (0,0). 7. Write a method for the Rectangle class called draw that draws a rectangle using dashes and vertical bar characters.The following code sequence Rectangle *myRect = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; [myRect setWidth: 10 andHeight: 3]; [myRect draw]; [myRect release]; would produce the following output: ————— || || || ————— w = 250 w = 100 h = 75 h = 180(200, 420) (400, 300) Figure 8.10 Intersecting rectangles 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding In this chapter, you’ll learn about the features of the Objective-C language that make it such a powerful programming language and that distinguish it from some other object- oriented programming languages such as C++.This chapter describes three key concepts: polymorphism, dynamic typing, and dynamic binding. Polymorphism enables programs to be developed so that objects from different classes can define methods that share the same name. Dynamic typing defers the determination of the class that an object belongs to until the program is executing. Dynamic binding defers the determination of the actual method to invoke on an object until program execution time. Polymorphism: Same Name, Different Class Program 9.1 shows the interface file for a class called Complex, which is used to represent complex numbers in a program. Program 9.1 Interface File Complex.h // Interface file for Complex class #import @interface Complex: NSObject { double real; double imaginary; } @property double real, imaginary; -(void) print; -(void) setReal: (double) a andImaginary: (double) b; -(Complex *) add: (Complex *) f; @end 188 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding You should have completed the implementation section for this class in Exercise 6 from Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions.”We added an additional setReal:andImaginary: method to enable you to set both the real and imaginary parts of your number with a single message and also synthesized accessor methods.This is shown in the following. Program 9.1 Implementation File Complex.m // Implementation file for Complex class #import “Complex.h” @implementation Complex @synthesize real, imaginary; -(void) print { NSLog (@” %g + %gi “, real, imaginary); } -(void) setReal: (double) a andImaginary: (double) b { real = a; imaginary = b; } -(Complex *) add: (Complex *) f { Complex *result = [[Complex alloc] init]; [result setReal: real + [f real] andImaginary: imaginary + [f imaginary]]; return result; } @end Program 9.1 Test Program main.m // Shared Method Names: Polymorphism #import “Fraction.h” #import “Complex.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { 189Polymorphism: Same Name, Different Class NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *f1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *f2 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *fracResult; Complex *c1 = [[Complex alloc] init]; Complex *c2 = [[Complex alloc] init]; Complex *compResult; [f1 setTo: 1 over: 10]; [f2 setTo: 2 over: 15]; [c1 setReal: 18.0 andImaginary: 2.5]; [c2 setReal: -5.0 andImaginary: 3.2]; // add and print 2 complex numbers [c1 print]; NSLog (@” +”); [c2 print]; NSLog (@”---------”); compResult = [c1 add: c2]; [compResult print]; NSLog (@”\n”); [c1 release]; [c2 release]; [compResult release]; // add and print 2 fractions [f1 print]; NSLog (@” +”); [f2 print]; NSLog (@”----”); fracResult = [f1 add: f2]; [fracResult print]; [f1 release]; [f2 release]; [fracResult release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 190 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding Program 9.1 Output 18 + 2.5i + -5 + 3.2i --------- 13 + 5.7i 1/10 + 2/15 ---- 7/30 Note that both the Fraction and Complex classes contain add: and print methods. So when executing the message expressions compResult = [c1 add: c2]; [compResult print]; how does the system know which methods to execute? It’s simple:The Objective-C run- time knows that c1, the receiver of the first message, is a Complex object.Therefore, it se- lects the add: method defined for the Complex class. The Objective-C runtime system also determines that compResult is a Complex ob- ject, so it selects the print method defined in the Complex class to display the result of the addition.The same discussion applies to the following message expressions: fracResult = [f1 add: f2]; [fracResult print]; Note As described more completely in Chapter 13, “Underlying Language Features,” the system always carries information about the class to which an object belongs. This enables it to make these key decisions at runtime instead of at compile time. The corresponding methods from the Fraction class are chosen to evaluate the mes- sage expression based on the class of f1 and fracResult. As mentioned, the capability to share the same method name across different classes is known as polymorphism. Polymorphism enables you to develop a set of classes that each can respond to the same method name. Each class definition encapsulates the code needed to respond to that particular method, and this makes it independent of the other class defi- nitions.This also enables you to later add new classes that can respond to methods with the same name. 191Dynamic Binding and the id Type Note Before leaving this section, note that both the Fraction and Complex classes should be re- sponsible for releasing the results that are produced by their add:methods, and not the test program. In fact, these objects should be autoreleased. We’ll talk about that more in Chapter 18, “Copying Objects.” Dynamic Binding and the id Type Chapter 4 briefly touched on the id data type and noted that it is a generic object type. That is, id can be used for storing objects that belong to any class.The real power of this data type is exploited when it’s used this way to store different types of objects in a vari- able during the execution of a program. Study Program 9.2 and its associated output. Program 9.2 // Illustrate Dynamic Typing and Binding #import “Fraction.h” #import “Complex.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; id dataValue; Fraction *f1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Complex *c1 = [[Complex alloc] init]; [f1 setTo: 2 over: 5]; [c1 setReal: 10.0 andImaginary: 2.5]; // first dataValue gets a fraction dataValue = f1; [dataValue print]; // now dataValue gets a complex number dataValue = c1; [dataValue print]; [c1 release]; [f1 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 192 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding Program 9.2 Output 2/5 10 + 2.5i The variable dataValue is declared as an id object type.Therefore, dataValue can be used to hold any type of object in the program. Note that no asterisk is used in the decla- ration line: id dataValue; The Fraction f1 is set to 2/5, and the Complex number c2 is set to (10 + 2.5i). The assignment dataValue = f1; stores the Fraction f1 in dataValue. Now,what can you do with dataValue? Well,you can invoke any of the methods that you can use on a Fraction object with dataValue, even though the type of dataValue is an id and not a Fraction. But if dataValue can store any type of object, how does the system know which method to invoke? That is, when it encounters the message expression [dataValue print]; how does it know which print method to invoke? You have print methods defined for both the Fraction and Complex classes. As noted previously,the answer lies in the fact that the Objective-C system always keeps track of the class to which an object belongs. It also lies in the concepts of dynamic typing and dynamic binding—that is, the system makes the decision about the class of the object, and, therefore, which method to invoke dynamically,at runtime instead of at com- pile time. So during execution of the program, before the system sends the print message to dataValue, it first checks the class of the object stored inside dataValue. In the first case of Program 9.2, this variable contains a Fraction, so the print method defined in the Fraction class is used.This is verified by the output from the program. In the second case, the same thing happens. First, the Complex number c1 is assigned to dataValue. Next, the following message expression is executed: [dataValue print]; This time, because dataValue contains an object belonging to the Complex class, the corresponding print method from that class is selected for execution. This is a simple example, but you can extrapolate this concept to more sophisticated applications.When combined with polymorphism, dynamic binding and dynamic typing enable you to easily write code that can send the same message to objects from different classes. For example, consider a draw method that can be used to paint graphical objects on the screen.You might have different draw methods defined for each of your graphical ob- jects, such as text, circles, rectangles, windows, and so on. If the particular object to be 193Compile Time Versus Runtime Checking drawn is stored inside an id variable called currentObject, for example, you could paint it on the screen simply by sending it the draw message: [currentObject draw]; You could even test it first to ensure that the object stored in currentObject actually responds to a draw method.You’ll see how to do that later in this chapter, in the section called “Asking Questions About Classes.” Compile Time Versus Runtime Checking Because the type of object s ored inside an id variable can be indeterminate at compile time, some tests are deferred until runtime—that is, while the program is executing. Consider the following sequence of code: Fraction *f1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [f1 setReal: 10.0 andImaginary: 2.5 ; Recalling that the setReal:andImaginary: method applies to complex numbers and not fractions, the following message is issued when you compile the program containing these lines: prog3.m: In function ‘main’: prog3.m:13: warning: ‘Fraction’ does not respond to ‘setReal:andImaginary:’ The Objective-C compiler knows that f1 is a Fraction object because it has been de- clared that way.It also knows that when it sees the message expression [f1 setReal: 10.0 andImaginary: 2.5]; the Fraction class does not have a setReal:andImaginary: method (and did not inherit one, either).Therefore, it issues the warning message shown previously. Now consider the following code sequence: id dataValue = [[Fraction alloc] init]; ... [dataValue setReal: 10.0 andImaginary: 2.5]; These lines do not produce a warning message from the compiler because the com- piler doesn’t know what type of object is stored inside dataValue when processing your source file. No error message is reported until you run the program containing these lines.The er- ror looks something like this: objc: Fraction: does not recognize selector -setReal:andImaginary: dynamic3: received signal: Abort trap When attempting to execute the expression [dataValue setReal: 10.0 andImaginary: 2.5]; The runtime system first checks the type of object stored inside dataValue. Because dataValue has a Fraction stored in it, the runtime system checks to ensure that the 194 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding method setReal:andImaginary: is one of the methods defined for the class Fraction. Because it’s not, the error message shown previously is issued and the program is termi- nated. The id Data Type and Static Typing If an id data type can be used to store any object, why don’t you just declare all your ob- jects as type id? For several reasons, you don’t want to get into the habit of overusing this generic class data type. First, when you define a variable to be an object from a particular class, you are using what’s known as static typing.The word static refers to the fact that the variable is always used to store objects from the particular class. So the class of the object stored in that type is predeterminate, or static.When you use static typing, the compiler ensures, to the best of its ability,that the variable is used consistently throughout the program.The compiler can check to ensure that a method applied to an object is defined or inherited by that class; if not, it issues a warning message.Thus, when you declare a Rectangle variable called myRect in your program, the compiler checks that any methods you invoke on myRect are defined in the Rectangle class or are inherited from its superclass. Note Certain techniques make it possible to invoke methods that are specified by a variable, in which case the compiler can’t check that for you. However, if the check is performed for you at runtime anyway,why do you care about static typing? You care because it’s better to get your errors out during the compilation phase of your program than during the execution phase. If you leave it until runtime, you might not even be the one running the program when the error occurs. If your program is put into production, some poor unsuspecting user might discover when running the program that a particular object does not recognize a method. Another reason for using static typing is that it makes your programs more readable. Consider the following declaration: id f1; versus Fraction *f1; Which do you think is more understandable—that is, which makes the intended use of the variable f1 clearer? The combination of static typing and meaningful variable names (which we intentionally did not choose in the previous example) can go a long way to- ward making your program more self-documenting. 195Asking Questions About Classes Argument and Return Types with Dynamic Typing If you use dynamic typing to invoke a method, note the following rule: If a method with the same name is implemented in more than one of your classes, each method must agree on the type of each argument and the type of value it returns so that the compiler can generate the correct code for your message expressions. The compiler performs a consistency check among each class declaration it has seen. If one or more methods conflict in either argument or return type, the compiler issues a warning message. For example, both the Fraction and Complex classes contain add: methods. However, the Fraction class takes as its argument and returns a Fraction object, whereas the Complex class takes and returns a Complex object. If frac1 and myFract are Fraction objects, and comp1 and myComplex are Complex objects, statements such as result = [myFract add: frac1]; and result = [myComplex add: comp1]; do not cause any problems This is because, in both cases, the receiver of the message is statically typed and the compiler can check for consistent use of the method as it is de- fined in the receiver’s class. If dataValue1 and dataValue2 are id variables, the statement result = [dataValue1 add: dataValue2]; causes the compiler to generate code to pass the argument to an add: method and handle its returned value by making assumptions. At runtime, the Objective-C runtime system will check the actual class of the object stored inside dataValue1 and select the appropriate method from the correct class to ex- ecute. However, in a more general case, the compiler might generate the incorrect code to pass arguments to a method or handle its return value.This would happen if one method took an object as its argument and the other took a floating-point value, for ex- ample. Or if one method returned an object and the other returned an integer, for exam- ple. If the inconsistency between two methods is just a different type of object (for example, the Fraction’s add: method takes a Fraction object as its argument and re- turns one, and the Complex’s add: method takes and returns a Complex object), the com- piler will still generate the correct code because memory addresses (that is, pointers) are passed as references to objects anyway. Asking Questions About Classes As you start working with variables that can contain objects from different classes, you might need to ask questions such as the following: n Is this object a rectangle? n Does this object support a print method? n Is this object a member of the Graphics class or one of its descendants? 196 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding Table 9.1 Methods for Working with Dynamic Types Method Question or Action -(BOOL) isKindOfClass: class-object Is the object a member of class-object or a descendant? -(BOOL) isMemberOfClass: class-object Is the object a member of class-object? -(BOOL) respondsToSelector: selector Can the object respond to the method speci- fied by selector? +(BOOL) instancesRespondToSelector: selector Can instances of the specified class respond to selector? +(BOOL)isSubclassOfClass: class-object Is the object a subclass of the specified class? -(id) performSelector: selector Apply the method specified by selector. -(id) performSelector: selector withObject: object Apply the method specified by selector, passing the argument object. -(id) performSelector: selector withObject: object1 withObject: object2 Apply the method specified by selector with the arguments object1 and object2. You can then use the answers to these questions to execute different sequences of code, avoid an error, or check the integrity of your program while it’s executing. Table 9.1 summarizes some of the basic methods that the Object class supports for ask- ing these types of questions. In this table, class-object is a class object (typically gener- ated with the class method), and selector is a value of type SEL (typically created with the @selector directive). Other methods are not covered here. One enables you to ask whether an object con- forms to a protocol (see Chapter 11,“Tying Up Some Loose Ends”).Others enable you to ask about dynamically resolving methods (not covered in this text). To generate a class object from a class name or another object, you send it the class message. So to get a class object from a class named Square, you write the following: [Square class] If mySquare is an instance of Square object, you get its class by writing this: [mySquare class] To see whether the objects stored in the variables obj1 and obj2 are instances from the same class, you write this: if ([obj1 class] == [obj2 class]) ... 197Asking Questions About Classes To see if my Fraction class, you test the result from the expression, like this: [myFract isMemberOfClass: [Fraction class]] To generate one of the so-called selectors listed in Table 9.1, you apply the @selector directive to a method name. For example, the following produces a value of type SEL for the method named alloc, which you know is a method inherited from the NSObject class: @selector (alloc) The following expression produces a selector for the setTo:over: method that you implemented in your Fraction class (remember those colon characters in the method names): @selector (setTo:over:) To see whether an instance of the Fraction class responds to the setTo:over: method, you can test the return value from the expression, like this: [Fraction instancesRespondToSelector: @selector (setTo:over:)] Remember, the test covers inherited methods, not just one that is directly defined in the class definition. The performSelector: method and its variants (not shown in Table 9.1) enable you to send a message to an object, where the message can be a selector stored inside a vari- able. For example, consider this code sequence: SEL action; id graphicObject; ... action = @selector (draw); ... [graphicObject performSelector: action]; In this example, the method indicated by the SEL variable action is sent to whatever graphical object is stored in graphicObject. Presumably,the action might vary during program execution—perhaps based on the user’s input—even though we’ve shown the action as draw.To first ensure that the object can respond to the action, you might want to use something like this: if ([graphicObject respondsToSelector: action] == YES) [graphicObject perform: action] else // error handling code here 198 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding Note You can also catch an error by overriding the doesNotRecognize: method. This method is invoked whenever an unrecognized message is sent to a class and is passed the unrecog- nized selector as its argument. You can employ other strategies as well:You can forward the message to someone else to handle using the forward:: method, or you can try to send the method anyway and catch an exception if it occurs.We cover this latter technique shortly. Program 9.3 asks some questions about the Square and Rectangle classes defined in Chapter 8,“Inheritance.”Try to predict the results from this program before looking at the actual output (no peeking!). Program 9.3 #import “Square.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Square *mySquare = [[Square alloc] init]; // isMemberOf: if ( [mySquare isMemberOfClass: [Square class]] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare is a member of Square class”); if ( [mySquare isMemberOfClass: [Rectangle class]] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare is a member of Rectangle class”); if ( [mySquare isMemberOfClass: [NSObject class]] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare is a member of NSObject class”); // isKindOf: if ( [mySquare isKindOfClass: [Square class]] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare is a kind of Square”); if ( [mySquare isKindOfClass: [Rectangle class]] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare is a kind of Rectangle”); if ( [mySquare isKindOfClass: [NSObject class]] == YES ) 199Asking Questions About Classes NSLog (@”mySquare is a kind of NSObject”); // respondsTo: if ( [mySquare respondsToSelector: @selector (setSide:)] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare responds to setSide: method”); if ( [mySquare respondsToSelector: @selector (setWidth:andHeight:)] == YES ) NSLog (@”mySquare responds to setWidth:andHeight: method”); if ( [Square respondsToSelector: @selector (alloc)] == YES ) NSLog (@”Square class responds to alloc method”); // instancesRespondTo: if ([Rectangle instancesRespondToSelector: @selector (setSide:)] == YES) NSLog (@”Instances of Rectangle respond to setSide: method”); if ([Square instancesRespondToSelector: @selector (setSide:)] == YES) NSLog (@”Instances of Square respond to setSide: method”); if ([Square isSubclassOfClass: [Rectangle class]] == YES) NSLog (@”Square is a subclass of a rectangle”); [mySquare release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Make sure you build this program with the implementation files for the Square, Rectangle, and XYPoint classes, which were all presented in Chapter 8,“Inheritance.” Program 9.3 Output mySquare is a member of Square class mySquare is a kind of Square mySquare is a kind of Rectangle mySquare is a kind of NSObject mySquare responds to setSide: method mySquare responds to setWidth:andHeight: method Square class responds to alloc method Instances of Square respond to setSide: method Square is a subclass of a rectangle The output from Program 9.3 should be clear. Remember that isMemberOfClass: tests for direct membership in a class, whereas isKindOfClass: checks for membership in 200 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding the inheritance hierarchy.Thus, mySquare is a member of the Square class—but it’s also “kind of” a Square, Rectangle, and NSObject because it exists in that class hierarchy (obviously,all objects should return YES for the isKindOf: test on the NSObject class, unless you’ve defined a new root object). The test if ( [Square respondsTo: @selector (alloc)] == YES ) tests whether the class Square responds to the class method alloc, which it does because it’s inherited from the root object NSObject. Realize that you can always use the class name directly as the receiver in a message expression, and you don’t have to write this in the previous expression (although you could if you wanted): [Square class] That’s the only place you can get away with that. In other places, you need to apply the class method to obtain the class object. Exception Handling Using @try Good programming practice dictates that you try to anticipate problems that can occur in your program.You can do this by testing for conditions that could cause a program to ter- minate abnormally and handling these situations, perhaps by logging a message and grace- fully terminating the program or taking some other corrective action. For example, you saw earlier in this chapter how you can test to see if an object responds to a particular message. In the case of error avoidance, performing this test while the program is execut- ing can enable you to avoid sending an unrecognized message to an object.When an at- tempt is made to send such an unrecognized message, your program will typically terminate immediately by throwing what’s known as an exception. Take a look at Program 9.4.We have no method called noSuchMethod defined in the Fraction class.When you compile the program, you will get warning messages to that effect. Program 9.4 #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv []) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *f = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [f noSuchMethod]; NSLog (@”Execution continues!”); [f release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 201Exception Handling Using @try You can go ahead and run the program despite the warning messages you receive. If you do, you can expect to see your program terminate abnormally with errors similar to these: Program 9.4 Output -[Fraction noSuchMethod]: unrecognized selector sent to instance 0x103280 *** Terminating app due to uncaught exception ‘NSInvalidArgumentException’, reason: ‘*** -[Fraction noSuchMethod]: unrecognized selector sent to instance 0x103280’ Stack: ( 2482717003, 2498756859, 2482746186, 2482739532, 2482739730 ) Trace/BPT trap To avoid abnormal program termination in a case such as this, you can put one or more statements inside a special statement block, which takes the following format: @try { statement statement ... } @catch (NSException *exception) { statement statement ... } Execution proceeds as normal with each statement in the @try block. However, if one of the statements in the block throws an exception, execution is not terminated but in- stead goes immediately to the @catch block, where it continues. Inside that block, you can handle the exception. One plausible sequence of actions here would be to log an er- ror message, clean up, and terminate execution. Program 9.5 illustrates exception handling. It is followed by the program’s output. Program 9.5 Exception Handling #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv []) { 202 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *f = [[Fraction alloc] init]; @try { [f noSuchMethod]; } @catch (NSException *exception) { NSLog(@”Caught %@%@”, [exception name], [exception reason]); } NSLog (@”Execution continues!”); [f release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 9.5 Output *** -[Fraction noSuchMethod]: unrecognized selector sent to instance 0x103280 Caught NSInvalidArgumentException: *** -[Fraction noSuchMethod]: unrecognized selector sent to instance 0x103280 Execution continues! When the exception occurs, the @catch block gets executed.An NSException object that contains information about the exception gets passed as the argument into this block.As you can see, the name method retrieves the name of the exception, and the reason method gives the reason (which the runtime system also previously printed auto- matically). After the last statement in the @catch block is executed (we have only one here), the program continues execution with the statement immediately following the block. In this case, we execute an NSLog call to verify that execution has continued and has not been terminated. This is a very simple example to illustrate how to catch exceptions in a program.An @finally block can be used to include code to execute whether or not a statement in a @try block throws an exception. An @throw directive enables you to throw your own exception.You can use it to throw a specific exception, or inside a @catch block to throw the same exception that took you into the block like this: @throw; You might want to do this after handling an exception yourself (perhaps after per- forming cleanup work, for example).You can then let the system handle the rest of the work for you. Finally,you can have multiple @catch blocks that are sequenced to catch and handle different type of exceptions. 203Exercises Exercises 1. What will happen if you insert the message expression [compResult reduce]; into Program 9.1 after the addition is performed (but before compResult is re- leased)? Try it and see. 2. Can the id variable dataValue, as defined in Program 9.2, be assigned a Rectangle object as you defined it in Chapter 8? That is,is the statement dataValue = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; valid? Why or why not? 3. Add a print method to your XYPoint class defined in Chapter 8. Have it display the point in the format (x, y).Then modify Program 9.2 to incorporate an XYPoint object. Have the modified program create an XYPoint object, set its value, assign it to the id variable dataValue, and then display its value 4. Based on the discussions about argument and return types in this chapter, modify both add: methods in the Fraction and Complex classes to take and return id ob- jects.Then write a program that incorporates the following code sequence: result = [dataValue1 add: dataValue2]; [result print]; Here, result, dataValue1, and dataValue2 are id objects. Make sure you set dataValue1 and dataValue2 appropriately in your program and release all objects before your program terminates. 5. Given the Fraction and Complex class definitions you have been using in this text and the following definitions Fraction *fraction = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Complex *complex = [[Complex alloc] init]; id number = [[Complex alloc] init]; determine the return value from the following message expressions.Then type them into a program to verify the results. [fraction isMemberOfClass: [Complex class]]; [complex isMemberOfClass: [NSObject class]]; [complex isKindOfClass: [NSObject class]]; [fraction isKindOfClass: [Fraction class]]; [fraction respondsToSelector: @selector (print)]; [complex respondsToSelector: @selector (print)]; [Fraction instancesRespondToSelector: @selector (print)]; [number respondsToSelector: @selector (print)]; [number isKindOfClass: [Complex class]]; [number respondsToSelector: @selector (release)]; [[number class] respondsToSelector: @selector (alloc)]; 6. Modify the Calculator class you developed in the exercise from Chapter 4 so that division is done in an @try block. If the division throws an exception, log an error message and continue program execution. 204 Chapter 9 Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing, and Dynamic Binding 10 More on Variables and Data Types In this chapter, we go into more detail about variable scope, initialization methods for objects, and data types. The initialization of an object deserves some special attention, which we give it here. We talked briefly about the scope of instance variables as well as static and local vari- ables in Chapter 7,“More on Classes.”We talk more about static variables here and intro- duce the concept of global and external ones. In addition, you can give certain directives to the Objective-C compiler, to more precisely control the scope of your instance vari- ables.We cover these directives in this chapter as well. An enumerated data type enables you to define the name for a data type to be used only to store a specified list of values.The Objective-C language’s typedef statement lets you assign your own name to a built-in or derived data type. Finally,in this chapter, we de- scribe in more detail the precise steps the Objective-C compiler follows when converting data types in the evaluation of expressions. Initializing Classes You’ve seen the pattern before:You allocate a new instance of an object and then initialize it, using a familiar sequence like this: Fraction *myFract = [[Fraction alloc] init]; After these two methods are invoked, you typically assign some values to the new ob- ject, like this: [myFract setTo: 1 over: 3]; The process of initializing an object followed by setting it to some initial values is of- ten combined into a single method. For example, you can define an initWith:: method that initializes a fraction and sets its numerator and denominator to the two (unnamed) supplied arguments. 206 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types A class that contains many methods and instance variables in it commonly has several initialization methods as well. For example, the Foundation framework’s NSArray class contains the following six initialization methods: initWithArray: initWithArray:copyItems: initWithContentsOfFile: initWithContentsOfURL: initWithObjects: initWithObjects:count: An array might be allocated and then initialized with a sequence like this: myArray = [[NSArray alloc] initWithArray: myOtherArray]; It’s common practice for all the initializers in a class to begin with init....As you can see, the NSArray’s initializers follow that convention.You should adhere to the follow- ing two strategies when writing initializers. If your class contains more than one initializer, one of them should be your designated initializer and all the other initialization methods should use it.Typically,that is your most complex initialization method (usually,the one that takes the most arguments). Creating a designated initializer centralizes your main initialization code in a single method.Anyone subclassing your class can then override your designated initializer, to ensure that new in- stances are properly initialized. Ensure that any inherited instance variables get properly initialized.The easiest way to do that is to first invoke the parent’s designated initialization method, which is most often init.After that, you can initialize your own instance variables. Based on that discussion, your initialization method initWith:: for your Fraction class might look like this: -(Fraction *) initWith: (int) n: (int) d { self = [super init]; if (self) [self setTo: n over: d]; return self; } This method invokes the parent initializer first, which is NSObject’s init method (re- call that this is Fraction’s parent).You must assign the result back to self because an ini- tializer has the right to change or move the object in memory. Following the initialization of super (and its success, as indicated by the return of a nonzero value) you use the setTo:over: method to set the numerator and denominator of your Fraction.As with other initialization methods, you are expected to return the initialized object, which you do here. 207Scope Revisited Program 10.1 tests your new initWith:: initialization method. Program 10.1 #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *a, *b; a = [[Fraction alloc] initWith: 1: 3]; b = [[Fraction alloc] initWith: 3: 7]; [a print]; [b print]; [a release]; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 10.1 Output 1/3 3/7 When your program begins execution, it sends the initialize call method to all your classes. If you have a class and associated subclasses, the parent class gets the message first. This message is sent only once to each class, and it is guaranteed to be sent before any other messages are sent to the class.The purpose is for you to perform any class initializa- tion at that point. For example, you might want to initialize some static variables associ- ated with that class at that time. Scope Revisited You can influence the scope of the variables in your program in several ways.You can do this with instance variables as well as with normal variables defined either outside or in- side functions. In the following discussion, we use the term module to refer to any number of method or function definitions contained within a single source file. 208 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types Directives for Controlling Instance Variable Scope You know by now that instance variables have scope that is limited to the instance meth- ods defined for the class. So any instance method can access its instance variables directly by name, without having to do anything special. You also know that instance variables are inherited by a subclass. Inherited instance variables can also be accessed directly by name from within any method defined in that subclass.Again, this is without having to do anything special. You can put four directives in front of your instance variables when they are declared in the interface section, to more precisely control their scope: n @protected—Methods defined in the class and any subclasses can directly access the instance variables that follow.This is the default case. n @private—Methods defined in the class can directly access the instance variables that follow, but subclasses cannot. n @public—Methods defined in the class and any other classes or modules can di- rectly access the instance variables that follow. n @package—For 64-bit images, the instance variable can be accessed anywhere within the image that implements the class. If you wanted to define a class called Printer that kept two instance variables, called pageCount and tonerLevel private, and was accessible only by methods in the Printer class, you might use an interface section that looks like this: @interface Printer: NSObject { @private int pageCount; int tonerLevel; @protected // other instance variables } ... @end Anyone subclassing Printer would be incapable of accessing these two instance vari- ables because they were made private. These special directives act like “switches”; all variables that appear after one of these directives (until the right curly brace that marks the end of the variable declarations) have the specified scope unless another directive is used. In the previous example, the @protected directive ensures that instance variables that follow,up to the }, will be acces- sible by subclasses and by the Printer class methods. The @public directive makes instance variables accessible by other methods or func- tions through the use of the pointer operator (->), which is covered in Chapter 13,“Un- derlying C Language Features.”Making an instance variable public is not considered 209Scope Revisited good programming practice because it defeats the concept of data encapsulation (that is, a class hiding its instance variables). External Variables If you write the statement int gMoveNumber = 0; at the beginning of your program—outside any method, class definition, or function—its value can be referenced from anywhere in that module. In such a case, we say that gMoveNumber is defined as a global variable. By convention, a lowercase g is commonly used as the first letter of a global variable, to indicate its scope to the program’s reader. Actually,this same definition of the variable gMoveNumber also makes its value accessi- ble from other files. Specifically,the preceding statement defines the variable gMoveNumber not just as a global variable, but as an external global variable. An external variable is one whose value can be accessed and changed by any other methods or functions. Inside the module that wants to access the external variable, the variable is declared in the normal fashion and the keyword extern is placed before the declaration.This signals to the system that a globally defined variable from another file is to be accessed.The following is an example of how to declare the variable gMoveNumber as an external variable: extern int gMoveNumber; The module in which the preceding declaration appeared can now access and modify the value of gMoveNumber. Other modules can also access the value of gMoveNumber by using a similar extern declaration in the file. Consider this important rule to follow when working with external variables:The variable must be defined someplace among your source files.This is done by declaring the variable outside any method or function and is not preceded by the keyword extern, like this: int gMoveNumber; Here, an initial value can be optionally assigned to the variable, as shown previously. The second way to define an external variable is to declare the variable outside any function, placing the keyword extern in front of the declaration and explicitly assigning an initial value to it, like this: extern int gMoveNumber = 0; However, this is not the preferred way to do this, and the compiler warns you that you’ve declared the variable extern and assigned it a value at the same time.That’s be- cause using the word extern makes it a declaration for the variable, not a definition. Re- member, a declaration doesn’t cause storage for a variable to be allocated, but a definition does.The previous example violates this rule by forcing a declaration to be treated as a definition (by assigning it an initial value). 210 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types When dealing with external variables, you can declare a variable as extern in many places, but you can define it only once. Consider a small program example to illustrate the use of external variables. Suppose we have defined a class called Foo, and we type the following code into a file called main.m: #import “Foo.h” int gGlobalVar = 5; int main (int argc, char *argc[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo = [[Foo alloc] init]; NSLog (@”%i “, gGlobalVar); [myFoo setgGlobalVar: 100] NSLog (@”%i”, gGlobalVar); [myFoo release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } The definition of the global variable gGlobalVar in the previous program makes its value accessible by any method (or function) that uses an appropriate extern declaration. Suppose your Foo method setgGlobalVar: looks like this: -(void) setgGlobalVar: (int) val { extern int gGlobalVar; gGlobalVar = val; } This program would produce the following output: 5 100 This would verify that the method setgGlobalVar: is capable of accessing and chang- ing the value of the external variable gGlobalVar. If many methods needed to access the value of gGlobalVar, making the extern decla- ration just once at the front of the file would be easier. However, if only one method or a small number of methods needed to access this variable, there would be something to be said for making separate extern declarations in each such method; it would make the program more organized and would isolate the use of the particular variable to those functions that actually used it. Note that if the variable is defined inside the file contain- 211Scope Revisited ing the code that accesses the variable, the individual extern declarations are not re- quired. Static Variables The example just shown goes against the notion of data encapsulation and good object- oriented programming techniques. However, you might need to work with variables whose values are shared across different method invocations. Even though it might not make sense to make gGlobalVar an instance variable in the Foo class, a better approach might be to “hide” it within the Foo class by restricting its access to setter and getter methods defined for that class. You now know that any variable defined outside a method is not only a global vari- able, but an external one as well. Many situations arise in which you want to define a variable to be global but not external. In other words, you want to define a global variable to be local to a particular module (file). It would make sense to want to define a variable this way if no methods other than those contained inside a particular class definition needed access to the particular variable.You can accomplish this by defining the variable to be static inside the file that contains the implementation for the particular class. If made outside any method (or function), the following statement makes the value of gGlobalVar accessible from any subsequent point in the file in which the definition ap- pears, but not from methods or functions contained in other files: static int gGlobalVar = 0; Recall that class methods do not have access to instance variables (you might want to think about why that’s the case again). However, you might want a class method to be ca- pable of setting and accessing variables.A simple example is a class allocator method that you want to keep track of the number of objects it has allocated.You would accomplish this task by setting up a static variable inside the implementation file for the class.The al- location method could then access this variable directly because it would not be an in- stance variable.The users of the class would not need to know about this variable. Because it’s defined as a static variable in the implementation file, its scope would be re- stricted to that file. Users thus wouldn’t have direct access to it, and the concept of data encapsulation would not be violated.You could write a method to retrieve the value of this variable if access was needed from outside the class. Program 10.2 extends the Fraction class definition with the addition of two new methods.The allocF class method allocates a new Fraction and keeps track of how many Fractions it has allocated, whereas the count method returns that count. Note that this latter method is also a class method. It could have been implemented as an instance method as well, but it makes more sense to ask the class how many instances it has allo- cated instead of sending the message to a particular instance of the class. These are the declarations for the two new class methods to be added to the Fraction.h header file: +(Fraction *) allocF; 212 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types +(int) count; Notice that the inherited alloc method wasn’t overridden here; instead, you defined your own allocator method.Your method will take advantage of the inherited alloc method. Place this code in your Fraction.m implementation file: static int gCounter; @implementation Fraction +(Fraction *) allocF { extern int gCounter; ++gCounter; return [Fraction alloc]; } +(int) count { extern int gCounter; return gCounter; } // other methods from Fraction class go here ... @end Note It’s not considered good programming practice to override alloc, as this method deals with the physical allocation of the memory. You shouldn’t have to get involved at that level. The static declaration of counter makes it accessible to any method defined in the im- plementation section, yet it does not make it accessible from outside the file.The allocF method simply increments the gCounter variable and then uses the alloc method to create a new Fraction, returning the result.The count method simply returns the value of the counter, thus isolating its direct access from the user. Recall that the extern declarations are not required in the two methods because the gCounter variable is defined within the file. It simply helps the reader of the method un- derstand that a variable defined outside the method is being accessed.The g prefix for the variable name also serves the same purpose for the reader; for that reason, most program- mers typically do not include the extern declarations. Program 10.2 tests the new methods. 213Storage Class Specifiers Program 10.2 #import “Fraction.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *a, *b, *c; NSLog (@”Fractions allocated: %i”, [Fraction count]); a = [[Fraction allocF] init] b = [[Fract on allocF] init] c = [[Fraction allocF] init]; NSLog (@”Fractions allocated: %i”, [Fraction count]); [a release]; [b release]; [c release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 10.2 Output Fractions allocated: 0 Fractions allocated: 3 When the program begins execution, the value of counter is automatically set to 0 (recall that you can override the inherited class initialize method if you want to per- form any special initialization of the class as a whole, such as set the value of other static variables to some nonzero values).After allocating (and then initializing) three Fractions using the allocF method, the count method retrieves the counter variable, which is correctly set to 3.You could also add a setter method to the class if you wanted to reset the counter or set it to a particular value.You don’t need that for this application, though. Storage Class Specifiers You’ve already encountered storage class specifiers that you can place in front of variable names, such as extern and static. Here we’ll discuss more specifiers that give the com- piler information about the intended use of a variable in your program. auto This keyword is used to declare an automatic local variable, as opposed to a static one. It is the default for a variable declared inside a function or method—but you’ll never see anyone using it. Here’s an example: auto int index; 214 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types This declares index to be an automatic local variable, meaning that it automatically is allocated when the block (which can be a curly-braced sequence of statements, a method, or a function) is entered and is automatically deallocated when the block is exited. Be- cause this is the default inside a block, the statement int index; is equivalent to this: auto int index; Unlike static variables, which have default initial values of 0, automatic variables are undefined unless you explicitly assign them values. const The compiler enables you to associate the const attribute to variables whose values the program will not change.That is, this tells the compiler that the specified variables have a constant value throughout the program’s execution. If you try to assign a value to a const variable after initializing it or try to increment or decrement it, the compiler issues a warning message.As an example of the const attribute, the following line declares the const variable pi: const double pi = 3.141592654; This tells the compiler that the program will not modify this variable. Of course, be- cause the value of a const variable cannot be subsequently modified, you must initialize it when it is defined. Defining a variable as a const variable aids in the self-documentation process and tells the reader of the program that the program will not change the variable’s value. volatile This is sort of the inverse to const. It tells the compiler explicitly that the specified vari- able will change its value. It’s included in the language to prevent the compiler from opti- mizing away seemingly redundant assignments to a variable or repeated examination of a variable without its value seemingly changing.A good example to consider is an I/O port, which involves an understanding of pointers (see Chapter 13). Let’s say that you have the address of an output port stored in a variable in your pro- gram called outPort. If you wanted to write two characters to the port—let’s say an O followed by an N—you might write the following code: *outPort = ‘O’; *outPort = ‘N’; This first line says to store the character O at the memory address specified by outPort. The second says to then store the character N at the same location.A smart compiler might notice two successive assignments to the same location and, because outPort isn’t 215Enumerated Data Types being modified in between, simply remove the first assignment from the program.To pre- vent this from happening, you declare outPort to be a volatile variable, like this: volatile char *outPort; Enumerated Data Types The Objective-C language enables you to specify a range of values that can be assigned to a variable.An enumerated data type definition is initiated by the keyword enum. Immedi- ately following this keyword is the name of the enumerated data type, followed by a list of identifiers (enclosed in a set of curly braces) that define the permissible values that can be assigned to the type. For example, the following statement defines a data type flag: enum flag { false, true }; In theory,this data type can be assigned the values true and false inside the program, and no other values. Unfortunately,the Objective-C compiler does not generate warning messages if this rule is violated. To declare a variable to be of type enum flag, you again use the keyword enum, fol- lowed by the enumerated type name, followed by the variable list. So the following state- ment defines the two variables endOfData and matchFound to be of type flag: enum flag endOfData, matchFound; The only values (in theory,that is) that can be assigned to these variables are the names true and false.Thus, statements such as endOfData = true; and if ( matchFound == false ) ... are valid. If you want to have a specific integer value associated with an enumeration identifier, the integer can be assigned to the identifier when the data type is defined. Enumeration identifiers that subsequently appear in the list are assigned sequential integer values begin- ning with the specified integer value plus one. In the following definition, an enumerated data type, direction, is defined with the values up, down, left, and right: enum direction { up, down, left = 10, right }; The compiler assigns the value 0 to up because it appears first in the list, assigns 1 to down because it appears next, assigns 10 to left because it is explicitly assigned this value, and assigns 11 to right because it is the incremented value of the preceding enum in the list. Enumeration identifiers can share the same value. For example, in 216 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types enum boolean { no = 0, false = 0, yes = 1, true = 1 }; assigning either the value no or false to an enum boolean variable assigns it the value 0; assigning either yes or true assigns it the value 1. As another example of an enumerated data type definition, the following defines the type enum month, with permissible values that can be assigned to a variable of this type being the names of the months of the year: enum month { january = 1, february, march, april, may, june, july, august, september, october, november, december }; The Objective-C compiler actually treats enumeration identifiers as integer constants. If your program contains these two lines, the value 2 would be assigned to thisMonth (and not the name february): enum month thisMonth; ... thisMonth = february; Program 10.3 shows a simple program using enumerated data types.The program reads a month number and then enters a switch statement to see which month was en- tered. Recall that the compiler treats enumeration values as integer constants, so they’re valid case values.The variable days is assigned the number of days in the specified month, and its value is displayed after the switch is exited.A special test is included to see whether the month is February. Program 10.3 // print the number of days in a month int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; enum month { january = 1, february, march, april, may, june, july, august, september, october, november, december }; enum month amonth; int days; NSLog (@”Enter month number: “); scanf (“%i”, &amonth); 217Enumerated Data Types switch (amonth) { case january: case march: case may: case july: case august: case october: case december: days = 31; break; case april: case june: case september: case november: days = 30; break; case february: days = 28; break; default: NSLog (@”bad month number”); days = 0; break; } if ( days != 0 ) NSLog (@”Number of days is %i”, days); if ( amonth == february ) NSLog (@”...or 29 if it’s a leap year”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 10.3 Output Enter month number: 5 Number of days is 31 Program 10.3 Output (Rerun) Enter month number: 2 Number of days is 28 ...or 29 if it’s a leap year 218 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types You can explicitly assign an integer value to an enumerated data type variable; you should do this using the type cast operator.Therefore, if monthValue were an integer vari- able that had the value 6, for example, this expression would be permissible: lastMonth = (enum month) (monthValue - 1); If you don’t use the type cast operator, the compiler (unfortunately) won’t complain about it. When using programs with enumerated data types, try not to rely on the fact that the enumerated values are treated as integers. Instead, treat them as distinct data types.The enumerated data type gives you a way to associate a symbolic name with an integer num- ber. If you subsequently need to change the value of that number, you must change it only in the place where the enumeration is defined. If you make assumptions based on the actual value of the enumerated data type, you defeat this benefit of using an enumeration. Some variations are permitted when defining an enumerated data type:The name of the data type can be omitted, and variables can be declared to be of the particular enu- merated data type when the type is defined.As an example showing both of these op- tions, the statement enum { east, west, south, north } direction; defines an (unnamed) enumerated data type with values east, west, south, or north and declares a variable (direction) to be of that type. Defining an enumerated data type within a block limits the scope of that definition to the block. On the other hand, defining an enumerated data type at the beginning of the program, outside any block, makes the definition global to the file. When defining an enumerated data type, you must make certain that the enumeration identifiers are unique with respect to other variable names and enumeration identifiers defined within the same scope. The typedef Statement Objective-C provides a capability that enables the programmer to assign an alternative name to a data type.This is done with a statement known as typedef.The following statement defines the name Counter to be equivalent to the Objective-C data type int: typedef int Counter; You can subsequently declare variables to be of type Counter, as in the following statement: Counter j, n; The Objective-C compiler treats the declaration of the variables j and n, shown previ- ously,as normal integer variables.The main advantage of the use of the typedef in this case is in the added readability it lends to the definition of the variables.The definition of j and n makes clear the intended purpose of these variables in the program. Declaring 219The typedef Statement them to be of type int in the traditional fashion would not have made the intended use of these variables clear. The following typedef defines a type named NumberObject to be a Number object: typedef Number *NumberObject; Variables subsequently declared to be of type NumberObject, as in NumberObject myValue1, myValue2, myResult; are treated as if they were declared in the normal way in your program: Number *myValue1, *myValue2, *myResult; To define a new type name with typedef, follow this procedure: 1. Write the statement as if a variable of the desired type were being declared. 2. Where the name of the declared variable would normally appear, substitute the new type name. 3. In front of everything, place the keyword typedef. As an example of this procedure, to define a type called Direction to be an enumer- ated data type that consists of the directions east, west, north, and south, write out the enumerated type definition and substitute the name Direction where the variable name would normally appear. Before everything, place the keyword typedef: typedef enum { east, west, south, north } Direction; With this typedef in place, you can subsequently declare variables to be of type Direction, as in the following: Direction step1, step2; The Foundation framework has the following typedef definition for NSComparisonResult in one of its header files: typedef enum _NSComparisonResult { NSOrderedAscending = -1, NSOrderedSame, NSOrderedDescending } NSComparisonResult; Some of the methods in the Foundation framework that perform comparisons return a value of this type. For example, Foundation’s string-comparison method, called compare:, returns a value of type NSComparisonResult after comparing two strings that are NSString objects.The method is declared like this: -(NSComparisonResult) compare: (NSString *) string; To test whether two NSString objects called userName and savedName are equal, you might include a line like this in your program: if ( [userName compare: savedName] == NSOrderedSame) { // The names match 220 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types ... } This actually tests whether the result from the compare: method is zero. Data Type Conversions Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions,”briefly addressed the fact that sometimes the system implicitly makes conversions when expressions are evaluated.You examined a case with the data types float and int.You saw how an operation that involves a float and an int was carried out as a floating-point operation, with the integer data item automatically converted to a floating point. You also saw how the type cast operator can be used to explicitly dictate a conversion. So given that total and n are both integer variables average = (float) total / n; the value of the variable total is converted to type float before the operation is per- formed, thereby guaranteeing that the division will be carried out as a floating-point op- eration. Conversion Rules The Objective-C compiler adheres to very strict rules when it comes to evaluating ex- pressions that consist of different data types. The following summarizes the order in which conversions take place in the evaluation of two operands in an expression: 1. If either operand is of type long double, the other is converted to long double, and that is the type of the result. 2. If either operand is of type double, the other is converted to double, and that is the type of the result. 3. If either operand is of type float, the other is converted to float, and that is the type of the result. 4. If either operand is of type _Bool, char, short int, or bit field,1 or of an enu- merated data type, it is converted to int. 5. If either operand is of type long long int, the other is converted to long long int, and that is the type of the result. 6. If either operand is of type long int, the other is converted to long int, and that is the type of the result. 1 Chapter 13 briefly discusses bit fields. 221Data Type Conversions 7. If this step is reached, both operands are of type int, and that is the type of the result. This is actually a simplified version of the steps involved in converting operands in an expression.The rules get more complicated when unsigned operands are involved. For the complete set of rules, see Appendix B,“Objective-C Language Summary.” Realize from this series of steps that whenever you reach a step that says “that is the type of the result,”you’re done with the conversion process. As an example of how to follow these steps, let’s see how the following expression would be evaluated, where f is defined to be a float, i an int, l a long int, and s a short int variable: f * i + l / s Consider first the multiplication of f by i, which is the multiplication of a float by an int. From step 3, you know that, because f is of type float, the other operand (i) will also be converted to type float, and that will be the type of the result of the multiplica- tion. Next, l is divided by s, which is the division of a long int by a short int. Step 4 tells you that the short int will be promoted to an int. Continuing, step 6 shows that because one of the operands (l) is a long int, the other operand will be converted to a long int, which will also be the type of the result.This division will therefore produce a value of type long int, with any fractional part resulting from the division truncated. Finally,step 3 indicates that, if one of the operands in an expression is of type float (as is the result of multiplying f * i), the other operand will be converted to type float, which will be the type of the result.Therefore, after the division of l by s, the result of the operation will be converted to type float and then added into the product of f and i. The final result of the preceding expression will therefore be a value of type float. Remember, the type cast operator can always be used to explicitly force conversions and thereby control the way in which a particular expression is evaluated. Thus, if you didn’t want the result of dividing l by s to be truncated in the preceding expression evaluation, you could have type-cast one of the operands to type float, thereby forcing the evaluation to be performed as a floating-point division: f * i + (float) l / s In this expression, l would be converted to float before the division operation was performed because the type cast operator has higher precedence than the division oper- ator. Because one of the operands of the division would then be of type float, the other (s) would be automatically converted to type float, and that would be the type of the result. Sign Extension Whenever a signed int or signed short int is converted into an integer of a larger size, the sign is extended to the left when the conversion is performed.This ensures that a short int that has a value of -5, for example, will also have the value -5 when converted 222 Chapter 10 More on Variables and Data Types to a long int.Whenever an unsigned integer is converted to an integer of a larger size, no sign extension occurs, as you would expect. On some machines (such as on on the Intel processors used in the current Macintosh line of computers as well as on the ARM processors currenly used in the iPhone and iTouch),characters are treated as signed quantities.This means that when a character is converted to an integer, sign extension occurs.As long as characters are used from the standard ASCII character set, this never poses a problem. However, if a character value is used that is not part of the standard character set, its sign can be extended when con- verted to an integer. For example, on a Mac, the character constant ‘\377’ is converted to the value -1 because its value is negative when treated as a signed 8-bit quantity. Recall that the Objective-C language permits character variables to be declared un- signed, thus avoiding this potential problem.That is, an unsigned char variable never has its sign extended when converted to an integer; its value always is greater than or equal to zero. For the typical 8-bit character, a signed character variable therefore has the range of values from –128 to +127, inclusive.An unsigned character variable can range in value from 0 to 255, inclusive. If you want to force sign extension on your character variables, you can declare such variables to be of type signed char.This ensures that sign extension occurs when the character value is converted to an integer, even on machines that don’t do so by default. In Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections,”you’ll learn about dealing with multibyte Unicode characters.This is the preferred way to deal with strings that can con- tain characters from character sets containing millions of characters. Exercises 1. Using the Rectangle class from Chapter 8,“Inheritance,”add an initializer method according to the following declaration: -(Rectangle *) initWithWidth: (int) w: andHeight: (int) h; 2. Given that you label the method developed in exercise 1 the designated initializer for the Rectangle class, and based on the Square and Rectangle class definitions from Chapter 8, add an initializer method to the Square class according to the fol- lowing declaration: -(Square *) initWithSide: (int) side; 3. Add a counter to the Fraction class’s add: method to count the number of times it is invoked. How can you retrieve the value of the counter? 4. Using typedef and enumerated data types, define a type called Day with the possi- ble values Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. 223Exercises 5. Using typedef, define a type called FractionObj that enables you to write state- ments such as the following: FractionObj f1 = [[Fraction alloc] init], f2 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; 6. Based on the following definitions float f = 1.00; short int i = 100; long int l = 500L; double d = 15.00; and the seven teps outlined in his chapter for the con ersion of operands in ex- pressions, determ ne the type and value of the fo lowing expressions: f + i l / d i / l + f l * i f / 2 i / (d + f) l / (i * 2.0) l + i / (double) l 7. Write a program to ascertain whether sign extension is performed on signed char variables on your machine. 11 Categories and Protocols In this chapter, you’ll learn about how to add methods to a class in a modular fashion through the use of categories and how to create a standardized list of methods for others to implement. Categories Sometimes you might be working with a class definition and want to add some new methods to it. For example, you might decide for your Fraction class that, in addition to the add: method for adding two fractions, you want to have methods to subtract, multi- ply,and divide two fractions. As another example, say you are working on a large programming project and, as part of that project, your group is defining a new class that contains many different methods. You have been assigned the task of writing methods for the class that work with the file system. Other project members have been assigned methods responsible for creating and initializing instances of the class, performing operations on objects in the class, and draw- ing representations of objects from the class on the screen. As a final example, suppose you’ve learned how to use a class from the library (for ex- ample, the Foundation framework’s array class called NSArray) and realize that you wish the class had implemented one or more methods. Of course, you could write a new sub- class of the NSArray class and implement the new methods, but perhaps an easier way exists. A practical solution for all these situations is categories.A category provides an easy way for you to modularize the definition of a class into groups or categories of related meth- ods. It also gives you an easy way to extend an existing class definition without even hav- ing access to the original source code for the class and without having to create a subclass.This is a powerful yet easy concept for you to learn. Let’s get back to the first case and show how to add a new category to the Fraction class to handle the four basic math operations.We first show you the original Fraction interface section: #import 226 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols #import // Define the Fraction class @interface Fraction : NSObject @property int numerator, denominator; -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d; -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; -(void) reduce; -(double) convertToNum; -(void) print; @end Next, let’s remove the add: method from this interface section and add it to a new category,along with the other three math operations you want to implement. Here’s what the interface section would look like for your new MathOps category: #import “Fraction.h” @interface Fraction (MathOps) -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) mul: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) sub: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) div: (Fraction *) f; @end Realize that even though this is an interface section definition, it is an extension to an existing one.Therefore, you must include the original interface section so that the com- piler knows about the Fraction class (unless you incorporate the new category directly into the original Fraction.h header file, which is an option). After the #import, you see the following line: @interface Fraction (MathOps) This tells the compiler that you are defining a new category for the Fraction class and that its name is MathOps.The category name is enclosed in a pair of parentheses after the class name. Notice that you don’t list the Fraction’s parent class here; the compiler already knows it from Fraction.h.Also, you don’t tell it about the instance variables, as you’ve done in all the previous interface sections you’ve defined. In fact, if you try to list the parent class or the instance variables, you’ll get a syntax error from the compiler. This interface section tells the compiler you are adding an extension to the class called Fraction under the category named MathOps.The MathOps category contains four in- stance methods: add:, mul:, sub:, and div:. Each method takes a fraction as its argument and returns one as well. You can put the definitions for all your methods into a single implementation section. That is, you could define all the methods from the interface section in Fraction.h plus all the methods from the MathOps category in one implementations section.Alternatively, 227Categories you could define your category’s methods in a separate implementation section. In such a case, the implementation section for these methods must also identify the category to which the methods belong.As with the interface section, you do this by enclosing the category name inside parentheses after the class name, like this: @implementation Fraction (MathOps) // code for category methods ... @end In Program 11.1, the interface and implementation sections for the new MathOps cate- gory are grouped together, along with a test routine, into a single file. Program 11.1 MathOps Category and Test Program #import “Fraction.h” @interface Fraction (MathOps) -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) mul: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) sub: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) div: (Fraction *) f; @end @implementation Fraction (MathOps) -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f { // To add two fractions: // a/b + c/d = ((a*d) + (b*c)) / (b * d) Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; int resultNum, resultDenom; resultNum = (numerator * f.denominator) + (denominator * f.numerator); resultDenom = denominator * f.denominator; [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; [result reduce]; return result; } -(Fraction *) sub: (Fraction *) f { 228 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols // To sub two fractions: // a/b - c/d = ((a*d) - (b*c)) / (b * d) Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; int resultNum, resultDenom; resultNum = (numerator * f.denominator) - (denominator * f.numerator); resultDenom = denominator * f.denominator; [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; [result reduce]; return result; } -(Fraction *) mul: (Fraction *) f { Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [result setTo: numerator * f.numerator over: denominator * f.denominator]; [result reduce]; return result; } -(Fraction *) div: (Fraction *) f { Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [result setTo: numerator * f.denominator over: denominator * f.numerator]; [result reduce]; return result; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *a = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *b = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *result; [a setTo: 1 over: 3]; [b setTo: 2 over: 5]; [a print]; NSLog (@” +”); [b print]; NSLog (@”-----”); result = [a add: b]; 229Categories [result print]; NSLog (@”\n”); [result release]; [a print]; NSLog (@” -”); [b print]; NSLog (@”-----”); result = [a sub: b]; [result print]; NSLog (@”\n”); [result release]; [a print]; NSLog (@” *”); [b print]; NSLog (@”-----”); result = [a mul: b]; [result print]; NSLog (@”\n”); [result release]; [a print]; NSLog (@” /”); [b print]; NSLog (@”-----”); result = [a div: b]; [result print]; NSLog (@”\n”); [result release]; [a release]; [b release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 11.1 Output 1/3 + 2/5 ----- 11/15 1/3 - 2/5 ----- -1/15 1/3 * 2/5 ----- 2/15 1/3 / 2/5 ----- 5/6 230 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols Realize once again that it is certainly legal in Objective-C to write a statement such as this: [[a div: b] print]; This line directly prints the result of dividing Fraction a by b and thereby avoids the intermediate assignment to the variable result, as was done in Program 11.1. However, you need to perform this intermediate assignment so you can capture the resulting Fraction and subsequently release its memory.Otherwise, your program will leak mem- ory every time you perform an arithmetic operation on a fraction. Program 11.1 puts the interface and implementation sections for the new category into the same file with the test program.As mentioned previously,the interface section for this category could go either in the original Fraction.h header file so that all meth- ods would be declared in one place or in its own header file. If you put your category into a master class definition file, all users of the class have ac- cess to the methods in the category.If you don’t have the capability to modify the origi- nal header file directly (consider adding a category to an existing class from a library,as shown in Part II,“The Foundation Framework”), you have no choice but to keep it sepa- rate. Some Notes About Categories Some points about categories are worth mentioning. First, although a category has access to the instance variables of the original class, it can’t add any of its own. If you need to do that, consider subclassing. Also, a category can override another method in the class, but this is typically consid- ered poor programming practice. For one thing, after you override a method, you can no longer access the original method.Therefore, you must be careful to duplicate all the functionality of the overridden method in your replacement. If you do need to override a method, subclassing might be the right choice. If you override a method in a subclass, you can still reference the parent’s method by sending a message to super. So you don’t have to understand all the intricacies of the method you are overriding; you can simply invoke the parent’s method and add your own functionality to the subclass’s method. You can have as many categories as you like, following the rules we’ve outlined here. If a method is defined in more than one category,the language does not specify which one will be used. Unlike a normal interface section, you don’t need to implement all the methods in a category.That’s useful for incremental program development because you can declare all the methods in the category and implement them over time. Remember that extending a class by adding new methods with a category affects not just that class, but all its subclasses as well.This can be potentially dangerous if you add new methods to the root object NSObject, for example, because everyone will inherit those new methods, whether or not that was your intention. 231Protocols The new methods you add to an existing class through a category can serve your pur- poses just fine, but they might be inconsistent with the original design or intentions of the class.Turning a Square into a Circle (admittedly,an exaggeration), for example, by adding a new category and some methods muddies the definition of the class and is not good programming practice. Also, object/category named pairs must be unique. Only one NSString (Private) category can exist in a given Objective-C namespace.This can be tricky because the Ob- jective-C namespace is shared between the program code and all the libraries, frame- works, and plug-ins.This is especially important for Objective-C programmers writing screensavers, preference panes, and other plug-ins because their code will be injected into application or framework code that they do not control. Protocols A protocol is a list of methods that is shared among classes.The methods listed in the pro- tocol do not have corresponding implementations; they’re meant to be implemented by someone else (like you!).A protocol provides a way to define a set of methods that are somehow related with a specified name.The methods are typically documented so that you know how they are to perform and so that you can implement them in your own class definitions, if desired. If you decide to implement all of the required methods for a particular protocol, you are said to conform to or adopt that protocol. Defining a protocol is easy:You simply use the @protocol directive followed by the name of the protocol, which is up to you.After that, you declare methods just as you did with your interface section.All the method declarations, up to the @end directive, become part of the protocol. If you choose to work with the Foundation framework, you’ll find that several proto- cols are defined. One of them, called NSCopying, declares a method that you need to im- plement if your class is to support copying of objects through the copy (or copyWithZone:) method. (Chapter 18,“Copying Objects,”covers the topic of copying objects in detail.) Here’s how the NSCopying protocol is defined in the standard Foundation header file NSObject.h: @protocol NSCopying - (id)copyWithZone: (NSZone *)zone; @end 232 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols If you adopt the NSCopying protocol in your class, you must implement a method called copyWithZone:.You tell the compiler that you are adopting a protocol by listing the protocol name inside a pair of angular brackets (<...>) on the @interface line.The protocol name comes after the name of the class and its parent class, as in the following: @interface AddressBook: NSObject This says that AddressBook is an object whose parent is NSObject and states that it conforms to the NSCopying protocol. Because the system already knows about the method(s) previously defined for the protocol (in this example, it knows from the header file NSObject.h), you don’t declare the methods in the interface section. However, you need to define them in your implementation section. In this example, in the implementation section for AddressBook, the compiler expects to see the copyWithZone: method defined. If your class adopts more than one protocol, just list them inside the angular brackets, separated by commas: @interface AddressBook: NSObject This tells the compiler that the AddressBook class adopts the NSCopying and NSCoding protocols.Again, the compiler expects to see all the required methods listed for those protocols implemented in the AddressBook implementation section. If you define your own protocol, you don’t have to actually implement it yourself. However, you’re alerting other programmers that if they want to adopt the protocol, they do have to implement the methods.Those methods can be inherited from a superclass. Thus, if one class conforms to the NSCopying protocol, its subclasses do as well (although that doesn’t mean the methods are correctly implemented for that subclass). You can use a protocol to define methods that you want other people who subclass your class to implement. Perhaps you could define a Drawing protocol for your GraphicObject class; in it, you could define paint, erase, and outline methods: @protocol Drawing -(void) paint; -(void) erase; @optional -(void) outline; @end As the creator of the GraphicObject class, you don’t necessarily want to implement these painting methods. However, you want to specify the methods that someone who subclasses the GraphicObject class needs to implement to conform to a standard for drawing objects he’s trying to create. 233Protocols Note Note the use of the @optional directive here. Any methods that are listed following that di- rective are optional. That is, an adopter of the Drawing protocol does not have to implement the outline method to conform to the protocol. (And you can subsequently switch back to listing required methods by using the @required directive inside the protocol definition.) So if you create a subclass of GraphicObject called Rectangle and advertise (that is, document) that your Rectangle class conforms to the Drawing protocol, users of the class will know that they can send paint, erase, and (possibly) outline messages to instances from that class. Note Well that’s the theory, anyway. The compiler lets you say that you conform to a protocol and issues warning messages only if you don’t implement the methods. Notice that the protocol doesn’t reference any classes; it s classless.Any class can con- form to the Drawing protocol, not just subclasses of GraphicObject. You can check to see whether an object conforms to a protocol by using the conformsToProtocol: method. For example, if you had an object called currentObject and wanted to see whether it conformed to the Drawing protocol so you could send it drawing messages, you could write this: id currentObject; ... if ([currentObject conformsToProtocol: @protocol (Drawing)] == YES) { // Send currentObject paint, erase and/or outline msgs ... } The special @protocol directive as used here takes a protocol name and produces a Protocol object, which is what the conformsToProtocol: method expects as its argu- ment. You can enlist the aid of the compiler to check for conformance with your variables by including the protocol name inside angular brackets after the type name, like this: id currentObject; This tells the compiler that currentObject will contain objects that conform to the Drawing protocol. If you assign a statically typed object to currentObject that does not conform to the Drawing protocol (say that you have a Square class that does not con- form), the compiler issues a warning message that looks like this: warning: class ‘Square’ does not implement the ‘Drawing’ protocol 234 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols This is a compiler check here, so assigning an id variable to currentObject would not generate this message because the compiler has no way of knowing whether the object stored inside an id variable conforms to the Drawing protocol. You can list more than one protocol if the variable will hold an object conforming to more than one protocol, as in this line: id myDocument; When you define a protocol, you can extend the definition of an existing one.This protocol declaration says that the Drawing3D protocol also adopts the Drawing protocol: @protocol Drawing3D Thus, whichever class adopts the Drawing3D protocol must implement the methods listed for that protocol, as well as the methods from the Drawing protocol. Finally,a category also can adopt a protocol, like this: @interface Fraction (Stuff) Here Fraction has a category, Stuff (okay,not the best choice of names!), that adopts the NSCopying and NSCoding protocols. As with class names, protocol names must be unique. Informal Protocols You might come across the notion of an informal protocol in your readings.This is really a category that lists a group of methods but does not implement them. Everyone (or just about everyone) inherits from the same root object, so informal categories are often de- fined for the root class. Sometimes informal protocols are also referred to as abstract proto- cols. If you look at the header file , you might find some method declarations that look like this: @interface NSObject (NSComparisonMethods) - (BOOL)isEqualTo:(id)object; - (BOOL)isLessThanOrEqualTo:(id)object; - (BOOL)isLessThan:(id)object; - (BOOL)isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:(id)object; - (BOOL)isGreaterThan:(id)object; - (BOOL)isNotEqualTo:(id)object; - (BOOL)doesContain:(id)object; - (BOOL)isLike:(NSString *)object; - (BOOL)isCaseInsensitiveLike:(NSString *)object; @end This defines a category called NSComparisonMethods for the NSObject class.This in- formal protocol lists a group of methods (here, nine are listed) that can be implemented as part of this protocol.An informal protocol is really no more than a grouping of methods 235Composite Objects under a name.This can help somewhat from the point of documentation and modulariza- tion of methods. The class that declares the informal protocol doesn’t implement the methods in the class itself, and a subclass that chooses to implement the methods needs to redeclare them in its interface section, as well as implement one or more of them. Unlike formal proto- cols, the compiler gives no help with informal protocols; there’s no concept of confor- mance or testing by the compiler. If an object adopts a formal protocol, the object must conform to all the required mes- sages in the protocol.This can be enforced at runtime as well as compile time. If an object adopts an informal protocol, the object might not need to adopt all methods in the proto- col, depending on the protocol. Conformance to an informal protocol can be enforced at runtime (via respondsToSelector:) but not at compile time. Note The previously-described @optional directive that was added the Objective C 2.0 language is meant to replace the use of informal protocols. You can see this used for several of the UIKit classes (UIKit is part of the Cocoa Touch frameworks). Composite Objects You’ve learned several ways to extend the definition of a class through techniques such as subclassing, using categories, and posing.Another technique involves defining a class that consists of one or more objects from other classes.An object from this new class is known as a composite object because it is composed of other objects. As an example, consider the Square class you defined in Chapter 8,“Inheritance.”You defined this as a subclass of a Rectangle because you recognized that a square was just a rectangle with equal sides.When you define a subclass, it inherits all the instance variables and methods of the parent class. In some cases, this is undesirable—for example, some of the methods defined in the parent class might not be appropriate for use by the subclass. The Rectangle’s setWidth:andHeight: method is inherited by the Square class but re- ally does not apply to a square (even though it will work properly). Furthermore, when you create a subclass, you must ensure that all the inherited methods work properly be- cause users of the class will have access to them. As an alternative to subclassing, you can define a new class that contains as one of its instance variables an object from the class you want to extend.Then you have to define only those methods in the new class that are appropriate for that class. Getting back to the Square example, here’s an alternative way to define a Square: @interface Square: NSObject { Rectangle *rect; } -(int) setSide: (int) s; -(int) side; -(int) area; 236 Chapter 11 Categories and Protocols -(int) perimeter; @end The Square class is defined here with four methods. Unlike the subclass version, which gives you direct access to the Rectangle’s methods (setWidth:, setHeight:, setWidth:andHeight:, width, and height), those methods are not in this definition for a Square.That makes sense here because those methods really don’t fit in when you deal with squares. If you define your Square this way,it becomes responsible for allocating the memory for the rectangle it contains. For example, without overriding methods, the statement Square *mySquare = [[Square alloc] init]; allocates a new Square object but does not allocate a Rectangle object stored in its instance variable, rect. A solution is to override init or add a new method such as initWithSide: to do the allocation.That method can allocate the Rectangle rect and set its side appropriately. You also need to override the dealloc method (which you saw how to do with the Rectangle class in Chapter 8) to release the memory used by the Rectangle rect when the Square itself is freed. When defining your methods in your Square class, you can still take advantage of the Rectangle’s methods. For example, here’s how you could implement the area method: -(int) area { return [rect area]; } Implementing the remaining methods is left as an exercise for you (see Exercise 5, which follows). Exercises 1. Extend the MathOps category from Program 11.1 to also include an invert method, which returns a Fraction that is an inversion of the receiver. 2. Add a category to the Fraction class called Comparison. In this category,add two methods according to these declarations: -(BOOL) isEqualTo: (Fraction *) f; -(int) compare: (Fraction *) f; The first method should return YES if the two fractions are identical and should re- turn NO otherwise. Be careful about comparing fractions (for example, comparing 3/4 to 6/8 should return YES). The second method should return –1 if the receiver compares less than the fraction represented by the argument, return 0 if the two are equal, and return 1 if the re- ceiver is greater than the argument. 237Exercises 3. Extend the Fraction class by adding methods that conform to the informal proto- col NSComparisonMethods, as listed earlier in this chapter. Implement the first six methods from that protocol (isEqualTo:, isLessThanOrEqualTo:, is- LessThan:, isGreaterThanOrEqualTo:, isGreaterThan:, isNotEqualTo:) and test them. 4. The functions sin (), cos (), and tan () are part of the Standard Library (as scanf () is).These functions are declared in the header file , which you should import into your program with the following line: #import You can use these functions to calculate the sine, cosine, or tangent, respectively,of their double argument, which is expressed in radians.The result is also returned as a double precision floating-point value. So you can use this line to calculate the sine of d, with the angle d expressed in radians: result = sin (d); Add a category called Trig to the Calculator class defined in Chapter 6, “Making Decisions.”Add methods to this category to calculate the sine, cosine, and tangent based on these declarations: -(double) sin; -(double) cos; -(double) tan; 5. Given the discussion on composite objects from this chapter and the following in- terface section: @interface Square: Object { Rectangle *rect; } -(Square*) initWithSide: (int) s; -(void) setSide: (int) s; -(int) side; -(int) area; -(int) perimeter; -(id) dealloc; // Override to release the Rectangle object’s memory @end write the implementation section for a Square and a test program to check its methods. 12 The Preprocessor The preprocessor provides the tools that enable you to develop programs that are easier to develop, read, modify,and port to different systems.You can also use the preprocessor to literally customize the Objective-C language to suit a particular programming application or your own programming style. The preprocessor is a part of the Objective-C compilation process that recognizes spe- cial statements that can be interspersed throughout a program.As its name implies, the preprocessor actually processes these statements before analysis of the Objective-C pro- gram itself takes place. Preprocessor statements are identified by the presence of a pound sign (#), which must be the first nonspace character on the line.As you will see, pre- processor statements have a syntax that is slightly different from that of normal Objective- C statements.We begin by examining the #define statement. The #define Statement One of the primary uses of the #define statement is to assign symbolic names to pro- gram constants.The preprocessor statement #define TRUE 1 defines the name TRUE and makes it equivalent to the value 1.The name TRUE can subse- quently be used anywhere in the program where the constant 1 could be used.Whenever this name appears, the preprocessor automatically substitutes its defined value of 1 into the program. For example, you might have the following Objective-C statement that uses the defined name TRUE: gameOver = TRUE; This statement assigns the value of TRUE to gameOver.You don’t need to concern yourself with the actual value you defined for TRUE, but because you do know that you defined it to be 1, the preceding statement would have the effect of assigning 1 to gameOver.The preprocessor statement #define FALSE 0 240 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor defines the name FALSE and makes its subsequent use in the program equivalent to speci- fying the value 0.Therefore, the statement gameOver = FALSE; assigns the value of FALSE to gameOver, and the statement if ( gameOver == FALSE ) ... compares the value of gameOver against the defined value of FALSE. A defined name is not a variable.Therefore, you cannot assign a value to it unless the result of substituting the defined value is a variable.Whenever a defined name is used in a program, the preprocessor automatically substitutes into the program whatever appears to the right of the defined name in the #define statement. It’s analogous to doing a search and replace with a text editor; in this case, the preprocessor replaces all occurrences of the defined name with its associated text. Notice that the #define statement has a special syntax: No equals sign is used to assign the value 1 to TRUE. Furthermore, a semicolon does not appear at the end of the state- ment. Soon you will understand why this special syntax exists. #define statements are often placed toward the beginning of the program, after #import or #include statements.This is not required; they can appear anywhere in the program. However, a name must be defined before it is referenced by the program. De- fined names do not behave like variables:There is no such thing as a local define.After a name has been defined, it can subsequently be used anywhere in the program. Most pro- grammers place their defines inside header files so they can be used by more than one source file. As another example of the use of a defined name, suppose you wanted to write two methods to find the area and circumference of a Circle object. Because both of these methods need to use the constant , which is not a particularly easy constant to remem- ber, it might make sense to define the value of this constant once at the start of the pro- gram and then use this value where necessary in each method. So you could include the following in your program: #define PI 3.141592654 Then you could use it in your two Circle methods (this assumes that the Circle class has an instance variable called radius) like this: -(double) area { return PI * radius * radius; } -(double) circumference { return 2.0 * PI * radius; } 241The #define Statement Assigning a constant to a symbolic name frees you from having to remember the par- ticular constant value every time you want to use it in a program. Furthermore, if you ever need to change the value of the constant (if perhaps you found out that you were us- ing the wrong value, for example), you would have to change the value in only one place in the program: in the #define statement.Without this approach, you would have to search throughout the program and explicitly change the value of the constant whenever it was used. You might have realized that all the defines shown so far (TRUE, FALSE, and PI) have been written in capital letters.This is done to visually distinguish a defined value from a variable. Some programmers adopt the convention that all defined names be capitalized, so that determining when a name represents a variable or an object, a class name, or a de- fined name is easy.Another common convention is to prefix the define with the letter k. In that case, the following characters of the name are not capitalized. kMaximumValues and kSignificantDigits are examples of two defined names that adhere to this conven- tion. Using a defined name for a constant value helps make programs more readily extend- able. For example, when you learn how to work with arrays, instead of hard-coding in the size of the array you want to allocate, you can define a value as follows: #define MAXIMUM_DATA_VALUES 1000 Then you can base all references on the array’s size (such as allocation of the array in memory) and valid indexes into this array on this defined value. Also, if the program were written to use MAXIMUM_DATA_VALUES in all cases where the size of the array was used, the preceding definition could be the only statement in the program that would have to be changed if you later needed to change the array size. More Advanced Types of Definitions A definition for a name can include more than a simple constant value. It can include an expression and, as you will see shortly,just about anything else! The following defines the name TWO_PI as the product of 2.0 and 3.141592654: #define TWO_PI 2.0 * 3.141592654 You can subsequently use this defined name anywhere in a program where the expres- sion 2.0 * 3.141592654 would be valid. So you could replace the return statement of the circumference method from the previous example with the following statement: return TWO_PI * radius; Whenever a defined name is encountered in an Objective-C program, everything that appears to the right of the defined name in the #define statement is literally substituted for the name at that point in the program.Thus, when the preprocessor encounters the name TWO_PI in the return statement shown previously, it substitutes for this name whatever appeared in the #define statement for this name.Therefore, the preprocessors 242 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor literally substitutes 2.0 * 3.141592654 whenever the defined name TWO_PI occurs in the program. The fact that the preprocessor performs a literal text substitution whenever the defined name occurs explains why you don’t usually want to end your #define statement with a semicolon. If you did, the semicolon would also be substituted into the program wherever the defined name appeared. If you had defined PI as #define PI 3.141592654; and then written return 2.0 * PI * r; the preprocessor would replace the occurrence of the defined name PI by 3.141592654;. The compiler would therefore see this statement as return 2.0 * 3.141592654; * r; after the preprocessor had made its substitution, which would result in a syntax error. Re- member not to put a semicolon at the end of your define statements unless you’re really sure you want one there. A preprocessor definition does not have to be a valid Objective-C expression in its own right, as long as the resulting expression is valid wherever it is used. For instance, you could set up these definitions: #define AND && #define OR || Then you could write expressions such as if ( x > 0 AND x < 10 ) ... and if ( y == 0 OR y == value ) ... You could even include a #define for the equality test: #define EQUALS == Then, you could write the following statement: if ( y EQUALS 0 OR y EQUALS value ) ... This removes the very real possibility of mistakenly using a single equals sign for the equality test. Although these examples illustrate the power of the #define, you should note that it is commonly considered bad programming practice to redefine the syntax of the underly- ing language in such a manner. Plus, it makes it harder for someone else to understand your code. 243The #define Statement To make things even more interesting, a defined value can itself reference another de- fined value. So these two #define lines are perfectly valid: #define PI 3.141592654 #define TWO_PI 2.0 * PI The name TWO_PI is defined in terms of the previously defined name PI, thus obviat- ing the need to spell out the value 3.141592654 again. Reversing the order of the defines, as in this example, is also valid: #define TWO_PI 2.0 * PI #define PI 3.141592654 The rule is that you can reference other defined values in your definitions as long as everything is defined at the time the defined name is used in the program. Good use of #defines often reduces the need for comments within the program. Consider the following statement: if ( year % 4 == 0 && year % 00 != 0 || year % 400 == 0 ) ... This expression tests whether the variable year is a leap year. Now consider the follow- ing #define statement and the subsequent if statement: #define IS_LEAP_YEAR year % 4 == 0 && year % 100 != 0 \ || year % 400 == 0 ... if ( IS_LEAP_YEAR ) ... Normally,the preprocessor assumes that a definition is contained on a single line of the program. If a second line is needed, the last character on the line must be a backslash character.This character signals a continuation to the preprocessor and is otherwise ig- nored.The same holds true for more than one continuation line; each line to be contin- ued must end with a backslash character. The preceding if statement is far easier to understand than the one shown directly before it. No comment is needed because the statement is self-explanatory.Of course, the definition restricts you to testing the variable year to see whether it’s a leap year. If would be nice if you could write a definition to see whether any year were a leap year, not just the variable year.Actually,you can write a definition to take one or more arguments, which leads us to our next point of discussion. IS_LEAP_YEAR can be defined to take an argument called y, as follows: #define IS_LEAP_YEAR(y) y % 4 == 0 && y % 100 != 0 \ || y % 400 == 0 Unlike in a method definition, you do not define the type of the argument y here be- cause you are merely performing a literal text substitution—you are not calling a func- 244 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor tion. Note that when defining a name with arguments, no spaces are permitted between the defined name and the left parenthesis of the argument list. With the previous definition, you can write a statement such as the following: if ( IS_LEAP_YEAR (year) ) ... This tests whether the value of year is a leap year. Or you could write this to test whether the value of nextYear is a leap year: if ( IS_LEAP_YEAR (nextYear) ) ... In the preceding statement, the definition for IS_LEAP_YEAR is directly substituted in- side the if statement, with the argument nextYear replacing y wherever it appears in the definition. So the compiler would actually see the if statement as follows: if ( nextYear % 4 == 0 && nextYear % 100 != 0 || nextYear % 400 == 0 ) ... Definitions are frequently called macros.This terminology is more often applied to def- initions that take one or more arguments. This macro, called SQUARE, simply squares its argument: #define SQUARE(x) x * x Although the macro definition for SQUARE is straightforward, you must avoid an inter- esting pitfall when defining macros.As we have described, the statement y = SQUARE (v); assigns the value of v2 to y.Think about would happen in the case of the following state- ment: y = SQUARE (v + 1); This statement does not assign the value of (v + 1)2 to y, as you would expect. Be- cause the preprocessor performs a literal text substitution of the argument into the macro definition, the preceding expression is actually evaluated as follows: y = v + 1 * v + 1; This obviously does not produce the expected results.To handle this situation properly, parentheses are needed in the definition of the SQUARE macro: #define SQUARE(x) ( (x) * (x) ) Even though the previous definition might look strange, remember that the entire ex- pression as given to the SQUARE macro is literally substituted wherever x appears in the definition.With your new macro definition for SQUARE, the statement y = SQUARE (v + 1); is then correctly evaluated as 245The #define Statement y = ( (v + 1) * (v + 1) ); The following macro lets you easily create new fractions from your Fraction class on the fly: #define MakeFract(x,y) ([[Fraction alloc] initWith: x over: y]]) Then you can write expressions such as myFract = MakeFract (1, 3); // Make the fraction 1/3 or even sum = [MakeFract (n1, d1) add: MakeFract (n2, d2)]; to add the fractions n1/d1 and n2/d2. The conditional expression operator can be particularly handy when defining macros. The following defines a macro called MAX that gives the maximum of two values: #define MAX(a,b) ( ((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b) ) This macro enables you to subsequently write statements such as this: limit = MAX (x + y, minValue); This assigns to limit the maximum of x + y and minValue. Parentheses are placed around the entire MAX definition to ensure that an expression such as this is evaluated properly: MAX (x, y) * 100 Parentheses are individually placed around each argument to ensure that expressions such as the following are correctly evaluated: MAX (x & y, z) The & operator is the bitwise AND operator, and it has lower precedence than the > operator used in the macro.Without the parentheses in the macro definition, the > opera- tor would be evaluated before the bitwise AND, producing the incorrect result. The following macro tests whether a character is a lowercase letter: #define IS_LOWER_CASE(x) ( ((x) >= ‘a’) && ((x) <= ‘z’) ) It thereby permits you to write expressions such as this: if ( IS_LOWER_CASE (c) ) ... You can even use this macro in another macro definition to convert a character from lower case to upper case, leaving any nonlowercase character unchanged: #define TO_UPPER(x) ( IS_LOWER_CASE (x) ? (x) - ‘a’ + ‘A’ : (x) ) Again, you are dealing with a standard ASCII character set here.When you learn about Foundation string objects in Part II, you’ll see how to perform case conversion that will work for international (Unicode) character sets as well. 246 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor The # Operator If you place a # in front of a parameter in a macro definition, the preprocessor creates a constant C-style string out of the macro argument when the macro is invoked. For exam- ple, the definition #define str(x) # x causes the subsequent invocation str (testing) to be expanded into ”testing” by the preprocessor.The printf call printf (str (Programming in Objective-C is fun.\n)); is therefore equivalent to printf (”Programming in Objective-C is fun.\n”); The preprocessor inserts double quotation marks around the actual macro argument. The preprocessor preserves any double quotation marks or backslashes in the argument. So str (“hello”) produces ”\”hello\”” A more practical example of the # operator might be in the following macro definition: #define printint(var) printf (# var “ = %i\n”, var) This macro is used to display the value of an integer variable. If count is an integer variable with a value of 100, the statement printint (count); is expanded into this: printf (”count”“= %i\n”, count); The compiler concatenates two adjacent literal strings to make a single string.There- fore, after concatenation is performed on the two adjacent strings, the statement becomes the following: printf (”count = %i\n”, count); 247The #import Statement The ## Operator The ## operator is used in macro definitions to join two tokens. It is preceded (or fol- lowed) by the name of a parameter to the macro.The preprocessor takes the actual argu- ment to the macro that is supplied when the macro is invoked and creates a single token out of that argument and whatever token follows (or precedes) the ##. Suppose, for example, that you have a list of variables x1 through x100.You can write a macro called printx that simply takes as its argument an integer value 1–100 and displays the corresponding x variable, as shown here: #define printx(n) printf (”%i\n”, x ## n) The portion of the define that reads x ## n says to use the tokens that occur before and after the ## (the letter x and the argument n, respectively) and make a single token out of them. So the call printx (20); is expanded into the following: printf (”%i\n”, x20); The printx macro can even use the previously defined printint macro to get the variable name as well as its value displayed: #define printx(n) printint(x ## n) The invocation printx (10); first expands into printint (x10); and then into printf (”x10”“= %i\n”, x10); and finally into the following: printf (”x10 = %i\n”, x10); The #import Statement When you have programmed in Objective-C for a while, you will find yourself develop- ing your own set of macros, which you will want to use in each of your programs. But instead of having to type these macros into each new program you write, the preprocessor enables you to collect all your definitions into a separate file and then include them in your program, using the #import statement.These files—similar to the ones you’ve previ- 248 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor ously encountered but haven’t written yourself—normally end with the characters .h and are referred to as header or include files. Suppose you were writing a series of programs for performing various metric conver- sions.You might want to set up some #define statements for the various constants you would need for performing your conversions: #define INCHES_PER_CENTIMETER 0.394 #define CENTIMETERS_PER_INCH (1 / INCHES_PER_CENTIMETER) #define QUARTS_PER_LITER 1.057 #define LITERS_PER_QUART (1 / QUARTS_PER_LITER) #define OUNCES_PER_GRAM 0.035 #define GRAMS_PER_OUNCE (1 / OUNCES_PER_GRAM) ... Suppose you entered the previous definitions into a separate file on the system called metric.h.Any program that subsequently needed to use any of the definitions contained in the metric.h file could do so by simply issuing this preprocessor directive: #import “metric.h” This statement must appear before any of the #define statements contained in metric.h are referenced and is typically placed at the beginning of the source file.The preprocessor looks for the specified file on the system and effectively copies the contents of the file into the program at the precise point at which the #import statement appears. So any statements inside the file are treated just as if they had been directly typed into the program at that point. The double quotation marks around the header filename instruct the preprocessor to look for the specified file in one or more file directories (typically,first in the directory that contains the source file, but the actual places the preprocessor searches can be speci- fied in Xcode by modifying the appropriate Project Settings). Enclosing the filename within the characters < and > instead, as in #import causes the preprocessor to look for the include file only in the special “system” header file directory or directories the current directory will not be searched.Again, with Xcode, you can alter these directories by selecting Project, Edit Project Settings from the menu. Note When compiling programs for this section of the book, the Foundation.h header file was imported from this directory on my system: /Developers/SDKs/MacOSX10.5.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.fr amework/Versions/C/Headers. 249The #import Statement To see how include files are used in an actual program example, type the six #define statements given previously into a file called metric.h.Then type and run Program 12.1 in the normal manner. Program 12.1 /* Illustrate the use of the #import statement Note: This program assumes that definitions are set up in a file called metric.h */ #import #import “metric.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; float liters, gallons; NSLog (@”*** Liters to Gallons ***”); NSLog (@”Enter the number of liters:”); scanf (“%f”, &liters); gallons = liters * QUARTS_PER_LITER / 4.0; NSLog (@”%g liters = %g gallons”, liters, gallons); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 12.1 Output *** Liters to Gallons *** Enter the number of liters: 55.75 55.75 liters = 14.7319 gallons. Program 12.1 is rather simple because it shows only a single defined value (QUARTS_PER_LITER) being referenced from the include file metric.h. Nevertheless, the point is well made:After the definitions have been entered into metric.h, they can be used in any program that uses an appropriate #import statement. One of the nicest things about the import file capability is that it enables you to cen- tralize your definitions, thus ensuring that all programs reference the same value. Further- more, errors discovered in one of the values contained in the include file need be corrected in only that one spot, thus eliminating the need to correct every program that uses the value.Any program that referenced the incorrect value would simply have to be recompiled and would not have to be edited. 250 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor Other system include files contain declarations for various functions stored inside the underlying C system library.For example, the file limits.h contains system-dependent values that specify the sizes of various characters and integer data types. For instance, the maximum size of an int is defined by the name INT_MAX inside this file.The maximum size of an unsigned long int is defined by ULONG_MAX, and so on. The float.h header file gives information about floating-point data types. For exam- ple, FLT_MAX specifies the maximum floating-point number, and FLT_DIG specifies the number of decimal digits of precision for a float type. The file string.h contains declarations for the library routines that perform character string operations such as copying, comparing, and concatenating. If you’re working with the Foundation string classes exclusively (discussed in Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections”), you probably won’t need to use any of these routines in your pro- grams. Conditional Compilation The Objective-C preprocessor offers a feature known as conditional compilation. Conditional compilation is often used to create one program that can be compiled to run on different computer systems. It is also often used to switch on or off various state- ments in the program, such as debugging statements that print the values of variables or trace the flow of program execution. The #ifdef, #endif, #else, and #ifndef Statements Unfortunately,a program sometimes must rely on system-dependent parameters that need to be specified differently on different processors (for example, Power PC versus Intel) or on a particular version of the operating system (for example,Tiger versus Leopard). If you had a large program that had many such dependencies on the particular hard- ware and/or software of the computer system (you should minimize this as much as pos- sible), you might end up with many defines whose values would have to be changed when the program was moved to another computer system. You can help reduce the problem of having to change these defines when the program is moved and can incorporate into the program the values of these defines for each differ- ent machine by using the conditional compilation capabilities of the preprocessor.As a simple example, the following statements have the effect of defining DATADIR to “/uxn1/data” if the symbol MAC_OS_X has been previously defined, and to “\usr\data” otherwise: #ifdef MAC_OS_X # define DATADIR “/uxn1/data” #else # define DATADIR “\usr\data” #endif 251Conditional Compilation As you can see here, you are allowed to put one or more spaces after the # that begins a preprocessor statement. The #ifdef, #else, and #endif statements behave as you would expect. If the symbol specified on the #ifdef line has been already defined—through a #define statement or through the command line when the program is compiled—the compiler processes lines that follow up to a #else, #elif, or #endif; otherwise, they are ignored. To define the symbol POWER_PC to the preprocessor, the statement #define POWER_PC 1 or even just #define POWER_PC will suffice.As you can see, no text at all has to appear after the defined name to satisfy the #ifdef test.The compiler also permits you to define a name to the preprocessor when the program is compiled by using a special option to the compiler command.The command line gcc –framework Foundation -D POWER_PC program.m – defines the name POWER_PC to the preprocessor, causing all #ifdef POWER_PC statements inside program.m to evaluate as TRUE (note that you must type the -D POWER_PC before the program name on the command line).This technique enables you to define names without having to edit the source program. In Xcode, you add new defined names and specify their values by selecting Add User- Defined Setting under Project Settings. The #ifndef statement follows along the same lines as the #ifdef.This statement is used in a similar way,except that it causes the subsequent lines to be processed if the indi- cated symbol is not defined. As already mentioned, conditional compilation is useful when debugging programs. You might have many printf calls embedded in your program that are used to display intermediate results and trace the flow of execution.You can turn on these statements by conditionally compiling them into the program if a particular name, such as DEBUG, is de- fined. For example, you could use a sequence of statements such as the following to dis- play the value of some variables only if the program had been compiled with the name DEBUG defined: #ifdef DEBUG NSLog (@”User name = %s, id = %i”, userName, userId); #endif You might have many such debugging statements throughout the program.Whenever the program is being debugged, it can be compiled with the DEBUG defined to have all the debugging statements compiled.When the program is working correctly,it can be recom- piled without DEBUG defined.This has the added benefit of reducing the size of the pro- gram because all your debugging statements are not compiled in. 252 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor The #if and #elif Preprocessor Statements The #if preprocessor statement offers a more general way of controlling conditional compilation.The #if statement can be used to test whether a constant expression evalu- ates to nonzero. If the result of the expression is nonzero, subsequent lines up to a #else, #elif, or #endif are processed; otherwise, they are skipped. As an example of how this can be used, the following lines appear in the Foundation header file NSString.h: #if MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED < MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_5 #define NSMaximumStringLength (INT_MAX-1) #endif This tests the value of the defined variable MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED against the defined variable MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_5. If the former is less than the latter, the #define that follows is processed; otherwise, it is skipped. Presumably,this sets the maxi- mum length of a string to the maximum size of an integer minus 1 if the program is be- ing compiled on MAC OS X 10.5 or later versions. The special operator defined (name) can also be used in #if statements.This set of preprocessor statements does the same thing: #if defined (DEBUG) ... #endif and #ifdef DEBUG ... #endif The following statements appear in the NSObjcRuntime.h header file for the purpose of defining NS_INLINE (if it’s not previously defined) based on the particular compiler that is being used: #if !defined(NS_INLINE) #if defined(__GNUC__) #define NS_INLINE static __inline_attribute_((always_inline)) #elif defined(__MWERKS__) || defined(__cplusplus) #define NS_INLINE static inline #elif defined(_MSC_VER) #define NS_INLINE static __inline #elif defined(__WIN32__) #define NS_INLINE static __inline__ #endif #endif 253Exercises Another common use of #if is in code sequences that look like this: #if defined (DEBUG) && DEBUG ... #endif This causes the statements after the #if and up to the #endif to be processed only if DEBUG is defined and has a nonzero value. The #undef Statement Sometimes you need to cau e a defined name to become undefined.You do this with the #undef statement.To remove the definition of a particular name, you write the following: #undef name Thus, this statement removes the definitio of POWER_PC: #undef POWER_PC Subsequent #ifdef POWER_PC or #if defined (POWER_PC) statements evaluate to FALSE. This concludes our discussion on the preprocessor.Appendix B,“Objective-C Lan- guage Summary,”describes some other preprocessor statements that we didn’t cover here. Exercises 1. Locate the system header files limits.h and float.h on your machine. Examine the files to see what’s in them. If these files include other header files, be sure to track them down as well, to examine their contents. 2. Define a macro called MIN that gives the minimum of two values.Then write a pro- gram to test the macro definition. 3. Define a macro called MAX3 that gives the maximum of three values.Write a pro- gram to test the definition. 4. Write a macro called IS_UPPER_CASE that gives a nonzero value if a character is an uppercase letter. 5. Write a macro called IS_ALPHABETIC that gives a nonzero value if a character is an alphabetic character. Have the macro use the IS_LOWER_CASE macro defined in the chapter text and the IS_UPPER_CASE macro defined in Exercise 4. 6. Write a macro called IS_DIGIT that gives a nonzero value if a character is a digit 0 through 9. Use this macro in the definition of another macro called IS_SPECIAL, which gives a nonzero result if a character is a special character (that is, not alpha- betic and not a digit). Be sure to use the IS_ALPHABETIC macro developed in Exer- cise 5. 254 Chapter 12 The Preprocessor 7. Write a macro called ABSOLUTE_VALUE that computes the absolute value of its argu- ment. Make sure that the macro properly evaluates an expression such as this: ABSOLUTE_VALUE (x + delta) 8. Consider the definition of the printint macro from this chapter: #define printx(n) printf (“%i\n”, x ## n) Could the following be used to display the values of the 100 variables x1–x100? Why or why not? for ( i = 1; i <= 100; ++i ) printx (i); 13 Underlying C Language Features This chapter describes features of the Objective-C language that you don’t necessarily need to know to write Objective-C programs. In fact, most of these come from the un- derlying C programming language. Features such as functions, structures, pointers, unions, and arrays are best learned on a need-to-know basis. Because C is a procedural language, some of these features go against the grain of object-oriented programming.They can also interfere with some of the strategies implemented by the Foundation framework, such as the memory allocation methodology or work with character strings containing multibyte characters. Note There are ways to work with multibyte characters at the Objective-C level, but Foundation pro- vides a much more elegant solution with its NSString class. On the other hand, some applications can require you to use a lower-level approach, perhaps for the sake of optimization. If you’re working with large arrays of data, for ex- ample, you might want to use the built-in array data structures of Objective-C instead of the array objects of Foundation (which are described in Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections”). Functions also come in handy if used properly to group repetitive op- erations and modularize a program. Skim this chapter to get an overview of the material, and come back after you’ve fin- ished reading Part II,“The Foundation Framework.”Or you can skip it altogether and go on to Part II, which covers the Foundation framework. If you end up supporting some- one else’s code or start digging through some of the Foundation framework header files, you will encounter some of the constructs covered in this chapter. Several of the Founda- tion data types, such as NSRange, NSPoint, and NSRect, require a rudimentary under- standing of structures, which are described here. In such cases, you can return to this chapter and read the appropriate section to gain an understanding of the concepts. 256 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Arrays The Objective-C language enables the user to define a set of ordered data items known as an array.This section describes how to define and manipulate arrays. Later sections il- lustrate how arrays work together with functions, structures, character strings, and point- ers. Suppose you wanted to read a set of grades into the computer and then perform some operations on these grades, such as rank them in ascending order, compute their average, or find their median. In the process of ranking a set of grades, you cannot perform such an operation until you enter every grade. In Objective-C, you can define a variable called grades that represents not a single value of a grade, but an entire set of grades.You can then reference each element of the set using a number called an index number, or subscript.Whereas in mathematics a sub- scripted variable, xi, refers to the ith element x in a set, in Objective-C the equivalent no- tation is this: x[i] So the expression grades[5] (read as “grades sub 5”) refers to element number 5 in the array called grades. In Objec- tive-C, array elements begin with the number 0,so grades[0] actually refers to the first element of the array. You can use an individual array element anywhere that you can use a normal variable. For example, you can assign an array value to another variable with a statement such as this: g = grades[50]; This statement assigns the value contained in grades[50] to g. More generally,if i is declared to be an integer variable, the statement g = grades[i]; assigns the value contained in element number i of the grades array to g. A value can be stored in an element of an array simply by specifying the array element on the left side of an equals sign. In the statement grades[100] = 95; the value 95 is stored in element number 100 of the grades array. You can easily sequence through the elements in the array by varying the value of a variable that is used as a subscript into the array.Therefore, the for loop for ( i = 0; i < 100; ++i ) sum += grades[i]; 257Arrays sequences through the first 100 elements of the array grades (elements 0–99) and adds the value of each grade into sum.When the for loop is finished, the variable sum contains the total of the first 100 values of the grades array (assuming that sum was set to 0 before the loop was entered). As with other types of variables, you must declare arrays before you can use them. De- claring an array involves declaring the type of element that will be contained in the array, such as int, float, or an object, as well as the maximum number of elements that will be stored inside the array. The definition Fraction *fracts [100]; defines fracts to be an array containing 100 fractions.You can make valid references to this array by using subscripts 0–99. The expression fracts[2] = [fracts[0] add: fracts[1]]; invokes the Fraction’s add: method to add the first two fractions from the fracts array and stores the result in the third location of the array. Program 13.1 generates a table of the first 15 Fibonacci numbers.Try to predict its output.What relationship exists between each number in the table? Program 13.1 // Program to generate the first 15 Fibonacci numbers #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int Fibonacci[15], i; Fibonacci[0] = 0; /* by definition */ Fibonacci[1] = 1; /* ditto */ for ( i = 2; i < 15; ++i ) Fibonacci[i] = Fibonacci[i-2] + Fibonacci[i-1]; for ( i = 0; i < 15; ++i ) NSLog (@”%i”, Fibonacci[i]); [pool drain]; return 0; } 258 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Program 13.1 Output 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 The first two Fibonacci numbers, which we call F0 and F1, are defined to be 0 and 1, respectively.Thereafter, each successive Fibonacci number Fi is defined to be the sum of the two preceding Fibonacci numbers Fi-2 and Fi-1. So F2 is calculated by adding the values of F0 and F1. In the preceding program, this corresponds directly to calculating Fibonacci[2] by adding the values Fibonacci[0] and Fibonacci[1].This calculation is performed inside the for loop, which calculates the values of F2–F14 (or, equivalently, Fibonacci[2] through Fibonacci[14]). Initializing Array Elements Just as you can assign initial values to variables when they are declared, you can assign ini- tial values to the elements of an array.This is done by simply listing the initial values of the array,starting from the first element.Values in the list are separated by commas, and the entire list is enclosed in a pair of braces. The statement int integers[5] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }; sets the value of integers[0] to 0, integers[1] to 1, integers[2] to 2, and so on. Arrays of characters are initialized in a similar manner; thus, the statement char letters[5] = { ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’, ‘e’ }; defines the character array letters and initializes the five elements to the characters ‘a’, ‘b’,‘c’,‘d’, and ‘e’, respectively. You don’t have to completely initialize an entire array.If fewer initial values are speci- fied, only an equal number of elements are initialized; the remaining values in the array are set to zero.Thus, the declaration float sample_data[500] = { 100.0, 300.0, 500.5 }; 259Arrays initializes the first three values of sample_data to 100.0, 300.0, and 500.5 and sets the remaining 497 elements to 0. By enclosing an element number in a pair of brackets, you can initialize specific array elements in any order. For example, int x = 1233; int a[] = { [9] = x + 1, [2] = 3, [1] = 2, [0] = 1 }; defines a 10-element array called a (based on the highest index in the array) and initial- izes the last element to the value of x + 1 (1234). In addition, it initializes the first three elements to 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Character Arrays Program 13.2 illustrates how you can use a character array.However, one point is worthy of discussion. Can you spot it? Program 13.2 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; char word[] = { ‘H’, ‘e’, ‘l’, ‘l’, ‘o’, ‘!’ }; int i; for ( i = 0; i < 6; ++i ) NSLog (@”%c”, word[i]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.2 Output H e l l o ! The most notable point in the preceding program is the declaration of the character array word.The array makes no mention of the number of elements.The Objective-C language enables you to define an array without specifying the number of elements. In this case, the size of the array is determined automatically based on the number of 260 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features 10 5 –3 17 82 9 0 0 8 –7 32 20 1 0 14 0 0 8 7 6 initialization elements. Because Program 13.2 has six initial values listed for the array word, the Objective-C language implicitly dimensions the array to six elements. This approach works fine as long as you initialize every element in the array at the point that the array is defined. If this is not to be the case, you must explicitly dimension the array. If you put a terminating null character (’\0’) at the end of a character array,you create what is often called a character string. If you substituted the initialization of word in Program 13.2 with this line char word[] = { ‘H’, ‘e’, ‘l’, ‘l’, ‘o’, ‘!’, ‘\0’ }; you could have subsequently displayed the string with a single NSLog call, like this: NSLog (@”%s”, word); This works because the %s format characters tell NSLog to keep displaying characters until a terminating null character is reached.That’s the character you put at the end of your word array. Multidimensional Arrays The types of arrays you’ve seen thus far are all linear arrays—that is, they all deal with a single dimension.The language enables you to define arrays of any dimension.This sec- tion takes a look at two-dimensional arrays. One of the most natural applications for a two-dimensional array arises in the case of a matrix. Consider the 4×5 matrix shown here: In mathematics, an element of a matrix commonly is referred to by using a double subscript. If the preceding matrix were called M, the notation Mi,j would refer to the ele- ment in the ith row, jth column, where i ranges from 1 through 4 and j ranges from 1 through 5.The notation M3,2 would refer to the value 20, which is found in the third row,second column of the matrix. In a similar fashion, M4,5 would refer to the element contained in the fourth row,fifth column (the value 6). In Objective-C, an analogous notation is used when referring to elements of a two-di- mensional array.However, because Objective-C likes to start numbering things at 0, the first row of the matrix is actually row 0 and the first column of the matrix is column 0. The preceding matrix would then have row and column designations as shown in the fol- lowing diagram: 261Arrays Row (i) Column (j) 0 1 2 3 4 0 10 5 –3 17 82 1 9 0 0 8 –7 2 32 20 1 0 14 3 0 0 8 7 6 Whereas in mathematics the notation Mi,j is used, in Objective-C the equivalent nota- tion is as follows: M[i][j] Remember, the first index number refers to the row number, whereas the second in- dex number references the column.Therefore, the statement sum = M[0][2] + M[2][4]; adds the value contained in row 0, column 2 (which is -3) to the value contained in row 2, column 4 (which is 14) and assigns the result of 11 to the variable sum. Two-dimensional arrays are declared the same way that one-dimensional arrays are; thus, int M[4][5]; declares the array M to be a two-dimensional array consisting of 4 rows and 5 columns, for a total of 20 elements. Each position in the array is defined to contain an integer value. Two-dimensional arrays can be initialized in a manner analogous to their one-dimen- sional counterparts.When listing elements for initialization, the values are listed by row. Brace pairs are used to separate the list of initializers for one row from the next.Thus, to define and initialize the array M to the elements listed in the preceding table, you can use a statement such as the following: int M[4][5] = { { 10, 5, -3, 17, 82 }, { 9, 0, 0, 8, -7 }, { 32, 20, 1, 0, 14 }, { 0, 0, 8, 7, 6 } }; Pay particular attention to the syntax of the previous statement. Note that commas are required after each brace that closes off a row,except in the case of the last row.The use of the inner pairs of braces is actually optional. If these aren’t supplied, initialization proceeds by row.Therefore, the previous statement could also have been written as follows: int M[4][5] = { 10, 5, -3, 17, 82, 9, 0, 0, 8, -7, 32, 20, 1, 0, 14, 0, 0, 8, 7, 6 }; 262 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features As with one-dimensional arrays, the entire array need not be initialized.A statement such as the following initializes only the first three elements of each row of the matrix to the indicated values: int M[4][5] = { { 10, 5, -3 }, { 9, 0, 0 }, { 32, 20, 1 }, { 0, 0, 8 } }; The remaining values are set to 0. Note that, in this case, the inner pairs of braces are required to force the correct initialization.Without them, the first two rows and the first two elements of the third row would have been initialized instead. (Verify for yourself that this would be the case.) Functions The NSLog routine is an example of a function that you have used in every program so far. Indeed, every program also has used a function called main. Let’s go back to the first program you wrote (Program 2.1), which displayed the phrase “Programming is fun.”at the terminal: #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@”Programming is fun.”); [pool drain]; return 0; } This function, called printMessage, produces the same output: void printMessage (void) { NSLog (@”Programming is fun.”); } The only difference between printMessage and the function main from Program 2.1 is the first line.The first line of a function definition tells the compiler four things about the function: n Who can call it n The type of value it returns n Its name n The number and type of arguments it takes 263Functions The first line of the printMessage function definition tells the compiler that printMessage is the name of the function and that it returns no value (the first use of the keyword void). Unlike methods, you don’t put the function’s return type inside a set of parentheses. In fact, you get a compiler error message if you do. After telling the compiler that printMessage doesn’t return a value, the second use of the keyword void says that it takes no arguments. Recall that main is a specially recognized name in the Objective-C system that always indicates where the program is to begin execution.There always must be a main. So you can add a main function to the preceding code to end up with a complete program, as shown in Program 13.3. Program 13.3 #import void printMessage (void) { NSLog (@”Programming is fun.”); } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; printMessage (); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.4 Output Programming is fun. Program 13.3 consists of two functions: printMessage and main.As mentioned ear- lier, the idea of calling a function is not new.Because printMessage takes no arguments, you call it simply by listing its name followed by a pair of open and close parentheses. Arguments and Local Variables In Chapter 5,“Program Looping,”you developed programs for calculating triangular numbers. Here you define a function to generate a triangular number and call it, appro- priately enough, calculateTriangularNumber.As an argument to the function, you specify which triangular number to calculate.The function then calculates the desired number and displays the results. Program 13.4 shows the function to accomplish the task and a main routine to try it. 264 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Program 13.4 #import // Function to calculate the nth triangular number void calculateTriangularNumber (int n) { int i, triangularNumber = 0; for ( i = 1; i <= n; ++i ) triangularNumber += i; NSLog (@”Triangular number %i is %i”, n, triangularNumber); } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; calculateTriangularNumber (10); calculateTriangularNumber (20); calculateTriangularNumber (50); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.4 Output Triangular number 10 is 55 Triangular number 20 is 210 Triangular number 50 is 1275 The first line of the calculateTriangularNumber function is this: void calculateTriangularNumber (int n) It tells the compiler that calculateTriangularNumber is a function that returns no value (the keyword void) and that it takes a single argument, called n, which is an int. Note again that you can’t put the argument type inside parentheses, as you are accus- tomed to doing when you write methods. The opening curly brace indicates the beginning of the function’s definition. Because you want to calculate the nth triangular number, you must set up a variable to store the value of the triangular number as it is being calculated.You also need a variable to act as your loop index.The variables TriangularNumber and i are defined for these purposes and are declared to be of type int.You define and initialize these variables in the same manner that you defined and initialized your variables inside the main routine in previous programs. 265Functions Local variables in functions behave the same way they do in methods: If an initial value is given to a variable inside a function, that initial value is assigned to the variable each time the function is called. Variables defined inside a function (as in methods) are known as automatic local variables because they are automatically “created” each time the function is called and their values are local to the function. Static local variables are declared with the keyword static, retain their values through function calls, and have default initial values of 0. The value of a local variable can be accessed only by the function in which the vari- able is defined. Its value cannot be directly accessed from outside the function. Returning to our program example, after the local variables have been defined, the function calculates the triangular number and displays the results at the terminal.The closed brace then defines the end of the function. Inside the main routine, the value 10 is passed as the argument in the first call to calculateTriangularNumber. Execution then transfers directly to the function where the value 10 becomes the value of the formal parameter n inside the function.The func- tion then calculates the value of the 10th triangular number and displays the result. The next time calculateTriangularNumber is called, the argument 20 is passed. In a similar process, as described earlier, this value becomes the value of n inside the function. The function then calculates the value of the 20th triangular number and displays the an- swer. Returning Function Results As with methods, a function can return a value.The type of value returned with the return statement must be consistent with the return type declared for the function.A function declaration that starts like this float kmh_to_mph (float km_speed) begins the definition of a function kmh_to_mph, which takes one float argument called km_speed and returns a floating-point value. Similarly, int gcd (int u, int v) defines a function called gcd with integer arguments u and v and returns an integer value. Let’s rewrite the greatest common divisor algorithm used in Program 5.7 in function form.The two arguments to the function are the two numbers whose greatest common divisor (gcd) you want to calculate (see Program 13.5). Program 13.5 #import // This function finds the greatest common divisor of two // nonnegative integer values and returns the result 266 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features int gcd (int u, int v) { int temp; while ( v != 0 ) { temp = u % v; u = v; v = temp; } return u; } main () { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int result; result = gcd (150, 35); NSLog (@”The gcd of 150 and 35 is %i”, result); result = gcd (1026, 405); NSLog (@”The gcd of 1026 and 405 is %i”, result); NSLog (@”The gcd of 83 and 240 is %i”, gcd (83, 240)); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.5 Output The gcd of 150 and 35 is 5 The gcd of 1026 and 405 is 27 The gcd of 83 and 240 is 1 The function gcd is defined to take two integer arguments.The function refers to these arguments through their formal parameter names: u and v.After declaring the vari- able temp to be of type int, the program displays the values of the arguments u and v, to- gether with an appropriate message at the terminal.The function then calculates and returns the greatest common divisor of the two integers. The statement result = gcd (150, 35); says to call the function gcd with the arguments 150 and 35, and to store the value that this function returns in the variable result. 267Functions If the return type declaration for a function is omitted, the compiler assumes that the function will return an integer—if it returns a value at all. Many programmers take ad- vantage of this fact and omit the return type declaration for functions that return integers. However, this is a bad programming habit that you should avoid.The compiler will warn you that the return type defaults to int, which is an indication that you’re doing some- thing wrong! The default return type for functions differs from that for methods. Recall that, if no return type is specified for a method, the compiler assumes that it returns a value of type id.Again, you should always declare the return type for a method instead of relying on this fact. Declaring Return Types and Argument Types We mentioned earlier that the Objective-C compiler assumes that a function returns a value of type int as the default case. More specifically,whenever a call is made to a func- tion, the compiler assumes that the function returns a value of type int unless either of the following has occurred: n The function has been defined in the program before the function call is encountered. n The value returned by the function has been declared before the function call is encountered. Declaring the return and argument types for a function is known as a prototype declaration. The function declaration not only is used to declare the function’s return type, but it also is used to tell the compiler how many arguments the function takes and what their types are.This is analogous to declaring methods inside the @interface section when defining a new class. To declare absoluteValue as a function that returns a value of type float and that takes a single argument, also of type float, you could use the following prototype declaration: float absoluteValue (float); As you can see, you have to specify just the argument type inside the parentheses, not its name.You can optionally specify a “dummy” name after the type, if you like: float absoluteValue (float x); This name doesn’t have to be the same as the one used in the function definition—the compiler ignores it anyway. A foolproof way to write a prototype declaration is to simply make a copy of the first line from the actual definition of the function. Remember to place a semicolon at the end. If the function takes a variable number of arguments (such as is the case with NSLog and scanf), the compiler must be informed.The declaration void NSLog (NSString *format, ...); tells the compiler that NSLog takes an NSString object as its first argument and is fol- lowed by any number of additional arguments (the use of the ...). NSLog is declared in 268 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features the special file Foundation/Foundation.h1, which is why you have been placing the fol- lowing line at the start of each of your programs: #import Without this line, the compiler can assume that NSLog takes a fixed number of argu- ments, which can result in incorrect code being generated. The compiler automatically converts your numeric arguments to the appropriate types when a function is called only if you have placed the function’s definition or have de- clared the function and its argument types before the call. Consider some reminders and suggestions about functions: n By default, the compiler assumes that a function returns an int. n When defining a function that returns an int, define it as such. n When defining a function that doesn’t return a value, define it as void. n The compiler converts your arguments to agree with the ones the function expects only if you have previously defined or declared the function. To be safe, declare all functions in your program, even if they are defined before they are called. (You might decide later to move them someplace else in your file or even to another file.) A good strategy is to put your function declarations inside a header file and then just import that file into your modules. Functions are external by default.That is, the default scope for a function is that it can be called by any functions or methods contained in any files that are linked with the function.You can limit the scope of a function by making it static.You do this by placing the keyword static in front of the function declaration, as shown here: static int gcd (int u, int v) { ... } A static function can be called only by other functions or methods that appear in the same file that contains the function’s definition. Functions, Methods, and Arrays To pass a single array element to a function or method, you specify the array element as an argument in the normal fashion. So if you had a squareRoot function to calculate square roots and wanted to take the square root of averages[i] and assign the result to a variable called sq_root_result, a statement such as this one would work: sq_root_result = squareRoot (averages[i]); 1 Technically speaking, its defined in the file NSObjCRuntime.h, which is imported from inside the file Foundation.h 269Functions Passing an entire array to a function or method is an entirely new ballgame.To pass an array,you need to list only the name of the array,without any subscripts, inside the call to the function or method invocation.As an example, if you assume that grade_scores has been declared as an array containing 100 elements, the expression minimum (grade_scores) passes the entire 100 elements contained in the array grade_scores to the function called minimum. Naturally,the minimum function must be expecting an entire array to be passed as an argument and must make the appropriate formal parameter declaration. This function finds the minimum integer value in an array containing a specified number of elements: // Function to find the minimum in an array int minimum (int values[], int numElements) { int minValue, i; minValue = values[0]; for ( i = 1; i < numElements; ++i ) if ( values[i] < minValue ) minValue = values[i]; return (minValue); } The function minimum is defined to take two arguments: first, the array whose mini- mum you want to find and, second, the number of elements in the array.The open and close brackets that immediately follow values in the function header inform the Ob- jective-C compiler that values is an array of integers.The compiler doesn’t care how large it is. The formal parameter numElements serves as the upper limit inside the for statement. Thus, the for statement sequences through the array from values[1] through the last el- ement of the array,which is values[numElements - 1]. If a function or method changes the value of an array element, that change is made to the original array that was passed to the function or method.This change remains in ef- fect even after the function or method has completed execution. The reason an array behaves differently from a simple variable or an array element— whose value a function or method cannot change—is worthy of a bit of explanation.We stated that when a function or method is called, the values passed as arguments are copied into the corresponding formal parameters.This statement is still valid. However, when dealing with arrays, the entire contents of the array are not copied into the formal param- eter array.Instead, a pointer is passed indicating where in the computer’s memory the ar- ray is located. So any changes made to the formal parameter array are actually made to 270 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features the original array,not to a copy of the array.Therefore, when the function or method re- turns, these changes remain in effect. Multidimensional Arrays You can pass a multidimensional array element to a function or method just as any ordi- nary variable or single-dimensional array element can.The statement result = squareRoot (matrix[i][j]); calls the squareRoot function, passing the value contained in matrix[i][j] as the argu- ment. You can pass an entire multidimensional array as an argument the same way you do with a single-dimensional array:You simply list the name of the array.For example, if the matrix measuredValues is declared to be a two-dimensional array of integers, you can use the Objective-C statement scalarMultiply (measuredValues, constant); to invoke a function that multiplies each element in the matrix by the value of constant. This implies, of course, that the function itself can change the values contained inside the measuredValues array.The discussion pertaining to this topic for single-dimensional ar- rays also applies here:An assignment made to any element of the formal parameter array inside the function makes a permanent change to the array that was passed to the func- tion. We mentioned that, when declaring a single-dimensional array as a formal parameter, you don’t need the actual dimension of the array.You simply use a pair of empty brackets to inform the Objective-C compiler that the parameter is an array.This does not totally apply in the case of multidimensional arrays. For a two-dimensional array,you can omit the number of rows in the array,but the declaration must contain the number of columns in the array.The declarations int arrayValues[100][50] and int arrayValues[][50] are both valid declarations for a formal parameter array called arrayValues that contains 100 rows by 50 columns. However, the declarations int arrayValues[100][] and int arrayValues[][] are not valid because you must specify the number of columns in the array. 271Structures Structures The Objective-C language provides another tool besides arrays for grouping elements. You also can use structures, which form the basis for the discussions in this section. Suppose you wanted to store a date—say,7/18/09—inside a program, perhaps to be used for the heading of some program output or even for computational purposes.A nat- ural method for storing the date is to simply assign the month to an integer variable called month, the day to an integer variable day, and the year to an integer variable year. So the statements int month = 7, day = 18, year = 2009; would work just fine.This is a totally acceptable approach. But what if your program also needed to store several dates? It would be much better to somehow group these sets of three variables. You can define a structure called date in the Objective-C language that consists of three components that represent the month, day,and year.The syntax for such a definition is rather straightforward: struct date { int month; int day; int year; }; The date structure just defined contains three integer members, called month, day, and year. Essentially,the definition of date defines a new type in the language, in that variables can subsequently be declared to be of type struct date, as in the following definition: struct date today; You can also define a variable called purchaseDate to be of the same type with a sep- arate definition: struct date purchaseDate; Or you can simply include the two definitions on the same line: struct date today, purchaseDate; Unlike variables of type int, float, or char, a special syntax is needed when dealing with structure variables.A member of a structure is accessed by specifying the variable name, followed by a period (called the dot operator) and then the member name. For ex- ample, to set the value of day in the variable today to 21, you would write this: today.day = 21; Note that no spaces are permitted between the variable name, the period, and the member name. 272 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Now,wait a second! Wasn’t this the same operator we used to invoke an property on an object? Recall that we could write the statement myRect.width = 12; to invoke the Rectangle object’s setter method (called setWidth), passing it the argu- ment value of 12. No confusion arises here:The compiler determines whether it’s a struc- ture or an object to the left of the dot operator and handles the situation properly. Returning to the struct date example, to set year in today to 2010, you can use this expression: today.year = 2010; Finally,to test the value of month to see whether it is equal to 12, you can use a state- ment such as this: if ( today.month == 12 ) next_month = 1; Program 13.6 incorporates the preceding discussions into an actual program. Program 13.6 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; struct date { int month; int day; int year; }; struct date today; today.month = 9; today.day = 25; today.year = 2009; NSLog (@”Today’s date is %i/%i/%.2i.”, today.month, today.day, today.year % 100); [pool drain]; return 0; } 273Structures Program 13.6 Output Today’s date is 9/25/09. The first statement inside main defines the structure called date to consist of three integer members, called month, day, and year. In the second statement, the variable today is declared to be of type struct date. So the first statement simply defines what a date structure looks like to the Objective-C compiler and causes no storage to be reserved inside the computer. The second statement declares a variable to be of type struct date and, therefore, does re- serve memory for storing the three integer members of the structure variable today. After the ass gnments, an appropri te NSLog call displays the values contained inside the structure.The rema nder of today year divided by 100 is calculated before being passed to the NSLog function so that just 04 displays for the year.The %.2i format charac- ters in the NSLog call specify a minimum of two characters to be displayed, thus forcing the display of the leading zero for the year. When it comes to the evalua ion of expressions, structure members follow the same rules as ordinary var ables in the Objective-C language. D vision of an integer structure member by another integer is performed as an integer division, as shown here: century = today.year / 100 + 1; Suppose you wanted to write a simple program that accepted today’s date as input and displayed tomorrow’s date to the user.At first glance, this seems a perfectly simple task to perform.You can ask the user to enter today’s date and then calculate tomorrow’s date by a series of statements, like so: tomorrow.month = today.month; tomorrow.day = today.day + 1; tomorrow.year = today.year; Of course, the previous statements would work fine for most dates, but the following two cases would not be properly handled: n If today’s date fell at the end of a month n If today’s date fell at the end of a year (that is, if today’s date were December 31) One way to easily determine whether today’s date falls at the end of a month is to set up an array of integers that corresponds to the number of days in each month.A lookup inside the array for a particular month then gives the number of days in that month (see Program 13.7). Program 13.7 // Program to determine tomorrow’s date #import struct date { 274 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features int month; int day; int year; }; // Function to calculate tomorrow’s date struct date dateUpdate (struct date today) { struct date tomorrow; int numberOfDays (struct date d); if ( today.day != numberOfDays (today) ) { tomorrow.day = today.day + 1; tomorrow.month = today.month; tomorrow.year = today.year; } else if ( today.month == 12 ) // end of year { tomorrow.day = 1; tomorrow.month = 1; tomorrow.year = today.year + 1; } else { // end of month tomorrow.day = 1; tomorrow.month = today.month + 1; tomorrow.year = today.year; } return (tomorrow); } // Function to find the number of days in a month int numberOfDays (struct date d) { int answer; BOOL isLeapYear (struct date d); int daysPerMonth[12] = { 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 }; if ( isLeapYear (d) == YES && d.month == 2 ) answer = 29; else answer = daysPerMonth[d.month - 1]; 275Structures return (answer); } // Function to determine if it’s a leap year BOOL isLeapYear (struct date d) { if ( (d.year % 4 == 0 && d.year % 100 != 0) || d.year % 400 == 0 ) return YES; else return NO; } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; struct date dateUpdate (struct date today); struct date thisDay, nextDay; NSLog (@”Enter today’s date (mm dd yyyy): “); scanf (“%i%i%i”, &thisDay.month, &thisDay.day, &thisDay.year); nextDay = dateUpdate (thisDay); NSLog (@”Tomorrow’s date is %i/%i/%.2i.”,nextDay.month, nextDay.day, nextDay.year % 100); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.7 Output Enter today’s date (mm dd yyyy): 2 28 2012 Tomorrow’s date is 2/29/12. Program 13.7 Output (Rerun) Enter today’s date (mm dd yyyy): 10 2 2009 Tomorrow’s date is 10/3/09. 276 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Program 13.7 Output (Rerun) Enter today’s date (mm dd yyyy): 12 31 2010 Tomorrow’s date is 1/1/10. Even though you’re not working with any classes in this program, the file Foundation.h was imported because you wanted to use the BOOL type and the defines YES and NO.They’re defined in that file. Notice that the definition of the date structure appears first and outside of any func- tion.This is because structure definitions behave much like variables: If a structure is de- fined within a particular function, only that function knows of its existence.This is a local structure definition. If you define the structure outside any function, that definition is global.A global structure definition enables any variables that are subsequently defined in the program (either inside or outside a function) to be declared as that structure type. Structure definitions that more than one file share are typically centralized in a header file and then imported into the files that want to use the structure. Inside the main routine, the declaration struct date dateUpdate (struct date today); tells the compiler that the dateUpdate function takes a date structure as its argument and returns one as well.You don’t need the declaration here because the compiler has already seen the actual function definition earlier in the file. However, it’s still good programming practice. For example, if you subsequently separated the function definition and main into separate source files, the declaration would be necessary. As with ordinary variables—and unlike arrays—any changes that the function makes to the values contained in a structure argument have no effect on the original structure. They affect only the copy of the structure that is created when the function is called. After a date has been entered and stored inside the date structure variable thisDay, the dateUpdate function is called like this: nextDay = dateUpdate (thisDay); This statement calls dateUpdate, passing it the value of the date structure thisDay. Inside the dateUpdate function, the prototype declaration int numberOfDays (struct date d); informs the Objective-C compiler that the numberOfDays function returns an integer value and takes a single argument of type struct date. The statement if ( today.day != numberOfDays (today) ) 277Structures specifies that the structure today is to be passed as an argument to the numberOfDays function. Inside that function, the appropriate declaration must be made to inform the system that a structure is expected as an argument, like so: int numberOfDays (struct date d) The numberOfDays function begins by determining whether it is a leap year and whether the month is February.The former determination is made by calling another function called isLeapYear. The isLeapYear function is straightforward enough; it simply tests the year con- tained in the date structure given as its argument and returns YES if it is a leap year and NO if it is not. Make sure that you understand the hierarchy of function calls in Program 13.7:The main function calls dateUpdate, which calls numberOfDays, which itself calls the function isLeapYear. Initializing Structures Initializing structures is similar to initializing arrays—the elements are simply listed inside a pair of braces, with a comma separating each element. To initialize the date structure variable today to July 2, 2011, you can use this statement: struct date today = { 7, 2, 2011 }; As with the initialization of an array,fewer values can be listed than the structure con- tains. So the statement struct date today = { 7 }; sets today.month to 7 but gives no initial value to today.day or today.year. In such a case, their default initial values are undefined. Specific members can be designated for initialization in any order with the notation .member = value in the initialization list, as in struct date today = { .month = 7, .day = 2, .year = 2011 }; and struct date today = { .year = 2011 }; The last statement just sets the year in the structure to 2011.As you know,the other two members are undefined. 278 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Arrays of Structures Working with arrays of structures is pretty straightforward.The definition struct date birthdays[15]; defines the array birthdays to contain 15 elements of type struct date. Referencing a particular structure element inside the array is quite natural.To set the second birthday in- side the birthdays array to February 22, 1996, this sequence of statements works: birthdays[1].month = 2; birthdays[1].day = 22; birthdays[1].year = 1996; The statement n = numberOfDays (birthdays[0]); sends the first date in the array to the numberOfDays function to find out how many days are contained in the month that date specifies. Structures Within Structures Objective-C provides an enormous amount of flexibility in defining structures. For in- stance, you can define a structure that itself contains other structures as one or more of its members, or you can define structures that contain arrays. You have seen how to logically group the month, day,and year into a structure called date. Suppose you had an analogous structure called time that you used to group the hour, minutes, and seconds representing a time. In some applications, you might need to logically group both a date and a time. For example, you might need to set up a list of events that are to occur at a particular date and time. The previous discussion implies that you want to have a convenient means of associat- ing both the date and the time.You can do this in Objective-C by defining a new struc- ture (perhaps called date_and_time) that contains as its members two elements: the date and the time: struct date_and_time { struct date sdate; struct time stime; }; The first member of this structure is of type struct date and is called sdate, and the second member of the date_and_time structure is of type struct time and is called stime.This definition of a date_and_time structure requires that a date structure and a time structure be previously defined to the compiler. Variables can now be defined as type struct date_and_time: struct date_and_time event; To reference the date structure of the variable event, the syntax is the same: 279Structures event.sdate Therefore, you could call your dateUpdate function with this date as the argument and assign the result back to the same place by a statement, like so: event.sdate = dateUpdate (event.sdate); You can do the same with the time structure contained within your date_and_time structure: event.stime = timeUpdate (event.stime); To reference a particular member inside one of these structures, add a period followed by the member name to the end: event.sdate.month = 10; This statement sets the month of the date structure contained within event to Octo- ber, and the statement ++event.stime.seconds; adds 1 to the seconds contained within the time structure. You can initialize the event variable in the expected manner: struct date_and_time event = { { 12, 17, 1989 }, { 3, 30, 0 } }; This sets the date in the variable event to December 17, 1989, and sets the time to 3:30:00. Naturally,you can set up an array of date_and_time structures, as is done with the following declaration: struct date_and_time events[100]; The array events is declared to contain 100 elements of type struct date_and_time.The 4th date_and_time contained within the array is referenced in the usual way as events[3], and the 25th date in the array can be sent to your dateUpdate function as follows: events[24].sdate = dateUpdate (events[24].sdate); To set the first time in the array to noon, you can use the following series of state- ments: events[0].stime.hour = 12; events[0].stime.minutes = 0; events[0].stime.seconds = 0; 280 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Additional Details About Structures We should mention that you have some flexibility in defining a structure. First, you can declare a variable to be of a particular structure type at the same time that the structure is defined.You do this simply by including the variable name(s) before the terminating semicolon of the structure definition. For example, the following statement defines the structure date and also declares the variables todaysDate and purchaseDate to be of this type: struct date { int month; int day; int year; } todaysDate, purchaseDate; You can also assign initial values to the variables in the normal fashion.Thus, the follow- ing defines the structure date and the variable todaysDate with initial values as indicated: struct date { int month; int day; int year; } todaysDate = { 9, 25, 2010 }; If all the variables of a particular structure type are defined when the structure is de- fined, you can omit the structure name. So the following statement defines an array called dates to consist of 100 elements: struct { int month; int day; int year; } dates[100]; Each element is a structure containing three integer members: month, day, and year. Because you did not supply a name to the structure, the only way to subsequently de- clare variables of the same type is to explicitly define the structure again. Bit Fields Two methods in Objective-C can pack information together. One way is to simply repre- sent the data inside an integer and then access the desired bits of the integer using the bit operators described in Chapter 4,“Data Types and Expressions.” Another way is to define a structure of packed information using an Objective-C con- struct known as a bit field.This method uses a special syntax in the structure definition that enables you to define a field of bits and assign a name to that field. 281Structures To define bit field assignments, you can define a structure called packedStruct, for example, as follows: struct packedStruct { unsigned int f1:1; unsigned int f2:1; unsigned int f3:1; unsigned int type:4; unsigned int index:9; }; The structure packedStruct is defined to contain five members.The first member, called f1, is an unsigned int.The :1 that immediately follows the member name speci- fies that this member is to be stored in 1 bit.The flags f2 and f3 are similarly defined as being a single bit in length.The member type is defined to occupy 4 bits, whereas the member index is defined as being 9 bits long. The compiler automatically packs the preceding bit field definitions together.The nice thing about this approach is that the fields of a variable defined to be of type packedStruct can now be referenced in the same convenient way that normal structure members are referenced. So if you declared a variable called packedData as follows struct packedStruct packedData; you could easily set the type field of packedData to 7 with this simple statement: packedData.type = 7; You could also set this field to the value of n with this similar statement: packedData.type = n; In this last case, you needn’t worry about whether the value of n is too large to fit into the type field; only the low-order 4 bits of n are assigned to packedData.type. Extraction of the value from a bit field is also automatically handled, so the statement n = packedData.type; extracts the type field from packedData (automatically shifting it into the low-order bits as required) and assigns it to n. You can use bit fields in normal expressions and automatically convert them to inte- gers.Therefore, the statement i = packedData.index / 5 + 1; is perfectly valid, as is the following: if ( packedData.f2 ) ... This tests whether flag f2 is on or off. One point worth noting about bit fields is that no guarantee states whether the fields are internally assigned from left to right or from 282 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features right to left. So if bit fields are assigned from right to left, f1 would be in the low-order bit position, f2 in the bit position immediately to the left of f1, and so on.This should not present a problem unless you are dealing with data that a different program or a dif- ferent machine created. You can also include normal data types within a structure that contains bit fields. So if you wanted to define a structure that contains an int,a char, and two 1-bit flags, the fol- lowing definition would be valid: struct table_entry { int count; char c; unsigned int f1:1; unsigned int f2:1; }; Bit fields are packed into units as they appear in the structure definition, where the size of a unit is defined by the implementation and is most likely a word.The Objective-C compiler does not rearrange the bit field definitions to try to optimize storage space. A bit field that has no name can be specified to cause bits inside a word to be skipped. The following definition defines a structure, x_entry, that contains a 4-bit field called type and a 9-bit field called count: struct x_entry { unsigned int type:4; unsigned int :3; unsigned int count:9; }; The unnamed field specifies that 3 bits separate type from the count field. A final point on the specification of fields concerns the special case of an unnamed field of length 0.You can be use this to force alignment of the next field in the structure at the start of a unit boundary. Don’t Forget About Object-Oriented Programming! Now you know how to define a structure to store a date, and you’ve written various rou- tines to manipulate that date structure. But what about object-oriented programming? Shouldn’t you have made a class called Date instead and then developed methods to work with a Date object? Wouldn’t that be a better approach? Well,yes. Hopefully,that entered your mind when we discussed storing dates in your program. Certainly,if you have to work with a lot of dates in your programs, defining a class and methods to work with dates is a better approach. In fact, the Foundation framework has a couple of classes, called NSDate and NSCalendarDate, defined for such purposes.We leave it as an exercise for you to implement a Date class to deal with dates as objects instead of as structures. 283Pointers Pointers Pointers enable you to effectively represent complex data structures, change values passed as arguments to functions and methods, and more concisely and efficiently deal with ar- rays.At the end of this chapter, we also clue you in about how important they are to the implementation of objects in the Objective-C language. We introduced the concept of a pointer in Chapter 8,“Inheritance,”when we talked about the Point and Rectangle classes and stated that you can have multiple references to the same object. To understand the way pointers operate, you first must understand the concept of indirection.We witness this concept in our everyday life For example uppose that I needed to buy a new toner cartridge for my printer. In the company that I work for, the purchasing department handles all purchases. So I would call Jim in purchasing and ask him to order the new cartridge for me. Jim then would call the local supply store to order the cartridge To obtain my new cartridge, I would take an indirect approach because I would not be ordering he cartridge directly from the supply store. This same notion of indirection applies to the way pointers work in Objective-C.A pointer provides an indirect means of accessing the value of a particular data item.And just as there are reasons it makes sense to go through the purchasing department to order new cartridges (I don’t have to know which particular store the cartridges are being or- dered from, for example), good reasons exist for why sometimes it makes sense to use pointers in Objective-C. But enough talk; it’s time to see how pointers actually work. Suppose you’ve defined a variable called count as follows: int count = 10; You can define another variable, called intPtr, that enables you to indirectly access the value of count with the following declaration: int *intPtr; The asterisk defines to the Objective-C system that the variable intPtr is of type pointer to int.This means that the program will use intPtr to indirectly access the value of one or more integer variables. You have seen how we used the & operator in the scanf calls of previous programs. This unary operator, known as the address operator, makes a pointer to a variable in Ob- jective-C. So if x is a variable of a particular type, the expression &x is a pointer to that variable. If you want, you can assign the expression &x to any pointer variable that has been declared to be a pointer of the same type as x. Therefore, with the definitions of count and intPtr as given, you can write a state- ment such as intPtr = &count; 284 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features 10 intPtr count Figure 13.1 Pointer to an integer to set up the indirect reference between intPtr and count.The address operator assigns to the variable intPtr not the value of count, but a pointer to the variable count. Figure 13.1 illustrates the link made between intPtr and count.The directed line illustrates the idea that intPtr does not directly contain the value of count, but contains a pointer to the variable count. To reference the contents of count through the pointer variable intPtr, you use the indirection operator, which is the asterisk (*). If x were defined to be of type int, the statement x = *intPtr; would assign the value that is indirectly referenced through intPtr to the variable x.Be- cause intPtr was previously set pointing to count, this statement would have the effect of assigning the value contained in the variable count—which is 10—to the variable x. Program 13.8 incorporates the previous statements and illustrates the two fundamental pointer operators: the address operator (&) and the indirection operator (*). Program 13.8 // Program to illustrate pointers #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int count = 10, x; int *intPtr; intPtr = &count; x = *intPtr; NSLog (@”count = %i, x = %i”, count, x); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.8 Output count = 10, x = 10 285Pointers The variables count and x are declared to be integer variables in the normal fashion. On the next line, the variable intPtr is declared to be of type “pointer to int.”Note that the two lines of declarations could have been combined into a single line: int count = 10, x, *intPtr; Next, the address operator is applied to the variable count, which has the effect of cre- ating a pointer to this variable, which the program then assigns to the variable intPtr. Execution of the next statement in the program x = *intPtr; proceeds as follows:The indirection operator tells the Objective-C system to treat the variable intPtr as containing a pointer to another data item.This pointer is then used to access the desired data item, whose type is specified by the declaration of the pointer vari- able. Because you told the compiler when you declared the variable that intPtr points to integers, the compiler knows that the value referenced by the expression *intPtr is an integer.Also, because you set intPtr to point to the integer variable count in the previ- ous program statement, this expression indirectly accesses the value of count. Program 13.9 illustrates some interesting properties of pointer variables.This program uses a pointer to a character. Program 13.9 #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; char c = ‘Q’; char *charPtr = &c; NSLog (@”%c %c”, c, *charPtr); c = ‘/’; NSLog (@”%c %c”, c, *charPtr); *charPtr = ‘(‘; NSLog (@”%c %c”, c, *charPtr); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.9 Output Q Q / / ( ( 286 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features The character variable c is defined and initialized to the character ‘Q’. In the next line of the program, the variable charPtr is defined to be of type “pointer to char,”meaning that whatever value is stored inside this variable should be treated as an indirect reference (pointer) to a character. Notice that you can assign an initial value to this variable in the normal fashion.The value you assign to charPtr in the program is a pointer to the vari- able c, which is obtained by applying the address operator to the variable c. (Note that this initialization would have generated a compiler error had c been defined after this statement because a variable must always be declared before its value can be referenced in an expression.) The declaration of the variable charPtr and the assignment of its initial value could have been equivalently expressed in two separate statements, as follows char *charPtr; charPtr = &c; (and not by the statements char *charPtr; *charPtr = &c; as might be implied from the single line declaration). Remember that the value of a pointer in Objective-C is meaningless until it is set to point to something. The first NSLog call simply displays the contents of the variable c and the contents of the variable referenced by charPtr. Because you set charPtr to point to the variable c, the value displayed is the contents of c, as verified by the first line of the program’s output. In the next line of the program, the character ‘/’ is assigned to the character variable c. Because charPtr still points to the variable c, displaying the value of *charPtr in the subsequent NSLog call correctly displays this new value of c at the terminal.This is an im- portant concept. Unless the value of charPtr changes, the expression *charPtr always accesses the value of c.Thus, as the value of c changes, so does the value of *charPtr. The previous discussion can help you understand how the program statement that ap- pears next in the program works.We mentioned that unless charPtr were changed, the expression *charPtr would always reference the value of c.Therefore, in the expression *charPtr = ‘(‘; the left parenthesis character is being assigned to c. More formally,the character ’(’ is as- signed to the variable that charPtr points to.You know that this variable is c because you placed a pointer to c in charPtr at the beginning of the program. The previous concepts are the key to your understanding of pointer operation. Re- view them at this point if they still seem a bit unclear. 287Pointers Pointers and Structures You have seen how to define a pointer to point to a basic data type such as an int or a char. But you can also define a pointer to point to a structure. Earlier in this chapter, you defined your date structure as follows: struct date { int month; int day; int year; }; Just as you defined variables to be of type struct date, as in struct date todaysDate; you can define a variable to be a pointer to a struct date variable: struct date *datePtr; You can then use the variable datePtr, as just defined, in the expected fashion. For example, you can set it to point to todaysDate with the following assignment statement: datePtr = &todaysDate; After such an assignment, you can indirectly access any of the members of the date structure that datePtr points to in the following way: (*datePtr).day = 21; This statement sets the day of the date structure pointed to by datePtr to 21.The parentheses are required because the structure member operator . has higher precedence than the indirection operator *. To test the value of month stored in the date structure that datePtr points to, you can use a statement such as this: if ( (*datePtr).month == 12 ) ... Pointers to structures are so often used that the language has a special operator.The structure pointer operator ->, which is the dash followed by the greater-than sign, permits expressions that would otherwise be written as (*x).y to be more clearly expressed as x–>y So you can conveniently write the previous if statement as follows: if ( datePtr–>month == 12 ) ... 288 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features We rewrote Program 13.6, the first program to illustrate structures, using the concept of structure pointers. Program 13.10 presents this program. Program 13.10 // Program to illustrate structure pointers #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; struct date { int month; int day; int year; }; struct date today, *datePtr; datePtr = &today; datePtr->month = 9; datePtr->day = 25; datePtr->year = 2009; NSLog (@”Today’s date is %i/%i/%.2i.”, datePtr->month, datePtr->day, datePtr->year % 100); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.10 Output Today’s date is 9/25/09. Pointers, Methods, and Functions You can pass a pointer as an argument to a method or function in the normal fashion, and you can have a function or method return a pointer as its result.When you think about it, that’s what your alloc and init methods have been doing all along—returning pointers.We cover that in more detail at the end of this chapter. Now consider Program 13.11. Program 13.11 // Pointers as arguments to functions #import void exchange (int *pint1, int *pint2) 289Pointers { int temp; temp = *pint1; *pint1 = *pint2; *pint2 = temp; } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; void exchange (int *pint1, int *pint2); int i1 = -5, i2 = 66, *p1 = &i1, *p2 = &i2; NSLog (@”i1 = %i, i2 = %i”, i1, i2); exchange (p1, p2); NSLog (@”i1 = %i, i2 = %i”, i1, i2); exchange (&i1, &i2); NSLog (@”i1 = %i, i2 = %i”, i1, i2); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.11 Output i1 = -5, i2 = 66 i1 = 66, i2 = -5 i1 = -5, i2 = 66 The purpose of the exchange function is to interchange the two integer values that its two arguments point to.The local integer variable temp is used to hold one of the integer values while the exchange is made. Its value is set equal to the integer that pint1 points to.The integer that pint2 points to is then copied into the integer that pint1 points to, and the value of temp is then stored in the integer that pint2 points to, thus making the exchange complete. The main routine defines integers i1 and i2 with values of -5 and 66, respectively. Two integer pointers, p1 and p2, are then defined and set to point to i1 and i2, respec- tively.The program next displays the values of i1 and i2 and calls the exchange function, passing the two pointers (p1 and p2) as arguments.The exchange function exchanges the value contained in the integer that p1 points to with the value contained in the integer that p2 points to. Because p1 points to i1, and p2 to i2, the function exchanges the values of i1 and i2.The output from the second NSLog call verifies that the exchange worked properly. 290 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features The second call to exchange is a bit more interesting.This time, the arguments passed to the function are pointers to i1 and i2 that are manufactured on the spot by applying the address operator to these two variables. Because the expression &i1 produces a pointer to the integer variable i1, this is in line with the type of argument your function expects for the first argument (a pointer to an integer).The same applies for the second argument. As you can see from the program’s output, the exchange function did its job and switched the values of i1 and i2 to their original values. Study Program 13.11 in detail. It illustrates with a small example the key concepts when dealing with pointers in Objective-C. Pointers and Arrays If you have an array of 100 integers called values, you can define a pointer called valuesPtr, which you can use to access the integers contained in this array with the fol- lowing statement: int *valuesPtr; When you define a pointer that will be used to point to the elements of an array,you don’t designate the pointer as type “pointer to array”; instead, you designate the pointer as pointing to the type of element contained in the array. If you had an array of Fraction objects called fracts, you could similarly define a pointer to be used to point to elements in fracts with the following statement: Fraction *fractsPtr; Note that this is the same declaration used to define a Fraction object. To set valuesPtr to point to the first element in the values array,you simply write this: valuesPtr = values; The address operator is not used in this case because the Objective-C compiler treats the occurrence of an array name without a subscript as a pointer to the first element of the array.Therefore, simply specifying values without a subscript produces a pointer to the first element of values. An equivalent way of producing a pointer to the start of values is to apply the address operator to the first element of the array.Thus, the statement valuesPtr = &values[0]; serves the same purpose of placing a pointer to the first element of values in the pointer variable valuesPtr. To display the Fraction object in the array fracts that fractsPtr points to, you would write this statement: [fractsPtr print]; 291Pointers The real power of using pointers to arrays comes into play when you want to se- quence through the elements of an array.If valuesPtr is defined as mentioned previously and is set pointing to the first element of values, you can use the expression *valuesPtr to access the first integer of the values array—that is, values[0].To reference values[3] through the valuesPtr variable, you can add 3 to valuesPtr and then apply the indirection operator: *(valuesPtr + 3) In general, you can use the expression *(valuesPtr + i) to access the value contained in values[i]. So to set values[10] to 27, you would write the following expression: values[10] = 27; Or, using valuesPtr, you would write this: *(valuesPtr + 10) = 27; To set valuesPtr to point to the second element of the values array,you apply the address operator to values[1] and assign the result to valuesPtr: valuesPtr = &values[1]; If valuesPtr points to values[0], you can set it to point to values[1] by simply adding 1 to the value of valuesPtr: valuesPtr += 1; This is a perfectly valid expression in Objective-C and can be used for pointers to any data type. In general, if a is an array of elements of type x, px is of type “pointer to x,”and i and n are integer constants of variables, the statement px = a; sets px to point to the first element of a, and the expression *(px + i) subsequently references the value contained in a[i]. Furthermore, the statement px += n; sets px to point to n elements further in the array,no matter what type of element the ar- ray contains. Suppose that fractsPtr points to a fraction stored inside an array of fractions. Further suppose that you want to add it to the fraction contained in the next element of the array 292 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features and assign the result to the Fraction object result.You could do this by writing the following: result = [fractsPtr add: fractsPtr + 1]; The increment and decrement operators (++ and --) are particularly handy when dealing with pointers.Applying the increment operator to a pointer has the same effect as adding 1 to the pointer, whereas applying the decrement operator has the same effect as subtracting 1 from the pointer. So if textPtr were defined as a char pointer and were set to point to the beginning of an array of chars called text, the statement ++textPtr; would set textPtr to point to the next character in text, which is text[1]. In a similar fashion, the statement --textPtr; would set textPtr to point to the previous character in text (assuming, of course, that textPtr was not pointing to the beginning of text before this statement executed). Comparing two pointer variables in Objective-C is perfectly valid.This is particularly useful when comparing two pointers in the same array.For example, you could test the pointer valuesPtr to see whether it points past the end of an array containing 100 ele- ments by comparing it to a pointer to the last element in the array.So the expression valuesPtr > &values[99] would be TRUE (nonzero) if valuesPtr was pointing past the last element in the values array,and it would be FALSE (zero) otherwise. From our earlier discussions, you can re- place the previous expression with its equivalent: valuesPtr > values + 99 This is possible because values used without a subscript is a pointer to the beginning of the values array.(Remember that it’s the same as writing &values[0].) Program 13.12 illustrates pointers to arrays.The arraySum function calculates the sum of the elements contained in an array of integers. Program 13.12 // Function to sum the elements of an integer array #import int arraySum (int array[], int n) { int sum = 0, *ptr; int *arrayEnd = array + n; for ( ptr = array; ptr < arrayEnd; ++ptr ) sum += *ptr; 293Pointers return (sum); } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; int arraySum (int array[], int n); int values[10] = { 3, 7, -9, 3, 6, -1, 7, 9, 1, -5 }; NSLog (@”The sum is %i”, arraySum (values, 10)); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.12 Output The sum is 21 Inside the arraySum function, the integer pointer arrayEnd is defined and set pointing immediately fter the la t element of array.A for loop is then set up to sequence through the elements of array; then the value of ptr is set to point to the beginning of array when the loop is entered. Each time through the loop, the element of array that ptr points to is added into sum.The for loop then increments the value of ptr to set it to point to the next element in array.When ptr points past the end of array, the for loop is exited and the value of sum is returned to the caller. Is It an Array, or Is It a Pointer? To pass an array to a function, you simply specify the name of the array,as you did previ- ously with the call to the arraySum function. But we also mentioned in this section that to produce a pointer to an array,you need only specify the name of the array.This implies that in the call to the arraySum function, a pointer to the array values was passed to the function.This is precisely the case and explains why you can change the elements of an array from within a function. But if a pointer to the array is passed to the function, why isn’t the formal parameter inside the function declared to be a pointer? In other words, in the declaration of array in the arraySum function, why isn’t this declaration used? int *array; Shouldn’t all references to an array from within a function be made using pointer variables? To answer these questions, we must first reiterate what we have already said about pointers and arrays.We mentioned that if valuesPtr points to the same type of element as contained in an array called values, the expression *(valuesPtr + i) is in equivalent to the expression values[i], assuming that valuesPtr has been set to point to the be- 294 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features ginning of values.What follows from this is that you can also use the expression *(values + i) to reference the ith element of the array values—and, in general, if x is an array of any type, the expression x[i] can always be equivalently expressed in Objec- tive-C as *(x + i). As you can see, pointers and arrays are intimately related in Objective-C, which is why you can declare array to be of type “array of ints” inside the arraySum function or to be of type “pointer to int.”Either declaration works fine in the preceding program—try it and see. If you will be using index numbers to reference the elements of an array,declare the corresponding formal parameter to be an array.This more correctly reflects the function’s use of the array.Similarly,if you will be using the argument as a pointer to the array,de- clare it to be of type pointer. Pointers to Character Strings One of the most common applications of using a pointer to an array is as a pointer to a character string.The reasons are ones of notational convenience and efficiency.To show how easily you can use pointers to character strings, let’s write a function called copyString to copy one string into another. If you were writing this function using your normal array-indexing methods, you might code the function as follows: void copyString (char to[], char from[]) { int i; for ( i = 0; from[i] != ‘\0’; ++i ) to[i] = from[i]; to[i] = ‘\0’; } The for loop is exited before the null character is copied into the to array,thus ex- plaining the need for the last statement in the function. If you write copyString using pointers, you no longer need the index variable i. Program 13.13 shows a pointer version. Programming 13.13 #import void copyString (char *to, char *from) { for ( ; *from != ‘\0’; ++from, ++to ) *to = *from; *to = ‘\0’; } 295Pointers int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; void copyString (char *to, char *from); char string1[] = “A string to be copied.”2; char string2[50]; copyString (string2, string1); NSLog (@”%s”, string2); copyString (string2, “So is this.”); NSLog (@”%s”, string2); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.13 Output A string to be copied. So is this. The copyString function defines the two formal parameters, to and from, as charac- ter pointers and not as character arrays, as was done in the previous version of copyString.This reflects how the function will use these two variables. A for loop is then entered (with no initial conditions) to copy the string that from points to into the string that to points to. Each time through the loop, the from and to pointers are each incremented by 1.This sets the from pointer pointing to the next char- acter that is to be copied from the source string and sets the to pointer pointing to the location in the destination string where the next character is to be stored. When the from pointer points to the null character, the for loop is exited.The function then places the null character at the end of the destination string. In the main routine, the copyString function is called twice—the first time to copy the contents of string1 into string2, and the second time to copy the contents of the constant character string “So is this.” into string2. 2 Note the use of the strings ”A string to be copied.” and ”So is this” in the program. These are not string objects, but C-style character strings, as distinguished by the fact that an @ character does not precede the string. The two types are not interchangeable. If a function expects an array of char as an argument, you may pass it either an array of type char or a literal C-style character string, but not a character string object. 296 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Constant Character Strings and Pointers The fact that the call copyString (string2, “So is this.”); works in the previous program implies that when a constant character string is passed as an argument to a function, that character string is actually passed to a pointer. Not only is this true in this case, but it can also be generalized by saying that whenever a constant character string is used in Objective-C, a pointer to that character string is produced. This point might sound a bit confusing now,but, as we briefly noted in Chapter 4, constant character strings that we mention here are called C-style strings.These are not objects.As you know,a constant character string object is created by putting an @ sign in front of the string, as in @”This is okay.”.You can’t substitute one for the other. So if textPtr is declared to be a character pointer, as in char *textPtr; then the statement textPtr = “A character string.”; assigns to textPtr a pointer to the constant character string “A character string.”Be careful to make the distinction here between character pointers and character arrays be- cause the type of assignment shown previously is not valid with a character array.For ex- ample, if text were defined instead to be an array of chars, with a statement such as char text[80]; you could not write a statement such as this: text = “This is not valid.”; The only time Objective-C lets you get away with performing this type of assignment to a character array is when initializing it: char text[80] = “This is okay.”; Initializing the text array in this manner does not have the effect of storing a pointer to the character string “This is okay.” inside text. Instead, the actual characters them- selves are followed by a terminating null character, inside corresponding elements of the text array. If text were a character pointer, initializing text with the statement char *text = “This is okay.”; would assign to it a pointer to the character string “This is okay.” The Increment and Decrement Operators Revisited Up to this point, whenever you used the increment or decrement operator, that was the only operator that appeared in the expression.When you write the expression ++x,you 297Pointers know that this adds 1 to the value of the variable x.And as you have just seen, if x is a pointer to an array,this sets x to point to the next element of the array. You can use the increment and decrement operators in expressions where other oper- ators also appear. In such cases, it becomes important to know more precisely how these operators work. Whenever you used the increment and decrement operators, you always placed them before the variables that were being incremented or decremented. So to increment a vari- able i, you simply wrote the following: ++i; You can also place the increment operator after the variable, like so: i++; Both expressions are valid, and both achieve the same result—incrementing the value of i. In the first case, where the ++ is placed before its operand, the increment operation is more precisely identified as a pre-increment. In the second case, where the ++ is placed after its operand, the operation is identified as a post-increment. The same discussion applies to the decrement operator. So the statement --i; technically performs a pre-decrement of i, whereas the statement i--; performs a post-decrement of i. Both have the same net result of subtracting 1 from the value of i. When the increment and decrement operators are used in more complex expressions, the distinction between the pre- and post- nature of these operators is realized. Suppose that you have two integers, called i and j. If you set the value of i to 0 and then write the statement j = ++i; the value assigned to j is 1—not 0, as you might expect. In the case of the pre-increment operator, the variable is incremented before its value is used in an expression.Therefore, in the previous expression, the value of i is first incremented from 0 to 1 and then its value is assigned to j, as if the following two statements had been written instead: ++i; j = i; If you use the post-increment operator in the statement j = i++; 298 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features i is incremented after its value has been assigned to j. So if i were 0 before the previous statement were executed, 0 would be assigned to j and then i would be incremented by 1, as if these statements were used instead: j = i; ++i; As another example, if i is equal to 1, the statement x = a[--i]; has the effect of assigning the value of a[0] to x because the variable i is decremented before its value is used to index into a.The statement x = a[i--]; used instead assigns the value of a[1] to x because i would be decremented after its value was used to index into a. As a third example of the distinction between the pre- and post- increment and decre- ment operators, the function call NSLog (@”%i”, ++i); increments i and then sends its value to the NSLog function, whereas the call NSLog (@”%i”, i++); increments i after its value has been sent to the function. So if i were equal to 100, the first NSLog call would display 101 at the terminal, whereas the second NSLog call would display 100. In either case, the value of i would be equal to 101 after the statement had been executed. As a final example on this topic before we present a program, if textPtr is a character pointer, the expression *(++textPtr) first increments textPtr and then fetches the character it points to, whereas the expres- sion *(textPtr++) fetches the character that textPtr points to before its value is incremented. In either case, the parentheses are not required because the * and ++ operators have equal precedence but associate from right to left. Let’s go back to the copyString function from Program 13.13 and rewrite it to incor- porate the increment operations directly into the assignment statement. Because the to and from pointers are incremented each time after the assignment statement inside the for loop is executed, they should be incorporated into the assign- ment statement as post-increment operations.The revised for loop of Program 13.13 then becomes this: for ( ; *from != ‘\0’; ) *to++ = *from++; 299Pointers Execution of the assignment statement inside the loop would proceed as follows.The character that from points to would be retrieved, and then from would be incremented to point to the next character in the source string.The referenced character would be stored inside the location that to points to; then to would be incremented to point to the next location in the destination string. The previous for statement hardly seems worthwhile because it has no initial expres- sion and no looping expression. In fact, the logic would be better served when expressed in the form of a while loop.This has been done in Program 13.14, which presents the new version of the copyString function.The while loop uses the fact that the null char- acter is equal to the value 0, as experienced Objective-C programmers commonly do. Program 13.14 // Function to copy one string to another // pointer version 2 #import void copyString (char *to, char *from) { while ( *from ) *to++ = *from++; *to = ‘\0’; } int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; void copyString (char *to, char *from); char string1[] = “A string to be copied.”; char string2[50]; copyString (string2, string1); NSLog (@”%s”, string2); copyString (string2, “So is this.”); NSLog (@”%s”, string2); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 13.14 Output A string to be copied. So is this. 300 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Operations on Pointers As you have seen in this chapter, you can add or subtract integer values from pointers. Furthermore, you can compare two pointers to see whether they are equal or whether one pointer is less than or greater than another pointer.The only other operation permit- ted on pointers is the subtraction of two pointers of the same type.The result of subtract- ing two pointers in Objective-C is the number of elements contained between the two pointers.Thus, if a points to an array of elements of any type and b points to another ele- ment somewhere further along in the same array,the expression b - a represents the number of elements between these two pointers. For example, if p points to some ele- ment in an array x, the statement n = p - x; assigns to the variable n (assumed here to be an integer variable) the index number of the element inside x that p points to.Therefore, if p had been set pointing to the 100th ele- ment in x by a statement such as p = &x[99]; the value of n after the previous subtraction was performed would be 99. Pointers to Functions Of a slightly more advanced nature, but presented here for the sake of completeness, is the notion of a pointer to a function.When working with pointers to functions, the Objec- tive-C compiler needs to know not only that the pointer variable points to a function, but also the type of value returned by that function, as well as the number and types of its arguments.To declare a variable, fnPtr, to be of type “pointer to function that returns an int and that takes no arguments,”you would write this declaration: int (*fnPtr) (void); The parentheses around *fnPtr are required; otherwise, the Objective-C compiler treats the preceding statement as the declaration of a function called fnPtr that returns a pointer to an int (because the function call operator () has higher precedence than the pointer indirection operator *). To set your function pointer to point to a specific function, you simply assign the name of the function to it.Therefore, if lookup were a function that returned an int and that took no arguments, the statement fnPtr = lookup; would store a pointer to this function inside the function pointer variable fnPtr.Writing a function name without a subsequent set of parentheses is treated in an analogous way to writing an array name without a subscript.The Objective-C compiler automatically pro- duces a pointer to the specified function.An ampersand is permitted in front of the func- tion name, but it’s not required. 301Pointers If the lookup function has not been previously defined in the program, you must de- clare the function before the previous assignment can be made.A statement such as int lookup (void); would be needed before a pointer to this function could be assigned to the variable fnPtr. You can call the function indirectly referenced through a pointer variable by applying the function call operator to the pointer, listing any arguments to the function inside the parentheses. For example entry = fnPtr (); calls the function that fnPtr points to, storing the returned value inside the variable entry. One common application for pointers to functions is passing them as arguments to other functions.The Standard Library uses this in the function qsort, which performs a quick sort on an array of data elements.This function takes as one of its arguments a pointer to a function that is called whenever qsort needs to compare two elements in the array being sorted. In this manner, qsort can be used to sort arrays of any type because the actual comparison of any two elements in the array is made by a user-sup- plied function, not by the qsort function itself. In the Foundation framework, some methods take a function pointer as an argument. For example, the method sortUsingFunction:context: is defined in the NSMutableArray class and calls the specified function whenever two elements in an array to be sorted need to be compared. Another common application for function pointers is to create dispatch tables.You can’t store functions themselves inside the elements of an array.However, you can store func- tion pointers inside an array.Given this, you can create tables that contain pointers to functions to be called. For example, you might create a table for processing different com- mands that a user will enter. Each entry in the table could contain both the command name and a pointer to a function to call to process that particular command. Now,when- ever the user entered a command, you could look up the command inside the table and invoke the corresponding function to handle it. Pointers and Memory Addresses Before we end this discussion of pointers in Objective-C, we should point out the details of how they are actually implemented.A computer’s memory can be conceptualized as a sequential collection of storage cells. Each cell of the computer’s memory has a number, called an address, associated with it.Typically,the first address of a computer’s memory is numbered 0. On most computer systems, a cell is 1 byte. The computer uses memory to store the instructions of your computer program and to store the values of the variables associated with a program. So if you declare a variable called count to be of type int, the system would assign location(s) in memory to hold 302 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features the value of count while the program is executing. For example, this location might be at address 1000FF16 inside the computer’s memory. Luckily,you don’t need to concern yourself with the particular memory addresses as- signed to variables—the system automatically handles them. However, the knowledge that each variable is associated with a unique memory address will help you understand the way pointers operate. Whenever you apply the address operator to a variable in Objective-C, the value gen- erated is the actual address of that variable inside the computer’s memory.(Obviously,this is where the address operator gets its name.) So the statement intPtr = &count; assigns to intPtr the address in the computer’s memory that has been assigned to the variable count.Thus, if count were located at address 1000FF16, this statement would as- sign the value 0x1000FF to intPtr. Applying the indirection operator to a pointer variable, as in the expression *intPtr has the effect of treating the value contained in the pointer variable as a memory address. The value stored at that memory address is then fetched and interpreted in accordance with the type declared for the pointer variable. So if intPtr were of type pointer to int, the system would interpret the value stored in the memory address given by *intPtr as an integer. Unions One of the more unusual constructs in the Objective-C programming language is the union.This construct is used mainly in more advanced programming applications when you need to store different types of data in the same storage area. For example, if you wanted to define a single variable called x that could be used to store a single character, a floating-point number, or an integer, you would first define a union, called (perhaps) mixed, as follows: union mixed { char c; float f; int i; }; The declaration of a union is identical to that of a structure, except that the keyword union is used where the keyword struct is otherwise specified.The real difference be- tween structures and unions has to do with the way memory is allocated. Declaring a variable to be of type union mixed, as in union mixed x; 303Unions does not define x to contain three distinct members called c, f, and i; instead, it defines x to contain a single member that is called either c, f, or i. In this way,you can use the variable x to store either a char,a float, or an int, but not all three (and not even two of the three).You can store a character in the variable x with the following statement: x.c = ‘K’; To store a floating-point value in x, use the notation x.f: x.f = 786.3869; Finally,to store the result of dividing an integer count by 2 into x, use this statement: x.i = count / 2; Because the float, char, and int members of x coexist in the same place in memory, only one value can be stored in x at a time. Furthermore, you must ensure that the value retrieved from a union is consistent with the way it was last stored in the union. When defining a union the name of the union is not required and variables can be declared at the same time that the union is defined.You can also declare pointers to unions, and their syntax and rules for performing operations are the same as for struc- tures. Finally,you can initialize a union variable like so: union mixed x = { ‘#’ }; This sets the first member of x, which is c, to the character #.A particular member can also be initialized by name, like this: union mixed x = {.f=123.4;}; You can initialize an automatic union variable to another union variable of the same type. A union enables you to define arrays that you can use to store elements of different data types. For example, the following statement sets up an array called table, consisting of kTableEntries elements: struct { char *name; int type; union { int i; float f; char c; } data; } table [kTableEntries]; Each element of the array contains a structure consisting of a character pointer called name, an integer member called type, and a union member called data. Each data mem- ber of the array can contain an int,a float, or a char.You might use the integer mem- 304 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features ber type to keep track of the type of value stored in the member data. For example, you could assign it the value INTEGER (defined appropriately,we assume) if it contained an int, FLOATING if it contained a float, and CHARACTER if it contained a char.This infor- mation would enable you to know how to reference the particular data member of a particular array element. To store the character ‘#’ in table[5] and subsequently set the type field to indicate that a character is stored in that location, you would use the following two statements: table[5].data.c = ‘#’; table[5].type = CHARACTER; When sequencing through the elements of table, you could determine the type of data value stored in each element by setting up an appropriate series of test statements. For example, the following loop would display each name and its associated value from table at the terminal: enum symbolType { INTEGER, FLOATING, CHARACTER }; ... for ( j = 0; j < kTableEntries; ++j ) { NSLog (@”%s “, table[j].name); switch ( table[j].type ) { case INTEGER: NSLog (@”%i”, table[j].data.i); break; case FLOATING: NSLog (@”%g”, table[j].data.f); break; case CHARACTER: NSLog (@”%c”, table[j].data.c); break; default: NSLog (@”Unknown type (%i), element %i”, table[j].type, j ); break; } } The type of application illustrated previously might be practical in storing a symbol table, which might contain the name of each symbol, its type, and its value (and perhaps other information about the symbol as well). 305Miscellaneous Language Features They’re Not Objects! Now you know how to define arrays, structures, character strings, and unions, and how to manipulate them in your program. Remember one fundamental thing: They’re not objects. Thus, you can’t send messages to them.You also can’t use them to take maximum advan- tage of nice things such as the memory-allocation strategy that the Foundation frame- work provides.That’s one of the reasons I encouraged you to skip this chapter and return to it later. In general, you’re better served learning how to use the Foundation’s classes that define arrays and strings as objects than using the ones built into the language. Re- sort to using the types defined in this chapter only if you really need to—and hopefully you won’t! Miscellaneous Language Features Some language features didn’t fit well into any of the other chapters, so we’ve included them here. Compound Literals A compound literal is a type name enclosed in parentheses followed by an initialization list. It creates an unnamed value of the specified type, which has scope limited to the block in which it is created or global scope if defined outside any block. In the latter case, the ini- tializers must all be constant expressions. Consider an example: (struct date) {.month = 7, .day = 2, .year = 2004} This expression produces a structure of type struct date with the specified initial values.You can assign this to another struct date structure, like so: theDate = (struct date) {.month = 7, .day = 2, .year = 2004}; Or you can pass it to a function or method that expects an argument of struct date, like so: setStartDate ((struct date) {.month = 7, .day = 2, .year = 2004}); In addition, you can define types other than structures. For example, if intPtr is of type int *, the statement intPtr = (int [100]) {[0] = 1, [50] = 50, [99] = 99 }; (which can appear anywhere in the program) sets intptr pointing to an array of 100 in- tegers, whose 3 elements are initialized as specified. If the size of the array is not specified, the initializer list determines it. 306 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features The goto Statement Executing a goto statement causes a direct branch to be made to a specified point in the program.To identify where in the program the branch is to be made, a label is needed.A label is a name formed with the same rules as variable names; it must be immediately fol- lowed by a colon.The label is placed directly before the statement to which the branch is to be made and must appear in the same function or method as the goto. For example, the statement goto out_of_data; causes the program to branch immediately to the statement that is preceded by the label out_of_data;.This label can be located anywhere in the function or method, before or after the goto, and might be used as shown here: out_of_data: NSLog (@”Unexpected end of data.”); ... Lazy programmers frequently abuse the goto statement to branch to other portions of their code.The goto statement interrupts the normal sequential flow of a program.As a result, programs are harder to follow.Using many gotos in a program can make it impos- sible to decipher. For this reason, goto statements are not considered part of good pro- gramming style. The null Statement Objective-C permits you to place a solitary semicolon wherever a normal program state- ment can appear.The effect of such a statement, known as the null statement, is that noth- ing is done.This might seem quite useless, but programmers often do this in while, for, and do statements. For example, the purpose of the following statement is to store all the characters read in from standard input (your terminal, by default) in the character array that text points to until a newline character is encountered.This statement uses the library routine getchar, which reads and returns a single character at a time from standard input: while ( (*text++ = getchar ()) != ‘’ ) ; All the operations are performed inside the looping conditions part of the while state- ment.The null statement is needed because the compiler takes the statement that follows the looping expression as the body of the loop.Without the null statement, the compiler would treat whatever statement follows in the program as the body of the program loop. The Comma Operator At the bottom of the precedence totem pole, so to speak, is the comma operator. In Chapter 5,“Program Looping,”we pointed out that inside a for statement, you can in- clude more than one expression in any of the fields by separating each expression with a comma. For example, the for statement that begins 307Miscellaneous Language Features for ( i = 0, j = 100; i != 10; ++i, j -= 10 ) ... initializes the value of i to 0 and j to 100 before the loop begins, and it increments the value of i and subtracts 10 from the value of j after the body of the loop is executed. Because all operators in Objective-C produce a value, the value of the comma opera- tor is that of the rightmost expression. The sizeof Operator Although you should never make assumptions about the size of a data type in your pro- gram, sometimes you need to know this information.This might be when performing dynamic memory allocation using library routines such as malloc, or when writing or archiving data to a file. Objective-C provides an operator called sizeof that you can use to determine the size of a data type or object.The sizeof operator returns the size of the specified item in bytes.The argument to the sizeof operator can be a variable, an array name, the name of a basic data type, an object, the name of a derived data type, or an ex- pression. For example, writing sizeof (int) gives the number of bytes needed to store an integer. On my MacBook Air, this produces a result of 4 (or 32 bits). If x is declared as an array of 100 ints, the expression sizeof (x) would give the amount of storage required to store the 100 integers of x. Given that myFract is a Fraction object that contains two int instance variables (numerator and denominator), the expression sizeof (myFract) produces the value 4 on any system that represents pointers using 4 bytes. In fact, this is the value that sizeof yields for any object because here you are asking for the size of the pointer to the object’s data.To get the size of the actual data structure to store an instance of a Fraction object, you would instead write the following: sizeof (*myFract) On my MacBook Air, this gives me a value of 12.That’s 4 bytes each for the numerator and denominator, plus another 4 bytes for the inherited isa member men- tioned in the section “How Things Work,”at the end of this chapter. The expression sizeof (struct data_entry) has as its value the amount of storage required to store one data_entry structure. If data is defined as an array of struct data_entry elements, the expression sizeof (data) / sizeof (struct data_entry) 308 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features gives the number of elements contained in data (data must be a previously defined array, not a formal parameter or externally referenced array).The expression sizeof (data) / sizeof (data[0]) produces the same result. Use the sizeof operator wherever possible, to avoid having to calculate and hard-code sizes into your programs. Command-Line Arguments Often a program is developed that requires the user to enter a small amount of informa- tion at the terminal.This information might consist of a number indicating the triangular number you want to have calculated or a word you want to have looked up in a diction- ary. Instead of having the program request this type of information from the user, you can supply the information to the program at the time the program is executed. Command-line arguments provide this capability. We have pointed out that the only distinguishing quality of the function main is that its name is special; it specifies where program execution is to begin. In fact, the runtime system actually calls upon the function main at the start of program execution, just as you would call a function from within your own program.When main completes execu- tion, control returns to the runtime system, which then knows that your program has completed. When the runtime system calls main, two arguments are passed to the function.The first argument, called argc by convention (for argument count), is an integer value that specifies the number of arguments typed on the command line.The second argument to main is an array of character pointers, called argv by convention (for argument vector). In addition, argc + 1 character pointers are contained in this array.The first entry in this ar- ray is either a pointer to the name of the program that is executing or a pointer to a null string if the program name is not available on your system. Subsequent entries in the ar- ray point to the values specified in the same line as the command that initiated execution of the program.The last pointer in the argv array, argv[argc], is defined to be null. To access the command-line arguments, the main function must be appropriately de- clared as taking two arguments.The conventional declaration we have used in all the pro- grams in this book suffices: int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { ... } Remember, the declaration of argv defines an array that contains elements of type “pointer to char.”As a practical use of command-line arguments, suppose that you had developed a program that looks up a word inside a dictionary and prints its meaning.You 309Miscellaneous Language Features can use command-line arguments so that the word whose meaning you want to find can be specified at the same time that the program is executed, as in the following command: lookup aerie This eliminates the need for the program to prompt the user to enter a word because it is typed on the command line. If the previous command were executed, the system would automatically pass to the main function a pointer to the character string “aerie” in argv[1]. Recall that argv[0] would contain a pointer to the name of the program, which, in this case, would be “lookup”. The main routine might appear as shown: #include int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { struct entry dictionary[100] = { { “aardvark”, “a burrowing African mammal” }, { “abyss”, “a bottomless pit” }, { “acumen”, “mentally sharp; keen” }, { “addle”, “to become confused” }, { “aerie”, “a high nest” }, { “affix”, “to append; attach” }, { “agar”, “a jelly made from seaweed” }, { “ahoy”, “a nautical call of greeting” }, { “aigrette”, “an ornamental cluster of feathers” }, { “ajar”, “partially opened” } }; int entries = 10; int entryNumber; int lookup (struct entry dictionary [], char search[], int entries); if ( argc != 2 ) { NSLog (@”No word typed on the command line.”); return (1); } entryNumber = lookup (dictionary, argv[1], entries); if ( entryNumber != -1 ) NSLog (@”%s”, dictionary[entryNumber].definition); else NSLog (@”Sorry, %s is not in my dictionary.”, argv[1]); 310 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features return (0); } The main routine tests to ensure that a word was typed after the program name when the program was executed. If it wasn’t, or if more than one word was typed, the value of argc is not equal to 2. In that case, the program writes an error message to standard error and terminates, returning an exit status of 1. If argc is equal to 2, the lookup function is called to find the word that argv[1] points to in the dictionary.If the word is found, its definition is displayed. Remember that command-line arguments are always stored as character strings. So ex- ecution of the program power with the command-line arguments 2 and 16, as in power 2 16 stores a pointer to the character string “2” inside argv[1] and a pointer to the string “16” inside argv[2]. If the program is to interpret arguments as numbers (as we suspect is the case in the power program), the program itself must convert them. Several routines are available in the program library for doing such conversions: sscanf, atof, atoi, strtod, and strotol. In Part II, you’ll learn how to use a class called NSProcessInfo to access the command-line arguments as string objects instead of as C strings. How Things Work We would be remiss if we finished this chapter without first tying a couple things to- gether. Because the Objective-C language has the C language underneath, it’s worth mentioning some of the connections between the two.You can ignore these implementa- tion details or use them to better understand how things work, in the same way that learning about pointers as memory addresses can help you better understand pointers.We don’t get too detailed here; we just state four facts about the relationship between Objec- tive-C and C. Fact #1: Instance Variables are Stored in Structures When you define a new class and its instance variables, those instance variables are actu- ally stored inside a structure.That’s how you can manipulate objects; they’re really struc- tures whose members are your instance variables. So the inherited instance variables plus the ones you added in your class comprise a single structure.When you allocate a new object using alloc, enough space is reserved to hold one of these structures. One of the inherited members (it comes from the root object) of the structure is a protected member called isa that identifies the class to which the object belongs. Be- cause it’s part of the structure (and, therefore, part of the object), it is carried around with the object. In that way,the runtime system can always identify the class of an object (even if you assign it to a generic id object variable) by just looking at its isa member. You can gain direct access to the members of an object’s structure by making them @public (see the discussion in Chapter 10,“More on Variables and Data Types”).If you 311How Things Work did that with the numerator and denominator members of your Fraction class, for ex- ample, you could write expressions such as myFract->numerator in your program to directly access the numerator member of the Fraction object myFract. But we strongly advise against doing that.As we mentioned in Chapter 10, it goes against the grain of data encapsulation. Fact #2: An Object Variable is Really a Pointer When you define an object variable such as a Fraction, as in Fraction *myFract; you’re really defining a pointer variable called myFract.This variable is defined to point to something of type Fraction, which is the name of your class.When you allocate a new instance of a Fraction, with myFract = [Fraction alloc]; you’re allocating space to store a new Fraction object in memory (that is, space for a structure) and then storing the pointer to that structure that is returned inside the pointer variable myFract. When you assign one object variable to another, as in myFract2 = myFract1; you’re simply copying pointers. Both variables end up pointing to the same structure stored somewhere in memory.Making a change to one of the members referenced (that is, pointed to) by myFract2 therefore changes the same instance variable (that is, structure member) that myFract1 references. Fact #3: Methods are Functions, and Message Expressions are Function Calls Methods are really functions.When you invoke a method, you call a function associated with the class of the receiver.The arguments passed to the function are the receiver (self) and the method’s arguments. So all the rules about passing arguments to functions, return values, and automatic and static variables are the same whether you’re talking about a function or a method.The Objective-C compiler creates a unique name for each function using a combination of the class name and the method name. Fact #4: The id Type is a Generic Pointer Type Because objects are referenced through pointers, which are just memory addresses, you can freely assign them between id variables.A method that returns an id type conse- quently just returns a pointer to some object in memory.You can then assign that value to any object variable. Because the object carries its isa member wherever it goes, its class can always be identified, even if you store it in a generic object variable of type id. 312 Chapter 13 Underlying C Language Features Exercises 1. Write a function that calculates the average of an array of 10 floating-point values and returns the result. 2. The reduce method from your Fraction class finds the greatest common divisor of the numerator and denominator to reduce the fraction. Modify that method so that it uses the gcd function from Program 13.5 instead.Where do you think you should place the function definition? Are there any benefits to making the function static? Which approach do you think is better, using a gcd function or incorporat- ing the code directly into the method as you did previously? Why? 3. An algorithm known as the Sieve of Erastosthenes can generate prime numbers.The algorithm for this procedure is presented here.Write a program that implements this algorithm. Have the program find all prime numbers up to n = 150.What can you say about this algorithm as compared to the ones used in the text for calculat- ing prime numbers? Step 1: Define an array of integers P. Set all elements Pi to 0, 2 <= i <= n. Step 2: Set i to 2. Step 3: If i > n, the algorithm terminates. Step 4: If Pi is 0, i is prime. Step 5: For all positive integer values of j, such that i×j<=n, n, set Pixj to 1. Step 6:Add 1 to i and go to step 3. 4. Write a function to add all the Fractions passed to it in an array and to return the result as a Fraction. 5. Write a typedef definition for a struct date called Date that enables you to make declarations such as Date todaysDate; in your program. 6. As noted in the text, defining a Date class instead of a date structure is more con- sistent with the notion of object-oriented programming. Define such a class with appropriate setter and getter methods.Also add a method called dateUpdate to re- turn the day after its argument. Do you see any advantages of defining a Date as a class instead of as a structure? Do you see any disadvantages? 313Exercises 7. Given the following definitions char *message = “Programming in Objective-C is fun”; char message2[] = “You said it”; NSString *format = “x = %i”; int x = 100; determine whether each NSLog call from the following sets is valid and produces the same output as other calls from the set. /*** set 1 ***/ NSLog (@”Programming in Objective-C is fun”); NSLog (@”%s”“Programming in Objective C is fun”); NSLog (@”%s” message); /*** set 2 ***/ NSLog (@”You said it”); NSLog (@”%s” message2); NSLog (@”%s”, &message2[0] ; /*** set 3 ***/ NSLog (@”said it”); NSLog (@”%s”, message2 + 4); NSLog (@”%s”, &message2[4]); 8. Write a program that prints all its command-line arguments, one per line at the ter- minal. Notice the effect of enclosing arguments that contain space characters inside quotation marks. 9. Which of the following statements produce the output This is a test? Explain. NSLog (@”This is a test”); NSLog (“This is a test”); NSLog (@”%s”, “This is a test”); NSLog (@”%s”, @”This is a test”); NSLog (“%s”, “This is a test”); NSLog (“%s”, @”This is a test”); NSLog (@”%@”, @”This is a test”); NSLog (@”%@”, ”This is a test”); Part II The Foundation Framework 14 Introduction to the Foundation Framework 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections 16 Working with Files 17 Memory Management 18 Copying Objects 19 Archiving 14 Introduction to the Foundation Framework A framework is a collection of classes, methods, functions, and documentation logically grouped together to make developing programs easier. On Mac OS X, more than 80 frameworks are available for developing applications so that you can easily work with the Mac’s Address Book structure, burn CDs, play back DVDs, play movies with QuickTime, play songs, and so on. The framework that provides the base or foundation for all your program development is called the Foundation framework.This framework, the subject of the second part of this book, enables you to work with basic objects, such as numbers and strings, and with col- lections of objects, such as arrays, dictionaries, and sets. Other capabilities provide for working with dates and times, using automated memory management, working with the underlying file system, storing (or archiving) objects, and working with geometric data structures such as points and rectangles. The Application Kit framework contains an extensive collection of classes and meth- ods to develop interactive graphical applications.These provide the capability to easily work with text, menus, toolbars, tables, documents, the pasteboard, and windows. In Mac OS X, the term Cocoa collectively refers to the Foundation framework and the Applica- tion Kit framework.The term Cocoa Touch collectively refers to the Foundation frame- work and the UIKit framework. Part III,“Cocoa and the iPhone SDK,”provides some more detail on this subject. Many resources are also listed in Appendix D,“Resources.” Foundation Documentation For reference purposes, you should know where the Foundation header files are stored on your system.They are kept in the following directory: /System/Library/Frameworks/Foundation.framework/Headers 318 Chapter 14 Introduction to the Foundation Framework Note The header files are actually linked to another directory where they are stored, but that really makes no difference to you. Navigate to this directory on your system and familiarize yourself with its contents. You should also take advantage of the Foundation framework documentation that is stored on your system (buried deep in the /Develop/Documentation directory) and that is also available online at Apple’s website. Most documentation exists in the form of HTML files for viewing by a browser or as Acrobat pdf files. Contained in this documen- tation is a description of all the Foundation classes and all the implemented methods and functions. If you’re using Xcode to develop your programs, you have easy access to documenta- tion through the Documentation window that is available from Xcode’s Help menu.This window enables you to easily search and access documentation that is stored locally on your computer or is available online. Figure 14.1 shows the results of searching for the string “foundation framework” in the Xcode documentation window.From the pane that shows the header “Foundation Framework Reference,”you can easily access the docu- mentation for all Foundation classes. If you’re editing a file in Xcode and you want to get immediate access to the docu- mentation for a particular header file, method, or class, you can simply highlight the text Figure 14.1 Using Xcode for Foundation reference documentation 319Foundation Documentation in your editor window and right-click it. From the menu that appears, you can either se- lect Find Selected Text in Documentation or select Find Selected Text in API Reference, as appropriate. Xcode will search the documentation library and display the results that match your query. Let’s see how this works.The NSString class is a Foundation class that you use to work with strings. (It is explained in great detail in the next chapter.) Suppose you are editing a program that uses this class, and you want more information about it and its methods.You can highlight the word NSString wherever it appears in your edit window and right-click on it. If you then select Find Selected Text in API Reference from the menu that appears, you’ get a document window displayed that looks similar to that shown in Figure 14.2. If you scroll down in the pane labeled NSString Class Reference, you’ll find (among other things) a list of all the methods this class supports.This is an easy way to find infor- mation about the methods a class implements, including how they work and their ex- pected arguments. You can also access the documentation online at developer.apple.com/referencelibrary and navigate your way to the Foundation reference documentation (by following the Co- coa, Frameworks, Foundation Framework Reference links).At this website, you’ll also Figure 14.2 Obtaining documentation for the NSString class. 320 Chapter 14 Introduction to the Foundation Framework find a wide assortment of documents covering specific programming issues, such as mem- ory management, strings, and file management. Unless you subscribe to a particular document set with Xcode, the online documenta- tion might be more current than that stored on your disk. This concludes our brief introduction to the Foundation framework. Now it’s time to learn about some if its classes and how you can put them to work in your applications. 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections This chapter describes how to work with some of the basic objects provided in the Foundation framework.These include numbers, strings, and collections, which refers to the capability to work with groups of objects in the form of arrays, dictionaries, and sets. The Foundation framework contains a plethora of classes, methods, and functions for you to use.Approximately 125 header files are available under Mac OS X.As a conven- ience, you can simply use the following import: #import Because the Foundation.h file imports virtually all the other Foundation header files, you don’t have to worry about whether you are importing the correct header file. Xcode automatically insert this header file into your program, as you’ve seen in each example throughout this book. Using this statement can add significant time to your compiles. However, you can avoid this extra time by using precompiled headers.These are files that the compiler has preprocessed. By default, all Xcode projects benefit from precompiled headers. In this chapter, you use the specific header files for each object you use.This will be a useful exercise to help you become familiar with what each header file contains. Note If you like, you can continue to just import Foundation.h, but if you do import the individ- ual files shown in each example, you should delete the file project_name_Prefix.pch that XCode automatically includes for you when you create a new Foundation Tool project. When you delete that file from your project, be sure to select “Delete References” when prompted by Xcode. 322 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Number Objects All the numeric data types we’ve dealt with up to now,such as integers, floats, and longs, are basic data types in the Objective-C language—that is, they are not objects. For exam- ple, you can’t send messages to them. Sometimes, though, you need to work with these values as objects. For example, the Foundation object NSArray enables you to set up an ar- ray in which you can store values.These values have to be objects, so you can’t directly store any of your basic data types in these arrays. Instead, to store any of the basic numeric data types (including the char data type), you can use the NSNumber class to create objects from these data types. (See Program 15.1.) Program 15.1 // Working with Numbers #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSNumber *myNumber, *floatNumber, *intNumber; NSInteger myInt; // integer value intNumber = [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 100]; myInt = [intNumber integerValue]; NSLog (@”%li”, (long) myInt); // long value myNumber = [NSNumber numberWithLong: 0xabcdef]; NSLog (@”%lx”, [myNumber longValue]); // char value myNumber = [NSNumber numberWithChar: ‘X’]; NSLog (@”%c”, [myNumber charValue]); // float value floatNumber = [NSNumber numberWithFloat: 100.00]; NSLog (@”%g”, [floatNumber floatValue]); 323Number Objects // double myNumber = [NSNumber numberWithDouble: 12345e+15]; NSLog (@”%lg”, [myNumber doubleValue]); // Wrong access here NSLog (@”%i”, [myNumber integerValue]); // Test two Numbers for equality if ([intNumber isEqualToNumber: floatNumber] == YES) NSLog (@”Numbers are equal”); else NSLog (@”Numbers are not equal”); // Test if one Number is <, ==, or > second Number if ([intNumber compare: myNumber] == NSOrderedAscending) NSLog (@”First number s less than second”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.1 Output 100 abcdef X 100 1.2345e+19 0 Numbers are equal First number is less than second The file is needed to work with objects from the NSNumber class. A Quick Look at the Autorelease Pool The first line in Program 15.1 has appeared in every program in this book.The following line reserves space in memory for an autorelease pool that you assign to pool: NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 324 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections The autorelease pool provides for the automatic release of memory used by objects that are added to this pool.An object is added to the pool when it is sent an autorelease message.When the pool is released, so are all the objects that were added to it.Therefore, all such objects are destroyed unless they have been specified to exist beyond the scope of the autorelease pool (as indicated by their reference counts). In general, you don’t need to worry about releasing an object that a Foundation method returns. Sometimes the object is owned by the method that returns it. Other times, the object is newly created and added to the autorelease pool by the method.As de- scribed in detail in Part I,“The Objective-C 2.0 Language,”you still need to release any objects (including Foundation objects) that you explicitly create using the alloc method when you’re done using them. Note You also need to release objects created by a copy method, as you’ll learn in Chapter 17. Chapter 17,“Memory Management,”fully describes reference counts, the autorelease pool, and the concept of automatic garbage collection. Let’s return to Program 15.1.The NSNumber class contains many methods that allow you to create NSNumber objects with initial values. For example, the line intNumber = [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 100]; creates an object from an integer whose value is 100. The value retrieved from an NSNumber object must be consistent with the type of value that was stored in it. So in the statement that follows in the program, the message expression [intNumber integerValue] retrieves the integer value stored inside intNumber and stores it inside the NSInteger variable myInt. Note that NSInteger is not an object, but a typedef for basic date type. It is typedef’ed either to a long for 64-bit builds or to an int for 32-bit builds.A similar typedef for NSUInteger exists for working with unsigned integers in your program. In the NSLog call, we cast the NSInteger myInt to a long and use the format charac- ters %li to ensure that the value will be passed and displayed correctly even if the program is compiled for a 32-bit architecture. For each basic value, a class method allocates an NSNumber object and sets it to a speci- fied value.These methods begin with numberWith followed by the type, as in numberWithLong:, numberWithFloat:, and so on. In addition, instance methods can be used to set a previously allocated NSNumber object to a specified value.These all begin with initWith, as in initWithLong: and initWithFloat:. Table 15.1 lists the class and instance methods for setting values for NSNumber objects and the corresponding instance methods for retrieving their values. 325Number Objects Table 15.1 NSNumber Creation and Retrieval Methods Creation and Initialization Class Method Initialization Instance Method Retrieval Instance Method numberWithChar: initWithChar: charValue numberWithUnsignedChar: initWithUnsignedChar: unsignedCharValue numberWithShort: initWithShort: shortValue numberWithUnsignedShort: initWithUnsignedShort: unsignedShortValue numberWithInteger: initWithInteger: integerValue numberWithUnsignedInteger: initWithUnsignedInteger: unsignedIntegerValue numberWithInt: initWithInt: intValueunsigned numberWithUnsignedInt: initWithUnsignedInt: unsignedIntValue numberWithLong: initWithLong: longValue numberWithUnsignedLong: initWithUnsignedLong: unsignedLongValue numberWithLongLong: initWithLongLong: longlongValue numberWithUnsignedLongLong: initWithUnsignedLongLong: unsignedLongLongValue numberWithFloat: initWithFloat: floatValue numberWithDouble: initWithDouble: doubleValue numberWithBool: initWithBool: boolValue Returning to Program 15.1, the program next uses the class methods to create long, char, float, and double NSNumber objects. Notice what happens after you create a dou- ble object with the line myNumber = [NSNumber numberWithDouble: 12345e+15]; and then try to (incorrectly) retrieve and display its value with the following line: NSLog (@”%i”, [myNumber integerValue]); You get this output: 0 Also, you get no error message from the system. In general, it’s up to you to ensure that if you store a value in an NSNumber object, you retrieve it in a consistent manner. Inside the if statement, the message expression [intNumber isEqualToNumber: floatNumber] uses the isEqualToNumber: method to numerically compare two NSNumber objects.The program tests the Boolean value returned to see whether the two values are equal. You can use the compare: method to test whether one numeric value is numerically less than, equal to, or greater than another.The message expression [intNumber compare: myNumber] 326 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections returns the value NSOrderedAscending if the numeric value stored in intNumber is less than the numeric value contained in myNumber, returns the value NSOrderedSame if the two numbers are equal, and returns the value NSOrderedDescending if the first number is greater than the second.The values returned are defined in the header file NSObject.h for you. Note that you can’t reinitialize the value of a previously created NSNumber object. For example, you can’t set the value of an integer stored in the NSNumber object myNumber with a statement such as follows: [myNumber initWithInt: 1000]; This statement generates an error when the program is executed.All number objects must be newly created, meaning that you must invoke either one of the methods listed in the first column of Table 15.1 on the NSNumber class or one of the methods listed in col- umn 2 with the result from the alloc method: myNumber = [[NSNumber alloc] initWithInt: 1000]; Of course, based on previous discussions, if you create myNumber this way,you are re- sponsible for subsequently releasing it when you’re done using it with a statement such as follows: [myNumber release]; You’ll encounter NSNumber objects again in programs throughout the remainder of this chapter. String Objects You’ve encountered string objects in your programs before.Whenever you enclosed a se- quence of character strings inside a pair of double quotes, as in @”Programming is fun” you created a character string object in Objective-C.The Foundation framework supports a class called NSString for working with character string objects.Whereas C-style strings consist of char characters, NSString objects consist of unichar characters.A unichar character is a multibyte character according to the Unicode standard.This enables you to work with character sets that can contain literally millions of characters. Luckily,you don’t have to worry about the internal representation of the characters in your strings because the NSString class automatically handles this for you.1 By using the methods from this class, you can more easily develop applications that can be localized—that is, made to work in different languages all over the world. 1 Currently, unichar characters occupy 16 bits, but the Unicode standard provides for characters larger than that size. So in the future, unichar characters might be larger than 16 bits. The bottom line is to never make an assumption about the size of a Unicode character. 327String Objects As you know,you create a constant character string object in Objective-C by putting the @ character in front of the string of double-quoted characters. So the expression @”Programming is fun” creates a constant character string object. In particular, it is a constant character string that belongs to the class NSConstantString. NSConstantString is a subclass of the string ob- ject class NSString.To use string objects in your program, include the following line: #import More on the NSLog Function Program 15.2, which follows, shows how to define an NSString object and assign an ini- tial value to it. It also shows how to use the format characters %@ to display an NSString object. Program 15.2 #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *str = @”Programming is fun”; NSLog (@”%@”, str); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.2 Output Programming is fun In the line NSString *str = @”Programming is fun”; the constant string object Programming is fun is assigned to the NSString variable str. Its value is then displayed using NSLog. The NSLog format characters %@ can be used to display not just NSString objects, but any object. For example, given the following NSNumber *intNumber = [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 100]; the NSLog call NSLog (@”%@”, intNumber); 328 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections produces the following output: 100 You can even use the %@ format characters to display the entire contents of arrays, dic- tionaries, and sets. In fact, they can display your own class objects as well, as long as you override the description method inherited by your class. If you don’t override the method, NSLog simply displays the name of the class and the address of your object in memory (that’s the default implementation for the description method that is inherited from the NSObject class). Mutable Versus Immutable Objects When you create a string object by writing an expression such as @”Programming is fun” you create an object whose contents cannot be changed.This is referred to as an immutable object.The NSString class deals with immutable strings. Frequently,you’ll want to deal with strings and change characters within the string. For example, you might want to delete some characters from a string or perform a search-and-replace operation on a string.These types of strings are handled through the NSMutableString class. Program 15.3 shows basic ways to work with immutable character strings in your programs. Program 15.3 // Basic String Operations #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *str1 = @”This is string A”; NSString *str2 = @”This is string B”; NSString *res; NSComparisonResult compareResult; // Count the number of characters NSLog (@”Length of str1: %lu”, [str1 length]); // Copy one string to another res = [NSString stringWithString: str1]; NSLog (@”copy: %@”, res); 329String Objects // Copy one string to the end of another str2 = [str1 stringByAppendingString: str2]; NSLog (@”Concatentation: %@”, str2); // Test if 2 strings are equal if ([str1 isEqualToString: res] == YES) NSLog (@”str1 == res”); else NSLog (@”str1 != res”); // Test if one string is <, == or > than another compareResult = [str1 compare: str2]; if (compareResult == NSOrderedAscending) NSLog (@”str1 < str2”); else if (compareResult == NSOrderedSame) NSLog (@”str1 == str2”); else // NSOrderedDescending NSLog (@”str1 > str2”); // Convert a string to uppercase res = [str1 uppercaseString]; NSLog (@”Uppercase conversion: %s”, [res UTF8String]); // Convert a string to lowercase res = [str1 lowercaseString]; NSLog (@”Lowercase conversion: %@”, res); NSLog (@”Original string: %@”, str1); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.3 Output Length of str1: 16 Copy: This is string A Concatentation: This is string AThis is string B str1 == res str1 < str2 Uppercase conversion: THIS IS STRING A Lowercase conversion: this is string a Original string: This is string A 330 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Program 15.3 first declares three immutable NSString objects: str1, str2, and res. The first two are initialized to constant character string objects.The declaration NSComparisonResult compareResult; declares compareResult to hold the result of the string comparison that will be per- formed later in the program. You can use the length method to count the number of characters in a string. It re- turns an unsigned integer value of type NSUInteger.The output verifies that the string @”This is string A” contains 16 characters.The statement res = [NSString stringWithString: str1]; shows how to create a new character string with the contents of another.The resulting NSString object is assigned to res and is then displayed to verify the results.An actual copy of the string contents is made here, not just another reference to the same string in memory.That means that str1 and res refer to two different string objects, which is dif- ferent than simply performing a simple assignment, as follows: res = str1; This simply creates another reference to the same object in memory. The stringByAppendingString: method can join two character strings. So the ex- pression [str1 stringByAppendingString: str2] creates a new string object that consists of the characters str1 followed by str2, returning the result.The original string objects, str1 and str2, are not affected by this operation (they can’t be because they’re both immutable string objects). The isEqualToString: method is used next to test to see whether two character strings are equal—that is, whether they contain the same characters.You can use the compare: method instead if you need to determine the ordering of two character strings—for example, if you wanted to sort an array of them. Similar to the compare: method you used earlier for comparing two NSNumber objects, the result of the compari- son is NSOrderedAscending if the first string is lexically less than the second string, NSOrderedSame if the two strings are equal, and NSOrderedDescending if the first string is lexically greater than the second. If you don’t want to perform a case-sensitive compari- son, use the caseInsensitiveCompare: method instead of compare: to compare two strings. In such a case, the two string objects @”Gregory” and @”gregory” would compare as equal with caseInsensitiveCompare:. The uppercaseString and lowercaseString are the last two NSString methods used in Program 15.3 to convert strings to upper case and lower case, respectively.Again, the conversion does not affect the original strings, as the last line of output verifies. 331String Objects Program 15.4 illustrates additional methods for dealing with strings.These methods en- able you to extract substrings from a string, as well as search one string for the occurrence of another. Some methods require that you identify a substring by specifying a range.A range con- sists of a starting index number plus a character count. Index numbers begin with zero, so the first three characters in a string would be specified by the pair of numbers {0, 3}. Some methods of the NSString class (and other Foundation classes as well) use the special data type NSRange to create a range specification. It is defined in (which is included for you from inside ) and is actually a typedef definition for a structure that has two members, location and length, each of which is defined as type NSUinteger. Program 15.4 uses this data type. Note You can read about structures in Chapter 13, “Underlying C Language Features.” However, you can probably gain enough information to work with them from the discussion that fol- lows in this chapter. Program 15.4 // Basic String Operations – Continued #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *str1 = @”This is string A”; NSString *str2 = @”This is string B”; NSString *res; NSRange subRange; // Extract first 4 chars from string res = [str1 substringToIndex: 3]; NSLog (@”First 3 chars of str1: %@”, res); // Extract chars to end of string starting at index 6 res = [str1 substringFromIndex: 5]; NSLog (@”Chars from index 5 of str1: %@”, res); // Extract chars from index 8 through 13 (6 chars) res = [[str1 substringFromIndex: 8] substringToIndex: 6]; NSLog (@”Chars from index 8 through 13: %@”, res); // An easier way to do the same thing res = [str1 substringWithRange: NSMakeRange (8, 6)]; 332 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections NSLog (@”Chars from index 8 through 13: %@”, res); // Locate one string inside another subRange = [str1 rangeOfString: @”string A”]; NSLog (@”String is at index %lu, length is %lu”, subRange.location, subRange.length); subRange = [str1 rangeOfString: @”string B”]; if (subRange.location == NSNotFound) NSLog (@”String not found”); else NSLog (@”String is at index %lu, length is %lu”, subRange.location, subRange.length); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.4 Output First 3 chars of str1: Thi Chars from index 5 of str1: is string A Chars from index 8 through 13: string Chars from index 8 through 13: string String is at index 8, length is 8 String not found The substringToIndex: method creates a substring from the leading characters in a string up to but not including the specified index number. Because indexing begins at 0, the argument of 3 extracts characters 0, 1, and 2 from the string and returns the resulting string object. For any of the string methods that take an index number as one of their ar- guments, you get a “Range or index out of bounds” error message if you provide an in- valid index number in the string. The substringFromIndex: method returns a substring from the receiver beginning with the character at the specified index and up through the end of the string. The expression res = [[str1 substringFromIndex: 8] substringToIndex: 6]; shows how the two methods can be combined to extract a substring of characters from inside a string.The substringFromIndex: method is first used to extract characters from index number 8 through the end of the string; then substringToIndex: is applied to the result to get the first six characters.The net result is a substring representing the range of characters {8, 6} from the original string. 333String Objects The substringWithRange: method does in one step what we just did in two: It takes a range and returns a character in the specified range.The special function NSMakeRange (8, 6) creates a range from its argument and returns the result.This is given as the argument to the substringWithRange: method. To locate one string inside another, you can use the rangeOfString: method. If the specified string is found inside the receiver, the returned range specifies precisely where in the string it was found. However, if the string is not found, the range that is returned has its location member set to NSNotFound So the statement subRange = [str1 rangeOfString: @”string A”]; assigns the NSRange structure returned by the method to the NSRange variable subRange. Be sure to note that subRange i not an object va iable, but a structure variable (the decla- ration for subRange in he prog am also does not contain an asterisk) Its members can be retrieved by using the structure member operator dot (.). So the expression subRange. location gives the value of the location member of the structure, and subRange. length gives the length member.These values are passed to the NSLog function to be displayed. Mutable Strings The NSMutableString class can be used to create string objects whose characters can be changed. Because this class is a subclass of NSString, all NSString’s methods can be used as well. When we speak of mutable versus immutable string objects, we talk about changing the actual characters within the string. Either a mutable or an immutable string object can always be set to a completely different string object during execution of the program. For example, consider the following: str1 = @”This is a string”; ... str1 = [str1 stringFromIndex: 5]; In this case, str1 is first set to a constant character string object. Later in the program, it is set to a substring. In such a case, str1 can be declared as either a mutable or an im- mutable string object. Be sure you understand this point. Program 15.5 shows some ways to work with mutable strings in your programs. 334 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Program 15.5 // Basic String Operations - Mutable Strings #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *str1 = @”This is string A”; NSString *search, *replace; NSMutableString *mstr; NSRange substr; // Create immutable string from nonmutable mstr = [NSMutableString stringWithString: str1]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Insert characters [mstr insertString: @” mutable” atIndex: 7]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Effective concatentation if insert at end [mstr insertString: @” and string B” atIndex: [mstr length]]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Or can use appendString directly [mstr appendString: @” and string C”]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Delete substring based on range [mstr deleteCharactersInRange: NSMakeRange (16, 13)]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Find range first and then use it for deletion substr = [mstr rangeOfString: @”string B and “]; 335String Objects if (substr.location != NSNotFound) { [mstr deleteCharactersInRange: substr]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); } // Set the mutable string directly [mstr setString: @”This is string A”]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Now let’s replace a range of chars with another [mstr replaceCharactersInRange: NSMakeRange(8, 8) withString: @”a mutable string”]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); // Search and replace search = @”This is”; replace = @”An example of”; substr = [mstr rangeOfString: search]; if (substr.location != NSNotFound) { [mstr replaceCharactersInRange: substr withString: replace]; NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); } // Search and replace all occurrences search = @”a”; replace = @”X”; substr = [mstr rangeOfString: search]; while (substr.location != NSNotFound) { [mstr replaceCharactersInRange: substr withString: replace]; substr = [mstr rangeOfString: search]; } NSLog (@”%@”, mstr); [pool drain]; return 0; } 336 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections 0Index # 16 13 chars 28 This is mutable string A and string B and string C Figure 15.1 Indexing into a string Program 15.5 Output This is string A This is mutable string A This is mutable string A and string B This is mutable string A and string B and string C This is mutable string B and string C This is mutable string C This is string A This is a mutable string An example of a mutable string An exXmple of X mutXble string The declaration NSMutableString *mstr; declares mstr to be a variable that holds a character string object whose contents might change during execution of the program.The line mstr = [NSMutableString stringWithString: str1]; sets mstr to the string object whose contents are a copy of the characters in str1,or “This is string A”.When the stringWithString: method is sent to the NSMutableString class, a mutable string object is returned.When it’s sent to the NSString class, as in Program 15.5, you get an immutable string object instead. The insertString:atIndex: method inserts the specified character string into the receiver beginning at the specified index number. In this case, you insert the string @” mutable” into the string beginning at index number 7, or in front of the eighth character in the string. Unlike the immutable string object methods, no value is returned here be- cause the receiver is modified—you can do that because it’s a mutable string object. The second insertString:atIndex: invocation uses the length method to insert one character string at the end of another.The appendString: method makes this task a little simpler. By using the deleteCharactersInRange: method, you can remove a specified num- ber of characters from a string.The range {16, 13}, when applied to the string This is mutable string A and string B and string C deletes the 13 characters “string A and” beginning with index number 16 (or the 17th character in the string).This is depicted in Figure 15.1. This is mutable string A and string B and string C 337String Objects The rangeOfString: method is used in the lines that follow in Program 15.5 to show how a string can first be located and then deleted.After first verifying that the string @”string B and” does exist in mstr, the deleteCharactersInRange: method is used to delete the characters, using the range returned from the rangeOfString: method as its argument. You can use the setString: method to directly set the contents of a mutable string object.After using this method to set mstr to the string @”This is string A”, the replaceCharactersInRange: method replaces some of the characters in the string with another string.The sizes of the strings do not have to be the same; you can replace one string with another of equal or unequal sizes. So in the statement [mstr replaceCharactersInRange: NSMakeRange(8, 8) withString: @”a mutable string”]; the 8 characters “string A” are replaced with the 16 characters “a mutable string”. The remaining lines in the program example show how to perform a search and re- place. First, you locate the string @”This is” inside the string mstr, which contains The program next sets up a loop to illustrate how to implement a search-and-replace- all operation.The search string is set to @”a” and the replacement string is set to If the replacement string also contains the search string (for example, consider replac- ing the string ”a” with the string ”aX”), you end up with an infinite loop. Second, if the replacement string is empty (that is, if it contains no characters), you ef- fectively delete all occurrences of the search string.An empty constant character string object is specified by an adjacent pair of quotation marks, with no intervening spaces: replace = @””; Of course, if you just wanted to delete an occurrence of a string, you could use the deleteCharactersInRange: method instead, as you’ve already seen. Finally,the NSString class also contains a method called replaceOccurrencesOfString:withString:options:range: that you can use to do a search-and-replace-all on a string. In fact, you could have replaced the while loop from Program 15.5 with this single statement: [mstr replaceOccurrencesOfString: search withString: replace options: nil range: NSMakeRange (0, [mstr length])]; This achieves the same result and averts the potential of an infinite loop because the method prevents such a thing from happening. 338 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Table 15.2 Common NSString Methods Method Description +(id) stringWithContentsOfFile: path encoding: enc error: err Creates a new string and sets it to the path con- tents of a file specified by path using character encoding enc, returning error in err if non-nil +(id) stringWithContentsOfURL: url encoding: enc error: err Creates a new string and sets it to the contents of url using character encoding enc, returning error in err if non-nil +(id) string Creates a new empty string +(id) stringWithString: nsstring Creates a new string, setting it to nsstring -(id) initWithString: nsstring Sets a newly allocated string to nsstring -(id) initWithContentsOfFile: path encoding: enc error: err Sets a string to the contents of a file specified by path Where Are All Those Objects Going? Programs 15.4 and 15.5 deal with many string objects that various NSString and NSMutableString methods create and return.As discussed at the beginning of this chap- ter, you are not responsible for releasing the memory these objects use; the objects’ cre- ators are. Presumably,the creators have added all these objects to the autorelease pool, and the objects will be freed when the pool is released. However, be aware that if you are de- veloping a program that creates a lot of temporary objects, the memory these objects use can accumulate. In such cases, you might need to adopt different strategies that allow for memory to be released during your program’s execution, not just at the end. Chapter 17 describes this concept. For now,just realize that these objects take up memory that can expand as your program executes. The NSString class contains more than 100 methods that can work with immutable string objects.Table 15.2 summarizes some of the more commonly used ones, and Table 15.3 lists some of the additional methods that the NSMutableString class provides. Some other NSString methods (such as working with pathnames and reading the contents of a file into a string) are introduced to you throughout the remainder of this book. In Tables 15.2 and 15.3, url is an NSURL object, path is an NSString object specifying the path to a file, nsstring is an NSString object, i is an NSUInteger value representing a valid character number in a string, enc is an NSStringEncoding object that specifies the character encoding, err is an NSError object that describes an error if one occurs, size and opts are NSUIntegers, and range is an NSRange object indicating a valid range of charac- ters within a string. 339String Objects Table 15.2 Common NSString Methods Method Description -(id) initWithContentsOfURL: url encoding enc error: err Sets a string to the contents of url (NSURL *) url using character encoding enc, returning er- ror in err if non-nil -(NSUInteger) length Returns the number of characters in the string -(unichar) characterAtIndex: i Returns the Unicode character at index i -(NSString *) substringFromIndex: i Returns a substring from the character at i to the end -(NSString *) substringWithRange: range Returns a substring based on a specified range -(NSString *) substringToIndex: i Returns a substring from the start of the string up to the character at index i -(NSComparator *) caseInsensitiveCompare: nsstring Compares two strings, ignoring case -(NSComparator *) compare: nsstring Compares two strings -(BOOL) hasPrefix: nsstring Tests whether a string begins with nsstring -(BOOL) hasSuffix: nsstring Tests whether a string ends with nsstring -(BOOL) isEqualToString: nsstring Tests whether two strings are equal -(NSString *) capitalizedString Returns a string with the first letter of every word capitalized (and the remaining letters in each word converted to lower case) -(NSString *) lowercaseString Returns a string converted to lower case -(NSString *) uppercaseString Returns a string converted to upper case -(const char *) UTF8String Returns a string converted to a UTF-8 C-style char- acter string -(double) doubleValue Returns a string converted to a double -(float) floatValue Returns a string converted to a floating value -(NSInteger) integerValue Returns a string converted to an NSInteger integer -(int) intValue Returns a string converted to an integer 340 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Table 15.3 Common NSMutableString Methods Method Description +(id) stringWithCapacity: size Creates a string initially containing size char- acters. -(id) initWithCapacity: size Initializes a string with an initial capacity of size characters. -(void) setString: nsstring Sets a string to nsstring. -(void) appendString: nsstring Appends nsstring to the end of the receiver. -(void) deleteCharactersInRange: range Deletes characters in a specified range. -(void) insertString: nstring atIndex: i Inserts nsstring into the receiver starting at index i. -(void) replaceCharactersInRange: range withString: nsstring Replaces characters in a specified range with nsstring. -(void) replaceOccurrencesOf String: nsstring withString: nsstring2 options: opts range: range Replaces all occurrences of nsstring with nsstring2 within a specified range and ac- cording to options opts. Options can include a bitwise-ORed combination of NSBackwardsSearch (the search starts from the end of range), NSAnchoredSearch (nsstring must match from the beginning of the range only), NSLiteralSearch (performs a byte-by-byte comparison), and NSCaseInsensitiveSearch. NSString objects are used extensively throughout the remainder of this text. If you need to parse strings into tokens, you can take a look at Foundation’s NSScanner class. The methods in Table 15.3 either create or modify NSMutableString objects. 341Array Objects Array Objects A Foundation array is an ordered collection of objects. Most often, elements in an array are of one particular type, but that’s not required. Just as there are mutable and immutable strings, are there mutable and immutable arrays. Immutable arrays are handled by the NSArray class, whereas mutable ones are handled by NSMutableArray.The latter is a sub- class of the former, which means it inherits its methods.To work with array objects in your programs, include the following line: #import Program 15.6 sets up an array to store the names of the months of the year and then prints them. Program 15.6 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { int i; NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; // Create an array to contain the month names NSArray *monthNames = [NSArray arrayWithObjects: @”January”, @”February”, @”March”, @”April”, @”May”, @”June”, @”July”, @”August”, @”September”, @”October”, @”November”, @”December”, nil ]; // Now list all the elements in the array NSLog (@”Month Name”); NSLog (@”===== ====”); for (i = 0; i < 12; ++i) NSLog (@” %2i %@”, i + 1, [monthNames objectAtIndex: i]); [pool drain]; return 0; } 342 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Program 15.6 Output Month Name ===== ==== 1 January 2 February 3 March 4 April 5 May 6 June 7 July 8 August 9 September 10 October 11 November 12 December You can use the class method arrayWithObjects: can be to create an array with a list of objects as its elements. In such a case, the objects are listed in order and are separated by commas.This is a special syntax used by methods that can take a variable number of arguments.To mark the end of the list, nil must be specified as the last value in the list— it isn’t actually stored inside the array. In Program 15.7 monthNames is set to the 12 string values specified by the arguments to arrayWithObjects:. Elements are identified in an array by their index numbers. Similar to NSString ob- jects, indexing begins with zero. So an array containing 12 elements has valid index num- bers 0–11.To retrieve an element of an array using its index number, you use the objectAtIndex: method. The program simply executes a for loop to extract each element from the array using the objectAtIndex: method. Each retrieved element is converted to a C string and then displayed with printf. Program 15.7 generates a table of prime numbers. Because you will be adding prime numbers to your array as they are generated, a mutable array is required.The NSMutableArray primes is allocated using the arrayWithCapacity: method.The argu- ment of 20 that you give specifies the initial capacity of the array; a mutable array’s capac- ity automatically increases as necessary while the program is running. Even though prime numbers are integers, you can’t directly store int values inside your array.Your array can hold only objects.Thus, you need to store NSNumber integer objects inside your primes array. Program 15.7 #import #import #import #import #import #define MAXPRIME 50 343Array Objects int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { int i, p, prevPrime; BOOL isPrime; NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; // Create an array to store the prime numbers NSMutableArray *primes = [NSMutableArray arrayWithCapacity: 20]; // Store the first two primes (2 and 3) into the array [primes addObject: [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 2]] [primes addObject: [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 3]]; // Calculate the remaining primes for (p = 5; p <= MAXPRIME; p = 2) { // we’re testing to see if p is prime isPrime = YES; i = 1; do { prevPrime = [[primes objectAtIndex: i] integerValue]; if (p % prevPrime == 0) isPrime = NO; ++i; } while ( isPrime == YES && p / prevPrime >= prevPrime); if (isPrime) [primes addObject: [NSNumber numberWithInteger: p]]; } // Display the results for (i = 0; i < [primes count]; ++i) NSLog (@”%li”, (long) [[primes objectAtIndex: i] integerValue]); [pool drain]; return 0; } 344 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Program 15.7 Output 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 You define kMaxPrime to the maximum prime number you want the program to cal- culate, which, in this case, is 50. After allocating your primes array,you set the first two elements of the array using these statements: [primes addObject: [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 2]]; [primes addObject: [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 3]]; The addObject: method adds an object to the end of an array.Here you add the NSNumber objects created from the integer values 2 and 3, respectively. The program then enters a for loop to find prime numbers starting with 5, going up to kMaxPrime and skipping the even numbers in between (p += 2). For each possible prime candidate p, you want to see whether it is evenly divisible by the previously discovered primes. If it is, it’s not prime.As an added optimization, you test the candidate for even division only by earlier primes up to its square root.That’s because if a number is not prime, it must be divisible by a prime number that is less than or equal to its square root (ahh, back to high school math again!). So the expression p / prevPrime >= prevPrime remains true only as long as prevPrime is less than the square root of p. If the do-while loop exits with the flag isPrime still equal to YES, you have found an- other prime number. In that case, the candidate p is added to the primes array and execu- tion continues. Just a comment about program efficiency here:The Foundation classes for working with arrays provide many conveniences. However, in the case of manipulating large arrays of numbers with complex algorithms, learning how to perform such a task using the 345Array Objects lower-level array constructs provided by the language might be more efficient, in terms of both memory usage and execution speed. Refer to the section titled “Arrays” in Chapter 13 for more information. Making an Address Book Let’s take a look at an example that starts to combine a lot of what you’ve learned to this point by creating an address book.2 Your address book will contain address cards. For the sake of simplicity,your address cards will contain only a person’s name and email address. Extend this concept to other information, such as address and phone number, is straight- forward, but we leave that as an exercise for you at the end of this chapter. Creating an Address Card We start by defining a new class called AddressCard.You’ll want the capability to create a new address card, set its name and email fields, retrieve those fields, and print the card. In a graphics environment, you could use some nice routines such as those provided by the Application Kit framework to draw your card onscreen. But here you stick to a simple Console interface to display your address cards. Program 15.8 shows the interface file for your new AddressCard class.We’re not go- ing to synthesize the accessor methods yet; writing them yourself offers valuable lessons. Program 15.8 Interface File AddressCard.h #import #import @interface AddressCard: NSObject { NSString *name; NSString *email; } -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName; -(void) setEmail: (NSString *) theEmail; -(NSString *) name; -(NSString *) email; -(void) print; @end 2 Mac OS X provides an entire Address Book framework, which offers extremely powerful capabilities for working with address books. 346 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections This is straightforward, as is the implementation file in Program 15.8. Program 15.8 Implementation File AddressCard.m #import “AddressCard.h” @implementation AddressCard -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = [[NSString alloc] initWithString: theName]; } -(void) setEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { email = [[NSString alloc] initWithString: theEmail]; } -(NSString *) name { return name; } -(NSString *) email { return email; } -(void) print { NSLog (@”====================================”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| %-31s |”, [name UTF8String]); NSLog (@”| %-31s |”, [email UTF8String]); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| O O |”); NSLog (@”====================================”); } @end You could have the setName: and setEmail: methods store the objects directly in their respective instance variables with method definitions like these: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = theName; } 347Array Objects -(void) setEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { email = theEmail; } But the AddressCard object would not own its member objects.We talked about the motivation for an object to take ownership with respect to the Rectangle class owning its origin object in Chapter 8,“Inheritance.” Defining the two methods in the following way would also be an incorrect approach because the AddressCard methods would still not own their name and email objects— NSString would own them: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = [NSString stringWithString: theName]; } -(void) setEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { email = [NSString stringWithString: theEmail]; } Returning to Program 15.8, the print method tries to present the user with a nice display of an address card in a format resembling a Rolodex card (remember those?).The %-31s characters to NSLog indicate to display a UTF8 C-string within a field width of 31 characters, left-justified.This ensures that the right edges of your address card line up in the output. It’s used in this example strictly for cosmetic reasons. With your AddressCard class in hand, you can write a test program to create an address card, set its values, and display it (see Program 15.8). Program 15.8 Test Program #import “AddressCard.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; 348 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections [card1 setName: aName]; [card1 setEmail: aEmail]; [card1 print]; [card1 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.8 Output ===================================== | | | Julia Kochan | | jewls337@axlc.com | | | | | | | | O O | ===================================== In this program, the line [card1 release]; is used to release the memory your address card uses.You should realize from previous discussions that releasing an AddressCard object this way does not also release the mem- ory you allocated for its name and email members.To make the AddressCard leak free, you need to override the dealloc method to release these members whenever the mem- ory for an AddressCard object is released. This is the dealloc method for your AddressCard class: -(void) dealloc { [name release]; [email release]; [super dealloc]; } The dealloc method must release its own instance variables before using super to destroy the object itself.That’s because an object is no longer valid after it has been deallocated. To make your AddressCard leak free, you must also modify your setName: and setEmail: methods to release the memory used by the objects stored in their respective instance variables. If someone changes the name on a card, you need to release the memory that the old name takes up before you replace it with the new one. Similarly, 349Synthesized AddressCard Methods for the email address, you must release the memory it uses before you replace it with the new one. These are the new setName: and setEmail: methods that ensure that we have a class that handles memory management properly: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { [name release]; name = [[NSString alloc] initWithString: theName]; } -(void) setEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { [email release]; email = [[NSString alloc] initWithString: theEmail]; } You can send a message to a nil object;therefore, the message expressions [name release]; and [email release]; are okay even if name or email have not been previously set. Synthesized AddressCard Methods Now that we’ve discussed the correct way to write the accessor methods setName: and setEmail:, and you understand the important principles, we can go back and let the sys- tem generate the accessor methods for you. Consider the second version of the AddressCard interface file: #import #import @interface AddressCard: NSObject { NSString *name; NSString *email; } @property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *name, *email; -(void) print; @end The line @property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *name, *email; 350 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections lists the attributes copy and nonatomic for the properties.The copy attribute says to make a copy of the instance variable in its setter method, as you did in the version you wrote. The default action is not to make a copy,but to instead perform a simple assignment (that’s the default attribute assign), an incorrect approach that we recently discussed. The nonatomic attribute specifies that the getter method should not retain or autorelease the instance variable before returning its value. Chapter 18 discusses this topic in greater detail. Program 15.9 is the new AddressCard implementation file that specifies that the acces- sor methods be synthesized. Program 15.9 Implementation File AddressCard.m with Synthesized Methods #import “AddressCard.h” @implementation AddressCard @synthesize name, email; -(void) print { NSLog (@”====================================”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| %-31s |”, [name UTF8String]); NSLog (@”| %-31s |”, [email UTF8String]); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| |”); NSLog (@”| O O |”); NSLog (@”====================================”); } @end We leave it as an exercise to you to verify that the new AddressCard definition with its synthesized accessor methods works with the test program shown in Program 15.9. Now let’s add another method to your AddressCard class.You might want to set both the name and email fields of your card with one call.To do so, add a new method, setName:andEmail:.3 The new method looks like this: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName andEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { self.name = theName; self.email = theEmail; } 3 You also might want an initWithName:andEmail: initialization method, but we don’t show that here. 351Synthesized AddressCard Methods By relying on the synthesized setter methods to set the appropriate instance variables (instead of setting them directly inside the method yourself), you add a level of abstraction and, therefore, make the program slightly more independent of its internal data structures. You also take advantage of the synthesized method’s properties, which in this case, copy instead of assign the value to the instance variable. Program 15.9 tests your new method. Program 15.9 Test Program #import #import “AddressCard.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card1 print]; [card2 print]; [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.9 Output ==================================== | | | Julia Kochan | | jewls337@axlc.com | | | | | | | | O O | ==================================== 352 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections ==================================== | | | Tony Iannino | | tony.iannino@techfitness.com | | | | | | | | O O | ==================================== Your AddressCard class seems to be working okay.What if you wanted to work with a lot of AddressCards? It would make sense to collect them together, which is exactly what you’ll do by defining a new class called AddressBook.The AddressBook class will store the name of an address book and a collection of AddressCards, which you’ll store in an array object.To start, you’ll want the ability to create a new address book, add new address cards to it, find out how many entries are in it, and list its contents. Later, you’ll want to be able to search the address book, remove entries, possibly edit existing entries, sort it, or even make a copy of its contents. Let’s get started with a simple interface file (see Program 15.10). Program 15.10 Addressbook.h Interface File #import #import “AddressCard.h” @interface AddressBook: NSObject { NSString *bookName; NSMutableArray *book; } -(id) initWithName: (NSString *) name; -(void) addCard: (AddressCard *) theCard; -(int) entries; -(void) list; -(void) dealloc; @end The initWithName: method sets up the initial array to hold the address cards and store the name of the book, whereas the addCard: method adds an AddressCard to the book.The entries method reports the number of address cards in your book, and the list method gives a concise listing of its entire contents. Program 15.10 shows the im- plementation file for your AddressBook class. 353Synthesized AddressCard Methods Program 15.10 Addressbook.m Implementation File #import “AddressBook.h” @implementation AddressBook; // set up the AddressBook’s name and an empty book -(id) initWithName: (NSString *) name { self = [super init]; if (self) { bookName = [ NSString alloc] initWithString: name]; book = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init]; } return self; } -(void) addCard: (AddressCard *) theCard { [book addObject: theCard]; } -(int) entries { return [book count]; } -(void) list { NSLog (@”======== Contents of: %@ =========”, bookName); for ( AddressCard *theCard in book ) NSLog (@”%-20s %-32s”, [theCard.name UTF8String], [theCard.email UTF8String]); NSLog (@”==================================================”); } -(void) dealloc { [bookName release]; [book release]; [super dealloc]; } @end 354 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections The initWithName: method first calls the init method for the superclass to perform its initialization. Next, it creates a string object (using alloc so it owns it) and sets it to the name of the address book passed in as name.This is followed by the allocation and ini- tialization of an empty mutable array that is stored in the instance variable book. You defined initWithName: to return an id object, instead of an AddressBook one. If AddressBook is subclassed, the argument to initWithName: isn’t an AddressBook object; its type is that of the subclass. For that reason, you define the return type as a generic ob- ject type. Notice also that in initWithName:, you take ownership of the bookName and book in- stance variables by using alloc. For example, if you created the array for book using the NSMutableArray array method, as in book = [NSMutableArray array]; you would still not be the owner of the book array; NSMutableArray would own it.Thus, you wouldn’t be able to release its memory when you freed up the memory for an AddressBook object. The addCard: method takes the AddessCard object given as its argument and adds it to the address book. The count method gives the number of elements in an array.The entries method uses this to return the number of address cards stored in the address book. Fast Enumeration The list method’s for loop shows a construct you haven’t seen before: for ( AddressCard *theCard in book ) NSLog (@”%-20s %-32s”, [theCard.name UTF8String], [theCard.email UTF8String]); This uses a technique known as fast enumeration to sequence through each element of the book array.The syntax is simple enough:You define a variable that will hold each ele- ment in the array in turn (AddressCard *theCard).You follow that with the keyword in, and then you list the name of the array.When the for loop executes, it assigns the first element in the array to the specified variable and then executes the body of the loop. Then it assigns the second element in the array to the variable and executes the body of the loop.This continues in sequence until all elements of the array have been assigned to the variable and the body of the loop has executed each time. Note that if theCard had been previously defined as an AddressCard object, the for loop would more simply become this: for ( theCard in book ) ... 355Synthesized AddressCard Methods Program 15.10 is a test program for your new AddressBook class. Program 15.10 Test Program #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; NSString *cName = @”Stephen Kochan”; NSString *cEmail = @”steve@kochan-wood.com”; NSString *dName = @”Jamie Baker”; NSString *dEmail = @”jbaker@kochan-wood.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card3 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card4 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressBook *myBook = [AddressBook alloc]; // First set up four address cards [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card3 setName: cName andEmail: cEmail]; [card4 setName: dName andEmail: dEmail]; // Now initialize the address book myBook = [myBook initWithName: @”Linda’s Address Book”]; NSLog (@”Entries in address book after creation: %i”, [myBook entries]); // Add some cards to the address book [myBook addCard: card1]; [myBook addCard: card2]; [myBook addCard: card3]; [myBook addCard: card4]; 356 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections NSLog (@”Entries in address book after adding cards: %i”, [myBook entries]); // List all the entries in the book now [myBook list]; [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [card3 release]; [card4 release]; [myBook release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.10 Output Entries in address book after creation: 0 Entries in address book after adding cards: 4 ======== Contents of: Linda’s Address Book ========= Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com Stephen Kochan steve@kochan-wood.com Jamie Baker jbaker@kochan-wood.com ==================================================== The program sets up four address cards and then creates a new address book called Linda’s Address Book.The four cards are then added to the address book using the addCard: method, and the list method is used to list the and verify that contents of the address book. Looking Up Someone in the Address Book When you have a large address book, you don’t want to list its complete contents each time you want to look up someone.Therefore, adding a method to do that for you makes sense. Let’s call the method lookup: and have it take as its argument the name to locate. The method will search the address book for a match (ignoring case) and return the matching entry,if found. If the name does not appear in the phone book, you’ll have it return nil. Here’s the new lookup: method: // lookup address card by name — assumes an exact match -(AddressCard *) lookup: (NSString *) theName { 357Synthesized AddressCard Methods for ( AddressCard *nextCard in book ) if ( [[nextCard name] caseInsensitiveCompare: theName] == NSOrderedSame ) return nextCard; return nil; } If you put the declaration for this method in your interface file and the definition in the implementation file, you can write a test program to try your new method. Program 15.11 shows such a program, followed immediately by its output. Program 15.11 Test Program #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; NSString *cName = @”Stephen Kochan”; NSString *cEmail = @”steve@kochan-wood.com”; NSString *dName = @”Jamie Baker”; NSString *dEmail = @”jbaker@kochan-wood.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card3 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card4 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressBook *myBook = [AddressBook alloc]; AddressCard *myCard; // First set up four address cards [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card3 setName: cName andEmail: cEmail]; [card4 setName: dName andEmail: dEmail]; myBook = [myBook initWithName: @”Linda’s Address Book”]; // Add some cards to the address book [myBook addCard: card1]; [myBook addCard: card2]; 358 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections [myBook addCard: card3]; [myBook addCard: card4]; // Look up a person by name NSLog (@”Stephen Kochan”); myCard = [myBook lookup: @”stephen kochan”]; if (myCard != nil) [myCard print]; else NSLog (@”Not found!”); // Try another lookup NSLog (@”Lookup:Haibo Zhang”); myCard = [myBook lookup: @”Haibo Zhang”]; if (myCard != nil) [myCard print]; else NSLog (@”Not found!”); [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [card3 release]; [card4 release]; [myBook release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.11 Output Lookup: Stephen Kochan ==================================== | | | Stephen Kochan | | steve@kochan-wood.com | | | | | | | | O O | ==================================== Lookup: Haibo Zhang Not found! 359Synthesized AddressCard Methods When the lookup: method located Stephen Kochan in the address book (taking ad- vantage of the fact that a non-case-sensitive match was made), the method gave the re- sulting address card to the AddressCard’s print method for display.In the case of the second lookup, the name Haibo Zhang was not found. This lookup message is very primitive because it needs to find an exact match of the entire name.A better method would perform partial matches and be able to handle mul- tiple matches. For example, the message expression [myBook lookup: @”steve”] could match entries for “Steve Kochan”,“Fred Stevens”, and “steven levy”. Because mul- tiple matches would exist, a good approach might be to create an array containing all the matches and return the array to the method caller (see exercise 2 at the end of this chap- ter), like so: matches = [myBook lookup: @”steve”]; Removing Someone from the Address Book No address book manager that enables you to add an entry would be complete without the capability to also remove an entry.You can make a removeCard: method to remove a particular AddressCard from the address book.Another possibility would be to create a remove: method that removes someone based on name (see exercise 6 at the end of this chapter). Because you’ve made a couple changes to your interface file, Program 15.12 shows it again with the new removeCard: method. It’s followed by your new removeCard: method. Program 15.12 Addressbook.h Interface File #import #import “AddressCard.h” @interface AddressBook: NSObject { NSString *bookName; NSMutableArray *book; } -(AddressBook *) initWithName: (NSString *) name; -(void) addCard: (AddressCard *) theCard; -(void) removeCard: (AddressCard *) theCard; -(AddressCard *) lookup: (NSString *) theName; -(int) entries; -(void) list; @end 360 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Here’s the new removeCard method: -(void) removeCard: (AddressCard *) theCard { [book removeObjectIdenticalTo: theCard]; } For purposes of what’s considered an identical object, we are using the idea of the same location in memory.So the removeObjectIdenticalTo: method does not consider two address cards that contain the same information but are located in different places in memory (which might happen if you made a copy of an AddressCard, for example) to be identical. Incidentally,the removeObjectIdenticalTo: method removes all objects identical to its argument. However, that’s an issue only if you have multiple occurrences of the same object in your arrays. You can get more sophisticated with your approach to equal objects by using the removeObject: method and then writing your own isEqual: method for testing whether two objects are equal. If you use removeObject:, the system automatically in- vokes the isEqual: method for each element in the array,giving it the two elements to compare. In this case, because your address book contains AddressCard objects as its ele- ments, you would have to add an isEqual: method to that class (you would be overrid- ing the method that the class inherits from NSObject).The method could then decide for itself how to determine equality.It would make sense to compare the two corresponding names and emails. If both were equal, you could return YES from the method; otherwise, you could return NO.Your method might look like this: -(BOOL) isEqual (AddressCard *) theCard { if ([name isEqualToString: theCard.name] == YES && [email isEqualToString: theCard.email] == YES) return YES; else return NO; } Note that other NSArray methods, such as containsObject: and indexOfObject:, also rely on this isEqual: strategy for determining whether two objects are considered equal. Program 15.12 tests the new removeCard: method. 361Synthesized AddressCard Methods Program 15.12 Test Program #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; NSString *cName = @”Stephen Kochan”; NSString *cEmail = @”steve@kochan-wood.com”; NSString *dName = @”Jamie Baker”; NSString *dEmail = @”jbaker@kochan-wood.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card3 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card4 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressBook *myBook = [AddressBook alloc]; AddressCard *myCard // First set up four address cards [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card3 setName: cName andEmail: cEmail]; [card4 setName: dName andEmail: dEmail]; myBook = [myBook initWithName: @”Linda’s Address Book”]; // Add some cards to the address book [myBook addCard: card1]; [myBook addCard: card2]; [myBook addCard: card3]; [myBook addCard: card4]; // Look up a person by name NSLog (@”Stephen Kochan”); myCard = [myBook lookup: @”Stephen Kochan”]; if (myCard != nil) [myCard print]; else NSLog (@”Not found!”); 362 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections // Now remove the entry from the phone book [myBook removeCard: myCard]; [myBook list]; // verify it’s gone [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [card3 release]; [card4 release]; [myBook release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.12 Output Lookup: Stephen Kochan ==================================== | | | Stephen Kochan | | steve@kochan-wood.com | | | | | | | | O O | ==================================== ======== Contents of: Linda’s Address Book ========= Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com Jamie Baker jbaker@kochan-wood.com =================================================== After looking up Stephen Kochan in the address book and verifying that he’s there, you pass the resulting AddressCard to your new removeCard: method to be removed. The resulting listing of the address book verifies the removal. Sorting Arrays If your address book contains a lot of entries, alphabetizing it might be convenient.You can easily do this by adding a sort method to your AddressBook class and by taking ad- vantage of an NSMutableArray method called sortUsingSelector:.This method takes as its argument a selector that the sortUsingSelector: method uses to compare two el- ements.Arrays can contain any type of objects in them, so the only way to implement a 363Synthesized AddressCard Methods generic sorting method is to have you decide whether elements in the array are in order. To do this,you must add a method to compare two elements in the array.4 The result re- turned from that method is to be of type NSComparisonResult. It should return NSOrderedAscending if you want the sorting method to place the first element before the second in the array,return NSOrderedSame if the two elements are considered equal, or return NSOrderedDescending if the first element should come after the second ele- ment in the sorted array. First, here’s the new sort method from your AddressBook class: -(void) sort { [book sortUsingSelector: @selector(compareNames:)]; } As you learned in Chapter 9,“Polymorphism, Dynamic Typing,and Dynamic Bind- ing,”the exp ession @selector (compareNames:) creates a selector, which is of type SEL, from a specified method name; this is the method sortUsingSelector: uses to compare two elements in the array.When it needs to make such a comparison, it invokes the specified method, sending the message to the first ele- ment in the array (the receiver) to be compared against its argument.The returned value should be of type NSComparisonResult, as previously described. Because the elements of your address book are AddressCard objects, the comparison method must be added to the AddressCard class.You must go back to your AddressCard class and add a compareNames: method to it.This is shown here: // Compare the two names from the specified address cards -(NSComparisonResult) compareNames: (id) element { return [name compare: [element name]]; } Because you are doing a string comparison of the two names from the address book, you can use the NSString compare: method to do the work for you. 4 A method called sortUsingFunction:context: lets you use a function instead of a method to perform the comparison. 364 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections If you add the sort method to the AddressBook class and the compareNames: method to the AddressCard class, you can write a test program to test it (see Program 15.13). Program 15.13 Test Program #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; NSString *cName = @”Stephen Kochan”; NSString *cEmail = @”steve@kochan-wood.com”; NSString *dName = @”Jamie Baker”; NSString *dEmail = @”jbaker@kochan-wood.com”; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card3 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card4 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressBook *myBook = [AddressBook alloc]; // First set up four address cards [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card3 setName: cName andEmail: cEmail]; [card4 setName: dName andEmail: dEmail]; myBook = [myBook initWithName: @”Linda’s Address Book”]; // Add some cards to the address book [myBook addCard: card1]; [myBook addCard: card2]; [myBook addCard: card3]; [myBook addCard: card4]; // List the unsorted book [myBook list]; // Sort it and list it again 365Synthesized AddressCard Methods [myBook sort]; [myBook list]; [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [card3 release]; [card4 release]; [myBook release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.13 Output ======== Contents of: Linda’s Address Book ========= Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com Stephen Kochan steve@kochan-wood.com Jamie Baker jbaker@kochan-wood.com =================================================== ======== Contents of: Linda’s Address Book ========= Jamie Baker jbaker@kochan-wood.com Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Stephen Kochan steve@kochan-wood.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com =================================================== Note that the sort is an ascending one. However, you can easily perform a descending sort by modifying the compareNames: method in the AddressCard class to reverse the sense of the values that are returned. More than 50 methods are available for working with array objects.Tables 15.4 and 15.5 list some commonly used methods for working with immutable and mutable arrays, respectively.Because NSMutableArray is a subclass of NSArray, the former inherits the methods of the latter. 366 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections In Tables 15.4 and 15.5, obj, obj1, and obj2 are any objects; i is an NSUInteger inte- ger representing a valid index number into the array; selector is a selector object of type SEL; and size is an NSUInteger integer. Table 15.4 Common NSArray Methods Method Description +(id) arrayWithObjects: obj1, obj2, ... nil Creates a new array with obj1, obj2, ... as its ele- ments -(BOOL) containsObject: obj Determines whether the array contains obj (uses the isEqual: method) -(NSUInteger) count Indicates the number of elements in the array -(NSUInteger) indexOfObject: obj Specifies the index number of the first element that contains obj (uses the isEqual: method) -(id) objectAtIndex: i Indicates the object stored in element i -(void) makeObjectsPerform Selector: (SEL) selector Sends the message indicated by selector to every element of the array -(NSArray *) sortedArrayUsing Selector: (SEL) selector Sorts the array according to the comparison method specified by selector -(BOOL) writeToFile: path automically: (BOOL) flag Writes the array to the specified file, creating a tem- porary file first if flag is YES Table 15.5 Common NSMutableArray Methods Method Description +(id) array Creates an empty array +(id) arrayWithCapacity: size Creates an array with a specified initial size -(id) initWithCapacity: size Initializes a newly allocated array with a specified initial size -(void) addObject: obj Adds obj to the end of the array -(void) insertObject: obj atIndex: i Inserts obj into element i of the array -(void) replaceObjectAtIndex: i withObject: obj Replaces element i of the array with obj -(void) removeObject: obj Removes all occurrences of obj from the array -(void) removeObjectAtIndex: i Removes element i from the array, moving down elements i+1 through the end of the array -(void) sortUsingSelector: (SEL) selector Sorts the array based on the comparison method indicated by selector 367Dictionary Objects Dictionary Objects A dictionary is a collection of data consisting of key-object pairs. Just as you would look up the definition of a word in a dictionary,you obtain the value (object) from an Objective- C dictionary by its key.The keys in a dictionary must be unique, and they can be of any object type, although they are typically strings.The value associated with the key can also be of any object type, but it cannot be nil. Dictionaries can be mutable or immutable; mutable ones can have entries dynamically added and removed. Dictionaries can be searched based on a particular key,and their con- tents can be enumerated. Program 15.14 sets up a mutable dictionary to be used as a glos- sary of Objective-C terms and fills in the first three entries. To use dictionaries in your programs, include the following line: #import Program 15.14 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSMutableDictionary *glossary = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary]; // Store three entries in the glossary [glossary setObject: @”A class defined so other classes can inherit from it” forKey: @”abstract class” ]; [glossary setObject: @”To implement all the methods defined in a protocol” forKey: @”adopt”]; [glossary setObject: @”Storing an object for later use” forKey: @”archiving”]; // Retrieve and display them NSLog (@”abstract class: %@”, [glossary objectForKey: @”abstract class”]); NSLog (@”%@”, [glossary objectForKey: @”adopt”]); NSLog (@”%@”, [glossary objectForKey: @”archiving”]); 368 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.14 Output abstract class: A class defined so other classes can inherit from it adopt: To implement all the methods defined in a protocol archiving: Storing an object for later use The expression [NSMutableDictionary dictionary] creates an empty mutable dictionary.You can add key-value pairs to the dictionary using the setObject:forKey: method.After the dictionary has been constructed, you can re- trieve the value for a given key using the objectForKey: method. Program 15.14 shows how the three entries in the glossary were retrieved and displayed. In a more practical ap- plication, the user would type in the word to define and the program would search the glossary for its definition. Enumerating a Dictionary Program 15.15 illustrates how a dictionary can be defined with initial key-value pairs us- ing the dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: method.An immutable dictionary is created, and the program also shows how a fast enumeration loop can be used to retrieve each el- ement from a dictionary one key at a time. Unlike array objects, dictionary objects are not ordered, so the first key-object pair placed in a dictionary might not be the first key extracted when the dictionary is enumerated. Program 15.15 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSDictionary *glossary = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: @”A class defined so other classes can inherit from it”, @”abstract class”, @”To implement all the methods defined in a protocol”, @”adopt”, @”Storing an object for later use”, @”archiving”, nil ]; 369Dictionary Objects // Print all key-value pairs from the dictionary for ( NSString *key in glossary ) NSLog (@”%@%@”, key, [glossary objectForKey: key]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 15.15 Output abstract class: A class defined so other classes can inherit from it adopt: To implement all the methods defined in a protocol archiving: Storing an object for later use The argument to dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: is a list of object-key pairs (yes, in that order!), each separated by a comma.The list must be terminated with the special nil object. After the program creates the dictionary,it sets up a loop to enumerate its contents.As noted, the keys are retrieved from the dictionary in turn, in no special order. If you wanted to display the contents of a dictionary in alphabetical order, you could retrieve all the keys from the dictionary,sort them, and then retrieve all the values for those sorted keys in order.The method keysSortedByValueUsingSelector: does half of the work for you, returning the sorted keys in an array based on your sorting criteria. We have just shown some basic operations with dictionaries here.Tables 15.6 and 15.7 summarize some of the more commonly used methods for working with immutable and mutable dictionaries, respectively.Because NSMutableDictionary is a subset of NSDictionary, it inherits its methods. In Tables 15.6 and 15.7, key, key1, key2, obj, obj1, and obj2 are any objects, and size is an NSUInteger unsigned integer. Table 15.6 Common NSDictionary Methods Method Description +(id) dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: obj1, key1, obj2, key2, ..., nil Creates a dictionary with key-object pairs {key1, obj1}, {key2, obj2}, ... -(id) initWithObjectsAndKeys: obj1, key1, obj2, key2,..., nil Initializes a newly allocated dictionary with key-object pairs {key1, obj1}, {key2, obj2}, ... -(unsigned int) count Returns the number of entries in the dictionary 370 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections Table 15.6 Common NSDictionary Methods Method Description -(NSEnumerator *) keyEnumerator Returns an NSEnumerator object for all the keys in the dictionary -(NSArray *) keysSortedByValueUsingSelector: (SEL) selector Returns an array of keys in the dictionary sorted according to the comparison method selector specifies -(NSEnumerator *) objectEnumerator Returns an NSEnumerator object for all the values in the dictionary -(id) objectForKey: key Returns the object for the specified key Set Objects A set is a collection of unique objects, and it can be mutable or immutable. Operations in- clude searching, adding, and removing members (mutable sets); comparing two sets; and finding the intersection and union of two sets. To work with sets in your program, include the following line: #import Table 15.7 Common NSMutableDictionary Methods Method Description +(id) dictionaryWithCapacity: size Creates a mutable dictionary with an initial specified size -(id) initWithCapacity: size Initializes a newly allocated dictionary to be of an initial specified size -(void) removeAllObjects Removes all entries from the dictionary -(void) removeObjectForKey: key Removes the entry for the specified key from the dictionary -(void) setObject: obj forKey: key Adds obj to the dictionary for the key key and replaces the value if key already exists 371Set Objects Program 15.16 shows some basic operations on sets. Say you wanted to display the contents of your sets several times during execution of the program.You therefore have decided to create a new method called print.You add the print method to the NSSet class by creating a new category called Printing. NSMutableSet is a subclass of NSSet,so mutable sets can use the new print method as well. Program 15.16 #import #import #import #import #import // Create an integer object #define INTOBJ(v) [NSNumber numberWithInteger: v] // Add a print method to NSSet with the Printing category @interface NSSet (Printing); -(void) print; @end @implementation NSSet (Printing); -(void) print { printf (“{“); for (NSNumber *element in self) printf (“ %li “, (long) [element integerValue]); printf (“}\n”); } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSMutableSet *set1 = [NSMutableSet setWithObjects: INTOBJ(1), INTOBJ(3), INTOBJ(5), INTOBJ(10), nil]; NSSet *set2 = [NSSet setWithObjects: INTOBJ(-5), INTOBJ(100), INTOBJ(3), INTOBJ(5), nil]; NSSet *set3 = [NSSet setWithObjects: INTOBJ(12), INTOBJ(200), INTOBJ(3), nil]; 372 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections NSLog (@”set1: “); [set1 print]; NSLog (@”set2: “); [set2 print]; // Equality test if ([set1 isEqualToSet: set2] == NO) NSLog (@”set1 equals set2”); else NSLog (@”set1 is not equal to set2”); // Membership test if ([set1 containsObject: INTOBJ(10)] == YES) NSLog (@”set1 contains 10”); else NSLog (@”set1 does not contain 10”); if ([set2 containsObject: INTOBJ(10)] == YES) NSLog (@”set2 contains 10”); else NSLog (@”set2 does not contain 10”); // add and remove objects from mutable set set1 [set1 addObject: INTOBJ(4)]; [set1 removeObject: INTOBJ(10)]; NSLog (@”set1 after adding 4 and removing 10: “); [set1 print]; // get intersection of two sets [set1 intersectSet: set2]; NSLog (@”set1 intersect set2: “); [set1 print]; // union of two sets [set1 unionSet:set3]; NSLog (@”set1 union set3: “); [set1 print]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 373Set Objects Program 15.16 Output set1: { 3 10 1 5 } set2: { 100 3 -5 5 } set1 is not equal to set2 set1 contains 10 set2 does not contain 10 set1 after adding 4 and removing 10: { 3 1 5 4 } set1 intersect set2: { 3 5 } set1 union set : { 12 3 5 200 } The print method uses the fast enumeration technique previously described to re- trieve each element from the set.You also defined a macro called INTOBJ to create an ob- ject from an nteger value This enables you to make your program more concise and saves some unnecessary typing. Of course, your print me hod is not tha general because it works only with sets that have integer members in them. But it’s a good reminder here of how to add methods to a class through a category.5 (Note that the C library’s printf rou- tine is used in the print method to display the elements of each set on a single line.) setWithObjects: creates a new set from a nil-terminated list of objects.After creat- ing three sets, the program displays the first two using your new print method.The isEqualToSet: method then tests whether set1 is equal to set2—it isn’t. The containsObject: method sees first whether the integer 10 is in set1 and then whether it is in set2.The Boolean values the method returns verify that it is in the first set, not in the second. The program next uses the addObject: and removeObject: methods to add and re- move 4 and 10 from set1, respectively.Displaying the contents of the set verifies that the operations were successful. You can use the intersect: and union: methods to calculate the intersection and union of two sets. In both cases, the result of the operation replaces the receiver of the message. The Foundation framework also provides a class called NSCountedSet.These sets can represent more than one occurrence of the same object; however, instead of the object appearing multiple times in the set, a count of the number of times is maintained. So the first time an object is added to the set, its count is 1. Subsequently adding the object to 5 A more general method could invoke each object’s description method for displaying each mem- ber of the set. That would allow sets containing any types of objects to be displayed in a readable for- mat. Also note that you can display the contents of any collection with a single call to NSLog, using the “print object” format characters ”%@”. 374 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections the set increments the count, whereas removing the object from the set decrements the count. If it reaches zero, the actual object itself is removed from the set.The countForObject: retrieves the count for a specified object in a set. One application for a counted set might be a word counter application. Each time a word is found in some text, it can be added to the counted set.When the scan of the text is complete, each word can be retrieved from the set along with its count, which indicates the number of times the word appeared in the text. We have just shown some basic operations with sets.Tables 15.8 and 15.9 summarize commonly used methods for working with immutable and mutable sets, respectively.Be- cause NSMutableSet is a subclass of NSSet, it inherits its methods. In Tables 15.8 and 15.9, obj, obj1, and obj2 are any objects; nsset is an NSSet or NSMutableSet object; and size is an NSUInteger integer. Table 15.8 Common NSSet Methods Method Description +(id) setWithObjects: obj1, obj2, ..., nil Creates a new set from the list of objects -(id) initWithObjects: obj1, obj2, ..., nil Initializes a newly allocated set with a list of objects -(NSUInteger) count Returns the number of members in the set -(BOOL) containsObject: obj Determines whether the set contains obj -(BOOL) member: obj Determines whether the set contains obj (using the isEqual: method) -(NSEnumerator *) objectEnumerator Returns an NSEnumerator object for all the objects in the set -(BOOL) isSubsetOfSet: nsset Determines whether every member of the receiver is present in nsset -(BOOL) intersectsSet: nsset Determines whether at least one member of the receiver appears in nsset -(BOOL) isEqualToSet: nsset Determines whether the two sets are equal Table 15.9 Common NSMutableSet Methods Method Description -(id) setWithCapacity: size Creates a new set with an initial capacity to store size members -(id) initWithCapacity: size Sets the initial capacity of a newly allocated set to size members -(void) addObject: obj Adds obj to the set 375Exercises Exercises 1. Look up the NSCalendarDate class in your documentation.Then add a new cate- gory to NSCalendarDate called ElapsedDays. In that new category,add a method based on the following method declaration: -(unsigned long) numberOfElapsedDays: (NSCalendarDate *) theDate; Have the new method return the number of elapsed days between the receiver and the argument to the method.Write a test program to test your new method. (Hint: Look at the years:months:days:hours:minutes:seconds:sinceDate: method.) 2. Modify the lookup: method developed in this chapter for the AddressBook class so that partial matches of a name can be made.The message expression [myBook lookup: @”steve”] should match an entry that contains the string steve anywhere within the name. 3. Modify the lookup: method developed in this chapter for the AddressBook class to search the address book for all matches. Have the method return an array of all such matching address cards, or nil if no match is made. 4. Add new fields of your choice to the AddressCard class. Some suggestions are sep- arating the name field into first and last name fields, and adding address (perhaps with separate state, city,zip, and country fields) and phone number fields.Write ap- propriate setter and getter methods, and ensure that the print and list methods properly display the fields. 5. After completing exercise 3, modify the lookup: method from exercise 2 to per- form a search on all the fields of an address card. Can you think of a way to design your AddressCard and AddressBook classes so that the latter does not have to know all the fields stored in the former? 6. Add the method removeName: to the AddressBook class to remove someone from the address book given this declaration for the method: -(BOOL) removeName: (NSString *) theName; Use the lookup: method developed in exercise 2. If the name is not found or if multiple entries exist, have the method return NO. If the person is successfully re- moved, have it return YES. -(void) removeObject: obj Removes obj from the set -(void) removeAllObjects Removes all members of the receiver -(void) unionSet: nsset Adds each member of nsset to the receiver -(void) minusSet: nsset Removes all members of nsset from the receiver -(void) intersectSet: nsset Removes all members from the receiver that are not also in nsset 376 Chapter 15 Numbers, Strings, and Collections 7. Using the Fraction class defined in Part I, set up an array of fractions with some arbitrary values.Then write some code that finds the sum of all the fractions stored in the array. 8. Using the Fraction class defined in Part I, set up a mutable array of fractions with arbitrary values.Then sort the array using the sortUsingSelector: method from the NSMutableArray class.Add a Comparison category to the Fraction class and implement your comparison method in that category. 9. Define three new classes, called Song, PlayList, and MusicCollection. A Song object will contain information about a particular song, such as its title, artist, al- bum, and playing time.A PlayList object will contain the name of the playlist and a collection of songs.A MusicCollection object will contain a collection of playlists, including a special master playlist called library that contains every song in the collection. Define these three classes and write methods to do the following: n Create a Song object and set its information. n Create a Playlist object, and add songs to and remove songs from a playlist.A new song should be added to the master playlist if it’s not already there. Make sure that if a song is removed from the master playlist, it is removed from all playlists in the music collection as well. n Create a MusicCollection object, and add playlists to and remove playlists from the collection. n Search and display the information about any song, any playlist, or the entire music collection. Make sure all your classes do not leak memory! 10. Write a program that takes an array of NSInteger objects and produces a frequency chart that lists each integer and how many times it occurs in the array.Use an NSCountedSet object to construct your frequency counts. 16 Working with Files The Foundation framework enables you to get access to the file system to perform basic operations on files and directories.This is provided by NSFileManager, whose methods include the capability to n Create a new file n Read from an existing file n Write data to a file n Rename a file n Remove (delete) a file n Test for the existence of a file n Determine the size of a file as well as other attributes n Make a copy of a file n Test two files to see whether their contents are equal Many of these operations can also be performed on directories. For example, you can create a directory,read its contents, or delete it.Another feature is the ability to link files. That is, the ability to have the same file exist under two different names, perhaps even in different directories. To open a file and perform multiple read-and-write operations on the file, you use the methods provided by NSFileHandle.The methods in this class enable you to n Open a file for reading, writing, or updating (reading and writing) n Seek to a specified position within a file n Read or write a specified number of bytes from and to a file The methods provided by NSFileHandle can also be applied to devices or sockets. However, we will focus only on dealing with ordinary files in this chapter. 378 Chapter 16: Working with Files Table 16.1 Common NSFileManager File Methods Method Description -(NSData *) contentsAtPath: path Reads data from a file -(NSData *) createFileAtPath: path contents: (NSData *) data attributes: attr Writes data to a file Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager A file or directory is uniquely identified to NSFileManager using a pathname to the file.A pathname is an NSString object that can either be a relative or full pathname.A relative pathname is one that is relative to the current directory.So, the filename copy1.m would mean the file copy1.m in the current directory.Slash characters separate a list of directo- ries in a path.The filename ch16/copy1.m is also a relative pathname, identifying the file copy1.m stored in the directory ch16, which is contained in the current directory. Full pathnames, also known as absolute pathnames, begin with a leading /. Slash is actu- ally a directory,called the root directory.On my Mac, the full pathname to my home di- rectory is /Users/stevekochan.This pathname specifies three directories: / (the root directory), Users, and stevekochan. The special tilde character (~) is used as an abbreviation for a user’s home directory. ~linda would, therefore, be an abbreviation for the user linda’s home directory,which might be the path /Users/linda.A solitary tilde character indicates the current user’s home directory,meaning the pathname ~/copy1.m would reference the file copy1.m stored in the current user’s home directory.Other special UNIX-style pathname charac- ters, such as . for the current directory and .. for the parent directory,should be re- moved from pathnames before they’re used by any of the Foundation file-handling methods.An assortment of path utilities are available that you can use for this, and they’re discussed later in this chapter. You should try to avoid hard-coding pathnames into your programs.As you’ll see in this chapter, methods and functions are available that enable you to obtain the pathname for the current directory,a user’s home directory,and a directory that can be used for cre- ating temporary files.You should avail yourself of these as much as possible.You’ll see later in this chapter that Foundation has a function for obtaining a list of special directories, such as a user’s Documents directory. Table 16.1 summarizes some basic NSFileManager methods for working with files. In that table, path, path1, path2, from, and to are all NSString objects; attr is an NSDictionary object; and handler is a callback handler that you can provide to handle errors in your own way.If you specify nil for handler, the default action will be taken, which for methods that return a BOOL is to return YES if the operation succeeds and NO if it fails.We won’t be getting into writing your own handler in this chapter. 379Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager Table 16.1 Common NSFileManager File Methods Method Description -(BOOL) removeFileAtPath: path handler: handler Removes a file -(BOOL) movePath: from toPath: to handler: handler Renames or moves a file (to cannot already exist) -(BOOL) copyPath: from toPath: to handler: handler Copies a file (to cannot already exist) -(BOOL) contentsEqualAtPath: path1 andPath: path2 Compares contents of two files -(BOOL) fileExistsAtPath: path Tests for file existence -(BOOL) isReadableFileAtPath: path Tests whether file exists and can be read -(BOOL) isWritableFileAtPath: path Tests whether file exists and can be written -(NSDictionary *) fileAttributesAtPath: path traverseLink: (BOOL) flag Gets attributes for file -(BOOL) changeFileAttributes: attr atPath: path Changes file attributes Each of the file methods is invoked on an NSFileManager object that is created by sending a defaultManager message to the class, like so: NSFileManager *fm; ... fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; For example, to delete a file called todolist from the current directory,you would first create the NSFileManager object as shown previously and then invoke the removeFileAtPath: method, like so: [fm removeFileAtPath: @”todolist” handler: nil]; You can test the result that is returned to ensure that the file removal succeeds: if ([fm removeFileAtPath: @”todolist” handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”Couldn’t remove file todolist”); return 1; } The attributes dictionary enables you to specify,among other things, the permissions for a file you are creating or to obtain or change information for an existing file. For file creation, if you specify nil for this parameter, the default permissions are set for the file. The fileAttributesAtPath:traverseLink: method returns a dictionary containing 380 Chapter 16: Working with Files the specified file’s attributes.The traverseLink: parameter is YES or NO for symbolic links. If the file is a symbolic link and YES is specified, the attributes of the linked-to file are returned; if NO is specified, the attributes of the link itself are returned. For preexisting files, the attributes dictionary includes information such as the file’s owner, its size, its creation date, and so on. Each attribute in the dictionary can be ex- tracted based on its key,all of which are defined in .For example, NSFileSize is the key for a file’s size. Program 16.1 shows some basic operations with files.This example assumes you have a file called testfile in your current directory with the following three lines of text: This is a test file with some data in it. Here’s another line of data. And a third. Program 16.1 // Basic file operations // Assumes the existence of a file called “testfile” // in the current working directory #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *fName = @”testfile”; NSFileManager *fm; NSDictionary *attr; // Need to create an instance of the file manager fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Let’s make sure our test file exists first if ([fm fileExistsAtPath: fName] == NO) { NSLog (@”File doesn’t exist!”); return 1; } // Now let’s make a copy 381Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager if ([fm copyPath: fName toPath: @”newfile” handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”File copy failed!”); return 2; } // Let’s test to see if the two files are identical if ([fm contentsEqualAtPath: fName andPath: @”newfile”] == NO) { NSLog (@”Files are not equal!”); return 3; } // Now let’s rename the copy if ([fm movePath: @”newfile” toPath: @”newfile2” handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”File rename failed!”); return 4; } // Get the size of newfile2 if ((attr = [fm fileAttributesAtPath: @”newfile2” traverseLink: NO]) == nil) { NSLog (@”Couldn’t get file attributes!”); return 5; } NSLog (@”File size is %i bytes”, [[attr objectForKey: NSFileSize] intValue]); // And finally, let’s delete the original file if ([fm removeFileAtPath: fName handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”File removal failed!”); return 6; } NSLog (@”All operations were successful!”); // Display the contents of the newly-created file NSLog(@”%@” [NSString stringWithContentsOfFile: @”newfile2”]); [pool drain]; return 0; } 382 Chapter 16: Working with Files Program 16.1 Output File size is 84 bytes All operations were successful! This is a test file with some data in it. Here’s another line of data. And a third. The program first tests whether testfile exists. If it does, it makes a copy of it and then tests the two files for equality.Experienced UNIX users should note that you can’t move or copy a file into a directory simply by specifying the destination directory for the copyPath:toPath: and movePath:toPath: methods; the filename within that directory must be explicitly specified. Note You can create testfile with Xcode by selecting New File... from the File menu. In the left pane that appears, highlight Other, and then select Empty File in the right pane. Enter testfile as the name of the file and be sure to create it in the same directory as your exe- cutable file. This will be in your project’s Build/Debug folder. The movePath:toPath: method can be used to move a file from one directory to an- other. (It can also be used to move entire directories.) If the two paths reference files in the same directory (as in our example), the effect is to simply rename the file. So, in Program 16.1, you use this method to rename the file newfile to newfile2. As noted in Table 16.1, when performing copying, renaming, or moving operations, the destination file cannot already exist. If it does, the operation will fail. The size of newfile2 is determined by using the fileAttributesAtPath:traverseLink: method.You test to make sure a non-nil dic- tionary is returned and then use the NSDictionary method objectForKey: to get the file’s size from the dictionary using the key NSFileSize.The integer value from the dic- tionary is then displayed. The program uses the removeFileAtPath:handler: method to remove your original file testfile. Finally, NSString’s stringWithContentsOfFile: method is used to read the contents of the file newfile2 into a string object, which is then passed as an argument to NSLog to be displayed. Each of the file operations is tested for success in Program 16.1. If any fails, an error is logged using NSLog, and the program exits by returning a nonzero exit status. Each nonzero value, which by convention indicates program failure, is unique based on the type of error. If you write command-line tools, this is a useful technique because another program can test the return value, such as from within a shell script. 383Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager Working with the NSData Class When working with files, you frequently need to read data into a temporary storage area, often called a buffer.When collecting data for subsequent output to a file, a storage area is also often used. Foundation’s NSData class provides an easy way to set up a buffer, read the contents of the file into it, or write the contents of a buffer out to a file.And just in case you’re wondering, for a 32-bit application, an NSDATA buffer can store up to 2GB. For a 64-bit application, it can hold up to 8EB (that’s exabytes) or 8,000GB of data! As you would expect, you can define either immutable (NSData) or mutable (NSMutableData) storage areas.We introduce methods from his class in this chapter and in succeeding chapters as well Program 16.2 shows how easily you can read the contents of a file into a buffer in memory. The program reads the contents of your file newfile2 and writes it to a new file called newfile3. In a sense, it implements a file copy operation, although not in as straightfor- ward a fashion as the copyPath toPath:handler method. Program 16.2 // Make a copy of a file #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSFileManager *fm; NSData *fileData; fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Read the file newfile2 fileData = [fm contentsAtPath: @”newfile2”]; if (fileData == nil) { NSLog (@”File read failed!”); return 1; } // Write the data to newfile3 if ([fm createFileAtPath: @”newfile3” contents: fileData attributes: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”Couldn’t create the copy!”); return 2; 384 Chapter 16: Working with Files Table 16.2 Common NSFileManager Directory Methods Method Description -(NSString *) currentDirectoryPath Gets the current directory -(BOOL) changeCurrentDirectoryPath: path Changes the current directory -(BOOL) copyPath: from toPath: to handler: handler Copies a directory structure; to cannot previously exist -(BOOL) createDirectoryAtPath: path attributes: attr Creates a new directory } NSLog (@”File copy was successful!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 16.2 Output File copy was successful! The NSData contentsAtPath: method simply takes a pathname and reads the con- tents of the specified file into a storage area that it creates, returning the storage area ob- ject as the result or nil if the read fails (for example, if the file doesn’t exist or can’t be read by you). The createFileAtPath:contents:attributes: method creates a file with the speci- fied attributes (or uses the default if nil is supplied for the attributes argument).The contents of the specified NSData object are then written to the file. In our example, this data area contains the contents of the previously read file. Working with Directories Table 16.2 summarizes some of the methods provided by NSFileManager for working with directories. Many of these methods are the same as are used for ordinary files, as listed in Table 16.1. 385Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager Table 16.2 Common NSFileManager Directory Methods Method Description -(BOOL) fileExistsAtPath: path isDirectory: (BOOL *) flag Tests whether the file is a directory (YES/NO result is stored in flag) -(NSArray *) directoryContentsAtPath: path Lists the contents of the directory -(NSDirectoryEnumerator *) enumeratorAtPath: path Enumerates the contents of the directory -(BOOL) removeFileAtPath: path handler: handler Deletes an empty directory -(BOOL) movePath: from toPath: to handler: handler Renames or moves a directory; to cannot previously exist Program 16.3 shows basic operations with directories. Program 16.3 // Some basic directory operations #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *dirName = @”testdir”; NSString *path; NSFileManager *fm; // Need to create an instance of the file manager fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Get current directory path = [fm currentDirectoryPath]; NSLog (@”Current directory path is %@”, path); // Create a new directory 386 Chapter 16: Working with Files if ([fm createDirectoryAtPath: dirName attributes: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”Couldn’t create directory!”); return 1; } // Rename the new directory if ([fm movePath: dirName toPath: @”newdir” handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”Directory rename failed!”); return 2; } // Change directory into the new directory if ([fm changeCurrentDirectoryPath: @”newdir”] == NO) { NSLog (@”Change directory failed!”); return 3; } // Now get and display current working directory path = [fm currentDirectoryPath]; NSLog (@”Current directory path is %@”, path); NSLog (@”All operations were successful!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 16.3 Output Current directory path is /Users/stevekochan/progs/ch16 Current directory path is /Users/stevekochan/progs/ch16/newdir All operations were successful! Program 16.3 is relatively self-explanatory.The current directory path is first obtained for informative purposes. Next, a new directory called testdir is created in the current directory.The program then uses the movePath:toPath:handler: method to rename the new directory from testdir to newdir. Remember that this method can also be used to move an entire directory structure (that means including its contents) from one place in the file system to another. After renaming the new directory,the program makes that new directory the current directory using the changeCurrentDirectoryPath: method.The current directory path is then displayed to verify that the change was successful. 387Managing Files and Directories: NSFileManager Enumerating the Contents of a Directory Sometimes you need to get a list of the contents of a directory.This enumeration process can be accomplished using either the enumeratorAtPath: or the directoryContentsAtPath: method. In the former case, each file in the specified direc- tory is enumerated one at a time and, by default, if one of those files is a directory,its contents are also recursively enumerated. During this process you can dynamically prevent this recursion by sending a skipDescendants message to an enumeration object so that its contents will not be enumerated. In the case of directoryContentsAtPath:, the contents of the specified directory are enumerated, and the file list is returned in an array by the method. If any of the files con- tained in a directory is itself a directory,its contents are not recursively enumerated by this method. Program 16.4 shows how you can use either method in your programs. Program 16.4 // Enumerate the contents of a directory #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *path; NSFileManager *fm; NSDirectoryEnumerator *dirEnum; NSArray *dirArray; // Need to create an instance of the file manager fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Get current working directory path path = [fm currentDirectoryPath]; // Enumerate the directory dirEnum = [fm enumeratorAtPath: path]; NSLog (@”Contents of %@:”, path); 388 Chapter 16: Working with Files while ((path = [dirEnum nextObject]) != nil) NSLog (@”%@”, path); // Another way to enumerate a directory dirArray = [fm directoryContentsAtPath: [fm currentDirectoryPath]]; NSLog (@”Contents using directoryContentsAtPath:”); for ( path in dirArray ) NSLog (@”%@”, path); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 16.4 Output Contents of /Users/stevekochan/mysrc/ch16: a.out dir1.m dir2.m file1.m newdir newdir/file1.m newdir/output path1.m testfile Contents using directoryContentsAtPath: a.out dir1.m dir2.m file1.m newdir path1.m testfile Let’s take a closer look at the following code sequence: dirEnum = [fm enumeratorAtPath: path]; NSLog (@”Contents of %@:”, path; while ((path = [dirEnum nextObject]) != nil) NSLog (@”%@”, path); 389Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h You begin enumeration of a directory by sending an enumerationAtPath: message to a file manager object, in this case fm.An NSDirectortyEnumerator object gets returned by the enumeratorAtPath: method, which is stored inside dirNum. Now,each time you send a nextObject message to this object, you get returned a path to the next file in the directory you are enumerating.When no more files are left to enumerate, you get nil re- turned. You can see the difference between the two enumeration techniques from the output of Program 16.4.The enumeratorAtPath: method lists the contents of the newdir direc- tory,whereas directoryContentsAtPath: does not. If newdir had contained subdirecto- ries, they too would have been enumerated by enumeratorAtPath:. As noted, during execution of the while loop in Program 16.4, you could have pre- vented enumeration of any subdirectories by making the following change to the code: while ((path = [dirEnum nextObject]) != nil) { NSLog (@”%@”, path); [fm fileExistsAtPath: path isDirectory: &flag]; if (flag == YES) [dirEnum skipDescendents]; } Here flag is a BOOL variable.The fileExistsAtPath: stores YES in flag if the speci- fied path is a directory; otherwise, it stores NO. Incidentally,as a reminder, you can display the entire dirArray contents with this sin- gle NSLog call NSLog (“%@”, dirArray); instead of using fast enumeration as was done in the program. Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h NSPathUtilities.h includes functions and category extensions to NSString to enable you to manipulate pathnames.You should use these whenever possible to make your pro- gram more independent of the structure of the file system and locations of particular files and directories. Program 16.5 shows how to use several of the functions and methods provided by NSPathUtilities.h. Program 16.5 // Some basic path operations #import #import #import #import #import 390 Chapter 16: Working with Files int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *fName = @”path.m”; NSFileManager *fm; NSString *path, *tempdir, *extension, *homedir, *fullpath; NSString *upath = @”~stevekochan/progs/../ch16/./path.m”; NSArray *components; fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Get the temporary working directory tempdir = NSTemporaryDirectory (); NSLog (@”Temporary Directory is %@”, tempdir); // Extract the base directory from current directory path = [fm currentDirectoryPath]; NSLog (@”Base dir is %@”, [path lastPathComponent]); // Create a full path to the file fName in current directory fullpath = [path stringByAppendingPathComponent: fName]; NSLog (@”fullpath to %@ is %@”, fName, fullpath); // Get the file name extension extension = [fullpath pathExtension]; NSLog (@”extension for %@ is %@”, fullpath, extension); // Get user’s home directory homedir = NSHomeDirectory (); NSLog (@”Your home directory is %@”, homedir); // Divide a path into its components components = [homedir pathComponents]; for ( path in components) 391Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h NSLog (@”%@”, path); // “Standardize” a path NSLog (@”%@ => %@”, upath , [upath stringByStandardizingPath] ); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 16.5 Output Temporary Directory is /var/folders/HT/HTyGLvSNHTuNb6NrMuo7QE+++TI/-Tmp-/ Base dir is examples fullpath to path.m is /Users/stevekochan/progs/examples/path.m extension for /Users/stevekochan/progs/examples/path.m is m Your home directory is /Users/stevekochan / Users stevekochan ~stevekochan/progs/../ch16/./path.m => ~stevekochan/ch16/path.m The function NSTemporaryDirectory returns the pathname of a directory on the sys- tem you can use for the creation of temporary files. If you create temporary files in this directory,be sure to remove them when you’re done.Also, make sure that your filenames are unique, particularly if more than one instance of your application might be running at the same time. (See Exercise 5 at the end of this chapter.) This can easily happen if more than one user logged on to your system is running the same application. The lastPathComponent method extracts the last file in a path.This is useful when you have an absolute pathname and just want to get the base filename from it. The stringByAppendingPathComponent: is useful for tacking on a filename to the end of a path. If the pathname specified as the receiver doesn’t end in a slash, the method inserts one in the pathname to separate it from the appended filename. By combining the currentDirectory method with the method stringByAppendingPathComponent:,you can create a full pathname to a file in the current directory.That technique is shown in Program 16.5. The pathExtension method gives the file extension for the provided pathname. In the example, the extension for the file path.m is m, which is returned by the method. If the file does not have an extension, the method simply returns an empty string. The NSHomeDirectory function returns the home directory for the current user.You can get the home directory for any particular user by using the NSHomeDirectoryForUser function instead, supplying the user’s name as the argument to the function. 392 Chapter 16: Working with Files Table 16.3 Common Path Utility Methods Method Description +(NSString *) pathWithComponents: components Constructs a valid path from elements in components -(NSArray *) pathComponents Deconstructs a path into its constituent components -(NSString *) lastPathComponent Extracts the last component in a path -(NSString *) pathExtension Extracts the extension from the last component in a path -(NSString *) stringByAppendingPathComponent: path Adds path to the end of an existing path -(NSString *) stringByAppendingPathExtension: ext Adds the specified extension to the last component in the path -(NSString *) stringByDeletingLastPathComponent Removes the last path component -(NSString *) stringByDeletingPathExtension Removes the extension from the last path component -(NSString *) stringByExpandingTildeInPath Expands any tildes in the path to the user’s home directory (~) or a specified user’s home directory (~user) The pathComponents method returns an array containing each of the components of the specified path. Program 16.5 sequences through each element of the returned array and displays each path component on a separate line of output. Finally,sometimes pathnames contain tilde (~) characters, as we’ve previously dis- cussed.The FileManager methods accept ~ as an abbreviation for the user’s home direc- tory or ~user for a specified user’s home directory.If your pathnames might contain tilde characters, you can resolve them by using the stringByStandardizingPath method.This method returns a path with these special characters eliminated, or standardized.You can also use the stringByExpandingTildeInPath method to expand just a tilde character if it appears in a pathname. Common Methods for Working with Paths Table 16.3 summarizes many of the commonly used methods for working with paths. In this table, components is an NSArray object containing string objects for each component in a path; path is a string object specifying a path to a file; and ext is a string object indi- cating a path extension (for example, @”mp4”). 393Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h Table 16.4 Common Path Util ty Functions Function Description NSString *NSUserName (void) Returns the current user’s login name NSString *NSFullUserName (void) Returns the current user’s full username NSString *NSHomeDirectory (void) Returns the path to the current user’s home directory NSString *NSHomeDirectoryForUser (NSString *user) Returns the home directory for user NSString *NSTemporaryDirectory (void) Returns the path to a directory that can be used for creating a temporary file Table 16.3 Common Path Utility Methods Method Description -(NSString *) stringByResolvingSymlinksInPath Attempts to resolve symbolic links in the path -(NSString *) stringByStandardizingPath Standardizes a path by attempting to resolve ~, ..(parent directory), .(current directory), and symbolic links Table 16.4 presents he functions available to obtain information about a user, her home directory,and a directory for storing temporary files. You also might want to look at the Foundation function NSSearchPathForDirectories InDomains, which you can use to locate special directories on the system, such as the Application directory. Copying Files and Using the NSProcessInfo Class Program 16.6 illustrates a command-line tool to implement a simple file copy operation. Usage of this command is as follows: copy from-file to-file Unlike NSFileManager’s copyPath:toPath:handler: method, your command-line tool enables to-file to be a directory name. In that case, the file is copied into the to- file directory under the name from-file.Also unlike the method, if to-file already exists, you allow its contents to be overwritten.This is more in line with the standard UNIX copy command cp. 394 Chapter 16: Working with Files Table 16.5 NSProcessInfo Methods Method Description +(NSProcessInfo *) processInfo Returns information about the current process –(NSArray *) arguments Returns the arguments to the current process as an array of NSString objects –(NSDictionary *) environment Returns a dictionary of variable/value pairs repre- senting the current environment variables (such as PATH and HOME) and their values –(int) processIdentifier Returns the process identifier, which is a unique number assigned by the operating system to iden- tify each running process –(NSString *) processName Returns the name of the current executing process –(NSString *) globallyUniqueString Returns a different unique string each time it is in- voked. This could be used for generating unique temporary filenames (see Exercise 5) –(NSString *) hostName Returns the name of the host system (returns Steve-Kochans-Computer.local on my Mac OS X system) –(NSUInteger) operatingSystem Returns a number indicating the operating system (returns the value 5 on my Mac) –(NSString *) operatingSystemName Returns the name of the operating system (returns the constant NSMACHOperatingSystem on my Mac, where the possible return values are defined in NSProcessInfo.h) –(NSString *) operatingSystemVersionString Returns the current version of the operating system (returns Version 10.5.4 (Build 9E17 on my Mac OS X system) –(void) setProcessName: (NSString *) name Sets the name of the current process to name. Should be used with caution because some as- sumptions can be made about the name of your process (for example, by the user default settings) You can get the filenames from the command line by using the argc and argv argu- ments to main.These two arguments are populated, respectively,with the number of ar- guments types on the command line (including the command name), and a pointer to an array of C-style character strings. Instead of having to deal with C strings, which is what you have to do when you work with argv, use instead a Foundation class called NSProcessInfo. NSProcessInfo contains methods that allow you to set and retrieve various types of information about your running application (that is, your process).These methods are summarized in Table 16.5. 395Working with Paths: NSPathUtilities.h Program 16.6 // Implement a basic copy utility #import #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSFileManager *fm; NSString *source, *dest; BOOL isDir; NSProcessInfo *proc = [NSProcessInfo processInfo]; NSArray *args = [proc arguments]; fm = [NSFileManager defaultManager]; // Check for two arguments on the command line if ([args count] != 3) { NSLog (@”Usage: %@ src dest”, [proc processName]); return 1; } source = [args objectAtIndex: 1]; dest = [args objectAtIndex: 2]; // Make sure the source file can be read if ([fm isReadableFileAtPath: source] == NO) { NSLog (@”Can’t read %@”, source); return 2; } // See if the destination file is a directory // if it is, add the source to the end of the destination [fm fileExistsAtPath: dest isDirectory: &isDir]; if (isDir == YES) dest = [dest stringByAppendingPathComponent: [source lastPathComponent]]; // Remove the destination file if it already exists [fm removeFileAtPath: dest handler: nil]; // Okay, time to perform the copy 396 Chapter 16: Working with Files if ([fm copyPath: source toPath: dest handler: nil] == NO) { NSLog (@”Copy failed!”); return 3; } NSLog (@”Copy of %@ to %@ succeeded!”, source, dest); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 16.6 Output $ ls –l see what files we have total 96 -rwxr-xr-x 1 stevekoc staff 19956 Jul 24 14:33 copy -rw-r--r-- 1 stevekoc staff 1484 Jul 24 14:32 copy.m -rw-r--r-- 1 stevekoc staff 1403 Jul 24 13:00 file1.m drwxr-xr-x 2 stevekoc staff 68 Jul 24 14:40 newdir -rw-r--r-- 1 stevekoc staff 1567 Jul 24 14:12 path1.m -rw-r--r-- 1 stevekoc staff 84 Jul 24 13:22 testfile $ copy try with no args Usage: copy from-file to-file $ copy foo copy2 Can’t read foo $ copy copy.m backup.m Copy of copy.m to backup.m succeeded! $ diff copy.m backup.m compare the files $ copy copy.m newdir try copy into directory Copy of copy.m to newdir/copy.m succeeeded! $ ls –l newdir total 8 -rw-r--r-- 1 stevekoc staff 1484 Jul 24 14:44 copy.m $ NSProcessInfo’s arguments method returns an array of string objects.The first ele- ment of the array is the name of the process, and the remaining elements contain the ar- guments typed on the command line. You first check to ensure that two arguments were typed on the command line.This is done by testing the size of the array args that is returned from the arguments method. If this test succeeds, the program then extracts the source and destination filenames from the args array,assigning their values to source and dest, respectively. The program next checks to ensure that the source file can be read, issuing an error message and exiting if it can’t. The statement [fm fileExistsAtPath: dest isDirectory: &isDir]; 397Basic File Operations: NSFileHandle checks the file specified by dest to see whether it is a directory.As you’ve seen previ- ously,the answer—YES or NO—is stored in the variable isDir. If dest is a directory,you want to append the last path component of the source file- name to the end of the directory’s name.You use the path utility method stringByAppendingPathComponent: to do this. So, if the value of source is the string ch16/copy1.m and the value of dest is /Users/stevekochan/progs and the latter is a directory,you change the value of dest to /Users/stevekochan/ progs/copy1.m. The copyPath:ToPath:handler: method doesn’t allow files to be overwritten.Thus, to avoid an error, the program tries to remove the destination file first by using the removeFileAtPath:handler: method. It doesn’t really matter whether this method suc- ceeds because it will fail anyway if the destination file doesn’t exist. Upon reaching the end of the program, you can assume all went well and issue a mes- sage to that effect. Basic File Operations: NSFileHandle The methods provided by NSFileHandle enable you to work more closely with files.At the beginning of this chapter, we listed some of the things you can do with these methods. In general follow these three steps when working with a file: 1. Open the file and obtain an NSFileHandle object to reference the file in subse- quent I/O operations. 2. Perform your I/O operations on the open file. 3. Close the file. Table 16.6 summarizes some commonly used NSFileHandle methods. In this table fh is an NSFileHandle object, data is an NSData object, path is an NSString object, and offset is an unsigned long long. Table 16.6 Common NSFileHandle Methods Method Description +(NSFileHandle *) fileHandleForReadingAtPath: path Opens a file for reading +(NSFileHandle *) fileHandleForWritingAtPath: path Opens a file for writing +(NSFileHandle *) fileHandleForUpdatingAtPath: path Opens a file for updating (reading and writing) -(NSData *) availableData Returns data available for reading from a device or channel 398 Chapter 16: Working with Files Table 16.6 Common NSFileHandle Methods Method Description -(NSData *) readDataToEndOfFile Reads the remaining data up to the end of the file (UINT_MAX) bytes max -(NSData *) readDataOfLength: (NSUInteger) bytes Reads a specified number of bytes from the file -(void) writeData: data Writes data to the file -(unsigned long long) offsetInFile Obtains the current file offset -(void) seekToFileOffset: offset Sets the current file offset -(void) seekToEndOfFile Positions the current file offset at the end of the file -(void) truncateFileAtOffset: offset Sets the file size to offset bytes (pad if needed) -(void) closeFile Closes the file Not shown here are methods for obtaining NSFileHandles for standard input, stan- dard output, standard error, and the null device.These are of the form fileHandleWithDevice, where Device can be StandardInput, StandardOutput, StandardError, or NullDevice. Also not shown here are methods for reading and writing data in the background, that is, asynchronously. You should note that the FileHandle class does not provide for the creation of files. That has to be done with FileManager methods, as we’ve already described. So, both fileHandleForWritingAtPath: and fileHandleForUpdatingAtPath: assume the file exists and return nil if it doesn’t. In both cases, the file offset is set to the beginning of the file, so writing (or reading for update mode) begins at the start of the file.Also, if you’re used to programming under UNIX, you should note that opening a file for writ- ing does not truncate the file.You have to do that yourself if that’s your intention. Program 16.7 opens the original testfile file you created at the start of this chapter, reads in its contents, and copies it to a file called testout. Program 16.7 // Some basic file handle operations // Assumes the existence of a file called “testfile” // in the current working directory #import #import #import #import 399Basic File Operations: NSFileHandle #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSFileHandle *inFile, *outFile; NSData *buffer; // Open the file testfile for reading inFile = [NSFileHandle fileHandleForReadingAtPath: @”testfile”]; if (inFile == nil) { NSLog (@”Open of testfile for reading failed”); return 1; } // Create the output file first if necessary [[NSFileManager defaultManager] createFileAtPath: @”testout” contents: nil attributes: nil]; // Now open outfile for writing outFile = [NSFileHandle fileHandleForWritingAtPath: @”testout”]; if (outFile == nil) { NSLog (@”Open of testout for writing failed”); return 2; } // Truncate the output file since it may contain data [outFile truncateFileAtOffset: 0]; // Read the data from inFile and write it to outFile buffer = [inFile readDataToEndOfFile]; [outFile writeData: buffer]; // Close the two files [inFile closeFile]; [outFile closeFile]; // Verify the file’s contents NSLog(@”%@”, [NSString StringWithContentOfFile: @”testout”]); [pool drain]; return 0; } 400 Chapter 16: Working with Files Program 16.7 Output This is a test file with some data in it. Here’s another line of data. And a third. The method readDataToEndOfFile: reads up to UINT_MAX bytes of data at a time, which is defined in and equal to FFFFFFFF16.This will be large enough for any application you’ll have to write.You can also break up the operation to perform smaller-sized reads and writes.You can even set up a loop to transfer a buffer full of bytes between the files at a time, using the readDataOfLength: method.Your buffer size might be 8,192 (8kb) or 131,072 (128kb) bytes, for example.A power of 2 is normally used be- cause the underlying operating system typically performs its I/O operations in chunks of data of such sizes.You might want to experiment with different values on your system to see what works best. If a read method reaches the end of the file without reading any data, it returns an empty NSData object (that is, a buffer with no bytes in it).You can apply the length method to the buffer and test for equality with zero to see whether any data remains to be read from the file. If you open a file for updating, the file offset is set to the beginning of the file.You can change that offset by seeking within a file and then perform your read or write opera- tions on the file. So, to seek to the 10th byte in a file whose handle is databaseHandle, you can write the following message expression: [databaseHandle seekToFileOffset: 10]; Relative file positioning is done by obtaining the current file offset and then adding to or subtracting from it. So, to skip over the next 128 bytes in the file, write the following: [databaseHandle seekToFileOffet: [databaseHandle offsetInFile] + 128]; And to move back the equivalent of five integers in the file, write this: [databaseHandle seekToFileOffet: [databaseHandle offsetInFile] – 5 * sizeof (int)]; Program 16.8 appends the contents of one file to another. It does this by opening the second file for writing, seeking to the end of the file, and then writing the contents of the first file to the second. Program 16.8 // Append the file “fileA” to the end of “fileB” #import #import 401Basic File Operations: NSFileHandle #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSFileHandle *inFile, *outFile; NSData *buffer; // Open the file fileA for reading inFile = [NSFileHandle fileHandleForReadingAtPath: @”fileA”]; if (inFile == nil) { NSLog (@”Open of fileA for reading failed”); return 1; } // Open the file fileB for updating outFile = [NSFileHandle fileHandleForWritingAtPath: @”fileB”]; if (outFile == nil) { NSLog (@”Open of fileB for writing failed”); return 2; } // Seek to the end of outFile [outFile seekToEndOfFile]; // Read inFile and write its contents to outFile buffer = [inFile readDataToEndOfFile]; [outFile writeData: buffer]; // Close the two files [inFile closeFile]; [outFile closeFile]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Contents of FileA before running Program 16.8 This is line 1 in the first file. This is line 2 in the first file. 402 Chapter 16: Working with Files Contents of FileB before running Program 16.8 This is line 1 in the second file. This is line 2 in the second file. Program 16.8 Output Contents of fileB This is line 1 in the second file. This is line 2 in the second file. This is line 1 in the first file. This is line 2 in the first file. You can see from the output that the contents of the first file were successfully ap- pended to the end of the second file. Incidentally, seekToEndOfFile returns the current file offset after the seek is performed.We chose to ignore that value; you can use that in- formation to obtain the size of a file in your program if you need it. Exercises 1. Modify the copy program developed in Program 16.6 so that it can accept more than one source file to be copied into a directory,like the standard UNIX cp com- mand. So, the command $ copy copy1.m file1.m file2.m progs should copy the three files copy1.m, file1.m, and file2.m into the directory progs. Be sure that when more than one source file is specified, the last argument is, in fact, an existing directory. 2. Write a command-line tool called myfind that takes two arguments.The first is a starting directory to begin the search, and the second is a filename to locate. So, the command line $ myfind /Users proposal.doc /Users/stevekochan/MyDocuments/proposals/proposal.doc $ begins searching the file system from /Users to locate the file proposal.doc. Print either a full path to the file if it’s found (as shown) or an appropriate message if it’s not. 403Exercises 3. Write your own version of the standard UNIX tools basename and dirname. 4. Using NSProcessInfo, write a program to display all the information returned by each of its getter methods. 5. Given the NSPathUtilities.h function NSTemporaryDirectory and the NSProcessInfo method globallyUniqueString described in this chapter, add a category called TempFiles to NSString, and in it define a method called temporaryFileName that returns a different, unique filename every time it is in- voked. 6. Modify Program 16.7 so that the file is read and written kBufSize bytes at a time, where kBufSize is defined at the beginning of your program Be sure to test the program on large files (that is, files larger than kBufSize bytes). 7. Open a file, read its contents 128 bytes at a time, and write it to the terminal. Use FileHandle’s fileHandleWithStandardOutput method to obtain a handle for the terminal’s output. 17 Memory Management We have focused on the topic of memory management throughout this book.You should understand by now when you are responsible for releasing objects and when you are not. Even though the examples in this book have all been small, we have emphasized the importance of paying attention to memory management, to teach good programming practice and to develop leak-free programs. Depending on the type of application you’re writing, judicious use of memory can be critical. For example, if you’re writing an interactive drawing application that creates many objects during the execution of the program, you must take care that your program doesn’t continue to consume more memory resources as it runs. In such cases, it becomes your responsibility to intelligently manage those resources and free them when they’re no longer needed.This means freeing resources during the program’s execution instead of just waiting until the end. In this chapter, you will learn about Foundation’s memory-allocation strategy in more detail.This involves a more thorough discussion of the autorelease pool and the idea of retaining objects.You will also learn about an object’s reference count. Finally,we talk about a mechanism known as garbage collection that alleviates the burden of having to re- tain and subsequently release your objects when you’re done using them. However, as you’ll see, garbage collection cannot be used for iPhone applications, so you still must un- derstand the techniques for memory management described throughout this book (and in more detail in this chapter). The Autorelease Pool You are familiar with the autorelease pool from previous program examples in this second part of the book.When dealing with Foundation programs, you must set up this pool to use the Foundation objects.This pool is where the system keeps track of your objects for later release.As you’ve seen, your application can set up the pool with a call like so: NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; 406 Chapter 17 Memory Management When the pool is set up, Foundation automatically adds certain arrays, strings, diction- aries, and other objects to this pool.When you’re done using the pool, you can release the memory it uses by sending it a drain message: [pool drain]; The autorelease pool gets its name from the fact that any objects that have been marked as autorelease and, therefore, added to the pool are automatically released when the pool itself is released. In fact, you can have more than one autorelease pool in your program, and they can be nested as well. If your program generates a lot of temporary objects (which can easily happen when executing code inside a loop), you might need to create multiple autorelease pools in your program. For example, the following code fragment illustrates how you can set up autore- lease pools to release the temporary objects created by each iteration of the for loop: NSAutoreleasePool *tempPool; ... for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) { tempPool = [[NSAutoReleasePool alloc] init]; ... // lots of work with temporary objects here [tempPool drain]; } Note that the autorelease pool doesn’t contain the actual objects themselves—only a reference to the objects that are to be released when the pool is drained. You can add an object to the current autorelease pool for later release by sending it an autorelease message: [myFraction autorelease]; The system then adds myFraction to the autorelease pool for automatic release later. As you’ll see, the autorelease method is useful for marking objects from inside a method, for later disposal. Reference Counting When we talked about the basic Objective-C object class NSObject, we noted that mem- ory is allocated with the alloc method and can subsequently be released with a release message. Unfortunately,it’s not always that simple.A running application can reference an object that you create in several places; an object also can be stored in an array or refer- enced by an instance variable someplace else, for example.You can’t free up the memory an object uses until you are certain that everyone is done using that object. Luckily, the Foundation framework provides an elegant solution for keeping track of the number of references to an object. It involves a fairly straightforward technique called reference counting.The concept is as follows:When an object is created, its reference count is set to 1. Each time you need to ensure that the object be kept around, you increment its reference count by 1 by sending it a retain message, like so: 407Reference Counting [myFraction retain]; Some of the methods in the Foundation framework also increment this reference count, such as when an object is added to an array. When you no longer need an object, you decrement its reference count by 1 by send- ing it a release message, like this: [myFraction release]; When the reference count of an object reaches 0, the system knows that the object is no longer needed (because, in theory,it is no longer referenced), so it frees up (deallocates) its memory.This is done by sending the object a dealloc message. Successful operation of this strategy requires diligence by you, the programmer, to en- sure that the reference count is appropriately incremented and decremented during pro- gram execution.The system handles some, but not all, of this, as you’ll see. Let’s take a look at reference counting in a little more detail.The retainCount mes- sage can be sent to an object to obtain its reference (or retain) count.You will normally never need to use this method, but it’s useful here for illustrative purposes (see Program 17.1). Note that it returns an unsigned integer of type NSUInteger. Program 17.1 // Introduction to reference counting #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSNumber *myInt = [NSNumber numberWithInteger: 100]; NSNumber *myInt2; NSMutableArray *myArr = [NSMutableArray array]; NSLog (@”myInt retain count = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); [myArr addObject: myInt]; NSLog (@”after adding to array = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); myInt2 = myInt; NSLog (@”after asssignment to myInt2 = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); [myInt retain]; NSLog (@”myInt after retain = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); 408 Chapter 17 Memory Management NSLog (@”myInt2 after retain = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt2 retainCount]); [myInt release]; NSLog (@”after release = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); [myArr removeObjectAtIndex: 0]; NSLog (@”after removal from array = %lx”, (unsigned long) [myInt retainCount]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 17.1 Output myInt retain count = 1 after adding to array = 2 after asssignment to myInt2 = 2 myInt after retain = 3 myInt2 after retain = 3 after release = 2 after removal from array = 1 The NSNumber object myInt is set to the integer value 100, and the output shows that it has an initial retain count of 1. Next, the object is added to the array myArr using the addObject: method. Note that its reference count then goes to 2.The addObject: method does this automatically; if you check your documentation for the addObject: method, you will see this fact described there.Adding an object to any type of collection increments its reference count.That means if you subsequently release the object you’ve added, it will still have a valid reference from within the array and won’t be deallocated. Next, you assign myInt to myInt2. Note that this doesn’t increment the reference count—this could mean potential trouble later. For example, if the reference count for myInt were decremented to 0 and its space were released, myInt2 would have an invalid object reference (remember that the assignment of myInt to myInt2 doesn’t copy the ac- tual object—only the pointer in memory to where the object is located). Because myInt now has another reference (through myInt2), you increment its refer- ence count by sending it a retain message.This is done in the next line of Program 17.1. As you can see, after sending it the retain message, its reference count becomes 3.The first reference is the actual object itself, the second is from the array,and the third is from the assignment.Although storing the element in the array creates an automatic increase in 409Reference Counting the reference count, assigning it to another variable does not, so you must do that your- self. Notice from the output that both myInt and myInt2 have a reference count of 3; that’s because they both reference the same object in memory. Let’s assume that you’re finished using the myInt object in your program.You can tell the system that by sending a release message to the object.As you can see, its reference count then goes from 3 back down to 2. Because it’s not 0, the other references to the object (from the array and through myInt2) remain valid.The system does not deallocate the memory the object used as long as it has a nonzero reference count. If you remove the first element from the array myArr using the removeObjectAtIndex: method, you’ll note that the reference count for myInt is auto- matically decremented to 1. In general, removing an object from any collection has the side effect of decrementing its reference count.This implies that the following code se- quence could lead to trouble: myInt = [myArr ObjectAtIndex: 0]; ... [myArr removeObjectAtIndex: 0] ... That’s because, in this case, the object referenced by myInt can become invalid after the removeObjectAtIndex: method is invoked if its reference count is decremented to 0. The solution here, of course, is to retain myInt after it is retrieved from the array so that it won’t matter what happens to its reference from other places. Reference Counting and Strings Program 17.2 shows how reference counting works for string objects. Program 17.2 // Reference counting with string objects #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *myStr1 = @”Constant string”; NSString *myStr2 = [NSString stringWithString: @”string 2”]; NSMutableString *myStr3 = [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”string 3”]; NSMutableArray *myArr = [NSMutableArray array]; NSLog (@”Retain count: myStr1: %lx, myStr2: %lx, myStr3: %lx”, (unsigned long) [myStr1 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr2 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr3 retainCount]); [myArr addObject: myStr1]; 410 Chapter 17 Memory Management [myArr addObject: myStr2]; [myArr addObject: myStr3]; NSLog (@”Retain count: myStr1: %lx, myStr2: %lx, myStr3: %lx”, (unsigned long) [myStr1 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr2retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr3 retainCount]); [myArr addObject: myStr1]; [myArr addObject: myStr2]; [myArr addObject: myStr3]; NSLog (@”Retain count: myStr1: %lx, myStr2: %lx, myStr3: %lx”, (unsigned long) [myStr1 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr2retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr3 retainCount]); [myStr1 retain]; [myStr2 retain]; [myStr3 retain]; NSLog (@"Retain count: myStr1: %lx, myStr2: %lx, myStr3: %lx", (unsigned long) [myStr1 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr2 retainCount], (unsigned long) [myStr3 retainCount]); // Bring the reference count of myStr3 back down to 2 [myStr3 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 17.2 Output Retain count: myStr1: ffffffff, myStr2: ffffffff, myStr3: 1 Retain count: myStr1: ffffffff, myStr2: ffffffff, myStr3: 2 Retain count: myStr1: ffffffff, myStr2: ffffffff, myStr3: 3 The NSString object myStr1 is assigned the NSConstantString @”Constant string”. Space for constant strings is allocated differently in memory than for other ob- jects. Constant strings have no reference-counting mechanism because they can never be released.This is why when the retainCount message is sent to myStr1, it returns a value of 0xffffffff. (This value is actually defined as the largest possible unsigned integer value, or UINT_MAX, in the standard header file .) Note Apparently, on some systems, the retain count that is returned for the constant strings in Program 17.2 is 0x7fffffff (and not 0xffffffff), which is the largest possible signed integer value, or INT_MAX. Notice that the same applies to an immutable string object that is initialized with a con- stant string: It, too, has no retain count, as verified by the retain count displayed for myStr2. 411Reference Counting Note Here the system is clever and determines that the immutable string object is being initial- ized by a constant string object. Before the release of Leopard, this optimization was not done, and mystr2 would have had a retain count. In the statement NSMutableString *myStr3 = [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”string 3”]; the variable myStr3 is set to a string made from a copy of the constant character string @”string 3”.A copy of the string had to be made because the message stringWithString: was sent to the NSMutableString class, indicating that the string’s contents might have changed during the course of the program’s execution.And because constant character strings can’t have their contents changed, the system can’t just set the myStr3 variable to point to the constant string @”string 3”, as was done with myStr2. So the string object myStr3 does have a reference count, as verified by the output.The reference count can be changed by adding this string to an array or by sending it a retain message, as verified by the output from the last two NSLog calls. Foundation’s stringWithString: method added this object to the autorelease pool when it was cre- ated. Foundation’s array method also added the array myArr to the pool. Before the autorelease pool itself is released, myStr3 is released.This brings its reference count down to 2.The release of the autorelease pool then decrements the reference count of this object to 0, which causes it to be deallocated. How does that happen? When the autorelease pool is released, each of the objects in the pool gets a release message sent to it for each time it was sent an autorelease message. Because the string object myStr3 was added to the autorelease pool when the stringWithString: method created it, it is sent a release message.That brings its reference count down to 1.When an array in the autore- lease pool is released, each of its elements also is released.Therefore, when myArr is re- leased from the pool, each of its elements—which includes myStr3—is sent release messages.This brings its reference count down to 0, which then causes it to be deallocated. You must be careful not to over-release an object. In Program 17.2, if you brought the reference count of mystr3 below 2 before the pool was released, the pool would contain a reference to an invalid object.Then when the pool was released, the reference to the in- valid object would most likely cause the program to terminate abnormally with a segmen- tation fault error. Reference Counting and Instance Variables You also must pay attention to reference counts when you deal with instance variables. For example, recall the setName: method from your AddressCard class: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { [name release]; name = [[NSString alloc] initWithString: theName]; } 412 Chapter 17 Memory Management Suppose we had defined setName: this way instead and did not have it take ownership of its name object: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = theName; } This version of the method takes a string representing the person’s name and stores it in the name instance variable. It seems straightforward enough, but consider the following method call: NSString *newName; ... [myCard setName: newName]; Suppose newName is a temporary storage space for the name of the person you want to add to the address card and that later you want to release it.What do you think would happen to the name instance variable in myCard? Its name field would no longer be valid because it would reference an object that had been destroyed.That’s why your classes need to own their own member objects:You don’t have to worry about those objects inadver- tently being deallocated or modified. The next few examples illustrate this point in more detail. Let’s start by defining a new class called ClassA that has one instance variable: a string object called str.You’ll just write setter and getter methods for this variable.We don’t synthesize the methods here, but we write them ourselves so it’s clear precisely what’s going on. Program 17.3 // Introduction to reference counting #import #import #import @interface ClassA: NSObject { NSString *str; } -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s; -(NSString *) str; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s { str = s; 413Reference Counting } -(NSString *) str { return str; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutorelea ePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSMutableString *myStr = [NSMutableSt ing stringWithString: @”A string”]; ClassA *myA = [[ClassA alloc] init]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [myA setStr: myStr]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount] ; [myA release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 17.3 Output myStr retain count: 1 myStr retain count: 1 The program simply allocates a ClassA object called myA and then invokes the setter method to set it to the NSString object specified by myStr.The reference count for myStr is 1 both before and after the setStr method is invoked, as you would expect, be- cause the method simply stores the value of its argument in its instance variable str. Once again, however, if the program released myStr after calling the setStr method, the value stored inside the str instance variable would become invalid because its reference count would be decremented to 0 and the memory space occupied by the object it references would be deallocated. This happens in Progam 17.3 when the autorelease pool is released. Even though we didn’t add it to that pool explicitly ourselves, when we created the string object myStr us- ing the stringWithString: method, that method added it to the autorelease pool.When the pool was released, so was myStr.Any attempt to access it after the pool was released would therefore be invalid. Program 17.4 makes a change to the setStr: method to retain the value of str.This protects you from someone else later releasing the object str references. 414 Chapter 17 Memory Management Program 17.4 // Retaining objects #import #import #import #import @interface ClassA: NSObject { NSString *str; } -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s; -(NSString *) str; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s { str = s; [str retain]; } -(NSString *) str { return str; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *myStr = [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”A string”]; ClassA *myA = [[ClassA alloc] init]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [myA setStr: myStr]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [myStr release]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [myA release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 415Reference Counting Program 17.4 Output myStr retain count: 1 myStr retain count: 2 myStr retain count: 1 You can see that the reference count for myStr is bumped to 2 after the setStr: method is invoked, so this particular problem has been solved. Subsequently releasing myStr in the program makes its reference through the instance variable still valid because its reference count is still 1. Because you allocated myA in the program using alloc, you are still responsible for re- leasing it yourself. Instead of having to worry about releasing it yourself, you could have added it to the autorelease pool by sending it an autorelease message: [myA autorelease]; You can do this immediately after the object is allocated,if you want. Remember, adding an object to the autorelease pool doesn’t release it or invalidate it; it just marks it for later release.You can continue to use the object until it is deallocated, which happens when the pool is released if the reference count of the object becomes 0 at that time. You are still left with some potential problems that you might have spotted.Your setStr: method does its job of retaining the string object it gets as its argument, but when does that string object get released? Also, what about the old value of the instance variable str that you are overwriting? Shouldn’t you release its value to free up its mem- ory? Program 17.5 provides a solution to this problem. Program 17.5 // Introduction to reference counting #import #import #import #import @interface ClassA: NSObject { NSString *str; } -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s; -(NSString *) str; -(void) dealloc; @end @implementation ClassA -(void) setStr: (NSString *) s { 416 Chapter 17 Memory Management // free up old object since we’re done with it [str autorelease]; // retain argument in case someone else releases it str = [s retain]; } -(NSString *) str { return str; } -(void) dealloc { NSLog (@”ClassA dealloc”); [str release]; [super dealloc]; } @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSString *myStr = [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”A string”]; ClassA *myA = [[ClassA alloc] init]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [myA autorelease]; [myA setStr: myStr]; NSLog (@”myStr retain count: %x”, [myStr retainCount]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 17.5 Output myStr retain count: 1 myStr retain count: 2 ClassA dealloc The setStr: method first takes whatever is currently stored in the str instance vari- able and autoreleases it.That is, it makes it available for later release.This is important if the method might be called many times throughout the execution of a program to set the same field to different values. Each time a new value is stored, the old value should be 417Reference Counting marked for release.After the old value is released, the new one is retained and stored in the str field.The message expression str = [s retain]; takes advantage of the fact that the retain method returns its receiver. Note If the str variable is nil, that’s not a problem. The Objective-C runtime initializes all instance variables to nil, and it’s okay to send a message to nil. The dealloc method is not new; you encountered it in Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections,”with your AddressBook and AddressCard classes. Overriding dealloc provides a tidy way for you to dispose of the last object your str instance vari- able references when its memory is to be released (that is, when its reference count be- comes 0). In such a case, the system calls the dealloc method, which is inherited from NSObject and which you normally don’t want to override. In the case of objects you re- tain, allocate with alloc, or copy (with one of the copy methods discussed in the next chapter) inside your methods, you might need to override dealloc so that you get a chance to free them up.The statements [str release]; [super dealloc]; first release the str instance variable and then call the parent’s dealloc method to finish the job. The NSLog call was placed inside the dealloc method to display a message when it is called.We did this just to verify that the ClassA object is deallocated properly when the autorelease pool is released. You might have spotted one last pitfall with the setter method setStr. Take another look at Program 17.5. Suppose that myStr were a mutable string instead of an immutable one, and further suppose that one or more characters in myStr were changed after invok- ing setStr. Changes to the string referenced by myStr would also affect the string refer- enced by the instance variable because they reference the same object. Reread that last sentence to make sure you understand that point.Also realize that setting myStr to a com- pletely new string object does not cause this problem.The problem occurs only if one or more characters of the string are modified in some way. The solution to this particular problem is to make a new copy of the string inside the setter if you want to protect it and make it completely independent of the setter’s argu- ment.This is why you chose to make a copy of the name and email members in the setName: and setEmail: AddressCard methods in Chapter 15. 418 Chapter 17 Memory Management An Autorelease Example Let’s take a look at one last program example in this chapter to ensure that you really un- derstand how reference counting, retaining, and releasing/autoreleasing objects work. Ex- amine Program 17.6, which defines a dummy class called Foo with one instance variable and only inherited methods. Program 17.6 #import #import @interface Foo: NSObject { int x; } @end @implementation Foo @end int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo = [[Foo alloc] init]; NSLog (@”myFoo retain count = %x”, [myFoo retainCount]); [pool drain]; NSLog (@”after pool drain = %x”, [myFoo retainCount]); pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; [myFoo autorelease]; NSLog (@”after autorelease = %x”, [myFoo retainCount]); [myFoo retain]; NSLog (@”after retain = %x”, [myFoo retainCount]); [pool drain]; NSLog (@”after second pool drain = %x”, [myFoo retainCount]); [myFoo release]; return 0; } Program 17.6 Output myFoo retain count = 1 419Summary of Memory-Management Rules after poolrelease = 1 after autorelease = 1 after retain = 2 after second pool drain = 1 The program allocates a new Foo object and assigns it to the variable myFoo. Its initial retain count is 1, as you’ve already seen.This object is not a part of the autorelease pool yet, so releasing the pool does not invalidate the object.A new pool is then allocated, and myFoo is added to the pool by sending it an autorelease message. Notice again that its reference count doesn’t change, because adding an object to the autorelease pool does not affect its reference count—it only marks it for later release. Next, you send myFoo a retain message.This changes its reference count to 2.When you subsequently release the pool the second time, the reference count for myFoo is decre- mented by 1 because it was previously sent an autorelease message and, therefore, is sent a release message when the pool is released. Because myFoo was retained before the pool was released, its reference count after decrementing is still greater than 0.Therefore, myFoo survives the pool drain and is still a valid object. Of course, you must now release it yourself, which we do in Program 17.6 to properly clean up and avoid memory leaks. Reread this explanation of the autorelease pool if it still seems a little fuzzy to you. When you understand Program 17.6, you will thoroughly understand of the autorelease pool and how it works. Summary of Memory-Management Rules Let’s summarize what you’ve learned about memory management in this chapter: n Releasing an object can free up its memory,which can be a concern if you’re creat- ing many objects during the execution of a program.A good rule is to release ob- jects you’ve created or retained when you’re done with them. n Sending a release message does not necessarily destroy an object.When an object’s reference count is decremented to 0, the object is destroyed.The system does this by sending the dealloc message to the object to free its memory. n The autorelease pool provides for the automatic release of objects when the pool itself is released.The system does this by sending a release message to each object in the pool for each time it was autoreleased. Each object in the autorelease pool whose reference count goes down to 0 is sent a dealloc message to destroy the ob- ject. n If you no longer need an object from within a method but need to return it, send it an autorelease message to mark it for later release.The autorelease message does not affect the reference count of the object. So it enables the object to be used by the message sender but still be freed up later when the autorelease pool is released. n When your application terminates, all the memory your objects take up is released, regardless of whether they were in the autorelease pool. 420 Chapter 17 Memory Management n When you develop more sophisticated applications (such as Cocoa applications), au- torelease pools can be created and destroyed during execution of the program (for Cocoa applications, that happens each time an event occurs). In such cases, if you want to ensure that your object survives automatic deallocation when the autore- lease pool itself is released, you need to explicitly retain it.All objects that have a ref- erence count greater than the number of autorelease messages they have been sent will survive the release of the pool. n If you directly create an object using an alloc or copy method (or with an allocWithZone:, copyWithZone:, or mutableCopy method), you are responsible for releasing it. For each time you retain an object, you should release or autorelease that object. n You don’t have to worry about releasing objects that are returned by methods other than those noted in the previous rule. It’s not your responsibility; those methods should have autoreleased those objects.That’s why you needed to create the autore- lease pool in your program in the first place. Methods such as stringWithString: automatically add newly created string objects to the pool by sending them autorelease messages. If you don’t have a pool set up, you get a message that you tried to autorelease an object without having a pool in place. Garbage Collection Up to this point in this book, you have been creating your programs to run in a memory- managed runtime environment.The memory-management rules summarized in the previ- ous sections apply to such an environment, in which you deal with autorelease pools, issues related to retaining and releasing objects, and object ownership. As of Objective C 2.0, an alternate form of memory management, known as garbage collection, became available.With garbage collection, you don’t have to worry about retain- ing and releasing objects, autorelease pools, or retain counts.The system automatically keeps tracks of what objects own what other objects, automatically freeing up (or garbage- collecting) objects that are no longer referenced as space is needed during the program’s execution. If things can be that simple, why didn’t we just take advantage of garbage collection throughout this book and skip all the discussions about memory management? There are three reasons: First, even in an environment that supports garbage collection, it’s best to know who owns your objects and to keep track of when you don’t need them anymore. This will make you more meticulous about writing your code because you will under- stand the relationships of your objects to each other and their lifespan in your program. The second reason, as has been previously noted, is that the iPhone runtime environ- ment doesn’t support garbage collection, so you don’t have a choice when developing programs for that platform. The third reason applies to you if you plan on writing library routines, plugins, or shared code. Since that code might be loaded into a garbage-collected or non garbage- collected process, it has to be written to work in both environments.That means, you 421Garbage Collection Figure 17.1 Enabling garbage collection. need to write your code using the memory management techniques described through- out this book. It also means you have to test your code with garbage-collection disabled and enabled. If you decide to use garbage collection, you must turn it on when building programs with Xcode.You can do this through the Project, Edit Project Settings menu. Under the “GCC 4.0—Code Generation” settings, you’ll see a setting called Objective-C Garbage Collection. Changing that from its default value of Unsupported to Required specifies that your program will be built with automatic garbage collection enabled (see Figure 17.1). When garbage collection is enabled, your program can still make its retain, autorelease, release, and dealloc method calls. However, they’ll all be ignored. In that way,you can develop a program that can run in both memory-managed and garbage-col- lected environments. However, this also implies that if your code is to run in both envi- ronments, that you can’t do any work in a dealloc method that you provide.That’s because, as stated, dealloc calls are ignored when garbage-collection is enabled. Note The memory-management techniques described in this chapter will suffice for most applica- tions. However, in more advanced cases, such as when writing multithreaded applications, you might need to do more. To learn more about these issues and others related to garbage collection, see Appendix D, “Resources.” 422 Chapter 17 Memory Management Exercises 1. Write a program to test the effects of adding and removing entries in a dictionary on the reference count of the objects you add and remove. 2. What effect do you think the NSArray’s replaceObjectAtIndex:withObject: method will have on the reference count of the object that is replaced in the array? What effect will it have on the object placed into the array? Write a program to test it.Then consult your documentation on this method to verify your results. 3. Return to the Fraction class you worked with throughout Part I,“The Objective- C Language.”For your convenience, it is listed in Appendix D,“Resources.”Modify that class to work under the Foundation framework.Then add messages as appro- priate to the various MathOps category methods to add the fractions resulting from each operation to the autorelease pool.When that is done, can you write a state- ment like this: [[fractionA add: fractionB] print]; without leaking memory? Explain your answer. 4. Return to your AddressBook and AddressCard examples from Chapter 15. Mod- ify each dealloc method to print a message when the method is invoked.Then run some of the sample programs that use these classes, to ensure that a dealloc message is sent to every AddressBook and AddressCard object you use in the pro- gram before reaching the end of main. 5. Choose any two programs in this book and build and run them in Xcode with garbage collection turned on.Verify that when garbage collection is on, method calls such as retain, autorelease, and release are ignored. 18 Copying Objects This chapter discusses some of the subtleties involved in copying objects.We introduce the concept of shallow versus deep copying nd discuss how to make copies under the Foundation framework. Chapter 8,“Inheritance,”discussed what happens when you assign one object to an- other with a simple assignment statement, such as here: origin = pt; In this example, origin and pt are both XYPoint objects that we defined like this: @interface XYPoint: NSObject { int x; int y; }; ... @end Recall that the effect of the assignment is to simply copy the address of the object pt into origin.At the end of the assignment operation, both variables point to the same lo- cation in memory.Making changes to the instance variables with a message such as [origin setX: 100 andY: 200]; changes the x, y coordinate of the XYPoint object referenced by both the origin and pt variables because they both reference the same object in memory. The same applies to Foundation objects:Assigning one variable to another simply cre- ates another reference to the object (but it does not increase the reference count, as dis- cussed in Chapter 17,“Memory Management”). So if dataArray and dataArray2 are both NSMutableArray objects, the following statements remove the first element from the same array that both variables reference: dataArray2 = dataArray; [dataArray2 removeObjectAtIndex: 0]; 424 Chapter 18 Copying Objects The copy and mutableCopy Methods The Foundation classes implement methods known as copy and mutableCopy that you can use to create a copy of an object.This is done by implementing a method in confor- mance with the protocol for making copies. If your class needs to distin- guish between making mutable and immutable copies of an object, you must implement a method according to the protocol as well.You learn how to do that later in this section. Getting back to the copy methods for the Foundation classes, given the two NSMutableArray objects dataArray2 and dataArray, as described in the previous sec- tion, the statement dataArray2 = [dataArray mutableCopy]; creates a new copy of dataArray in memory,duplicating all its elements. Subsequently, executing the statement [dataArray2 removeObjectAtIndex: 0]; removes the first element from dataArray2 but not from dataArray. Program 18.1 illus- trates this. Program 18.1 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSMutableArray *dataArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects: @”one”, @”two”, @”three”, @”four”, nil]; NSMutableArray *dataArray2; // simple assignment dataArray2 = dataArray; [dataArray2 removeObjectAtIndex: 0]; NSLog (@”dataArray: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); NSLog (@”dataArray2: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray2 ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); // try a Copy, then remove the first element from the copy 425The copy and mutableCopy Methods dataArray2 = [dataArray mutableCopy]; [dataArray2 removeObjectAtIndex: 0]; NSLog (@”dataArray: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); NSLog (@”dataArray2: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray2 ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); [dataArray2 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 18.1 Output dataArray: two three four dataArray2: two three four dataArray: two three four dataArray2: three four The program defines the mutable array object dataArray and sets its elements to the string objects @”one”, @”two”, @”three”, @”four”, respectively As we’ve discussed, the assignment dataArray2 = dataArray; simply creates another reference to the same array object in memory.When you remove the first object from dataArray2 and subsequently print the elements from both array objects, it’s no surprise that the first element (the string @”one”) is gone from both array object references. Next, you create a mutable copy of dataArray and assign the resulting copy to dataArray2.This creates two distinct mutable arrays in memory,both containing three 426 Chapter 18 Copying Objects elements. Now when you remove the first element from dataArray2, it has no effect on the contents of dataArray, as verified by the last two lines of the program’s output. Note that making a mutable copy of an object does not require that the object being copied be mutable.The same applies to immutable copies:You can make an immutable copy of a mutable object. Also note when making a copy of an array that the copy operation automatically in- crements the retain count for each element in the array.Therefore, if you make a copy of an array and subsequently release the original array,the copy still contains valid elements. Because a copy of dataArray was made in the program using the mutableCopy method, you are responsible for releasing its memory.The last chapter covered the rule stating that you are responsible for releasing objects you create with one of the copy methods.This explains the inclusion of this line toward the end of Program 18.1: [dataArray2 release]; Shallow Versus Deep Copying Program 18.1 fills the elements of dataArray with immutable strings (recall that constant string objects are immutable). In Program 18.2, you’ll fill it with mutable strings instead so that you can change one of the strings in the array.Take a look at Program 18.2 and see whether you understand its output. Program 18.2 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSMutableArray *dataArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects: [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”one”], [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”two”], [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”three”], nil ]; NSMutableArray *dataArray2; NSMutableString *mStr; NSLog (@”dataArray: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); 427Shallow Versus Deep Copying // make a copy, then change one of the strings dataArray2 = [dataArray mutableCopy]; mStr = [dataArray objectAtIndex: 0]; [mStr appendString: @”ONE”]; NSLog (@”dataArray: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); NSLog (@”dataArray2: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray2 ) NSLog (@” %@”, elem); [dataArray2 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 18.2 Output dataArray: one two three dataArray: oneONE two three dataArray2: oneONE two three You retrieved the first element of dataArray2 with the following statement: mStr = [dataArray2 objectAtIndex: 0]; Then you appended the string @”ONE” to it with this statement: [mStr appendString: @”ONE”]; Notice the value of the first element of both the original array and its copy: Both were modified. Perhaps you can understand why the first element of dataArray was changed 428 Chapter 18 Copying Objects but not why its copy was as well.When you get an element from a collection, you get a new reference to that element, but not a new copy.So when the objectAtIndex: method is invoked on dataArray, the returned object points to the same object in mem- ory as the first element in dataArray. Subsequently modifying the string object mStr has the side effect of also changing the first element of dataArray, as you can see from the output. But what about the copy you made? Why is its first element changed as well? This has to do with the fact that copies, by default, are shallow copies.Thus, when the array was copied with the mutableCopy method, space was allocated for a new array object in memory and the individual elements were copied into the new array.But copying each element in the array from the original to a new location meant just copying the reference from one element of the array to another.The net result was that the elements of both ar- rays referenced the same strings in memory.This is no different from assigning one object to another, which we covered at the beginning of this chapter. To make distinct copies of each element of the array,you must perform a deep copy. This means making copies of the contents of each object in the array,not just copies of the references to the objects (and think about what that implies if an element of an array is itself an array object). But deep copies are not performed by default when you use the copy or mutableCopy methods with the Foundation classes. In Chapter 19,“Archiving,” we show you how to use the Foundation’s archiving capabilities to create a deep copy of an object. When you copy an array,a dictionary,or a set, for example, you get a new copy of those collections. However, you might need to make your own copies of individual ele- ments if you want to make changes to one collection but not to its copy.For example, if you wanted to change the first element of dataArray2 but not dataArray in Program 18.2, you could make a new string (using a method such as stringWithString:) and store it into the first location of dataArray2, as follows: mStr = [NSMutableString stringWithString: [dataArray2 objectAtIndex: 0]]; Then you could make the changes to mStr and add it to the array using the replaceObject:atIndex:withObject: method, as follows: [mStr appendString @”ONE”]; [dataArray2 replaceObjectAtIndex: 0 withObject: mStr]; Hopefully you realize that even after replacing the object in the array, mStr and the first element of dataArray2 refer to the same object in memory.Therefore, subsequent changes to mStr in your program will also change the first element of the array.If that’s not what you want, you can always release mStr and allocate a new instance, because the replaceObject:atIndex:withObject: method automatically retains an object. 429Implementing the Protocol Implementing the Protocol If you try to use the copy method on one of your own classes—for example, on your address book, as follows NewBook = [myBook mutableCopy]; you’ll get an error message that looks something like this: *** -[AddressBook copyWithZone:]: selector not recognized *** Uncaught exception: *** -[AddressBook copyWithZone:]: selector not recognized As noted, to implement copying with your own classes, you have to implement one or two methods according to the protocol. We now show how you can add a copy method to your Fraction class, which you used extensively in Part I,“The Objective-C 2.0 Language.”Note that the techniques we describe here for copying strategies will work fine for your own classes. If those classes are subclasses of any of the Foundation classes, you might need to implement a more sophis- ticated copying strategy.You’ll have to account for the fact that the superclass might have already implemented its own copying strategy. Recall that your Fraction class contains two integer instance variables, called numerator and denominator.To make a copy of one of these objects, you must allocate space for a new fraction and then simply copy the values of the two integers into the new fraction. When you implement the protocol, your class must implement the copyWithZone: method to respond to a copy message. (The copy message just sends a copyWithZone: message to your class with an argument of nil.) If you want to make a distinction between mutable and immutable copies, as we noted, you’ll also need to im- plement the mutableCopyWithZone: method according to the protocol. If you implement both methods, copyWithZone: should return an immutable copy and mutableCopyWithZone: should return a mutable one. Making a mutable copy of an object does not require that the object being copied also be mutable (and vice versa); it’s perfectly reasonable to want to make a mutable copy of an immutable object (consider a string object, for example). Here’s what the @interface directive should look like: @interface Fraction: NSObject Fraction is a subclass of NSObject and conforms to the NSCopying protocol. 430 Chapter 18 Copying Objects In the implementation file Fraction.m, add the following definition for your new method: -(id) copyWithZone: (NSZone *) zone { Fraction *newFract = [[Fraction allocWithZone: zone] init]; [newFract setTo: numerator over: denominator]; return newFract; } The zone argument has to do with different memory zones that you can allocate and work with in your program.You need to deal with these only if you’re writing applica- tions that allocate a lot of memory and you want to optimize the allocation by grouping them into these zones.You can take the value passed to copyWithZone: and hand it off to a memory allocation method called allocWithZone:.This method allocates memory in a specified zone. After allocating a new Fraction object, you copy the receiver’s numerator and denominator variables into it.The copyWithZone: method is supposed to return the new copy of the object, which you do in your method. Program 18.3 tests your new method. Program 18.3 // Copying fractions #import “Fraction.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Fraction *f1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; Fraction *f2; [f1 setTo: 2 over: 5]; f2 = [f1 copy]; [f2 setTo: 1 over: 3]; [f1 print]; [f2 print]; [f1 release]; [f2 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 431Implementing the Protocol Program 18.3 Output 2/5 1/3 The program creates a Fraction object called f1 and sets it to 2/5. It then invokes the copy method to make a copy,which sends the copyWithZone: message to your object. That method makes a new Fraction, copies the values from f1 into it, and returns the result. Back in main, you assign that result to f2. Subsequently setting the value in f2 to the fraction 1/3 verifies that it had no effect on the original fraction f1. Change the line in the program that reads f2 = [f1 copy]; to simply f2 = f1; and remove the release of f2 at the end of the program to see the different results you will obtain. If your class might be subclassed, your copyWithZone: method will be inherited. In that case, you should change the line in the method that reads Fraction *newFract = [[Fraction allocWithZone: zone] init]; to read Fraction *newFract = [[[self class] allocWithZone: zone] init]; That way,you allocate a new object from the class that is the receiver of the copy.(For example, if it has been subclassed to a class named NewFraction, be sure to allocate a new NewFraction object in the inherited method instead of a Fraction object.) If you are writing a copyWithZone: method for a class whose superclass also imple- ments the protocol, you should first call the copy method on the superclass to copy the inherited instance variables and then include your own code to copy what- ever additional instance variables (if any) you might have added to the class. You must decide whether you want to implement a shallow or a deep copy in your class. Just document it for other users of your class so they know. 432 Chapter 18 Copying Objects Copying Objects in Setter and Getter Methods Whenever you implement a setter or getter method, you should think about what you’re storing in the instance variables, what you’re retrieving, and whether you need to protect these values. For example, consider this when you set the name of one of your AddressCard objects using the setName: method: [newCard setName: newName]; Assume that newName is a string object containing the name for your new card.As- sume that inside the setter routine you simply assigned the parameter to the correspon- ding instance variable: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = theName; } Now,what do you think would happen if the program later changed some of the characters contained in newName in the program? It would also unintentionally change the corresponding field in your address card because both would reference the same string object. As you have already seen, a safer approach is to make a copy of the object in the setter routine, to prevent this inadvertent effect.We did this by using the alloc method to cre- ate a new string object and then using initWithString: to set it to the value of the pa- rameter provided to the method. You can also write a version of the setName: method to use copy, like this: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { name = [theName copy]; } Of course, to make this setter routine memory management friendly,you should autorelease the old value first, like this: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { [name autorelease]; name = [theName copy]; } If you specify the copy attribute in a property declaration for an instance variable, the synthesized method will use the class’s copy method (the one you wrote or the one you inherited). So the following property declaration @property (nonatomic, copy) NSString *name; 433Copying Objects in Setter and Getter Methods will generate a synthesized method that behaves like this: -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName { if (theName != name) { [name release] name = [theName copy]; } } Use of nonatomic here tells the system not to protect the property accessors with a mutex (mutually exclusive) lock People writing threadsafe code use mutex locks to pre- vent two threads from executing in the s me code at the same time, a situation that can often lead to dire problems. But these locks can slow programs down, and you can avoid using them if you know this code will only ever be running in a single thread. If nonatomic is not specified or atomic is specified instead (which is the default), then your instance variable will be protected with a mutex lock. In addition, the synthesized getter method will retain and autorelease the instance variable before its value is returned. In a non-garbage collected environment, this protects the instance variable from possibly being overwritten by a setter method call that releases the instance variable’s old value be- fore setting its new value.The retain in the getter method ensures that old value is not deallocated. Note Even though the retain/autorelease issue is irrelevant in a garbage-collected environment (recall those method calls are ignored), the mutex lock issue is not. Therefore, consider us- ing atomic accessor methods if your code will run in a multi-threaded environment. The same discussion about protecting the value of your instance variables applies to the getter routines. If you return an object, you must ensure that changes to the returned value will not affect the value of your instance variables. In such a case, you can make a copy of the instance variable and return that instead. Getting back to the implementation of a copy method, if you are copying instance variables that contain immutable objects (for example, immutable string objects), you might not need to make a new copy of the object’s contents. It might suffice to simply make a new reference to the object by retaining it. For example, if you are implementing a copy method for the AddressCard class, which contains name and email members, the following implementation for copyWithZone: would suffice: -(AddresssCard *) copyWithZone: (NSZone *) zone { AddressCard *newCard = [[AddressCard allocWithZone: zone] init]; [newCard retainName: name andEmail: email]; return newCard; } 434 Chapter 18 Copying Objects -(void) retainName: (NSString *) theName andEmail: (NSString *) theEmail { name = [theName retain]; email = [theEmail retain]; } The setName:andEmail: method isn’t used here to copy the instance variables over because that method makes new copies of its arguments, which would defeat the whole purpose of this exercise. Instead, you just retained the two variables using a new method called retainName:andEmail:. (You could have set the two instance variables in newCard directly in the copyWithZone: method, but it involves pointer operations, which we’ve been able to avoid up to this point. Of course, the pointer operations would be more effi- cient and would not expose the user of this class to a method [retainName:andEmail:] that was not intended for public consumption, so at some point you might need to learn how to do that—just not right now!) Realize that you can get away with retaining the instance variables here (instead of making complete copies of them) because the owner of the copied card can’t affect the name and email members of the original.You might want to think about that for a sec- ond to verify that this is the case (hint: it has to do with the setter methods). Exercises 1. Implement a copy method for the AddressBook class according to the NSCopying protocol.Would it make sense to also implement a mutableCopy method? Why or why not? 2. Modify the Rectangle and XYoint classes defined in Chapter 8 to conform to the protocol.Add a copyWithZone: method to both classes. Make sure that the Rectangle copies its XYPoint member origin using the XYPoint’s copy method. Does it make sense to implement both mutable and immutable copies for these classes? Explain. 3. Create an NSDictionary dictionary object and fill it with some key/object pairs. Then make both mutable and immutable copies.Are these deep copies or shallow copies that are made? Verify your answer. 4. Who is responsible for releasing the memory allocated for the new AddressCard in the copyWithZone: method as implemented in this chapter? Why? 19 Archiving In Objective-C terms, archiving is the process of saving one or more objects in a format so that they can later be restored. Often this involves writing the object(s) to a file so it can subsequently be read back in.We discuss two methods for archiving data in this chap- ter: property lists and key-valued coding. Archiving with XML Property Lists Mac OS X applications use XML propertylists (or plists) for storing things such as your default preferences, application settings, and configuration information, so it’s useful to know how to create them and read them back in.Their use for archiving purposes, how- ever, is limited because when creating a property list for a data structure, specific object classes are not retained, multiple references to the same object are not stored, and the mu- tability of an object is not preserved. Note So-called “old-style” property lists store the data in a different format than XML property lists. Stick to using XML property lists in your program, if possible. If your objects are of type NSString, NSDictionary, NSArray, NSDate, NSData,or NSNumber, you can use the writeToFile:atomically: method implemented in these classes to write your data to a file. In the case of writing out a dictionary or an array,this method writes the data to the file in the format of an XML property list. Program 19.1 shows how the dictionary you created as a simple glossary in Chapter 15,“Numbers, Strings, and Collections,”can be written to a file as a property list. Program 19.1 #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) 436 Chapter 19 Archiving { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSDictionary *glossary = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: @”A class defined so other classes can inherit from it.”, @”abstract class”, @”To implement all the methods defined in a protocol”, @”adopt”, @”Storing an object for later use. “, @”archiving”, nil ]; if ([glossary writeToFile: @”glossary” atomically: YES] == NO) NSLog (@”Save to file failed!”); [pool drain]; return 0; } The writeToFile:atomically: message is sent to your dictionary object glossary, causing the dictionary to be written to the file glossary in the form of a property list. The atomically parameter is set to YES, meaning that you want the write operation to be done to a temporary backup file first; once successful, the final data is to be moved to the specified file named glossary.This is a safeguard that protects the file from becoming corrupt if, for example, the system crashes in the middle of the write operation. In that case, the original glossary file (if it previously existed) isn’t harmed. If you examine the contents of the glossary file created by Program 19.1, it looks like this: abstract class A class defined so other classes can inherit from it. adopt To implement all the methods defined in a protocol archiving Storing an object for later use. You can see from the XML file that was created that the dictionary is written to the file as a set of key (...) value (...) pairs. When you create a property list from a dictionary,the keys in the dictionary must all be NSString objects.The elements of an array or the values in a dictionary can be NSString, NSArray, NSDictionary, NSData, NSDate, or NSNumber objects. To read an XML property list from a file into your program, you use the dictionaryWithContentsOfFile: or arrayWithContentsOfFile: methods.To read 437Archiving with NSKeyedArchiver back data, use the dataWithContentsOfFile: method; to read back string objects, use the stringWithContentsOfFile: method. Program 19.2 reads back the glossary written in Program 19.1 and then displays its contents. Program 19.2 #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSDictionary *glossary; glossary = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithContentsOfFile: @”glossary”]; for ( NSString *key in glossary ) NSLog (@”%@: %@”, key, [glossary objectForKey: key]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 19.2 Output archiving: Storing an object for later use. abstract class: A class defined so other classes can inherit from it. adopt: To implement all the methods defined in a protocol Your property lists don’t need to be created from an Objective-C program; the prop- erty list can come from any source.You can make your own property lists using a simple text editor, or you can use the Property List Editor program located in the /Developer/Applications/Utilities directory on Mac OS X systems. Archiving with NSKeyedArchiver A more flexible approach enables you to save any type of objects to a file, not just strings, arrays, and dictionaries.This is done by creating a keyed archive using the NSKeyedArchiver class. Mac OX X has supported keyed archives since version 10.2. Before that, sequential archives were created with the NSArchiver class. Sequential archives require that the data in the archive be read back in precisely the same order in which it was written. A keyed archive is one in which each field of the archive has a name.When you archive an object, you give it a name, or key.When you retrieve it from the archive, you retrieve it by the same key.In that manner, objects can be written to the archive and re- 438 Chapter 19 Archiving trieved in any order. Furthermore, if new instance variables are added or removed to a class, your program can account for it. Note that NSArchiver is not available in the iPhone SDK. If you want to use archiv- ing on the iPhone, you must use NSKeyedArchiver To work with keyed archives you need to import . Program 19.3 shows that the glossary can be saved to a file on disk using the method archiveRootObject:toFile: from the NSKeyedArchiver class.To use this class, include the file #import in your program. Program 19.3 #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSDictionary *glossary = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: @”A class defined so other classes can inherit from it”, @”abstract class”, @”To implement all the methods defined in a protocol”, @”adopt”, @”Storing an object for later use”, @”archiving”, nil ]; [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject: glossary toFile: @”glossary.archive”]; [pool release]; return 0; } Program 19.3 does not produce any output at the terminal. However, the statement [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject: glossary toFile: @”glossary.archive”]; 439Archiving with NSKeyedArchiver writes the dictionary glossary to the file glossary.archive.Any pathname can be specified for the file. In this case, the file is written to the current directory. The archive file created can later be read into your program by using NSKeyedUnarchiver’s unArchiveObjectWithFile: method, as is done in Program 19.4. Program 19.4 #import #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSDictionary *glossary; glossary = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithFile: @”glossary.archive”]; for ( NSString *key in glossary ) NSLog (@”%@: %@”, key, [glossary objectForKey: key]); [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 19.4 Output abstract class: A class defined so other classes can inherit from it. adopt: To implement all the methods defined in a protocol archiving: Storing an object for later use. The statement glossary = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithFile: @”glossary.archive”]; causes the specified file to be opened and its contents to be read.This file must be the re- sult of a previous archive operation.You can specify a full pathname for the file or a rela- tive pathname, as in the example. After the glossary has been restored, the program simply enumerates its contents to verify that the restore was successful. 440 Chapter 19 Archiving Table 19.1 Encoding and Decoding Basic Data Types in Keyed Archives Encoder Decoder encodeBool:forKey: decodeBool:forKey: encodeInt:forKey: decodeInt:forKey: encodeInt32:forKey: decodeInt32:forKey: encodeInt64: forKey: decodeInt64:forKey: Writing Encoding and Decoding Methods Basic Objective-C class objects such as NSString, NSArray, NSDictionary, NSSet, NSDate, NSNumber, and NSData can be archived and restored in the manner just described.That in- cludes nested objects as well, such as an array containing a string or even other array objects. This implies that you can’t directly archive your AddressBook using this technique be- cause the Objective-C system doesn’t know how to archive an AddressBook object. If you tried to archive it by inserting a line such as [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject: myAddressBook toFile: @”addrbook.arch”]; into your program, you’d get the following message displayed if you ran the program: *** -[AddressBook encodeWithCoder:]: selector not recognized *** Uncaught exception: *** -[AddressBook encodeWithCoder:]: selector not recognized archiveTest: received signal: Trace/BPT trap From the error messages, you can see that the system was looking for a method called encodeWithCoder: in the AddressBook class, but you never defined such a method. To archive objects other than those listed, you must tell the system how to archive, or encode, your objects, and also how to unarchive, or decode, them.This is done by adding encodeWithCoder: and initWithCoder: methods to your class definitions, according to the protocol. For our address book example, you’d have to add these meth- ods to both the AddressBook and AddressCard classes. The encodeWithCoder: method is invoked each time the archiver wants to encode an object from the specified class, and the method tells it how to do so. In a similar manner, the initWithCoder: method is invoked each time an object from the specified class is to be decoded. In general, the encoder method should specify how to archive each instance variable in the object you want to save. Luckily,you have help doing this. For the basic Objective- C classes described previously,you can use the encodeObject:forKey: method. For basic underlying C data types (such as integers and floats), you use one of the methods listed in Table 19.1.The decoder method, initWithCoder:, works in reverse:You use decodeObject:forKey: to decode basic Objective-C classes and the appropriate decoder method shown in Table 19.1 for the basic data types. 441Writing Encoding and Decoding Methods Table 19.1 Encoding and Decoding Basic Data Types in Keyed Archives Encoder Decoder encodeFloat:forKey: decodeFloat:forKey: encodeDouble:forKey: decodeDouble:forKey: Program 19.5 adds the two encoding and decoding methods to both the AddressCard and AddressBook classes. Program 19.5 Addresscard.h Interface File #import #import #import @interface AddressCard: NSObject { NSString *name; NSString *email; } @property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *name, *email; -(void) setName: (NSString *) theName andEmail: (NSString *) theEmail; -(NSComparisonResult) compareNames: (id) element; -(void) print; // Additional methods for NSCopying protocol -(AddressCard *) copyWithZone: (NSZone *) zone; -(void) retainName: (NSString *) theName andEmail: (NSString *) theEmail; @end These are the two new methods used for your AddressCard class to be added to the implementation file: -(void) encodeWithCoder: (NSCoder *) encoder { [encoder encodeObject: name forKey: @”AddressCardName”]; [encoder encodeObject: email forKey: @”AddressCardEmail”]; } -(id) initWithCoder: (NSCoder *) decoder { name = [[decoder decodeObjectforKey: @”AddressCardName”] retain]; email = [[decoder decodeObjectforKey: @”AddressCardEmail”] retain]; return self; } 442 Chapter 19 Archiving The encoding method encodeWithCoder: is passed an NSCoder object as its argu- ment. Since your AddressCard class inherits directly from NSObject, you don’t need to worry about encoding inherited instance variables. If you did, and if you knew the super- class of your class conformed to the NSCoding protocol, you should start your encoding method with a statement like the following to make sure your inherited instance variables are encoded: [super encodeWithCoder: encoder]; Your address book has two instance variables, called name and email. Because these are both NSString objects, you can use the encodeObject:forKey: method to encode each of them in turn.These two instance variables are then added to the archive. The encodeObject:forKey: method encodes an object and stores it under the speci- fied key for later retrieval using that key.The key names are arbitrary,so as long you use the same name to retrieve (decode) the data as you did when you archived (encoded) it, you can specify any key you like.The only time a conflict might arise is if the same key is used for a subclass of an object being encoded.To prevent this from happening, you can insert the class name in front of the instance variable name when composing the key for the archive, as was done in Program 19.5. Note that encodeObject:forKey: can be used for any object that has implemented a corresponding encodeWithCoder: method in its class. The decoding process works in reverse.The argument passed to initWithCoder: is again an NSCoder object.You don’t need to worry about this argument; just remember that it’s the one that gets the messages for each object you want to extract from the archive. Again, since our AddressCard class inherits directly from NSObject, you don’t have to worry about decoding inherited instance variables. If you did, you would insert a line like this at the start of your decoder method (assuming the superclass of your class conformed to the NSCoding protocol): self = [super initWithCoder: decoder]; Each instance variable is then decoded by invoking the decodeObject:forKey: method and passing the same key that was used to encode the variable. Similarly to your AddressCard class, you add encoding and decoding methods to your AddressBook class.The only line you need to change in your interface file is the @interface directive to declare that the AddressBook class now conforms to the NSCoding protocol.The change looks like this: @interface AddressBook: NSObject Here are the method definitions for inclusion in the implementation file: -(void) encodeWithCoder: (NSCoder *) encoder { 443Writing Encoding and Decoding Methods [encoder encodeObject: bookName forKey: “AddressBookBookName”]; [encoder encodeObject: book forKey: @”AddressBookBook”]; } -(id) initWithCoder: (NSCoder *) decoder { bookName = [[decoder decodeObjectForKey: @”AddressBookBookName”] retain]; book = [[decoder decodeObjectForKey: @”AddressBookBook”] retain]; return self; } The test program is shown next as Program 19.6. Program 19.6 Test Program #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSString *aName = @”Julia Kochan”; NSString *aEmail = @”jewls337@axlc.com”; NSString *bName = @”Tony Iannino”; NSString *bEmail = @”tony.iannino@techfitness.com”; NSString *cName = @”Stephen Kochan”; NSString *cEmail = @”steve@steve_kochan.com”; NSString *dName = @”Jamie Baker”; NSString *dEmail = @”jbaker@hitmail.com”; NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; AddressCard *card1 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card2 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card3 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressCard *card4 = [[AddressCard alloc] init]; AddressBook *myBook = [AddressBook alloc]; // First set up four address cards [card1 setName: aName andEmail: aEmail]; [card2 setName: bName andEmail: bEmail]; [card3 setName: cName andEmail: cEmail]; [card4 setName: dName andEmail: dEmail]; myBook = [myBook initWithName: @”Steve’s Address Book”]; 444 Chapter 19 Archiving // Add some cards to the address book [myBook addCard: card1]; [myBook addCard: card2]; [myBook addCard: card3]; [myBook addCard: card4]; [myBook sort]; if ([NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject: myBook toFile: @”addrbook.arch”] == NO) NSLog (@”archiving failed”); [card1 release]; [card2 release]; [card3 release]; [card4 release]; [myBook release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } This program creates the address book and then archives it to the file addrbook.arch. In the process of creating the archive file, realize that the encoding methods from both the AddressBook and AddressCard classes were invoked.You can add some NSLog calls to these methods if you want proof. Program 19.7 shows how you can read the archive into memory to set up the address book from a file. Program 19.7 #import “AddressBook.h” #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { AddressBook *myBook; NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; myBook = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithFile: @”addrbook.arch”]; [myBook list]; [pool drain]; return 0; } 445Writing Encoding and Decoding Methods Program 19.7 Output ======== Contents of: Steve’s Address Book ========= Jamie Baker jbaker@hitmail.com Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Stephen Kochan steve@steve_kochan.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com ==================================================== In the process of unarchiving the address book, the decoding methods added to your two classes were automatically invoked. Notice how easily you can read the address book back into the program. As noted, the encodeObject:forKey: method works for built-in classes and classes for which you write your encoding and decoding methods according to the NSCoding pro- tocol. If your instance contains some basic data types, such as integers or floats, you need to know how to encode and decode them (see Table 19.1). Here’s a simple definition for a class called Foo that contains three instance variables— one is an NSString, another is an int, and the third is a float.The class has one setter method, three getter methods, and two encoding/decoding methods to be used for archiving: @interface Foo: NSObject { NSString *strVal; int intVal; float floatVal; } @property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *strVal; @property int intVal; @property float floatVal; @end The implementation file follows: @implementation Foo @synthesize strVal, intVal, floatVal; -(void) encodeWithCoder: (NSCoder *) encoder { [encoder encodeObject: strVal forKey: @”FoostrVal”]; [encoder encodeInt: intVal forKey: @”FoointVal”]; [encoder encodeFloat: floatVal forKey: @”FoofloatVal”]; } -(id) initWithCoder: (NSCoder *) decoder 446 Chapter 19 Archiving { strVal = [[decoder decodeObjectForKey: @”FoostrVal”] retain]; intVal = [decoder decodeIntForKey: @”FoointVal”]; floatVal = [decoder decodeFloatForKey: @”FoofloatVal”]; return self; } @end The encoding routine first encodes the string value strVal using the encodeObject:forKey: method, as was shown previously. In Program 19.8, a Foo object is created, archived to a file, unarchived, and then displayed. Program 19.8 Test Program #import #import #import #import #import “Foo.h” // Definition for our Foo class int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo1 = [[Foo alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo2; [myFoo1 setStrVal: @”This is the string”]; [myFoo1 setIntVal: 12345]; [myFoo1 setFloatVal: 98.6]; [NSKeyedArchiver archiveRootObject: myFoo1 toFile: @”foo.arch”]; myFoo2 = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithFile: @”foo.arch”]; NSLog (@”%@\n%i\n%g”, [myFoo2 strVal], [myFoo2 intVal], [myFoo2 floatVal]); [myFoo1 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } Program 19.8 Output This is the string 12345 98.6 The following messages archive the three instance variables from the object: [encoder encodeObject: strVal forKey: @”FoostrVal”]; [encoder encodeInt: intVal forKey: @”FoointVal”]; [encoder encodeFloat: floatVal forKey: @”FoofloatVal”]; 447Using NSData to Create Custom Archives Some of the basic data types, such as char, short, long, and long long, are not listed in Table 19.1; you must determine the size of your data object and use the appropriate routine. For example, a short int is normally 16 bits, an int and long can be 32 or 64 bits, and a long long is 64 bits. (You can use the sizeof operator, described in Chapter 13,“Underlying C Language Features,”to determine the size of any data type.) So to archive a short int, store it in an int first and then archive it with encodeInt:forKey:. Reverse the process to get it back: Use decodeInt:forKey: and then assign it to your short int variable. Using NSData to Create Custom Archives You might not want to write your object directly to a file using the archiveRootObject:ToFile: method, as was done in the previous program examples. For example, perhaps you want to collect some or all of your objects and store them in a single archive file.You can do this in Objective-C using the general data stream object class called NSData, which we briefly visited in Chapter 16,“Working with Files.” As mentioned in Chapter 16, an NSData object can be used to reserve an area of memory into which you can store data.Typical uses of this data area might be to provide temporary storage for data that will subsequently be written to a file or perhaps to hold the contents of a file read from the disk.The simplest way to create a mutable data area is with the data method: dataArea = [NSMutableData data]; This creates an empty buffer space whose size expands as needed as the program exe- cutes. As a simple example, let’s assume that you want to archive your address book and one of your Foo objects in the same file.Assume for this example that you’ve added keyed archiving methods to the AddressBook and AddressCard classes (see Program 19.9). Program 19.9 #import #import #import #import #import #import #import “AddressBook.h” #import “Foo.h” 448 Chapter 19 Archiving int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo1 = [[Foo alloc] init]; Foo *myFoo2; NSMutableData *dataArea; NSKeyedArchiver *archiver; AddressBook *myBook; // Insert code from Program 19.7 to create an Address Book // in myBook containing four address cards [myFoo1 setStrVal: @”This is the string”]; [myFoo1 setIntVal: 12345]; [myFoo1 setFloatVal: 98.6]; // Set up a data area and connect it to an NSKeyedArchiver object dataArea = [NSMutableData data]; archiver = [[NSKeyedArchiver alloc] initForWritingWithMutableData: dataArea]; // Now we can begin to archive objects [archiver encodeObject: myBook forKey: @”myaddrbook”]; [archiver encodeObject: myFoo1 forKey: @”myfoo1”]; [archiver finishEncoding]; // Write the archived data are to a file if ( [dataArea writeToFile: @”myArchive” atomically: YES] == NO) NSLog (@”Archiving failed!”); [archiver release]; [myFoo1 release]; [pool drain]; return 0; } After allocating an NSKeyedArchiver object, the initForWritingWithMutableData: message is sent to specify the area in which to write the archived data; this is the NSMutabledata area dataArea that you previously created.The NSKeyedArchiver object stored in archiver can now be sent encoding messages to archive objects in your pro- gram. In fact, until it receives a finishEncoding message, it archives and stores all encod- ing messages in the specified data area. You have two objects to encode here—the first is your address book and the second is your Foo object.You can use encodeObject: for these objects because you previously implemented encoder and decoder methods for the AddressBook, AddressCard, and Foo classes. (It’s important to understand that concept.) 449Using NSData to Create Custom Archives When you are finished archiving your two objects, you send the archiver object the finishEncoding message. No more objects can be encoded after that point, and you need to send this message to complete the archiving process. The area you set aside and named dataArea now contains your archived objects in a form that you can write to a file.The message expression [data writeToFile: @”myArchive” atomically: YES] sends the writeToFile:atomically: message to your data stream to ask it to write its data to the specified file, which you named myArchive. As you can see from the if statement, the writeToFile:atomically: method returns a BOOL value: YES if the write operation succeeds and NO if it fails (perhaps an invalid pathname for the file was specified or the file system is full). Restoring the data from your archive file is simple:You just do things in reverse. First, you need to allocate a data area like before. Next, you need to read your archive file into the data area; then you have to create an NSKeyedUnarchiver object and tell it to decode data from the specified area.You must invoke decode methods to extract and decode your archived objects.When you’re finished, you send a finishDecoding message to the NSKeyedUnarchiver object. This is all done in Program 19.10. Program 19.10 #import #import #import #import #import #import #import “AddressBook.h” #import “Foo.h” int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSData *dataArea; NSKeyedUnarchiver *unarchiver; Foo *myFoo1; AddressBook *myBook; // Read in the archive and connect an // NSKeyedUnarchiver object to it dataArea = [NSData dataWithContentsOfFile: @”myArchive”]; 450 Chapter 19 Archiving if (! dataArea) { NSLog (@“Can’t read back archive file!”); Return (1); } unarchiver = [[NSKeyedUnarchiver alloc] initForReadingWithData: dataArea]; // Decode the objects we previously stored in the archive myBook = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey: @”myaddrbook”]; myFoo1 = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey: @”myfoo1”]; [unarchiver finishDecoding]; [unarchiver release]; // Verify that the restore was successful [myBook list]; NSLog (“%@\n%i\n%g”, [myFoo1 strVal], [myFoo1 intVal], [myFoo1 floatVal]); [pool release]; return 0; } Program 19.10 Output ======== Contents of: Steve’s Address Book ========= Jamie Baker jbaker@hitmail.com Julia Kochan jewls337@axlc.com Stephen Kochan steve@steve_kochan.com Tony Iannino tony.iannino@techfitness.com =================================================== This is the string 12345 98.6 The output verifies that the address book and your Foo object were successfully re- stored from the archive file. Using the Archiver to Copy Objects In Program 19.2, you tried to make a copy of an array containing mutable string elements and you saw how a shallow copy of the array was made.That is, the actual strings them- selves were not copied—only the references to them were. 451Using the Archiver to Copy Objects You can use the Foundation’s archiving capabilities to create a deep copy of an ob- ject. For example, Program 19.11 copies dataArray to dataArray2 by archiving dataArray into a buffer and then unarchiving it, assigning the result to dataArray2.You don’t need to use a file for this process; the archiving and unarchiving process can all take place in memory. Program 19.11 #import #import #import #import #import int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSData *data; NSMutableArray *dataArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects: [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”one”], [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”two”], [NSMutableString stringWithString: @”three”], nil ]; NSMutableArray *dataArray2; NSMutableString *mStr; // Make a deep copy using the archiver data = [NSKeyedArchiver archivedDataWithRootObject: dataArray]; dataArray2 = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithData: data]; mStr = [dataArray2 objectAtIndex: 0]; [mStr appendString: @”ONE”]; NSLog (@”dataArray: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray ) NSLog (“%@”, elem); NSLog (@”\ndataArray2: “); for ( NSString *elem in dataArray2 ) NSLog (“%@”, elem); [pool drsin]; return 0; } 452 Chapter 19 Archiving Program 19.11 Output dataArray: one two three dataArray2: oneONE two three The output verifies that changing the first element of dataArray2 had no effect on the first element of dataArray.That’s because a new copy of the string was made through the archiving/unarchiving process. The copy operation in Program 19.11 is performed with the following two lines: data = [NSKeyedArchiver archivedDataWithRootObject: dataArray]; dataArray2 = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithData: data]; You can even avoid the intermediate assignment and perform the copy with a single statement, like this: dataArray2 = [NSKeyedUnarchiver unarchiveObjectWithData: [NSKeyedArchiver archivedDataWithRootObject: dataArray]]; This is a technique you might want to keep in mind next time you need to make a deep copy of an object or of an object that doesn’t support the NSCopying protocol. Exercises 1. In Chapter 15, Program 15.8 generated a table of prime numbers. Modify that pro- gram to write the resulting array as an XML property list to the file primes.pl. Then examine the contents of the file. 2. Write a program to read in the XML property list created in exercise 1 and store the values in an array object. Display all the elements of the array to verify that the restore operation was successful. 3. Modify Program 19.2 to display the contents of one of the XML property lists (.plist files) stored in the /Library/Preferences folder. 4. Write a program to read in an archived AddressBook and look up an entry based on a name supplied on the command line, like so: $ lookup gregory Part III Cocoa and the iPhone SDK 20 Introduction to Cocoa 21 Writing iPhone Applications 20 Introduction to Cocoa Throughout this book you developed programs that had a simple user interface.You re- lied on the NSLog routine to display messages on the console. However, as useful as this routine is, it is very limited in its capabilities. Certainly,other programs you use on the Mac aren’t as unfriendly.In fact, the Mac’s reputation is based on its user-friendly dialogs and ease of use. Lucky for you, this is where XCode combined with the Interface Builder application come to the rescue. Not only does this combination offer a powerful environ- ment for program development, consisting of editing and debugging tools, and conven- ient access to online documentation, but it also provides an environment for easily developing sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The frameworks that provide the support for your applications to provide a rich user experience are called Cocoa, which actually consists of two frameworks: the Foundation framework, with which you are already familiar, and the Application Kit (or AppKit) framework.This latter framework provides the classes associated with windows, buttons, lists, and so on. Framework Layers A diagram is often used to illustrate the different layers that separate the application at the topmost level from the underlying hardware. One such representation is depicted in Figure 20.1 The kernel provides the low-level communication to the hardware in the form of device drivers. It manages the system’s resources, which includes scheduling programs for execu- tion, managing memory and power, and performing basic I/O operations. As its name implies, Core Services provides support at a lower or “core” level than that provided in the layers above it. For example, here you find support for collections, net- working, debugging, file management, folders, memory management, threads, time, and power. The Application Services layer includes support for printing and graphics rendering, in- cluding Quartz, OpenGL, and Quicktime. 456 Chapter 20 Introduction to Cocoa Cocoa (Foundation and AppKit Frameworks) Application Application Services Core Services Mac OS X kernel User Computer Resources (memory, disk, display, etc.) Figure 20.1 The application hierarchy Directly below your application sits the Cocoa layer.As noted, Cocoa includes the Foundation and AppKit frameworks. Foundation offers classes for working with collec- tions, strings, memory management, the file system, archiving, and so on.AppKit provides classes for managing views, windows, documents, and the rich user interface for which Mac OS X is well known. From this description, there seems to be duplication of functionality between some of the layers. Collections exist in both the Cocoa and Core Services layers. However, the former builds on support of the latter.Also, in some cases, a layer can be bypassed. For ex- ample, some Foundation classes, such as those that deal with file system, rely directly on functionality in the Core Services layer and so bypass the Application Services layer. In many cases, the Foundation framework defines an object-oriented mapping of data struc- tures defined in the lower-level Core Services layer (which is written primarily in the procedural C language). Cocoa Touch The iPhone contains a computer that runs a scaled-down version of Mac OS X. Some features in the iPhone’s hardware, such as its accelerometer, are unique to the phone and are not found in other Mac OS X computers, such as MacBooks or iMacs. Note Actually, Mac notebooks contain an accelerometer so that the hard drive can be parked if the computer gets dropped; however, you can’t access this accelerometer directly from your programs. 457Cocoa Touch Whereas the Cocoa frameworks are designed for application development for Mac OS X desktop and notebook computers, the Cocoa Touch frameworks are for applications targeted for the iPhone and iTouch. Both Cocoa and Cocoa Touch have the Foundation framework in common. However, the UIKit replaces the AppKit framework under Cocoa Touch,providing support for many of the same types of objects, such as windows, views, buttons, text fields, and so on. In addition, Cocoa Touch provides classes for working with the accelerometer, triangulat- ing your location with GPS and WiFi signals, and the touch-driven interface, and also eliminates classes that aren’t needed, such as those that support printing. That concludes this brief overview of Cocoa. In the next chapter, you learn how to write an application for the iPhone, using the simulator that is part of the iPhone SDK. 21 Writing iPhone Applications In this chapter, you’ll develop two simple iPhone applications.The first illustrates some fundamental concepts to familiarize you with using Interface Builder, making connec- tions, and understanding delegates, outlets, and actions. For the second iPhone application, you’ll build a fraction calculator. It combines what you learned while developing the first application with what you’ll learned throughout the rest of the book. The iPhone SDK To write an iPhone application, you have to install Xcode and the iPhone SDK.This SDK is available free of charge from Apple’s Web site.To download the SDK, you’ll need to first register to be an Apple Developer.That process is also free.To get the appropriate links, you can start at developer.apple.com and navigate to the appropriate point. It’s a great idea to become familiar with that site.Appendix D,“Resources,”lists some direct links to particular spots on this site that might be of interest to you. The discussions in this chapter are based on Xcode 3.1.1 and the iPhone SDK for iPhone OS 2.1. Later versions of either should be compatible with what’s described here. Your First iPhone Application The first application shows how you can put a black-colored window on the iPhone’s screen, allow for the user to press a button, and then display some text in response to the pressing of that button. Note The second application is more fun! You use the knowledge gained from your first applica- tion to build a simple calculator that does operations with fractions. You can use your Fraction class that you worked with earlier in the book, as well as a modified Calculator class. This time, your calculator needs to know how to work with fractions. 460 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.1 First iPhone application. Let’s dive right into the first program.The pedagogy used in this chapter is not to cover all the details; as noted, there’s simply not enough space to do that here. Instead, we walk you through the steps to give you the necessary foundation (no pun intended!) for you to explore and learn more concepts on your own with a separate Cocoa or iPhone program- ming text. Figure 21.1 shows the first application you develop for the iPhone, running on the iPhone simulator (more about that shortly). This application is designed so that when you press the button labeled “1” the corre- sponding digit appears in the display (see Figure 21.2).That’s all it does! This simple appli- cation lays the groundwork for the second fraction calculator application. You’ll create you application using Xcode and your user interface using Interface Builder. By this point in the book, you should be quite comfortable using Xcode if you’ve been using it throughout to enter and test your programs. Interface Builder, as noted, is the tool that lets you design your user interface by placing UI elements such as tables, la- bels, and buttons in a window that resembles the iPhone’s screen. Using Interface Builder, like any powerful development tool, takes some getting used to. Apple distributes an iPhone simulator as part of the iPhone SDK.The simulator repli- cates much of your iPhone environment, including its home screen, Safari web browser, 461Your First iPhone Application Figure 21.2 iPhone application results. Contacts application, and so on.The simulator makes it much easier to debug your appli- cations; you don’t have to download each iteration of your application to an actual iPhone device and then debug it there.This can save you a lot of time and effort. To run applications on the iPhone device, you need to register for the iPhone devel- oper program and pay a $99 fee (as of the time of this writing) to Apple. In turn, you will receive an activation code that will allow you to get an iPhone Development Certificate to enable you to test and install applications on your iPhone. Unfortunately,you cannot develop applications even for your own iPhone without going through this process. Note that the application we develop in this chapter will be loaded and tested on the iPhone simulator and not on an iPhone device. Creating a New iPhone Application Project Let’s return to developing your first application.After you install the iPhone SDK, start up the Xcode application. Select New Project from the File menu. Under iPhone OS (and if you don’t see this in the left pane, you haven’t installed the iPhone SDK), click on Appli- cation.You should see a window,as shown in Figure 21.3. Here you see templates that provide starting points for different types of applications, as summarized in the Table 21.1. 462 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.3 Starting a new iPhone project. Table 21.1 iPhone Application Templates Application Type Description Navigation-Based For an application that uses a navigation controller. Contacts is a sample application of this type. OpenGL ES For OpenGL graphics-based applications such as games. Tab Bar For applications that use a tab bar. An example would be the iPod application. Utility For an application that has a flipside view. The Stock Quote application is an example of this type. View-Based For an application that has a single view. You draw into the view and then display that view in the window. Window-Based For an application that starts with just the main iPhone window. You can use this as the starting point for any application. 463Your First iPhone Application Figure 21.4 New iPhone project iPhone_1 is created. Returning to your New Project window,select Window-Based Application in the top rightmost pane and then click on the Choose button.When next prompted to enter the project name (in the Save As box), enter the text iPhone_1 and click Save.This also be- comes your application’s name by default.As you know from previous projects you cre- ated with Xcode, a new project will now be created for you that contains templates for files you’ll want to use.This is shown in Figure 21.4. Depending on your settings and previous uses of Xcode, your window might not ap- pear precisely as depicted in Figure 21.4.You can choose to follow along with whatever your current layout resembles or else try to make it match the figure more closely. In the top-left corner of your Xcode window,you see a drop-down labeled with your current selection of SDK and Active Configuration. Because we’re not developing your application to run directly on the iPhone, you want the SDK set up to run with the iPhone simulator and the Configuration to be set to Debug. If the drop-down is not la- beled Simulator | Debug, set the appropriate options as shown in Figure 21.5. Entering Your Code Now we’re ready to modify some of your project files. Notice that a class called project- name AppDelegate.h and project-name AppDelegate.m were created for you, where in this example project-name is iPhone_1.The work of handling the various buttons and labels in the type of Window-based application you’re creating gets delegated to a class called project- name AppDelegate, or in this case, iPhone_1AppDelegate. In this class we’ll define meth- 464 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.5 iPhone_1 project with SDK and Configuration options set. ods to respond to actions that occur in the iPhone’s window,such as the pressing of a but- ton or the movement of a slider.As you’ll see, it’s in the Interface Builder application that you make the actual connection between these controls and the corresponding methods. The class will also have instance variables whose values correspond to some control in your iPhone’s window, such as the name on a label or the text displayed in an editable text box.These variables are known as outlets, and like your action routines, in Interface Builder you connect your instance variables to the actual control in the iPhone’s window. For our first application, we need a method that responds to the action of the pressing of the button labeled 1.We also need an outlet variable that contains (among other informa- tion) the text to be displayed in the label that we create at the top of the iPhone’s window. Edit the file iPhone_1AppDelegate.h to add a new UILabel variable called display and declare an action method called click1: to respond to the pressing of the button. Your interface file should look as shown in Program 21.1. (The comment lines automati- cally inserted at the head of the file are not shown here.) Program 21.1 iPhone_1AppDelegate.h #import @interface iPhone_1AppDelegate : NSObject { UIWindow *window; 465Your First iPhone Application UILabel *display; } @property (nonatomic, retain) IBOutlet UIWindow *window; @property (nonatomic, retain) IBOutlet UILabel *display; - (IBAction) click1: (id) sender; @end Notice that iPhone applications import the header file .This header file, in turn, imports other UIKit header files, in a similar way that the Foundation.h header file imported other header files you needed, such as NSString.h and NSObject.h. If you want to examine the contents of this file, you have to hunt a bit. Here’s where it’s installed on my system at the time of this writing: /Developer/Platforms/iPhoneSimulator.platform/Developer/SDKs/iPhoneSimulat or2.1.sdk/System/Library/Frameworks/UIKit.framework/Headers/UIKit.h. The iPhone_1AppDelegate class now has two instance variables.The first is a UIWindow object called window.That instance variable is created automatically when you create the project, and it references the iPhone’s main window.You added another instance variable belonging to the UILabel class called display.This will be an outlet variable that will be connected to a label.When you set this variable’s text field, it updates the corre- sponding text for the label in the window.Other methods defined for the UILabel class allow you to set and retrieve other attributes of a label, such as its color, the number of lines, and the size of the font. You’ll want to use other classes in your interface as you learn more about iPhone pro- gramming that we won’t describe here.The names of some of these give you a clue as to their purpose: UITextField,UIFont, UIView,UITableView,UIImageView,UIImage, and UIButton. Both the window and display instance variables are outlets, and in the property decla- rations for these two variables, note the use of IBOutlet identifier. IBOutlet is really defined as nothing in the UIKit header file UINibDeclarations.h. (That is, it is literally replaced by nothing in the source file by the preprocessor.) However, it’s needed because Interface Builder looks for IBOutlet when it reads your header file to determine which of your variables can be used as outlets. In the interface file, note that we declare a method called click1: that takes a single argument called sender.When the click1: method is called, the method will be passed information related to the event in this argument. For example, if you had a single action routine that you used to handle the pressing of different buttons, the argument can be queried to ascertain the particular button that was pressed. The click1: method is defined to return a value of type IBAction. (This is defined as void in the UINibDeclarations.h header file.) Like IBOutlet, Interface Builder uses this 466 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications identifier when it examines your header file to identify methods that can be used as ac- tions. Now it’s time to modify the corresponding iPhone_1AppDelegate.m implementation file for your class. Here you synthesize the accessor methods for your display variable (the window access methods are already synthesized for you) and add the definition for your click1: method. Edit your implementation file so that it resembles the one shown in Program 21.1. Program 21.1 iPhone_1AppDelegate.m #import ““iPhone_1AppDelegate.h”” @implementation iPhone_1AppDelegate @synthesize window, display; - (void) applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application { // Override point for customization after application launch [window makeKeyAndVisible]; } -(IBAction) click1: (id) sender { [display setText: @”1”]; } - (void) dealloc { [window release]; [super dealloc]; } @end The applicationDidFinishLaunching: method is automatically called by the iPhone runtime system once; as its name implies, your application has finished launching.This is the place where you can initialize your instance variables, draw things on the screen, and make your window visible to display its contents.This last action is done by sending the makeKeyAndVisible message sent to your window at the end of the method. The click1: method sets the outlet variable display to the string 1 by using UILabel’s setText: method.After you connect the pressing of the button to the invoca- tion of this method, it can perform the desired action of putting a 1 into the display in the iPhone’s window.To make the connection, you must now learn how to use Interface builder. Before you do that, build the program to remove any compiler warning or error messages. 467Your First iPhone Application Designing the Interface In Figure 21.4, and in your Xcode main window,notice a file called MainWindow.xib.An xib file contains all the information about the user interface for your program, including information about its windows, buttons, labels, tab bars, text fields, and so on. Of course you don’t have a user interface yet! That’s the next step. Double-click on the MainWindow.xib file.This causes another application, called Inter- face Builder, to launch.You can also access the XIB file from the Resources folder of your project. When Interface Builder starts, you get a series of windows drawn on your screen, as depicted in Figures 21.6, 21.7, and 21.8.The actual windows that are opened might differ from the figures. The Library window provides a palette of controls that you can use for your interface. This window is depicted in Figure 21.6 in one of its display formats. The MainWindow.xib window (Figure 21.7) is the controlling window for establishing connections between your application code and the interface, as you’ll see shortly. Figure 21.6 Interface Builder Library window. 468 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.7 Interface Builder MainWindow.xib. The window simply labeled Window shows the layout of the iPhone’s main window. Because you haven’t designed anything for your iPhone’s window yet, it starts out empty, as shown in Figure 21.8. The first thing we’ll do is set the iPhone’s window to black.To do this, first click inside the window labeled Window. Now,select Inspector from the Tools menu.This should bring up the Inspector window,as shown in Figure 21.9. Make sure your Inspector window is labeled Window Attributes, as shown in Figure 21.8. If it isn’t, click on the leftmost tab in the top tab bar to get the correct window dis- played. If you glance down to the View section of the window,you see an attribute labeled Background. If you double-click inside the white-filled rectangle next to Background, it brings up a color picker for you. Choose black from the picker, which changes the rectan- gle next to Background attribute in the Inspector from white to black (see Figure 21.10). If you take a look at the window labeled Window, which represents the iPhone’s display window,you see that it’s been changed to black, as shown in Figure 21.11. You can now close the Colors window. You create new objects in your iPhone interface window by click-dragging an object from the Library window into your iPhone window.Click-drag a Label now.Release the mouse when the label is near the center of the window,close to the top, as shown in Figure 21.12. Blue guide lines appear in your window as you move the label around inside your win- dow.Sometimes they appear to help you align objects with other objects previously placed in the window.At other times, they appear to make sure your objects are spaced far enough apart from other objects and from the edges of the window,to be consistent with Apple’s interface guidelines. 469Your First iPhone Application Figure 21.8 Interface Builder iPhone window. Figure 21.9 Interface Builder Inspector window. 470 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.10 Changing the window’s background color. Figure 21.11 Interface window changes to black. 471Your First iPhone Application You can always reposition the label in the window at any time in the future by click- dragging it to another spot inside the window. Let’s now set some attributes for this label. In your window,if it’s not currently se- lected, click the label you just created to select it. Notice that the Inspector window auto- matically changes to give you information about the currently selected object in your window.We don’t want any text to appear by default for this label, so change the Text value to an empty string. (That is, delete the string Label from the text field shown in the Inspector’s window.) For the Layout attribute, select Right-justified for the alignment. Finally,change the background color for the label to blue (or any other color you choose), like you changed the window’s background color to black.Your Inspector window should resemble Figure 21.13. Now let’s change the size of the label. Go back to Window and simply resize the label by pulling out along its corners and sides. Resize and reposition the label so that it looks like the one shown in Figure 21.14 Now we add a button to the interface. From the Library window,click-drag a Round Rect Button object into your interface window,placing it toward the lower-left corner of the window,as shown in Figure 21.15.You can change the label on the button in one of Figure 21.12 Adding a label. 472 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications two ways: by double-clicking on the button and then typing your text, or by setting the Title field in the Inspector window.Either way you choose, make you window match the one shown in Figure 21.15. Now we have a label that we want to connect to our display instance variable in our program so that when we set the variable in our program the label’s text will be changed. We also have a button labeled 1 that we want to set to invoke our click1: method whenever it gets pressed.That method sets the value of display’s text field to 1.And be- cause that variable will be connected to the label, the label will then be updated.As a re- cap, here’s the sequence we want to set up: 1. The user presses the button labeled 1. 2. This event causes the click1: method to be invoked. 3. The click1: method changes the text of the instance variable display to the string 1. 4. Because the UILabel object display connects to the label in the iPhone’s window, this label updates to the corresponding text value, or to the value 1. Figure 21.13 Changing the label’s attributes. 473Your First iPhone Application Figure 21.14 Sizing and positioning a label. Figure 21.15 Adding a button to the interface. 474 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.16 Adding an action for a button. For this sequence to work, we just need to make the two connections. Let’s discuss how to do it. First, let’s connect the button to the IBAction method click1:.You do this by hold- ing down the Control key while you click on the button and drag the blue line that ap- pears on the screen to the application delegate in the MainWindow.xib window.This is shown in Figure 21.16. When you release the mouse over the Delegate cube, a drop-down appears that allows you to select an IBAction method to connect to this button. In our case, we have only one such method called click1: so that appears in the drop down. Select that method to make the connection, as shown in Figure 21.17. Now,let’s connect the display variable to the label.Whereas pressing the button causes a method in the application to be executed (that is, the flow of action is from the interface to the application delegate), setting the value of an instance variable in the appli- cation causes the label in the iPhone’s window to be updated. (Here the flow is from the application delegate to the interface.) So for this reason, you start by holding down the Control key while clicking on the application delegate icon and dragging the blue line that appears to the label in Window.This is shown in Figure 21.18. 475Your First iPhone Application Figure 21.17 Connecting the event to the method. Figure 21.18 Connecting an outlet variable. 476 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications When you release the mouse, you get a list of IBOutlet variables of the corresponding class as the control (UILabel) to choose from.We have one such variable in our program, and it’s called display. Choose this variable (as shown in Figure 21.19) and make the connection. That’s it; you’re done! Select File->Save from Interface Builder’s menu bar and then Build and Go from Xcode. (You can initiate this from Interface Builder as well.) If all goes well, the program will successfully build and begin execution.When execu- tion begins, your program will be loaded into the iPhone simulator, which will appear on your computer’s display.The simulator window should appear as shown in Figure 21.1 at the start of this chapter.You simulate pressing a button with the simulator by simply click- ing it.When you do that, the sequence of steps we outlined and the connections you made should result in the display of the string 1 in the label at the top of the display,as shown in Figure 21.2. Figure 21.19 Finishing the connection. An iPhone Fraction Calculator The next example is a bit more involved, but the concepts from the previous example equally apply.We’re not going to show all the steps to create this example, but rather give 477An iPhone Fraction Calculator a summary of the steps and an overview of the design methodology.Of course, we’ll also show all the code. First, let’s see how the application works. Figure 21.20 shows what the application looks like in the simulator just after launching. The calculator application allows you to enter fractions by first keying in the numera- tor, pressing the key labeled Over, and then keying in the denominator. So to enter the fraction 2/5, you would press 2, followed by Over, followed by 5.You’ll note that, unlike other calculators, this one actually shows the fraction in the display,so 2/5 is displayed as 2/5. After keying in one fraction, you then choose an operation—addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division—by pressing the appropriately labeled key +, –, ×, or ÷, respec- tively. After keying-in the second fraction, you then complete the operation by pressing the = key,just as you would with a standard calculator. Figure 21.20 Fraction calculator after launch. Note This calculator is designed to perform just a single operation between two fractions. It’s left as an exercise at the end of this chapter for you to remove this limitation. 478 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Figure 21.21 Keying in an operation. The display is continuously updated as keys are pressed. Figure 21.21 shows the display after the fraction 4/6 has been entered and the multiplication key has been pressed. Figure 21.22 shows the result of multiplying the fractions 4/6 and 2/8 together.You’ll note that the result of 1/6 indicates that the result has first been reduced. Starting the New Fraction_Calculator Project The first iPhone program started from a Windows-based project template. Here you did your (minimal) UI work directly in the application controller (the AppDelegate class). This is not the recommended approach for developing UI-rich applications.The AppDel- egate class typically just handles changes related to the state of the application itself, such as when the application finishes launching or when it is about to be deactivated. The view controller (implemented with the UIViewController class) is where you should perform your actions related to the UI.This might be displaying text, reacting to the pressing of a button, or putting an entirely new view on the iPhone’s screen. For this second program example, you’ll start by creating a new project.This time, se- lect View-Based Application from the New Project window.Call your new project Fraction_Calculator. 479An iPhone Fraction Calculator When your project is created, this time you’ll notice you get two class templates de- fined for you. Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.h and Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.m define the application’s controller class for your project, while Fraction_CalculatorViewController.h and Fraction_CalculatorViewController.m define the view controller class for your proj- ect.As noted, it’s in this latter class where you’ll perform all your work. We’ll start first with the application controller class. It contains two instance variables: one for referencing the iPhone’s window and another for the view controller.These have both been set up for you by Xcode. In fact, there are no changes you need to make to either the application controller’s .h or .m files. The Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate interface file is shown in Program 21.2. Program 21.2 Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.h Interface File #import @class Fraction_CalculatorViewController; @interface Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate : NSObject { IBOutlet UIWindow *window; IBOutlet Fraction_CalculatorViewController *viewController; } Figure 21.22 The result of multiplying two fractions. 480 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications @property (nonatomic, retain) UIWindow *window; @property (nonatomic, retain) Fraction_CalculatorViewController *viewController; @end The UIWindow instance variable window serves the same purpose as in the first pro- gram example: it represents the iPhone’s window.The Fraction_CalculatorViewController instance variable represents the view controller that will manage all the interaction with the user, as well as the display.In the implemen- tation file for this class you will put all the work associated with these tasks. Program 21.2 shows the implementation file for the application controller class.As noted, we’re not doing any of the work in this file like we did in Program 21.1; that’s all being delegated to the view controller. So this file appears untouched, exactly as it was generated by Xcode for you when you created the new project. Program 21.2 Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.m Implementation File #import “Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.h” #import “Fraction_CalculatorViewController.h” @implementation Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate @synthesize window; @synthesize viewController; - (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application { // Override point for customization after app launch [window addSubview:viewController.view]; [window makeKeyAndVisible]; } - (void)dealloc { [viewController release]; [super dealloc]; } Defining the View Controller Now let’s write the code for the view controller class Fraction_CalculatorViewController.We’ll start with the interface file.This is shown in Program 21.2. Program 21.2 Fraction_CalculatorViewController.m Interface File #import #import “Calculator.h” @interface Fraction_CalculatorViewController : UIViewController { UILabel *display; char op; 481An iPhone Fraction Calculator int currentNumber; NSMutableString *displayString; BOOL firstOperand, isNumerator; Calculator *myCalculator; } @property (nonatomic, retain) IBOutlet UILabel *display; @property (nonatomic, retain) NSMutableString *displayString; -(void) processDigit: (int) digit; -(void) processOp: (char) op; -(void) storeFracPart; // Numeric keys -(IBAction) clickDigit: (id) sender; // Arithmetic Operation keys -(IBAction) clickPlus: (id) sender; -(IBAction) clickMinus: (id) sender; -(IBAction) clickMultiply: (id) sender; -(IBAction) clickDivide: (id) sender; // Misc. Keys -(IBAction) clickOver: (id) sender; -(IBAction) clickEquals: (id) sender; -(IBAction) clickClear: (id) sender; @end There are housekeeping variables for building the fractions (currentNumber, firstOperand, and isNumerator), and for building the string for the display (displayString).There is also a Calculator object (myCalculator) that can perform the actual calculation between the two fractions.We will associate a single method called clickDigit: to handle the pressing of any of the digit keys 0-9. Finally,we define meth- ods to handle storing the operation to be performed (clickPlus:, clickMinus:, clickMultiply:, clickDivide:), carrying out the actual calculation when the = key is pressed (clickEquals:), clearing the current operation (clickClear:), and separating the numerator from the denominator when the Over key is pressed (clickOver:). Several methods (processDigit:, processOp:, and storeFracPart) are defined to assist in the aforementioned chores. Program 21.2 shows the implementation file for this controller class. Program 21.2 Fraction_CalculatorViewController.m Implementation File #import “Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate.h” @implementation Fraction_CalculatorAppDelegate @synthesize window, displayString, display; - (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(UIApplication *)application { 482 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications // Override point for customization after application launch firstOperand = YES; isNumerator = YES; self.displayString = [NSMutableString stringWithCapacity: 40]; myCalculator = [[Calculator alloc] init]; [window makeKeyAndVisible]; } -(void) processDigit: (int) digit { currentNumber = currentNumber * 10 + digit; [displayString appendString: [NSString stringWithFormat: @”%i”, digit]]; [display setText: displayString]; } - (IBAction) clickDigit:(id)sender { int digit = [sender tag]; [self processDigit:digit]; } -(void) processOp: (char) theOp { NSString *opStr; op = theOp; switch (theOp) { case ‘+’: opStr = @” + “; break; case ‘-’: opStr = @” – “; break; case ‘*’: opStr = @” × “; break; case ‘/’: opStr = @” ÷ “; break; } [self storeFracPart]; firstOperand = NO; isNumerator = YES; [displayString appendString: opStr]; [display setText: displayString]; } -(void) storeFracPart { 483An iPhone Fraction Calculator if (firstOperand) { if (isNumerator) { myCalculator.operand1.numerator = currentNumber; myCalculator.operand1.denominator = 1; // e.g. 3 * 4/5 = } else myCalculator.operand1.denominator = currentNumber; } else if (isNumerator) { myCalculator.operand2.numerator = currentNumber; myCalculator.operand2.denominator = 1; // e.g. 3/2 * 4 = } else { myCalculator.operand2.denominator = currentNumber; firstOperand = YES; } currentNumber = 0; } -(IBAction) clickOver: (id) sender { [self storeFracPart]; isNumerator = NO; [displayString appendString: @”/”]; [display setText: displayString]; } // Arithmetic Operation keys -(IBAction) clickPlus: (id) sender { [self processOp: ‘+’]; } -(IBAction) clickMinus: (id) sender { [self processOp: ‘-’]; } -(IBAction) clickMultiply: (id) sender { [self processOp: ‘*’]; } -(IBAction) clickDivide: (id) sender { [self processOp: ‘/’]; } // Misc. Keys -(IBAction) clickEquals: (id) sender { [self storeFracPart]; [myCalculator performOperation: op]; 484 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications [displayString appendString: @” = “]; [displayString appendString: [myCalculator.accumulator convertToString]]; [display setText: displayString]; currentNumber = 0; isNumerator = YES; firstOperand = YES; [displayString setString: @””]; } -(IBAction) clickClear: (id) sender { isNumerator = YES; firstOperand = YES; currentNumber = 0; [myCalculator clear]; [displayString setString: @””]; [display setText: displayString]; } - (void)dealloc { [window release]; [myCalculator dealloc]; [super dealloc]; } @end The calculator’s window still contains just one label as in the previous application, and we still call it display.As the user enters a number digit-by-digit, we need to build the number along the way.The variable current_Number holds the number-in-progress, while the BOOL variables firstOperand and isNumerator keep track of whether this is the first or second operand entered and whether the user is currently keying in the nu- merator or the denominator of that operand. When a digit button is pressed on the calculator, we set it up so that some identifying information will be passed to the clickDigit: method to identify which digit button was pressed.This is done by setting the button’s attribute (using Interface Builder’s In- spector) called tag to a unique value for each digit button. In this case, we want to set the tag to the corresponding digit number. So the tag for the button labeled 0 will be set to 0, the tag for the button labeled 1 to 1, and so on. By then sending the tag message to the sender parameter that is passed to the clickDigit: method, you can retrieve the value of the button’s tag.This is done in the clickDigit: method as shown: - (IBAction) clickDigit:(id)sender { int digit = [sender tag]; [self processDigit:digit]; } 485An iPhone Fraction Calculator There are a lot more buttons in Program 21.2 than in the first application. Most of the complexity in the view controller’s implementation file revolves around building the frac- tions and displaying them.As noted, as a digit button 0–9 gets pressed, the action method clickDigit: gets executed.That method calls the processDigit: method to tack the digit onto the end of the number that’s being built in the variable currentNumber.That method also adds the digit to the current display string that’s kept in the variable displayString, and updates the display: -(void) processDigit: (int) digit { currentNumber = currentNumber * 10 + digit; [displayString appendString: [NSString stringWithFormat: @”%i”, digit]]; [display setText: displayString]; } When the = key is pressed, the clickEquals: method gets invoked to perform the operation.The calculator performs the operation between the two fractions, storing the result in its accumulator.This accumulator is fetched inside the clickEquals: method, and the result is added to the display. The Fraction Class The Fraction class remains largely unchanged from earlier examples in this text.There is a new convertToString method that was added to convert a fraction to its equivalent string representation. Program 21.2 shows the Fraction interface file followed immedi- ately by the corresponding implementation file. Program 21.2 Fraction.h Interface File #import @interface Fraction : NSObject { int numerator; int denominator; } @property int numerator, denominator; -(void) print; -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d; -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) subtract: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) multiply: (Fraction *) f; -(Fraction *) divide: (Fraction *) f; -(void) reduce; -(double) convertToNum; -(NSString *) convertToString; @end 486 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Program 21.2 Fraction.m Implementation File #import “Fraction.h” @implementation Fraction @synthesize numerator, denominator; -(void) setTo: (int) n over: (int) d { numerator = n; denominator = d; } -(void) print { NSLog (@”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator); } -(double) convertToNum { if (denominator != 0) return (double) numerator / denominator; else return 1.0; } -(NSString *) convertToString; { if (numerator == denominator) if (numerator == 0) return @”0”; else return @”1”; else if (denominator == 1) return [NSString stringWithFormat: @”%i”, numerator]; else return [NSString stringWithFormat: @”%i/%i”, numerator, denominator]; } // add a Fraction to the receiver -(Fraction *) add: (Fraction *) f { // To add two fractions: // a/b + c/d = ((a*d) + (b*c)) / (b * d) // result will store the result of the addition Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; int resultNum, resultDenom; 487An iPhone Fraction Calculator resultNum = numerator * f.denominator + denominator * f.numerator; resultDenom = denominator * f.denominator; [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; [result reduce]; return [result autorelease]; } -(Fraction *) subtract: (Fraction *) f { // To sub two fractions: // a/b - c/d = ((a*d) - (b*c)) / (b * d) Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; int resultNum, resultDenom; resultNum = numerator * f.denominator - denominator * f.numerator; resultDenom = denominator * f.denominator; [result setTo: resultNum over: resultDenom]; [result reduce]; return [result autorelease]; } -(Fraction *) multiply: (Fraction *) f { Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [result setTo: numerator * f.numerator over: denominator * f.denominator]; [result reduce]; return [result autorelease]; } -(Fraction *) divide: (Fraction *) f { Fraction *result = [[Fraction alloc] init]; [result setTo: numerator * f.denominator over: denominator * f.numerator]; [result reduce]; return [result autorelease]; } - (void) reduce { int u = numerator; int v = denominator; int temp; if (u == 0) return; else if (u <0) u = -u; 488 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications while (v != 0) { temp = u % v; u = v; v = temp; } numerator /= u; denominator /= u; } @end The convertToString: method checks the numerator and denominator of the frac- tion to produce a more eye-pleasing result. If the numerator and denominator are equal (but not zero), we return @”1”. If the numerator is zero, the string @“0” is returned. If the denominator is 1, it’s a whole number, so there’s no need to show the denominator. The stringWithFormat: method that’s used inside convertToString: returns a string given a format string (akin to NSLog) and a comma-separated list of arguments.You pass arguments to a method that takes a variable number of arguments by separating them with commas, just like you did when passing the arguments to the NSLog function. A Calculator Class That Deals with Fractions Next, it’s time to take a look at the Calculator class.The concept is similar to the class of the same name we developed earlier in this book. However, in this case, our calculator must know how to deal with fractions. Here are our new Calculator class interface and implementation files. Program 21.2 Calculator.h Interface File #import #import “Fraction.h” @interface Calculator : NSObject { Fraction *operand1; Fraction *operand2; Fraction *accumulator; } @property (retain, nonatomic) Fraction *operand1, *operand2, *accumulator; -(Fraction *) performOperation: (char) op; -(void) clear; @end Program 21.2 Calculator.m Implementation File #import “Calculator.h” @implementation Calculator 489An iPhone Fraction Calculator @synthesize operand1, operand2, accumulator; -(id) init { self = [super init]; operand1 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; operand2 = [[Fraction alloc] init]; accumulator = [[Fraction alloc] init]; return self; } -(void) clear { if (accumulator) { accumulator.numerator = 0; accumulator.denominator = 0; } } -(Fraction *) performOperation: (char) op { Fraction *result; switch (op) { case ‘+’: result = [operand1 add: operand2]; break; case ‘-’: result = [operand1 subtract: operand2]; break; case ‘*’: result = [operand1 multiply: operand2]; break; case ‘/’: result= [operand1 divide: operand2]; break; } accumulator.numerator = result.numerator; accumulator.denominator = result.denominator; return accumulator; } -(void) dealloc { [operand1 release]; [operand2 release]; [accumulator release]; [super dealloc]; } @end 490 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications Designing the UI You may have noticed that you have two xib files in your project’s Resources folder: one called MainWindow.xib and the other called Fraction_CalculatorViewController.xib.You don’t need to work with the former file at all, so open up the latter by double-clicking on its file name.When Interface Builder starts up, you’ll see that you have an icon labeled ‘View’ displayed in the window labeled Fraction_CalculatorViewController.xib.This is shown in Figure 21.23 If the View window isn’t already open, double-click on the icon and open it. Inside this View window is where you will design your calculator’s UI. Make the connections between each digit button and the clickDigit: method. Do this by Control-click- dragging each button in turn to the File’s Owner icon in the Fraction_CalculatorViewController.xib window and selecting clickDigit: from the Events drop-down.Also, for each digit button, in the Inspector window set the Tag value to the number that corresponds to the button’s title. So for the digit button labeled 0 set the Tag value to 0, for the digit button labeled 1, set the Tag value to 1, and so on. Draw the remaining buttons in theView window and make the corresponding connec- tions. Don’t forget to insert a label for the calculator’s display and Control-click-drag from the File’s Owner to the label. Select display from the Outlets dropdown that appears. That’s it! Your interface design is done and your fraction calculator application is ready to be put into action. Figure 21.23 Fraction_CalculatorViewController.xib window. 491Summary Summary Figure 21.24 shows the Xcode project window so that you can see all the files related to the Fraction calculator project. Figure 21.24 Fraction calculator project files. The following summarizes the steps you followed to create you iPhone fraction calcu- lator application: 1. Created a new View-based Application. 2. Entered your UI code into the Fraction_CalculatorViewController .h and .m files. 3. Added the Fraction and Calculator classes to the project. 4. Opened Fraction_CalculatorViewController.xib in Interface Builder to cre- ate the UI. 5. Made the View window’s background black. 6. Created a label and buttons and positioned them inside the View window. 7. Control-click-dragged from File’s Owner to the label you created in the View window and set that to ‘display’. 492 Chapter 21 Writing iPhone Applications 8. Control-click-dragged from each button in the View window to the File’s Owner and made the connection to the appropriate action method. For each digit button, you selected the clickDigit: method.Also, for each digit button, you set the tag button attribute to the corresponding digit 0-9 so that the clickDigit: method could identify which button was pressed. It was a worthwhile exercise learning how to use a view controller, even though it was more work than simply doing everything in the app controller. However, if you want to do any sort of sophisticated things in your application, such as animation, responding to screen rotation, using a navigation controller, or building a tabbed interface, you’ll need to use a view controller. Hopefully this brief introduction to developing iPhone applications gives you a good start for writing your own iPhone applications.As noted earlier, there are many features offered in UIKit and lots for you to explore! There are several limitations with our fraction calculator application. Many of these are addressed in the exercises that follow. Exercises 1. Add a Convert button to the fraction calculator application.When the button is pressed, use the Fraction class’s convertToNum method to produce the numeric representation of the fractional result. Convert that result to a string and show it in the calculator’s display. 2. Modify the fraction calculator application so that a negative fraction can be entered if the – key gets pressed before a numerator is entered. 3. If the value of zero is keyed in for a denominator for either the first or second operand, display the string Error in the fraction calculator’s display. 4. Modify the fraction calculator application so that calculations can be chained. For example, allow for the following operation to be keyed: 1/5 + 2/7 – 3/8 = 5. You can add an icon to your application that will appear on the iPhone’s home screen.This can be done by adding an image to be used as the icon (.png file) to your application’s Resources folder and setting the value of the “Icon file” key in your information property list (Info.plist file in your Resources folder) to this image file, as shown in the Figure 21.25. Find a suitable calculator image on the Internet that you can use and set up the fraction calculator to use this image as its application icon. 493Exercises Figure 21.25 Adding an application icon. Part IV Appendixes A Glossary B Objective-C Language Summary C Address Book Source Code D Resources Glossary This appendix contains informal defini- tions for many of the terms you will encounter. Some of these terms have to do directly with the Objective-C lan- guage itself, whereas others gain their etymology from the discipline of object- oriented programming. In the latter case, I provide the meaning of the term as it specifically applies to the Objective-C language. abstract class A class defined to make creating subclasses easier. Instances are created from the subclass, not of the abstract class. See also concrete subclass. accessor method A method that gets or sets the value of an instance variable. Using accessor methods to set and retrieve the values of instance variables is consistent with the methodology of data encapsulation. Application Kit A framework for developing an application’s user interface, which includes objects such as menus, toolbars, and windows. Part of Cocoa and more commonly called AppKit. archiving Translating the representa- tion of an object’s data into a format that can later be restored (unarchived). array An ordered collection of values. Arrays can be defined as a basic Objective-C type and are implemented as objects under Foundation through the NSArray and NSMutableArray classes. automatic variable A variable that is automatically allocated and released when a statement block is entered and exited.Automatic variables have scope that is limited to the block in which they are defined and have no default initial value.They are optionally preceded by the keyword auto. autorelease pool An object defined in the Foundation framework that keeps track of objects that are to be released when the pool itself is released. Objects are added to the pool by sending them autorelease messages. bitfield A structure containing one or more integer fields of a specified bit width. Bitfields can be accessed and manipulated the same way other struc- ture members can. category A set of methods grouped together under a specified name. Categories can modularize the method definitions for a class and can be used to add new methods to an existing class. character string A null-terminated sequence of characters. class A set of instance variables and methods that have access to those vari- ables.After a class is defined, instances of the class (that is, objects) can be created. class method A method (defined with a leading + sign) that is invoked on class objects. See also instance method. class object An object that identifies a particular class.The class name can be used as the receiver of a message to invoke a class method. In other places, the class method can be invoked on the class to create a class object. cluster An abstract class that groups a set of private concrete subclasses, provid- ing a simplified interface to the user through the abstract class. Cocoa A development environment that consists of the Foundation and Application Kit frameworks. Cocoa Touch A development envi- ronment that consists of the Foundation and UIKit frameworks. collection A Foundation framework object that is an array, a dictionary, or a set used for grouping and manipulating related objects. compile time The time during which the source code is analyzed and convert- ed into a lower-level format known as object code. composite class A class that is com- posed of objects from other classes; often it’s used as an alternative to subclassing. concrete subclass A subclass of an abstract class. Instances can be created from a concrete subclass. conform A class conforms to a proto- col if it adopts all the required methods in the protocol, either directly through implementation or indirectly through inheritance. constant character string A sequence of characters enclosed inside a pair of double quotation marks. If pre- ceded by an @ character, it defines a con- stant character string object of type NSConstantString. data encapsulation The notion that the data for an object is stored in its instance variables and is accessed only by the object’s methods.This maintains the integrity of the data. 498 automatic variable delegate An object directed to carry out an action by another object. designated initializer The method that all other initialization methods in the class, or in subclasses (through messages to super), will invoke. dictionary A collection of key/value pairs implemented under Foundation with the NSDictionary and NSMutableDictionary classes. directive In Objective-C, a special construct that begins with an at sign (@). @interface, @implementation, @end, and @class are examples of directives. Distributed Objects The capability of Foundation objects in one application to communicate with Foundation objects in another application, possibly running on another machine. dynamic binding Determining the method to invoke with an object at run- time instead of at compile time. dynamic typing Determining the class to which an object belongs at run- time instead of at compile time. See also static typing. encapsulation See data encapsulation. extern variable See global variable. factory method See class method. factory object See class object. formal protocol A set of related methods grouped together under a name declared with the @protocol directive. Different classes (not necessarily related) can adopt a formal protocol by imple- menting (or inheriting) all its required methods. See also informal protocol. forwarding The process of sending a message and its associated argument(s) to another method for execution. Foundation framework A collection of classes, functions, and protocols that form the foundation for application development, providing basic facilities such as memory management, file and URL access, the tasks of archiving and working with collections, strings, and number and date objects. framework A collection of classes, functions, protocols, documentation, and header files and other resources that are all related. For example, the Cocoa frame- work is used in developing interactive graphical applications under Mac OS X. function A block of statements identi- fied by a name that can accept one or more arguments passed to it by value and can optionally return a value. Functions can be either local (static) to the file in which they’re defined or global, in which case they can be called from functions or methods defined in other files. garbage collection A memory-man- agement system that automatically releas- es the memory used by unreferenced objects. Garbage collection is not sup- ported in the iPhone runtime environ- ment. gcc The name of the compiler devel- oped by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). gcc supports many programming languages, including C, Objective-C, and C++. gcc is the standard compiler used in Mac OS X for compiling Objective-C programs. 499gcc gdb The standard debugging tool for programs compiled with gcc. getter method An accessor method that retrieves the value of an instance variable. See also setter method. global variable A variable defined outside any method or function that can be accessed by any method or function in the same source file or from other source files that declare the variable as extern. header file A file that contains com- mon definitions, macros, and variable declarations that is included in a program using either an #import or an #include statement. id The generic object type that can hold a pointer to any type of object. immutable object An object whose value cannot be modified. Examples from the Foundation framework include NSString, NSDictionary, and NSArray objects. See also mutable object. implementation section The section of a class definition that contains the actual code (that is, implementation) for the methods declared in the correspon- ding interface section (or as specified by a protocol definition). informal protocol A logically related set of methods declared as a category, often as a category of the root class. Unlike formal protocols, all the methods in an informal protocol do not have to be implemented. See also formal protocol. inheritance The process of passing methods and instance variables from a class, starting with the root object, down to subclasses. instance A concrete representation of a class. Instances are objects that are typi- cally created by sending an alloc or new message to a class object. instance method A method that can be invoked by an instance of a class. See also class method. instance variable A variable declared in the interface section (or inherited from a parent) that is contained in every instance of the object. Instance methods have direct access to their instance vari- ables. Interface Builder A tool under Mac OS X for building a graphical user inter- face for an application. interface section The section for declaring a class, its superclass, instance variables, and methods. For each method, the argument types and return type are also declared. See also implementation section. internationalization See localization. isa A special instance variable defined in the root object that all objects inherit. The isa variable is used to identify the class to which an object belongs at run- time. linking The process of converting one or more object files into a program that can be executed. local variable A variable whose scope is limited to the block in which it is defined.Variables can be local to a method, function, or statement block. localization The process of making a program suitable for execution within a particular geographic region, typically by translating messages to the local language 500 gdb and handling things such as local time zones, currency symbols, date formats, and so on. Sometimes localization is used just to refer to the language translation, and the term internationalization is used to refer to the rest of the process. message The method and its associat- ed arguments that are sent to an object (the receiver). message expression An expression enclosed in square brackets that specifies an object (the receiver) and the message to send to the object. method A procedure that belongs to a class and can be executed by sending a message to a class object or to instances from the class. See also class method and instance method. mutable object An object whose value can be changed.The Foundation framework supports mutable and immutable arrays, sets, strings, and dic- tionaries. See also immutable object. nil An object of type id, which is used to represent an invalid object. Its value is defined as 0. nil can be sent messages. notification The process of sending a message to objects that have registered to be alerted (notified) when a specific event occurs. NSObject The root object under the Foundation framework. null character A character whose value is 0.A null character constant is denoted by ‘\0’. null pointer An invalid pointer value, normally defined as 0. object A set of variables and associated methods.An object can be sent messages to cause one of its methods to be execut- ed. object-oriented programming A method of programming based on classes and objects, and performing actions on those objects. parent class A class from which another class inherits.Also referred to as the super class. pointer A value that references another object or data type.A pointer is imple- mented as the address of a particular object or value in memory.An instance of a class is a pointer to the location of the object’s data in memory. polymorphism The capability of objects from different classes to accept the same message. preprocessor A program that makes a first pass through the source code pro- cessing lines that begin with a #, which presumably contain special preprocessor statements. Common uses are for defin- ing macros with #define, including other source files with #import and #include, and conditionally including source lines with #if, #ifdef, and #ifndef. procedural programming language A language in which programs are defined by procedures and functions that operate on a set of data. 501procedural programming language property declaration A way to speci- fy attributes for instance variables that enables the compiler to generate leak- free and thread-safe accessor methods for instance variables. Property declarations can also be used to declare attributes for accessor methods that will be dynamical- ly loaded at runtime. property list A representation of dif- ferent types of objects in a standardized format. Property lists are typically stored in XML format. protocol A list of methods that a class must implement to conform to or adopt the protocol. Protocols provide a way to standardize an interface across classes. See also formal protocol and informal proto- col. receiver The object to which a mes- sage is sent.The receiver can be referred to as self from inside the method that is invoked. reference count See retain count. retain count A count of the number of times an object is referenced. It’s incremented by sending a retain mes- sage to the object, and it’s decremented by sending a release message to it. root object The topmost object in the inheritance hierarchy that has no parent. runtime The time when a program is executing; also the mechanism responsi- ble for executing a program’s instruc- tions. selector The name used to select the method to execute for an object. Compiled selectors are of type SEL and can be generated using the @selector directive. self A variable used inside a method to refer to the receiver of the message. set An unordered collection of unique objects implemented under Foundation with the NSSet, NSMutableSet, and NSCountedSet classes. setter method An accessor method that sets the value of an instance variable. See also getter method. statement One or more expressions terminated by a semicolon. statement block One or more state- ments enclosed in a set of curly braces. Local variables can be declared within a statement block, and their scope is limit- ed to that block. static function A function declared with the static keyword that can be called only by other functions or meth- ods defined in the same source file. static typing Explicitly identifying the class to which an object belongs at com- pile time. See also dynamic typing. static variable A variable whose scope is limited to the block or module in which it is defined. Static variables have default initial values of 0 and retain their values through method or function invo- cations. structure An aggregate data type that can contain members of varying types. Structures can be assigned to other struc- tures, passed as arguments to functions and methods, and returned by them as well. subclass Also known as a child class,a subclass inherits the methods and instance variables from its parent or superclass. 502 property declaration super A keyword used in a method to refer to the parent class of the receiver. super class The parent class of a par- ticular class. See also super. synthesized method A setter or get- ter method that the compiler automati- cally creates for you. It was added to the Objective C 2.0 language. UIKit A framework for developing applications on the iPhone and iTouch. In addition to providing classes for work- ing with usual UI elements such as win- dows, button and labels, it defines cla ses for dealing with device specific features such as the accelerometer and the touch interface. UIKit is part of Cocoa Touch. Unicode character A standard for representing characters from sets contain- ing up to millions of characters.The NSString and NSMutableString classes work with strings containing Unicode characters. union An aggregate data type, such as a structure containing members that share the same storage area. Only one of those members can occupy the storage area at any point in time. Xcode A compiling and debugging tool for program development with Mac OS X. XML Extensible Markup Language. The default format for property lists gen- erated on Mac OS X. zone A designated area of memory for allocating data and objects.A program can work with multiple zones to more efficiently manage memory. 503zone Digraph Meaning <: [ :> ] <% { %> } %: # %:%: ## Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary This appendix summarizes the Objective-C language in a format suitable for quick ref- erence. It is not intended to be a complete definition of the language, but rather a more informal description of its features.You should thoroughly read the material in this ap- pendix after you have completed the text. Doing so will not only reinforce the material you learned, but also provide you with a better global understanding of Objective-C. This summary is based on the ANSI C99 (ISO/IEC 9899:1999) standard with Objec- tive-C 2.0 language extensions.As of this writing, the latest version of the GNU gcc compiler used on my Mac OS X v10.5.5 system is version 4.0.1. Digraphs and Identifiers Digraph Characters The following special two-character sequences (digraphs) are equivalent to the listed sin- gle-character punctuators: 506 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Identifiers An identifier in Objective-C consists of a sequence of letters (upper- or lowercase), univer- sal character names (1.2.1), digits, or underscore characters.The first character of an iden- tifier must be a letter, an underscore, or a universal character name.The first 31 characters of an identifier are guaranteed to be significant in an external name, and the first 63 char- acters are guaranteed to be significant for an internal identifier or macro name. Universal Character Names A universal character name is formed by the characters \u followed by four hexadecimal numbers or the characters \U followed by eight hexadecimal numbers. If the first charac- ter of an identifier is specified by a universal character, its value cannot be that of a digit character. Universal characters, when used in identifier names, can also not specify a char- acter whose value is less than A016 (other than 2416,4016, or 6016) or a character in the range D80016 through DFFF16, inclusive. Universal character names can be used in identifier names, character constants, and character strings. Keywords The identifiers listed here are keywords that have special meanings to the Objective-C compiler: _Bool _Complex _Imaginary auto break bycopy byref case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if in inline inout int long oneway out 507Digraphs and Identifiers Table B.1 Compiler Directives Directive Meaning Example @”chars” Defines a constant NSSTRING character string object (Adjacent strings are concatenated.) NSString *url = @”http://www.kochan-wood.com”; @class c1, c2,... Declares c1, c2, ... as classes. @class Point, Rectangle; @defs (class) Returns a list of the structure variables for class. struct Fract { @defs(Fraction); } *fractPtr; fractPtr = (struct Fract *) [[Fraction alloc] init]; @dynamic names Accessor methods for names may be provided dynamically @dynamic drawRect; @encode (type) String encoding for type. @encode (int *) @end Ends an interface section, an implementation section, or a protocol section. @end @implementation Begins an implementation section. @implementation Fraction register restrict return self short signed sizeof static struct super switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while Directives Compiler directives begin with an @ sign and are used specifically for working with classes and objects, as summarized in Table B.1. 508 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Table B.1 Compiler Directives Directive Meaning Example @interface Begins an interface section. @interface Fraction: NSObject @private Defines the scope of one or more instance variables. See “Instance Variables.” @protected Defines the scope of one or more instance variables @public Defines the scope of one or more instance variables @property (list) names Declares properties in list for names. property (retain, nonatomic) NSSTRING *name; @protocol Creates a Protocol object for a specified protocol. @protocol (Copying)]){...} if ([myObj conformsTo: (protocol) @protocol name Begins a protocol definition for name. @protocol Copying @selector (method) SEL object for specified method. if ([myObj respondsTo: @selector (allocF)]) {...} @synchronized (object) Begins a block to be executed by a single thread. Object is known as the mutual exclu- sion (mutex) semaphore. @synthesize names Generates accessor methods for names if not provided. @synthesize name, email; See also “Instance Variables.” @try Begins a block to catch exceptions. See “Exception Handling.” @catch (exception) Begins a block to process exception. @finally Begins a block that gets exe- cuted whether an exception is thrown in the previous @try block. @throw Throws an exception. 509Comments Predefined Identifiers Table B.2 lists identifiers that have special meanings in Objective-C programs. Table B.2 Special Predefined Identifiers Identifier Meaning _cmd A local variable automatically defined in a method that contains the selector for the method __func__ A local character string variable automatically defined in a function or method containing the name of the function or method BOOL Boolean value, typically used with YES and NO Class Class object type id Generic object type IMP Pointer to a method returning the value of type id nil Null object Nil Null class object NO Defined as (BOOL) 0 NSObject Root Foundation object defined in Protocol Name of class for storing information about protocols SEL A compiled selector self A local variable automatically defined in a method that references the receiver of the message super The parent of the receiver of the message YES Defined as (BOOL) 1 Comments There are two ways to insert comments into program.A comment can begin with the two characters //, in which case any characters that follow on the line are ignored by the compiler. A comment can also begin with the two characters /* and end when the characters */ are encountered.Any characters can be included inside the comment, which can extend over multiple lines of the program.A comment can be used anywhere in the program where a blank space is allowed. Comments, however, cannot be nested, which means that the first */ characters encountered end the comment, no matter how many /* characters you use. 510 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Constants Integer Constants An integer constant is a sequence of digits, optionally preceded by a plus or minus sign. If the first digit is 0, the integer is taken as an octal constant, in which case all digits that fol- low must be 0–7. If the first digit is 0 and is immediately followed by the letter x (or X), the integer is taken as a hexadecimal constant, and the digits that follow can be in the range 0–9 or a–f (or A–F). The suffix letter l or L can be added to the end of a decimal integer constant to make it a long int constant. If the value can’t fit into a long int, it’s treated as a long long int. If the suffix letter l or L is added to the end of an octal or a hexadecimal constant, it is taken as a long int if it can fit; if it can’t fit there, it is taken as a long long int. Finally, if it can’t fit in a long long int, it is taken as an unsigned long long int constant. The suffix letters ll or LL can be added to the end of a decimal integer constant to make it a long long int.When added to the end of an octal or a hexadecimal constant, it is taken as a long long int first, and if it can’t fit there, it is taken as an unsigned long long int constant. The suffix u or U can be added to the end of an integer constant to make it unsigned. If the constant is too large to fit inside an unsigned int, it’s taken as an unsigned long int. If it’s too large for an unsigned long int, it’s taken as an unsigned long long int. Both an unsigned and long suffix can be added to an integer constant to make it an unsigned long int. If the constant is too large to fit in an unsigned long int, it’s taken as an unsigned long long int. Both an unsigned and a long-long suffix can be added to an integer constant to make it an unsigned long long int. If an unsuffixed decimal integer constant is too large to fit into a signed int, it is treated as a long int. If it’s too large to fit into a long int, it’s treated as a long long int. If an unsuffixed octal or hexadecimal integer constant is too large to fit into a signed int, it is treated as an unsigned int. If it’s too large to fit into an unsigned int, it’s treated as a long int, and if it’s too large to fit into a long int, it’s treated as an unsigned long int. If it’s too large for an unsigned long int, it’s taken as a long long int. Finally,if it’s too large to fit into a long long int, the constant is treated as an unsigned long long int. Floating-Point Constants A floating-point constant consists of a sequence of decimal digits, a decimal point, and another sequence of decimal digits.A minus sign can precede the value to denote a nega- tive value. In addition, either the sequence of digits before the decimal point or after the decimal point can be omitted, but not both. If the floating-point constant is immediately followed by the letter e (or E) and an op- tionally signed integer, the constant is expressed in scientific notation.This integer (the 511Constants Character Meaning \a Audible alert \b Backspace \f Form feed \n Newline \r Carriage return \t Horizontal tab \v Vertical tab \\ Backslash \” Double quote \’ Single quote \? Question mark \nnn Octal character value \unnnn Universal character name \Unnnnnnnn Universal character name \xnn Hexadecimal character value exponent) represents the power of 10 by which the value preceding the letter e (the mantissa) is multiplied (for example, 1.5e-2 represents 1.5 ×10-2 or .015). A hexadecimal floating constant consists of a leading 0x or 0X, followed by one or more decimal or hexadecimal digits, followed by a p or P, followed by an optionally signed binary exponent. For example, 0x3p10 represents the value 3 × 210. Floating-point constants are treated as double precision values by the compiler.The suffix letter f or F can be added to specify a float constant instead of a double one, and the suffix letter l or L can be added to specify a long double constant. Character Constants A character enclosed within single quotation marks is a character constant. How the inclu- sion of more than one character inside the single quotation marks is handled is imple- mentation-defined.A universal character can be used in a character constant to specify a character not included in the standard character set. Escape Sequences Special escape sequences are recognized and are introduced by the backslash character. These escape sequences are listed here: 512 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary In the octal character case, from one to three octal digits can be specified. In the last three cases, hexadecimal digits are used. Wide Character Constants A wide character constant is written as L'x'.The type of such a constant is wchar_t, as de- fined in the standard header file .Wide character constants provide a way to express a character from a character set that cannot be fully represented with the normal char type. Character String Constants A sequence of zero or more characters enclosed within double quotation marks repre- sents a character string constant.Any valid character can be included in the string, includ- ing any of the escape characters listed previously.The compiler automatically inserts a null character ('\0') at the end of the string. Normally,the compiler produces a pointer to the first character in the string and the type is “pointer to char.”However, when the string constant is used with the sizeof op- erator to initialize a character array,or with the & operator, the type of the string constant is “array of char.” Character string constants cannot be modified by the program. Character String Concatenation The preprocessor automatically concatenates adjacent character string constants together. The strings can be separated by zero or more whitespace characters. So, the three strings ”a”“character “ “string” are equivalent to the single string ”a character string” after concatenation. Multibyte Characters Implementation-defined sequences of characters can be used to shift between different states in a character string so that multibyte characters can be included. 513Data Types and Declarations Wide Character String Constants Character string constants from an extended character set are expressed using the format L'...'.The type of such a constant is “pointer to wchar_t,”where wchar_t is defined in . Constant Character String Objects A constant character string object can be created by placing an @ character in front of a constant character string.The type of the object is NSConstantString. Adjacent constant string objects are concatenated together. So the three string objects @”a” @” character “ @”string” are equivalent to the single string object @”a character string Enumeration Constants An identifier that has been declared as a value for an enumerated type is taken as a con- stant of that particular type and is otherwise treated as type int by the compiler. Data Types and Declarations This section summarizes the basic data types, derived data types, enumerated data types, and typedef.Also summarized in this section is the format for declaring variables. Declarations When defining a particular structure, union, enumerated data type, or typedef, the com- piler does not automatically reserve any storage.The definition merely tells the compiler about the particular data type and (optionally) associates a name with it. Such a definition can be made either inside or outside a function or method. In the former case, only the function or method knows of its existence; in the latter case, it is known throughout the remainder of the file. After the definition has been made, variables can be declared to be of that particular data type.A variable that is declared to be of any data type will have storage reserved for it, unless it is an extern declaration, in which case it might or might not have storage al- located (see the section “Storage Classes and Scope”). The language also enables storage to be allocated at the same time that a particular structure, union, or enumerated data type is defined.This is done by simply listing the variables before the terminating semicolon of the definition. Basic Data Types The basic Objective-C data types are summarized in Table B.3.A variable can be declared to be of a particular basic data type using the following format: type name = initial_value; The assignment of an initial value to the variable is optional and is subject to the rules summarized in the section “Variables.”More than one variable can be declared simultane- ously using the following general format: type name = initial_value, name = initial_value, .. ; Before the type declaration, an optional storage class can also be specified, as summa- rized in the section “Variables.”If a storage class is specified and the type of the variable is int, then int can be omitted. For example static counter; declares counter to be a static int variable. 514 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Table B.3 Summary of Basic Data Types Type Meaning int Integer value; that is, a value that contains no decimal point; guaranteed to contain at least 16 bits of accuracy short int Integer value of reduced accuracy; takes half as much memory as an int on some machines; guaranteed to contain at least 16 bits of accu- racy long int Integer value of extended accuracy; guaranteed to contain at least 32 bits of accuracy long long int Integer value of extra-extended accuracy; guaranteed to contain at least 64 bits of accuracy unsigned int Positive integer value; can store positive values up to twice as large as an int; guaranteed to contain at least 16 bits of accuracy Note that the signed modifier can also be placed in front of the short int, int, long int, and long long int types. Because these types are signed by default anyway,this has no ef- fect. _Complex and _Imaginary data types enable complex and imaginary numbers to be declared and manipulated, with functions in the library for supporting arithmetic on these types. Normally,you should include the file in your program, which defines macros and declares functions for working with complex and imaginary numbers. For example, a double_Complex variable c1 can be declared and initialized to the value 5 + 10.5i with a statement such as follows: double _Complex c1 = 5 + 10.5 ∗ I; 515Data Types and Declarations Table B.3 Summary of Basic Data Types Type Meaning float Floating-point value; that is, a value that can contain decimal places; guaranteed to contain at least six digits of precision double Extended accuracy floating-point value; guaranteed to contain at least 10 digits of precision long double Extra-extended accuracy floating-point value; guaranteed to contain at least 10 digits of precision char Single character value; on some systems, sign extension can occur when used in an expression unsigned char Same as char, except it ensures that sign extension will not occur as a result of integral promotion signed char Same as char, except it ensures that sign extension will occur as a re- sult of integral promotion _Bool Boolean type; large enough to store the value 0 or 1 float _Complex Complex number double _Complex Extended accuracy complex number long double _Complex Extra-extended accuracy complex number void No type; used to ensure that a function or method that does not return a value is not used as if it does return one, or to explicitly discard the re- sults of an expression; also used as a generic pointer type (void *) 516 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Library routines such as creal and cimag can then be used to extract the real and imaginary parts of c1, respectively. An implementation is not required to support types _Complex and _Imaginary, and it can optionally support one but not the other. Derived Data Types A derived data type is one that is built up from one or more of the basic data types. De- rived data types are arrays, structures, unions, and pointers (which include objects).A function or method that returns a value of a specified type is also considered a derived data type. Each of these, with the exception of functions and methods, is summarized in the following paragraphs. Functions and methods are separately covered in the sections “Functions” and “Classes,”respectively. Arrays Single-Dimensional Arrays Arrays can be defined to contain any basic data type or any derived data type.Arrays of functions are not permitted (although arrays of function pointers are). The declaration of an array has the following basic format: type name[n] = { initExpression, initExpression, .. }; The expression n determines the number of elements in the array name and can be omitted, provided a list of initial values is specified. In such a case, the size of the array is determined based on the number of initial values listed or on the largest index element referenced if designated initializers are used. Each initial value must be a constant expression if a global array is defined. Fewer val- ues can exist in the initialization list than there are elements in the array,but more cannot exist. If fewer values are specified, only that many elements of the array are initialized— the remaining elements are set to 0. A special case of array initialization occurs in the case of character arrays, which can be initialized by a constant character string. For example char today[] = “Monday”; declares today as an array of characters.This array is initialized to the characters ‘M’,‘o’, 'n', 'd', 'a', 'y', and '\0', respectively. If you explicitly dimension the character array and don’t leave room for the terminat- ing null, the compiler doesn’t place a null at the end of the array: char today[6] = “Monday”; This declares today as an array of six characters and sets its elements to the characters 'M', 'o', 'n', 'd', 'a', and 'y', respectively. 517Data Types and Declarations By enclosing an element number in a pair of brackets, specific array elements can be initialized in any order. For example int x = 1233; int a[] = { [9] = x + 1, [2] = 3, [1] = 2, [0] = 1 }; defines a 10-element array called a (based on the highest index into the array) and initial- izes the last element to the value of x + 1 (1234) and the first three elements to 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Variable-Length Arrays Inside a function, method, or block, you can dimension an array using an expression con- taining variables. In that case, the size is calculated at runtime. For example, the function int makeVals (int n) { int valArray[n]; ... } defines an automatic array called valArray with a size of n elements, where n is evaluated at runtime and can vary between function calls.Variable-length arrays cannot be initial- ized. Multidimensional Arrays The general format for declaring a multidimensional array follows: type name[d1][d2]...[dn] = initializationList; The array name is defined to contain d1 x d2 x...x dn elements of the specified type. For example int three_d [5][2][20]; defines a three-dimensional array, three_d, containing 200 integers. A particular element is referenced from a multidimensional array by enclosing the desired subscript for each dimension in its own set of brackets. For example, the statement three_d [4][0][15] = 100; stores 100 into the indicated element of the array three_d. Multidimensional arrays can be initialized in the same manner as one-dimensional ar- rays. Nested pairs of braces can be used to control the assignment of values to the ele- ments in the array. The following declares matrix to be a two-dimensional array containing four rows and three columns: int matrix[4][3] = { { 1, 2, 3 }, { 4, 5, 6 }, { 7, 8, 9 } }; 518 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Elements in the first row of matrix are set to the values 1, 2, and 3, respectively; in the second row they are set to 4, 5, and 6, respectively; and in the third row they are set to 7, 8, and 9, respectively.The elements in the fourth row are set to 0 because no values are specified for that row.The declaration int matrix[4][3] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 }; initializes matrix to the same values because the elements of a multidimensional array are initialized in dimension order—that is, from leftmost to rightmost dimension. The declaration int matrix[4][3] = { { 1 }, { 4 }, { 7 } }; sets the first element of the first row of matrix to 1, the first element of the second row to 4, and the first element of the third row to 7.All remaining elements are set to 0 by de- fault. Finally,the declaration int matrix[4][3] = { [0][0] = 1, [1][1] = 5, [2][2] = 9 }; initializes the indicated elements of the matrix to the specified values. Structures General Format: struct name { memberDeclaration memberDeclaration ... } variableList; The structure name is defined to contain the members as specified by each memberDeclaration. Each such declaration consists of a type specification followed by a list of one or more member names. Variables can be declared at the time that the structure is defined simply by listing them before the terminating semicolon, or they can subsequently be declared using the following format: struct name variableList; 519Data Types and Declarations This format cannot be used if name is omitted when the structure is defined. In that case, all variables of that structure type must be declared with the definition. The format for initializing a structure variable is similar to that for arrays. Its members can be initialized by enclosing the list of initial values in a pair of curly braces. Each value in the list must be a constant expression if a global structure is initialized. The declaration struct point { float x; float y; } start = {100.0, 200.0}; defines a structure called point and a struct point variable called start with initial values as specified. Specific members can be designated for initialization in any order with the notation .member = value in the initialization list, as in struct point end = { .y = 500, .x = 200 }; The declaration struct entry { char *word; char *def; } dictionary[1000] = { { “a”, “first letter of the alphabet” }, { “aardvark”, “a burrowing African mammal” }, { “aback”, “to startle” } }; declares dictionary to contain 1,000 entry structures, with the first 3 elements initial- ized to the specified character string pointers. Using designated initializers, you could have also written it like this: struct entry { char *word; char *def; } dictionary[1000] = { [0].word = “a”, [0].def = “first letter of the alphabet”, [1].word = “aardvark”, [1].def = “a burrowing African mammal”, [2].word = “aback”, [2].def = “to startle” }; 520 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary or equivalently like this: struct entry { char *word; char *def; } dictionary[1000] = { { {.word = “a”, .def = “first letter of the alphabet” }, {.word = “aardvark”, .def = “a burrowing African mammal”} , {.word = “aback”, .def = “to startle”} }; An automatic structure variable can be initialized to another structure of the same type like this: struct date tomorrow = today; This declares the date structure variable tomorrow and assigns to it the contents of the (previously declared) date structure variable today. A memberDeclaration that has the format type fieldName : n defines a field that is n bits wide inside the structure, where n is an integer value. Fields can be packed from left to right on some machines and right to left on others. If fieldName is omitted, the specified number of bits is reserved but cannot be referenced. If fieldName is omitted and n is 0, the field that follows is aligned on the next storage unit boundary,where a unit is implementation-defined.The type of a field can be int, signed int, or unsigned int. It is implementation-defined whether an int field is treated as signed or unsigned.The address operator (&) cannot be applied to a field, and arrays of fields cannot be defined. Unions General Format: union name { memberDeclaration memberDeclaration ... } variableList; This defines a union called name with members as specified by each memberDeclaration. Each member of the union shares overlapping storage space, and the compiler ensures that enough space is reserved to contain the largest member of the union. 521Data Types and Declarations Variables can be declared at the time that the union is defined, or they can be subse- quently declared using the notation union name variableList; provided the union was given a name when it was defined. It is the programmer’s responsibility to ensure that the value retrieved from a union is consistent with the last value stored inside the union.The first member of a union can be initialized by enclosing the initial value, which, in the case of a global union variable, must be a constant expression, inside a pair of curly braces: union shared { long long int l; long int w[2]; } swap = { 0xffffffff }; A different member can be initialized instead by specifying the member name, as in union shared swap2 = {.w[0] = 0x0, .w[1] = 0xffffffff}; This declares the union variable swap and sets the l member to hexadecimal ffffffff. An automatic union variable can also be initialized to a union of the same type, as in union shared swap2 = swap; Pointers The basic format for declaring a pointer variable is as follows: type *name; The identifier name is declared to be of type “pointer to type,”which can be a basic data type or a derived data type. For example int *ip; declares ip to be a pointer to an int, and the declaration struct entry *ep; declares ep to be a pointer to an entry structure. If Fraction is defined as a class, the declaration Fraction *myFract; 522 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary declares myFract to be an object of type Fraction—or more explicitly, myFract is used to hold a pointer to the object’s data structure after an instance of the object is created and assigned to the variable. Pointers that point to elements in an array are declared to point to the type of element contained in the array.For example, the previous declaration of ip would also be used to declare a pointer into an array of integers. More advanced forms of pointer declarations are also permitted. For example, the dec- laration char *tp[100]; declares tp to be an array of 100 character pointers, and the declaration struct entry (*fnPtr) (int); declares fnPtr to be a pointer to a function that returns an entry structure and takes a single int argument. A pointer can be tested to see whether it’s null by comparing it against a constant ex- pression whose value is 0.The implementation can choose to internally represent a null pointer with a value other than 0. However, a comparison between such an internally represented null pointer and a constant value of 0 must prove equal. The manner in which pointers are converted to integers and integers are converted to pointers is machine-dependent, as is the size of the integer required to hold a pointer. The type “pointer to void” is the generic pointer type.The language guarantees that a pointer of any type can be assigned to a void pointer and back again without changing its value. The type id is a generic object pointer.Any object from any class can be assigned to an id variable, and vice versa. Other than these two special cases, assignment of different pointer types is not permit- ted and typically results in a warning message from the compiler if attempted. Enumerated Data Types General Format: enum name { enum_1, enum_2, .. } variableList; The enumerated type name is defined with enumeration values enum_1, enum_2,..., each of which is an identifier or an identifier followed by an equals sign and a constant expression. variableList is an optional list of variables (with optional initial values) de- clared to be of type enum name. The compiler assigns sequential integers to the enumeration identifiers starting at 0. If an identifier is followed by = and a constant expression, the value of that expression is as- signed to the identifier. Subsequent identifiers are assigned values beginning with that constant expression plus one. Enumeration identifiers are treated as constant integer val- ues by the compiler. 523Data Types and Declarations If you want to declare variables to be of a previously defined (and named) enumera- tion type, you can use the following construct: enum name variableList; A variable declared to be of a particular enumerated type can be assigned only a value of the same data type, although the compiler might not flag this as an error. typedef The typedef statement is used to assign a new name to a basic or derived data type.The typedef does not define a new type but simply a new name for an existing type.There- fore, variables declared o be of the newly named type are treated by the compiler exactly as if they were declared to be of the type associated with the new name. In forming a typedef definition, proceed as though a normal variable declaration were being made.Then, place the new type name where the variable name would nor- mally appear Fina ly,in front of every hing, place the keyword typedef As an example, typedef struct { float x; float y; } POINT; associates the name POINT with a structure containing two floating-point members called x and y.Variables can subsequently be declared to be of type POINT, like so: POINT origin = { 0.0, 0.0 }; Type Modifiers: const, volatile, and restrict The keyword const can be placed before a type declaration to tell the compiler the value cannot be modified. So, the declaration const int x5 = 100; declares x5 to be a constant integer. (That is, it won’t be set to anything else during the program’s execution.) The compiler is not required to flag attempts to change the value of a const variable. The volatile modifier explicitly tells the compiler that the value changes (usually dy- namically).When a volatile variable is used in an expression, its value is accessed each place it appears. To declare port17 to be of type “volatile pointer to char,”you would write this line: char *volatile port17; 524 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary The restrict keyword can be used with pointers. It is a hint to the compiler for op- timization (similar to the register keyword for variables).The restrict keyword speci- fies to the compiler that the pointer will be the only reference to a particular object—that is, it will not be referenced by any other pointer within the same scope.The lines int * restrict intPtrA; int * restrict intPtrB; tell the compiler that, for the duration of the scope in which intPtrA and intPtrB are defined, they will never access the same value.Their use for pointing to integers (in an ar- ray,for example) is mutually exclusive. Expressions Variable names, function names, message expressions, array names, constants, function calls, array references, and structure and union references are all considered expressions. Applying a unary operator (where appropriate) to one of these expressions is also an ex- pression, as is combining two or more of these expressions with a binary or ternary oper- ator. Finally,an expression enclosed within parentheses is also an expression. An expression of any type other than void that identifies a data object is called an lvalue. If it can be assigned a value, it is known as a modifiable lvalue. Modifiable lvalue expressions are required in certain places.The expression on the left side of an assignment operator must be a modifiable lvalue.The unary address operator can be applied only to a modifiable lvalue or a function name. Finally,the increment and decrement operators can be applied only to modifiable lvalues. Summary of Objective-C Operators Table B.4 summarizes the various operators in the Objective-C language.These operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence, and operators grouped together have the same precedence. As an example of how to use Table B.4, consider the following expression: b | c & d * e The multiplication operator has higher precedence than both the bitwise OR and bitwise AND operators because it appears above both of these in Table B.4. Similarly, the bitwise AND operator has higher precedence than the bitwise OR operator because the former appears above the latter in the table.Therefore, this expression would be evaluated as b | ( c & ( d * e ) ) Now,consider the following expression: b % c * d 525Expressions Table B.4 Summary of Objective-C Operators Operator Description Associativity () Function call [] Array element reference or message expression -> Pointer to structure member reference Left to right . Structure member reference or method call - Unary minus + Unary plus ++ Increment -- Decrement ! Logical negation ~ Ones complement Right to left * Pointer reference (indirection) & Address sizeof Size of an object (type) Type cast (conversion) * Multiplication / Division Left to right % Modulus + Addition Left to right - Subtraction << Left shift Left to right >> Right shift < Less than <= Less than or equal to Left to right > Greater than >= Greater than or equal to == Equality Left to right != Inequality & Bitwise AND Left to right 526 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Because the modulus and multiplication operators appear in the same grouping in Table B.4, they have the same precedence.The associativity listed for these operators is left to right, indicating that the expression would be evaluated as follows: ( b % c ) * d As another example, the expression ++a->b would be evaluated as ++(a->b) because the -> operator has higher precedence than the ++ operator. Finally,because the assignment operators group from right to left, the statement a = b = 0; would be evaluated as a = (b = 0); which would have the net result of setting the values of a and b to 0. In the case of the expression x[i] + ++i Table B.4 Summary of Objective-C Operators Operator Description Associativity ^ Bitwise XOR Left to right | Bitwise OR Left to right && Logical AND Left to right || Logical OR Left to right ?: Conditional Right to left = *= /= %= += -= &= ^= |= <<= >>= Assignment operators Right to left , Comma operator Right to left 527Expressions it is not defined whether the compiler will evaluate the left side of the plus operator or the right side first. Here, the way that it’s done affects the result because the value of i might be incremented before x[i] is evaluated. Another case in which the order of evaluation is not defined is in the expression shown here: x[i] = ++i In this situation, it is not defined whether the value of i will be incremented before or after its value is used to index into x. The order of evaluation of function and method arguments is also undefined.There- fore, in the function call f (i, ++i); or in the message expression [myFract setTo: i over: ++i]; i might be incremented first, thereby causing the same value to be sent as the two argu- ments to the function or method. The Objective-C language guarantees that the && and || operators will be evaluated from left to right. Furthermore, in the case of &&, it is guaranteed that the second operand will not be evaluated if the first is 0; in the case of ||, it is guaranteed that the second operand will not be evaluated if the first is nonzero.This fact is worth considering when forming expressions such as if ( dataFlag || [myData checkData] ) ... because, in this case, checkData is invoked only if the value of dataFlag is 0.As another example, if the array object a is defined to contain n elements, the statement that begins if (index >= 0 && index < n && ([a objectAtIndex: index] == 0)) ... references the element contained in the array only if index is a valid subscript into the array. 528 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Constant Expressions A constant expression is an expression in which each of the terms is a constant value. Con- stant expressions are required in the following situations: 1. As the value after a case in a switch statement 2. For specifying the size of an array 3. For assigning a value to an enumeration identifier 4. For specifying the bit field size in a structure definition 5. For assigning initial values to external or static variables 6. For specifying initial values to global variables 7. As the expression following the #if in a #if preprocessor statement In the first four cases, the constant expression must consist of integer constants, charac- ter constants, enumeration constants, and sizeof expressions.The only operators that can be used are the arithmetic operators, bitwise operators, relational operators, conditional expression operator, and type cast operator. In the fifth and sixth cases, in addition to the rules cited earlier, the address operator can be implicitly or explicitly used. However, it can be applied only to external or static variables or functions. So, for example, the expression &x + 10 would be a valid constant expression, provided that x is an external or static variable. Fur- thermore, the expression &a[10] - 5 is a valid constant expression if a is an external or static array.Finally,because &a[0] is equivalent to the expression a a + sizeof (char) * 100 is also a valid constant expression. For the last situation that requires a constant expression (after the #if), the rules are the same as for the first four cases, except the sizeof operator, enumeration constants, and type cast operator cannot be used. However, the special defined operator is permit- ted (see the section “The #if Directive”). 529Expressions Arithmetic Operators Given that In each expression, the usual arithmetic conversions are performed on the operands (see the section “Conversion of Basic Data Types”).If a is unsigned, -a is calculated by first applying integral promotion to it, subtracting it from the largest value of the pro- moted type, and adding 1 to the result. If two integral values are divided, the result is truncated. If either operand is negative, the direction of the truncation is not defined (that is, –3 / 2 can produce –1 on some ma- chines and –2 on others); otherwise, truncation is always toward 0 (3 / 2 always produces 1). See the section “Basic Operations with Pointers” for a summary of arithmetic opera- tions with pointers. Logical Operators Given that 2a, b are expressions of any basic data type except void; i, j are expressions of any integer data type; the expression -a negates the value of a; +a gives the value of a; a + b adds a with b; a - b subtracts b from a; a * b multiplies a by b; a / b divides a by b; i % j gives the remainder of i divided by j. a, b are expressions of any basic data type except void, or are both pointers; the expression a && b has the value 1 if both a and b are nonzero and 0 otherwise (and b is evaluated only if a is nonzero); a || b has the value 1 if either a or b is nonzero and 0 otherwise (and b is evaluated only if a is 0); ! a has the value 1 if a is 0, and 0 otherwise. 530 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary The usual arithmetic conversions are applied to a and b (see the section “Conversion of Basic Data Types”).The type of the result in all cases is int. Relational Operators Given that The usual arithmetic conversions are performed on a and b (see the section “Conver- sion of Basic Data Types”).The first four relational tests are meaningful for pointers only if they both point into the same array or to members of the same structure or union. The type of the result in each case is int. Bitwise Operators Given that a, b are expressions of any basic data type except void, or are both pointers; the expression a < b has the value 1 if a is less than b, and 0 otherwise; a <= b has the value 1 if a is less than or equal to b, and 0 otherwise; a > b has the value 1 if a is greater than b, and 0 otherwise; a >= b has the value 1 if a is greater than or equal to b, and 0 otherwise; a == b has the value 1 if a is equal to b, and 0 otherwise; a != b has the value 1 if a is not equal to b, and 0 otherwise. ]]i, j, n are expressions of any integer data type; the expression the expression i & j performs a bitwise AND of i and j; i | j performs a bitwise OR of i and j; i ^ j performs a bitwise XOR of i and j; ~i takes the ones complement of i; i << n shifts i to the left n bits; i >> n shifts i to the right n bits. 531Expressions The usual arithmetic conversions are performed on the operands, except with << and >>, in which case just integral promotion is performed on each operand (see the section “Conversion of Basic Data Types”).If the shift count is negative or is greater than or equal to the number of bits contained in the object being shifted, the result of the shift is undefined. On some machines, a right shift is arithmetic (sign fill) and on others logical (zero fill).The type of the result of a shift operation is that of the promoted left operand. Increment and Decrement Operators Given that The section “Basic Operations with Pointers” describes these operations on pointers. l is a modifiable lvalue expression, whose type is not qualified as const; the expression ++l increments l and then uses its value as the value of the expression; l++ uses l as the value of the expression and then increments l; --1 decrements l and then uses its value as the value of the expression; l-- uses l as the value of the expression and then decrements l. Assignment Operators Given that ]]l is a modifiable lvalue expression, whose type is not qualified as const; op is any operator that can be used as an assignment operator (see Table B.4); a is an expression; the expression l = a stores the value of a into l; l op= a applies op to l and a, storing the result into l. 532 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary In the first expression, if a is one of the basic data types (except void), it is converted to match the type of l. If l is a pointer, a must be a pointer to the same type as l,a void pointer, or the null pointer. If l is a void pointer, a can be of any pointer type.The second expression is treated as if it were written l=lop (a), except l is evaluated only once (consider x[i++] += 10). Conditional Operator Given that Expressions b and c must be of the same data type. If they are not, but are both arith- metic data types, the usual arithmetic conversions are applied to make their types the same. If one is a pointer and the other is 0, the latter is taken as a null pointer of the same type as the former. If one is a pointer to void and the other is a pointer to another type, the latter is converted to be a pointer to void and is the resulting type. Type Cast Operator Given that a, b, c are expressions; the expression a ? b : c has as its value b if a is nonzero, and c otherwise. Only expression b or c is evaluated. ]]type is the name of a basic data type, an enumerated data type (preceded by the keyword enum), or a typedef-defined type, or is a derived data type; a is an expression; the expression ( type ) converts a to the specified type. 533Expressions If type is char, the result is defined to be 1. If a is the name of an array that has been dimensioned (either explicitly or implicitly through initialization) and is not a formal pa- rameter or undimensioned extern array, sizeof a gives the number of bytes required to store the elements in a. If a is the name of a class, sizeof (a) gives the size of the data structure needed to hold an instance of a. The type of the integer produced by the sizeof operator is size_t, which is defined in the standard header file . If a is a variable length array,then the expression is evaluated at runtime; otherwise, it is evaluated at compile time and can be used in constant expressions (refer to the section “Constant Expressions”). Comma Operator Given that type is as described previously; a is an expression; the expression sizeof (type) has as its value the number of bytes needed to contain a value of the specified type; sizeof a has as its value the number of by es required to hold the result of the evalua- tion of a a, b are expressions; the expression a, b causes a to be evaluated and then b to be evaluated.The type and value of the expression are that of b. Note that the use of a parenthesized type in a method declaration or definition is not an example of the use of the type cast operator. sizeof Operator Given that 534 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary In each case, the type of the result is the type of the elements contained in a. See the section “Basic Operations with Pointers” for a summary of operations with pointers and arrays. Basic Operations with Structures Note This also applies to unions. Given that x is a modifiable lvalue expression of type struct s; y is an expression of type struct s; m is the name of one of the members of the structure s; obj is any object; M is any method; v is an expression; the expression x references the entire structure and is of type struct s; y.m references the member m of the structure y and is of the type declared for the member m; Basic Operations with Arrays Given that a is declared as an array of n elements; i is an expression of any integer data type; v is an expression; the expression a[0] references the first element of a; a[n - 1] references the last element of a; a[i] references element number i of a; a[i] = v stores the value of v into a[i]. 535Expressions Basic Operations with Pointers Given that x.m = v assigns v to the member m of x and is of the type declared for the member m; x = y assigns y to x and is of type struct s; f (y) calls the function f, passing contents of the structure y as the argument (inside f, the formal parameter must be declared to be of type struct s); [obj M: y] invokes the method M on the object obj, passing the contents of the structure y as the argument (inside the method, the parameter must be declared to be of type struct s); return y; returns the structure y (the return type declared for the function or method must be struct s). x is an lvalue expression of type t; pt is a modifiable lvalue expression of type “pointer to t”; v is an expression; the expression &x produces a pointer to x and has type “pointer to t”; pt = &x sets pt pointing to x and has type “pointer to t”; pt = 0 assigns the null pointer to pt; pt == 0 tests whether pt is null; *pt references the value pointed to by pt and has type t; *pt = v stores the value of v into the location pointed to by pt and has type t. 536 Appendix B Objective-C 2.0 Language Summary Pointers to Arrays Given that a is an array of elements of type t; pa1 is a modifiable lvalue expression of type “pointer to t” that points to an element in a; pa2 is an lvalue expression of type “pointer to t” that points to an element in a, or to one past the last element in a; v is an expression; n is an integral expression; the expression a, &a, &a[0] each produces a pointer to the first element; &a[n] produces a pointer to element number n of a and has type “pointer to t”; *pa1 references the element of a that pa1 points to and has type t; *pa1 = v stores the value of v into the element pointed to by pa1 and has type t; ++pa1 sets pa1 pointing to the next element of a, no matter which type of elements is contained in a, and has type “pointer to t”; --pa1 sets pa1 pointing to the previous element of a, no matter which type of elements is contained in a, and has type “pointer to t”; *++pa1 increments pa1 and then references the value in a that pa1 points to and has type t; *pa1++ references the value in a that pa1 points to before incrementing pa1 and has type t; pa1 + n produces a pointer that points n elements further into a than pa1 and has type “pointer to t”; pa1 - n produces a pointer to a that points n elements previous to that pointed to by pa1 and has type “pointer to t”; *(pa1 + n) stores the value of v into the element pointed to by pa1 + n and has = v type t; pa1 < pa2 tests whether pa1 is pointing to an earlier element in a than is pa2 and has type int (any relational operators can be used to compare two pointers); 537Expressions pa2 - pa1 produces the number of elements in a contained between the pointers pa2 and pa1 (assuming that pa2 points to an element further in a than pa1) and has integer type; a + n produces a pointer to element number n of a, has type “pointer to t,” and is in all ways equivalent to the expression &a[n]; *(a + n) references element number n of a, has type t, and is in all ways equiva- lent to the expression a[n]. The actual type of the integer produced by subtracting two pointers is specified by ptrdiff_t, which is defined in the standard header file . Pointers to Structures Given that x is an lvalue expression of type struct s; ps is a modifiable lvalue expression of type “pointer to struct s”; m is the name of a member of the structur