Google的Java源代码编码规范(Google Java Style)

google-st Google Java Style 1 Introduction This document serves as the complete def inition of Google's coding standards f or source code in the Java™ Programming Language. A Java source f ile is described as being in Google Style if and only if it adheres to the rules herein. Like other programming style guides, the issues covered span not only aesthetic issues of f ormatting, but other types of conventions or coding standards as well. However, this document f ocuses primarily on the hard-and-fast rules that we f ollow universally, and avoids giving advice that isn't clearly enf orceable (whether by human or tool). 1.1 Terminology notes In this document, unless otherwise clarif ied: 1. The term class is used inclusively to mean an "ordinary" class, enum class, interf ace or annotation type ( @interface). 2. The term comment always ref ers to implementation comments. We do not use the phrase "documentation comments", instead using the common term "Javadoc." Other "terminology notes" will appear occasionally throughout the document. 1.2 Guide notes Example code in this document is non-normative. That is, while the examples are in Google Style, they may not illustrate the only stylish way to represent the code. Optional f ormatting choices made in examples should not be enf orced as rules. 2 Source file basics 2.1 File name The source f ile name consists of the case-sensitive name of the top-level class it contains, plus the .java extension (aside f rom f iles). 2.2 File encoding: UTF-8 Source f iles are encoded in UTF-8. 2.3 Special characters 2.3.1 Whitespace characters Aside f rom the line terminator sequence, the ASCII horizontal space character (0x20) is the only whitespace character that appears anywhere in a source f ile. This implies that: 1. All other whitespace characters in string and character literals are escaped. 2. Tab characters are not used f or indentation. 2.3.2 Special escape sequences For any character that has a special escape sequence (\b, \t, \n, \f, \r, \", \' and \\), that sequence is used rather than the corresponding octal (e.g. \012) or Unicode (e.g. \u000a) escape. 2.3.3 Non-ASCII characters For the remaining non-ASCII characters, either the actual Unicode character (e.g. ∞) or the equivalent Unicode escape (e.g. \u221e) is used, depending only on which makes the code easier to read and understand. Tip: in the Unicode escape case, and occasionally even when actual Unicode characters are used, an explanatory comment can be very helpf ul. Examples: Example Discussion String unitAbbrev = "μs"; Best: perf ectly clear even without a comment. String unitAbbrev = "\u03bcs"; // "μs" Allowed, but there's no reason to do this. String unitAbbrev = "\u03bcs"; // Greek letter mu, "s" Allowed, but awkward and prone to mistakes. String unitAbbrev = "\u03bcs"; Poor: the reader has no idea what this is. return '\ufeff' + content; // byte order mark Good: use escapes f or non-printable characters, and comment if necessary. Tip: Never make your code less readable simply out of f ear that some programs might not handle non-ASCII characters properly. If that should happen, those programs are broken and they must be fixed. 3 Source file structure A source f ile consists of , in order: 1. License or copyright inf ormation, if present 2. Package statement 3. Import statements 4. Exactly one top-level class Exactly one blank line separates each section that is present. 3.1 License or copyright information, if present If license or copyright inf ormation belongs in a f ile, it belongs here. 3.2 Package statement The package statement is not line-wrapped. The column limit (Section 4.4, Column limit: 80 or 100) does not apply to package statements. 3.3 Import statements 3.3.1 No wildcard imports Wildcard imports, static or otherwise, are not used. 3.3.2 No line-wrapping Import statements are not line-wrapped. The column limit (Section 4.4, Column limit: 80 or 100) does not apply to import statements. 3.3.3 Ordering and spacing Import statements are divided into the f ollowing groups, in this order, with each group separated by a single blank line: 1. All static imports in a single group 2. imports (only if this source f ile is in the package space) 3. Third-party imports, one group per top-level package, in ASCII sort order f or example: android, com, junit, org, sun 4. java imports 5. javax imports Within a group there are no blank lines, and the imported names appear in ASCII sort order. (Note: this is not the same as the import statements being in ASCII sort order; the presence of semicolons warps the result.) 3.4 Class declaration 3.4.1 Exactly one top-level class declaration Each top-level class resides in a source f ile of its own. Exception: of course, no such class appears in f iles. 3.4.2 Class member ordering The ordering of the members of a class can have a great ef f ect on learnability, but there is no single correct recipe f or how to do it. Dif f erent classes may order their members dif f erently. What is important is that each class order its members in some logical order, which its maintainer could explain if asked. For example, new methods are not just habitually added to the end of the class, as that would yield "chronological by date added" ordering, which is not a logical ordering. Overloads: never split When a class has multiple constructors, or multiple methods with the same name, these appear sequentially, with no intervening members. 4 Formatting Terminology Note: block-like construct ref ers to the body of a class, method or constructor. Note that, by Section on array initializers, any array initializer may optionally be treated as if it were a block-like construct. 4.1 Braces 4.1.1 Braces are used where optional Braces are used with if, else, for, do and while statements, even when the body is empty or contains only a single statement. 4.1.2 Nonempty blocks: K & R style Braces f ollow the Kernighan and Ritchie style ("Egyptian brackets") f or nonempty blocks and block-like constructs: No line break bef ore the opening brace. Line break af ter the opening brace. Line break bef ore the closing brace. Line break af ter the closing brace if that brace terminates a statement or the body of a method, constructor or named class. For example, there is no line break af ter the brace if it is f ollowed by else or a comma. Example: return new MyClass() { @Override public void method() { if (condition()) { try { something(); } catch (ProblemException e) { recover(); } } } }; A f ew exceptions f or enum classes are given in Section 4.8.1, Enum classes. 4.1.3 Empty blocks: may be concise An empty block or block-like construct may be closed immediately af ter it is opened, with no characters or line break in between ({}), unless it is part of a multi-block statement (one that directly contains multiple blocks: if/else-if/else or try/catch/finally). Example: void doNothing() {} 4.2 Block indentation: +2 spaces Each time a new block or block-like construct is opened, the indent increases by two spaces. When the block ends, the indent returns to the previous indent level. The indent level applies to both code and comments throughout the block. (See the example in Section 4.1.2, Nonempty blocks: K & R Style.) 4.3 One statement per line Each statement is f ollowed by a line-break. 4.4 Column limit: 80 or 100 Projects are f ree to choose a column limit of either 80 or 100 characters. Except as noted below, any line that would exceed this limit must be line-wrapped, as explained in Section 4.5, Line-wrapping. Exceptions: 1. Lines where obeying the column limit is not possible (f or example, a long URL in Javadoc, or a long JSNI method ref erence). 2. package and import statements (see Sections 3.2 Package statement and 3.3 Import statements). 3. Command lines in a comment that may be cut-and-pasted into a shell. 4.5 Line-wrapping Terminology Note: When code that might otherwise legally occupy a single line is divided into multiple lines, typically to avoid overf lowing the column limit, this activity is called line-wrapping. There is no comprehensive, deterministic f ormula showing exactly how to line-wrap in every situation. Very of ten there are several valid ways to line-wrap the same piece of code. Tip: extracting a method or local variable may solve the problem without the need to line-wrap. 4.5.1 Where to break The prime directive of line-wrapping is: pref er to break at a higher syntactic level. Also: 1. When a line is broken at a non-assignment operator the break comes before the symbol. (Note that this is not the same practice used in Google style f or other languages, such as C++ and JavaScript.) This also applies to the f ollowing "operator-like" symbols: the dot separator (.), the ampersand in type bounds (), and the pipe in catch blocks ( catch (FooException | BarException e)). 2. When a line is broken at an assignment operator the break typically comes after the symbol, but either way is acceptable. This also applies to the "assignment-operator-like" colon in an enhanced for ("f oreach") statement. 3. A method or constructor name stays attached to the open parenthesis (() that f ollows it. 4. A comma (,) stays attached to the token that precedes it. 4.5.2 Indent continuation lines at least +4 spaces When line-wrapping, each line af ter the f irst (each continuation line) is indented at least +4 f rom the original line. When there are multiple continuation lines, indentation may be varied beyond +4 as desired. In general, two continuation lines use the same indentation level if and only if they begin with syntactically parallel elements. Section 4.6.3 on Horizontal alignment addresses the discouraged practice of using a variable number of spaces to align certain tokens with previous lines. 4.6 Whitespace 4.6.1 Vertical Whitespace A single blank line appears: 1. Between consecutive members (or initializers) of a class: f ields, constructors, methods, nested classes, static initializers, instance initializers. Exception: a blank line between two consecutive f ields (having no other code between them) is optional. Such blank lines are used as needed to create logical groupings of f ields. 2. Within method bodies, as needed to create logical groupings of statements. 3. Optionally bef ore the f irst member or af ter the last member of the class (neither encouraged nor discouraged). 4. As required by other sections of this document (such as Section 3.3, Import statements). Multiple consecutive blank lines are permitted, but never required (or encouraged). 4.6.2 Horizontal whitespace Beyond where required by the language or other style rules, and apart f rom literals, comments and Javadoc, a single ASCII space also appears in the f ollowing places only. 1. Separating any reserved word, such as if, for or catch, f rom an open parenthesis (() that f ollows it on that line 2. Separating any reserved word, such as else or catch, f rom a closing curly brace (}) that precedes it on that line 3. Bef ore any open curly brace ({), with two exceptions: @SomeAnnotation({a, b}) (no space is used) String[][] x = {{"foo"}}; (no space is required between {{, by item 8 below) 4. On both sides of any binary or ternary operator. This also applies to the f ollowing "operator-like" symbols: the ampersand in a conjunctive type bound: the pipe f or a catch block that handles multiple exceptions: catch (FooException | BarException e) the colon (:) in an enhanced for ("f oreach") statement 5. Af ter ,:; or the closing parenthesis ()) of a cast 6. On both sides of the double slash (//) that begins an end-of -line comment. Here, multiple spaces are allowed, but not required. 7. Between the type and variable of a declaration: List list 8. Optional just inside both braces of an array initializer new int[] {5, 6} and new int[] { 5, 6 } are both valid Note: this rule never requires or f orbids additional space at the start or end of a line, only interior space. 4.6.3 Horizontal alignment: never required Terminology Note: Horizontal alignment is the practice of adding a variable number of additional spaces in your code with the goal of making certain tokens appear directly below certain other tokens on previous lines. This practice is permitted, but is never required by Google Style. It is not even required to maintain horizontal alignment in places where it was already used. Here is an example without alignment, then using alignment: private int x; // this is fine private Color color; // this too private int x; // permitted, but future edits private Color color; // may leave it unaligned Tip: Alignment can aid readability, but it creates problems f or f uture maintenance. Consider a f uture change that needs to touch just one line. This change may leave the f ormerly-pleasing f ormatting mangled, and that is allowed. More of ten it prompts the coder (perhaps you) to adjust whitespace on nearby lines as well, possibly triggering a cascading series of ref ormattings. That one-line change now has a "blast radius." This can at worst result in pointless busywork, but at best it still corrupts version history inf ormation, slows down reviewers and exacerbates merge conf licts. 4.7 Grouping parentheses: recommended Optional grouping parentheses are omitted only when author and reviewer agree that there is no reasonable chance the code will be misinterpreted without them, nor would they have made the code easier to read. It is not reasonable to assume that every reader has the entire Java operator precedence table memorized. 4.8 Specific constructs 4.8.1 Enum classes Af ter each comma that f ollows an enum constant, a line-break is optional. An enum class with no methods and no documentation on its constants may optionally be f ormatted as if it were an array initializer: private enum Suit { CLUBS, HEARTS, SPADES, DIAMONDS } Since enum classes are classes, all other rules f or f ormatting classes apply. 4.8.2 Variable declarations One variable per declaration Combined declarations such as int a, b; are not used. Declared when needed, initialized as soon as possible Local variables are not habitually declared at the start of their containing block or block-like construct. Instead, local variables are declared close to the point they are f irst used (within reason), to minimize their scope. Local variable declarations typically have initializers, or are initialized immediately af ter declaration. 4.8.3 Arrays Array initializers: can be "block-like" Any array initializer may optionally be f ormatted as if it were a "block-like construct." For example, the f ollowing are all valid (not an exhaustive list): new int[] { new int[] { 0, 1, 2, 3 0, } 1, 2, new int[] { 3, 0, 1, } 2, 3 } new int[] {0, 1, 2, 3} No C-style array declarations The square brackets f orm a part of the type, not the variable: String[] args, not String args[]. 4.8.4 Switch statements Terminology Note: Inside the braces of a switch block are one or more statement groups. Each statement group consists of one or more switch labels (either case FOO: or default:), f ollowed by one or more statements. Indentation As with any other block, the contents of a switch block are indented +2. Af ter a switch label, a newline appears, and the indentation level is increased +2, exactly as if a block were being opened. The f ollowing switch label returns to the previous indentation level, as if a block had been closed. Fall-through: commented Within a switch block, each statement group either terminates abruptly (with a break, continue, return or thrown exception), or is marked with a comment to indicate that execution will or might continue into the next statement group. Any comment that communicates the idea of f all-through is suf f icient (typically // fall through ). This special comment is not required in the last statement group of the switch block. Example: switch (input) { case 1: case 2: prepareOneOrTwo(); // fall through case 3: handleOneTwoOrThree(); break; default: handleLargeNumber(input); } The default case is present Each switch statement includes a default statement group, even if it contains no code. 4.8.5 Annotations Annotations applying to a class, method or constructor appear immediately af ter the documentation block, and each annotation is listed on a line of its own (that is, one annotation per line). These line breaks do not constitute line-wrapping (Section 4.5, Line-wrapping), so the indentation level is not increased. Example: @Override @Nullable public String getNameIfPresent() { ... } Exception: a single parameterless annotation may instead appear together with the f irst line of the signature, f or example: @Override public int hashCode() { ... } Annotations applying to a f ield also appear immediately af ter the documentation block, but in this case, multiple annotations (possibly parameterized) may be listed on the same line; f or example: @Partial @Mock DataLoader loader; There are no specif ic rules f or f ormatting parameter and local variable annotations. 4.8.6 Comments Block comment style Block comments are indented at the same level as the surrounding code. They may be in /* ... */ style or // ... style. For multi-line /* ... */ comments, subsequent lines must start with * aligned with the * on the previous line. /* * This is // And so /* Or you can * okay. // is this. * even do this. */ */ Comments are not enclosed in boxes drawn with asterisks or other characters. Tip: When writing multi-line comments, use the /* ... */ style if you want automatic code f ormatters to re-wrap the lines when necessary (paragraph-style). Most f ormatters don't re-wrap lines in // ... style comment blocks. 4.8.7 Modifiers Class and member modif iers, when present, appear in the order recommended by the Java Language Specif ication: public protected private abstract static final transient volatile synchronized native strictfp 5 Naming 5.1 Rules common to all identifiers Identif iers use only ASCII letters and digits, and in two cases noted below, underscores. Thus each valid identif ier name is matched by the regular expression \w+ . In Google Style special pref ixes or suf f ixes, like those seen in the examples name_, mName, s_name and kName, are not used. 5.2 Rules by identifier type 5.2.1 Package names Package names are all lowercase, with consecutive words simply concatenated together (no underscores). 5.2.2 Class names Class names are written in UpperCamelCase. Class names are typically nouns or noun phrases. Interf ace names may sometimes be adjectives or adjective phrases instead. There are no specif ic rules or even well-established conventions f or naming annotation types. Test classes are named starting with the name of the class they are testing, and ending with Test. For example, HashTest or HashIntegrationTest. 5.2.3 Method names Method names are written in lowerCamelCase. Method names are typically verbs or verb phrases. Underscores may appear in JUnit test method names to separate logical components of the name. One typical pattern is test_, f or example testPop_emptyStack. There is no One Correct Way to name test methods. 5.2.4 Constant names Constant names use CONSTANT_CASE: all uppercase letters, with words separated by underscores. But what is a constant, exactly? Every constant is a static f inal f ield, but not all static f inal f ields are constants. Bef ore choosing constant case, consider whether the f ield really feels like a constant. For example, if any of that instance's observable state can change, it is almost certainly not a constant. Merely intending to never mutate the object is generally not enough. Examples: // Constants static final int NUMBER = 5; static final ImmutableList NAMES = ImmutableList.of("Ed", "Ann"); static final Joiner COMMA_JOINER = Joiner.on(','); // because Joiner is immutable static final SomeMutableType[] EMPTY_ARRAY = {}; enum SomeEnum { ENUM_CONSTANT } // Not constants static String nonFinal = "non-final"; final String nonStatic = "non-static"; static final Set mutableCollection = new HashSet(); static final ImmutableSet mutableElements = ImmutableSet.of(mutable); static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(MyClass.getName()); static final String[] nonEmptyArray = {"these", "can", "change"}; These names are typically nouns or noun phrases. 5.2.5 Non-constant field names Non-constant f ield names (static or otherwise) are written in lowerCamelCase. These names are typically nouns or noun phrases. 5.2.6 Parameter names Parameter names are written in lowerCamelCase. One-character parameter names should be avoided. 5.2.7 Local variable names Local variable names are written in lowerCamelCase, and can be abbreviated more liberally than other types of names. However, one-character names should be avoided, except f or temporary and looping variables. Even when f inal and immutable, local variables are not considered to be constants, and should not be styled as constants. 5.2.8 Type variable names Each type variable is named in one of two styles: A single capital letter, optionally f ollowed by a single numeral (such as E, T, X, T2) A name in the f orm used f or classes (see Section 5.2.2, Class names), f ollowed by the capital letter T (examples: RequestT, FooBarT). 5.3 Camel case: defined Sometimes there is more than one reasonable way to convert an English phrase into camel case, such as when acronyms or unusual constructs like "IPv6" or "iOS" are present. To improve predictability, Google Style specif ies the f ollowing (nearly) deterministic scheme. Beginning with the prose f orm of the name: 1. Convert the phrase to plain ASCII and remove any apostrophes. For example, "Müller's algorithm" might become "Muellers algorithm". 2. Divide this result into words, splitting on spaces and any remaining punctuation (typically hyphens). Recommended: if any word already has a conventional camel-case appearance in common usage, split this into its constituent parts (e.g., "AdWords" becomes "ad words"). Note that a word such as "iOS" is not really in camel case per se; it def ies any convention, so this recommendation does not apply. 3. Now lowercase everything (including acronyms), then uppercase only the f irst character of : ... each word, to yield upper camel case, or ... each word except the f irst, to yield lower camel case 4. Finally, join all the words into a single identif ier. Note that the casing of the original words is almost entirely disregarded. Examples: Prose form Correct Incorrect "XML HTTP request" XmlHttpRequest XMLHTTPRequest "new customer ID" newCustomerId newCustomerID "inner stopwatch" innerStopwatch innerStopWatch "supports IPv6 on iOS?" supportsIpv6OnIos supportsIPv6OnIOS "YouTube importer" YouTubeImporter YoutubeImporter* *Acceptable, but not recommended. Note: Some words are ambiguously hyphenated in the English language: f or example "nonempty" and "non- empty" are both correct, so the method names checkNonempty and checkNonEmpty are likewise both correct. 6 Programming Practices 6.1 @Override: always used The @Override annotation is used in any context in which it is legal. 6.2 Caught exceptions: not ignored Except as noted below, it is very rarely correct to do nothing in response to a caught exception. (Typical responses are to log it, or if it is considered "impossible", rethrow it as an AssertionError.) When it truly is appropriate to take no action whatsoever in a catch block, the reason this is justif ied is explained in a comment. try { int i = Integer.parseInt(response); return handleNumericResponse(i); } catch (NumberFormatException ok) { // it's not numeric; that's fine, just continue } return handleTextResponse(response); Exception: in tests, a caught exception may be ignored without comment if it is named expected. The f ollowing is a very common idiom f or ensuring that the method under test does throw an exception of the expected type, so a comment is unnecessary here. try { emptyStack.pop(); fail(); } catch (NoSuchElementException expected) { } 6.3 Static members: qualified using class When a ref erence to a static class member must be qualif ied, it is qualif ied with that class's name, not with a ref erence or expression of that class's type. Foo aFoo = ...; Foo.aStaticMethod(); // good aFoo.aStaticMethod(); // bad somethingThatYieldsAFoo().aStaticMethod(); // very bad 6.4 Finalizers: not used It is extremely rare to override Object.finalize. Tip: Don't do it. If you absolutely must, f irst read and understand Effective Java Item 7, "Avoid Finalizers," very caref ully, and then don't do it. 7 Javadoc 7.1 Formatting 7.1.1 General form The basic f ormatting of Javadoc blocks is as seen in this general example: /** * Multiple lines of Javadoc text are written here, * wrapped normally... */ public int method(String p1) { ... } /** An especially short bit of Javadoc. */ The general f orm is always acceptable. The single-line f orm may be substituted when there are no at-clauses present, and the entirety of the Javadoc block (including comment markers) can f it on a single line. 7.1.2 Paragraphs One blank line—that is, a line containing only the aligned leading asterisk (*)—appears between paragraphs, and bef ore the group of "at-clauses" if present. Each paragraph but the f irst has

immediately bef ore the f irst word, with no space af ter. 7.1.3 At-clauses Any of the standard "at-clauses" that are used appear in the order @param, @return, @throws, @deprecated, and these f our types never appear with an empty description. When an at-clause doesn't f it on a single line, continuation lines are indented f our (or more) spaces f rom the position of the @. 7.2 The summary fragment The Javadoc f or each class and member begins with a brief summary fragment. This f ragment is very important: it is the only part of the text that appears in certain contexts such as class and method indexes. This is a f ragment—a noun phrase or verb phrase, not a complete sentence. It does not begin with A {@code Foo} is a..., or This method returns..., nor does it f orm a complete imperative sentence like Save the record.. However, the f ragment is capitalized and punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. Tip: A common mistake is to write simple Javadoc in the f orm /** @return the customer ID */. This is incorrect, and should be changed to /** Returns the customer ID. */. 7.3 Where Javadoc is used At the minimum, Javadoc is present f or every public class, and every public or protected member of such a class, with a f ew exceptions noted below. 7.3.1 Exception: self-explanatory methods Javadoc is optional f or "simple, obvious" methods like getFoo, in cases where there really and truly is nothing else worthwhile to say but "Returns the f oo". The test methods of a unit test class are perhaps the most common example of this exemption. These methods can usually be named descriptively enough that no additional documentation is needed. Tip: Important: it is not appropriate to cite this exception to justif y omitting relevant inf ormation that a typical reader might need to know. For example, f or a method named getCanonicalName, don't omit its documentation (with the rationale that it would say only /** Returns the canonical name. */) if a typical reader may have no idea what the term "canonical name" means! 7.3.2 Exception: overrides Javadoc is not always present on a method that overrides a supertype method. 7.3.3 Optional javadoc Classes and members that are not visible outside their package still have Javadoc as needed. Whenever an implementation comment would be used to def ine the overall purpose or behavior of a class, method or f ield, that comment is written as Javadoc instead. (It's more unif orm, and more tool-f riendly.) Last changed: December 19, 2013





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