AngularJS 教程指南


I Angular JS Tutorial i About the Tutorial AngularJS is a very powerful JavaScript library. It is used in Single Page Application (SPA) projects. It extends HTML DOM with additional attributes and makes it more responsive to user actions. AngularJS is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world. It is licensed under the Apache license version 2.0. This tutorial teaches you basics of AngularJS and its programming concepts. It describes the components of AngularJS with suitable examples. Audience This tutorial is designed for software professionals who are willing to learn AngularJS programming in simple and easy steps. After completing this tutorial, you will be at intermediate level of expertise from where you can take yourself to higher level of expertise. Prerequisites You should have basic understanding of scripting language such as JavaScript, and any text editor. You should also know the basic web technologies such as HTML, CSS, AJAX etc. for learning to develop web applications using Angular JS. Disclaimer & Copyright  Copyright 2014 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial, please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com Angular JS Tutorial ii Contents About the Tutorial ................................................................................................................................................. i Audience ................................................................................................................................................................ i Prerequisites .......................................................................................................................................................... i Disclaimer & Copyright .......................................................................................................................................... i Contents................................................................................................................................................................ ii 1. Overview ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 General Features .................................................................................................................................................. 1 Core Features ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 Concepts ............................................................................................................................................................... 2 Advantages of AngularJS ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Disadvantages of AngulaJS ................................................................................................................................... 4 AngularJS Directives ............................................................................................................................................. 4 2. Environment ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Example ................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Include AngularJS.................................................................................................................................................. 7 Point to AngularJS app ......................................................................................................................................... 8 View ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Controller .............................................................................................................................................................. 8 Execution .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 3. MVC architecture ........................................................................................................................................ 10 The model ........................................................................................................................................................... 11 The view .............................................................................................................................................................. 11 The controller...................................................................................................................................................... 11 4. First Application .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Creating AngularJS Application .......................................................................................................................... 12 Step 1: Load framework .................................................................................... 12 Step 2: Define AngularJS application using ng-app directive. .................................. 12 Step 3: Define a model name using ng-model directive. ......................................... 12 Step 4: Bind the value of above model defined using ng-bind directive. ................... 12 Executing AngularJS Application ........................................................................................................................ 12 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 13 How AngularJS integrates with HTML ................................................................................................................ 14 5. Directives .................................................................................................................................................... 15 ng-app directive .................................................................................................................................................. 15 Angular JS Tutorial iii ng-init directive ................................................................................................................................................... 15 ng-model directive .............................................................................................................................................. 16 ng-repeat directive ............................................................................................................................................. 16 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 16 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 17 6. Expressions ................................................................................................................................................. 19 Using numbers .................................................................................................................................................... 19 Using String ........................................................................................................................................................ 19 Using Object ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 Using Array ......................................................................................................................................................... 19 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 19 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 20 7. Controllers .................................................................................................................................................. 21 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 22 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 23 8. Filters .......................................................................................................................................................... 25 Uppercase Filter .................................................................................................................................................. 25 Lowercase Filter .................................................................................................................................................. 25 Currency Filter .................................................................................................................................................... 25 Filter Filter .......................................................................................................................................................... 26 Orderby Filter ...................................................................................................................................................... 26 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 26 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 28 9. Tables ......................................................................................................................................................... 30 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 31 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 33 10. HTML dom .................................................................................................................................................. 35 ng-disabled Directive .......................................................................................................................................... 35 ng-show Directive ............................................................................................................................................... 35 ng-hide Directive ................................................................................................................................................. 35 ng-click Directive................................................................................................................................................. 36 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 36 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 37 11. Modules ...................................................................................................................................................... 39 Angular JS Tutorial iv Application Module ............................................................................................................................................ 39 Controller Module ............................................................................................................................................... 39 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 40 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 43 12. Forms .......................................................................................................................................................... 44 Events ................................................................................................................................................................. 44 ng-click ................................................................................................................................................................ 44 Validate Data ...................................................................................................................................................... 45 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 45 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 48 13. Includes ...................................................................................................................................................... 49 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 49 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 52 14. AJAX............................................................................................................................................................ 53 Examples ............................................................................................................................................................. 53 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 56 15. Views .......................................................................................................................................................... 57 ng-view Directive ................................................................................................................................................ 57 Usage .................................................................................................................................................................. 57 ng-template Directive ......................................................................................................................................... 57 Usage .................................................................................................................................................................. 57 $routeProvider Service........................................................................................................................................ 58 Usage 1 ............................................................................................................................................................... 58 Usage 2 ............................................................................................................................................................... 58 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 59 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 61 16. Scopes ......................................................................................................................................................... 63 Scope Inheritance ............................................................................................................................................... 63 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 64 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 66 17. Services ....................................................................................................................................................... 67 Using Factory Method ........................................................................................................................................ 67 Using Service Method ......................................................................................................................................... 67 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 68 Angular JS Tutorial v Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 69 18. Dependency Injection ................................................................................................................................. 71 Value ................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Factory ................................................................................................................................................................ 72 Service................................................................................................................................................................. 73 Provider .............................................................................................................................................................. 73 Constant ............................................................................................................................................................. 74 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 74 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 77 19. Custom Directives ....................................................................................................................................... 78 Understanding Custom Directive ........................................................................................................................ 78 Example .............................................................................................................................................................. 80 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 82 20. Internalization ............................................................................................................................................ 83 Example Using Danish Locale ............................................................................................................................. 83 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 84 Example Using Browser Locale ........................................................................................................................... 84 Output ................................................................................................................................................................ 85 1 AngularJS is an open source, JavaScript based web application development framework. Definition of AngularJS as put by its official documentation is as follows: AngularJS is a structural framework for dynamic web applications. It lets you use HTML as your template language and lets you extend HTML's syntax to express your application components clearly and succinctly. Its data binding and dependency injection eliminate much of the code you currently have to write. And it all happens within the browser, making it an ideal partner with any server technology. It was originally developed in 2009 by Misko Hevery and Adam Abrons. It is now maintained by Google. General Features The most important general features of AngularJS are:  AngularJS is a efficient framework that can create Rich Internet Applications (RIA).  AngularJS provides developers an options to write client side applications using JavaScript in a clean Model View Controller (MVC) way.  Applications written in AngularJS are cross-browser compliant. AngularJS automatically handles JavaScript code suitable for each browser.  AngularJS is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world. It is licensed under the Apache license version 2.0. Overall, AngularJS is a framework to build large scale, high performance, and easy- to-maintain web applications. Core Features The most important core features of AngularJS are:  Data-binding: It is the automatic synchronization of data between model and view components.  Scope: These are objects that refer to the model. They act as a glue between controller and view. 1. OVERVIEW Angular JS Tutorial 2  Controller: These are JavaScript functions bound to a particular scope.  Services: AngularJS comes with several built-in services such as $http to make a XMLHttpRequests. These are singleton objects which are instantiated only once in app.  Filters: These select a subset of items from an array and returns a new array.  Directives: Directives are markers on DOM elements such as elements, attributes, css, and more. These can be used to create custom HTML tags that serve as new, custom widgets. AngularJS has built-in directives such as ngBind, ngModel etc.  Templates:These are the rendered view with information from the controller and model. These can be a single file (such as index.html) or multiple views in one page using partials.  Routing: It is concept of switching views.  Model View Whatever: MVW is a design pattern for dividing an application into different parts called Model, View, and Controller, each with distinct responsibilities. AngularJS does not implement MVC in the traditional sense, but rather something closer to MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel). The Angular JS team refers it humorously as Model View Whatever.  Deep Linking: Deep linking allows you to encode the state of application in the URL so that it can be bookmarked. The application can then be restored from the URL to the same state.  Dependency Injection: AngularJS has a built-in dependency injection subsystem that helps the developer to create,understand, and test the applications easily. Concepts The following diagram depicts some important parts of AngularJS which we will discuss in detail in the subsequent chapters. Angular JS Tutorial 3 Advantages of AngularJS The advantages of AngularJS are:  AngularJS provides capability to create Single Page Application in a very clean and maintainable way.  AngularJS provides data binding capability to HTML. Thus, it gives user a rich and responsive experience.  AngularJS code is unit testable.  AngularJS uses dependency injection and make use of separation of concerns.  AngularJS provides reusable components.  With AngularJS, the developers can achieve more functionality with short code.  In AngularJS, views are pure html pages, and controllers written in JavaScript do the business processing. Angular JS Tutorial 4 On the top of everything, AngularJS applications can run on all major browsers and smart phones, including Android and iOS based phones/tablets. Disadvantages of AngulaJS Though AngularJS comes with a lot of merits, here are some points of concern:  Not Secure : Being JavaScript only framework, application written in AngularJS are not safe. Server side authentication and authorization is must to keep an application secure.  Not degradable: If the user of your application disables JavaScript, then nothing would be visible, except the basic page. AngularJS Directives The AngularJS framework can be divided into three major parts:  ng-app : This directive defines and links an AngularJS application to HTML.  ng-model : This directive binds the values of AngularJS application data to HTML input controls.  ng-bind : This directive binds the AngularJS application data to HTML tags. Angular JS Tutorial 5 This chapter describes how to set up AngularJS library to be used in web application development. It also briefly describes the directory structure and its contents. When you open the link https://angularjs.org/, you will see there are two options to download AngularJS library:  View on GitHub- By clicking on this button, you are diverted to GitHub and get all the latest scripts.  Download- By clicking on this button, a screen you get to see a dialog box shown as: 2. ENVIRONMENT Angular JS Tutorial 6 This screen offers various options for selecting Angular JS as follows:  Downloading and hosting files locally o There are two different options : Legacy and Latest. The names themselves are self descriptive. The Legacy has version less than 1.2.x and the Latest come with version 1.3.x. o We can also go with the minimized, uncompressed, or zipped version.  CDN access: You also have access to a CDN. The CDN gives you access around the world to regional data centres. In this case, the Google host. This means, using CDN transfers the responsibility of hosting files from your own servers to a series of external ones. This also offers an advantage that if the visitor of your web page has already downloaded a copy of AngularJS from the same CDN, there is no need to re-download it. We are using the CDN versions of the library throughout this tutorial. Example Now let us write a simple example using AngularJS library. Let us create an HTML filemyfirstexample.html shown as below: Angular JS Tutorial 7

Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!

Let us go through the above code in detail: Include AngularJS We include the AngularJS JavaScript file in the HTML page so that we can use it: You can check the latest version of AngularJS on its official website. Angular JS Tutorial 8 Point to AngularJS app Next, it is required to tell which part of HTML contains the AngularJS app. You can do this by adding the ng-app attribute to the root HTML element of the AngularJS app. You can either add it to html element or body element as shown below: View The view is this part:

Welcome {{helloTo.title}} to the world of Tutorialspoint!

ng-controller tells AngularJS which controller to use with this view. helloTo.title tells AngularJS to write the model value named helloTo.title in HTML at this location. Controller The controller part is: This code registers a controller function named HelloController in the angular module named myapp. We will study more about modules and controllers in their respective chapters. The controller function is registered in angular via the angular.module(...).controller(...) function call. The $scope parameter model is passed to the controller function. The controller function adds a helloTo JavaScript object, and in that object it adds a title field. Angular JS Tutorial 9 Execution Save the above code as myfirstexample.html and open it in any browser. You get to see the following output: What happens when the page is loaded in the browser ? Let us see:  HTML document is loaded into the browser, and evaluated by the browser.  AngularJS JavaScript file is loaded, the angular global object is created.  The JavaScript which registers controller functions is executed.  Next, AngularJS scans through the HTML to search for AngularJS apps as well as views.  Once the view is located, it connects that view to the corresponding controller function.  Next, AngularJS executes the controller functions.  It then renders the views with data from the model populated by the controller. The page is now ready. Angular JS Tutorial 10 Model View Controller or MVC as it is popularly called, is a software design pattern for developing web applications. A Model View Controller pattern is made up of the following three parts:  Model - It is the lowest level of the pattern responsible for maintaining data.  View - It is responsible for displaying all or a portion of the data to the user.  Controller - It is a software Code that controls the interactions between the Model and View. MVC is popular as it isolates the application logic from the user interface layer and supports separation of concerns. The controller receives all requests for the application and then works with the model to prepare any data needed by the view. The view then uses the data prepared by the controller to generate a final presentable response. The MVC abstraction can be graphically represented as follows. 3. MVC ARCHITECTURE Angular JS Tutorial 11 The model The model is responsible for managing application data. It responds to the request from view and to the instructions from controller to update itself. The view A presentation of data in a particular format, triggered by the controller's decision to present the data. They are script-based template systems such as JSP, ASP, PHP and very easy to integrate with AJAX technology. The controller The controller responds to user input and performs interactions on the data model objects. The controller receives input, validates it, and then performs business operations that modify the state of the data model. AngularJS is a MVC based framework. In the coming chapters, let us see how AngularJS uses MVC methodology. Angular JS Tutorial 12 Before creating actual Hello World ! application using AngularJS, let us see the parts of a AngularJS application. An AngularJS application consists of following three important parts:  ng-app : This directive defines and links an AngularJS application to HTML.  ng-model : This directive binds the values of AngularJS application data to HTML input controls.  ng-bind : This directive binds the AngularJS Application data to HTML tags. Creating AngularJS Application Step 1: Load framework Being a pure JavaScript framework, it can be added using Step 2: Define AngularJS application using ng-app directive.
...
Step 3: Define a model name using ng-model directive.

Enter your Name:

Step 4: Bind the value of above model defined using ng-bind directive.

Hello !

Executing AngularJS Application Use the above mentioned three steps in an HTML page. 4. FIRST APPLICATION Angular JS Tutorial 13 testAngularJS.htm AngularJS First Application

Sample Application

Enter your Name:

Hello !

Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. Enter your name and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 14 How AngularJS integrates with HTML  The ng-app directive indicates the start of AngularJS application.  The ng-model directive creates a model variable named name, which can be used with the HTML page and within the div having ng-app directive.  The ng-bind then uses the name model to be displayed in the HTML tag whenever user enters input in the text box.  Closing
tag indicates the end of AngularJS application. Angular JS Tutorial 15 AngularJS directives are used to extend HTML. They are special attributes starting with ng-prefix. Let us discuss the following directives:  ng-app - This directive starts an AngularJS Application.  ng-init - This directive initializes application data.  ng-model - This directive defines the model that is variable to be used in AngularJS.  ng-repeat - This directive repeats HTML elements for each item in a collection. ng-app directive The ng-app directive starts an AngularJS Application. It defines the root element. It automatically initializes or bootstraps the application when the web page containing AngularJS Application is loaded. It is also used to load various AngularJS modules in AngularJS Application. In the following example, we define a default AngularJS application using ng-app attribute of a
element.
...
ng-init directive The ng-init directive initializes an AngularJS Application data. It is used to assign values to the variables. In the following example, we initialize an array of countries. We use JSON syntax to define the array of countries.
... 5. DIRECTIVES Angular JS Tutorial 16
ng-model directive The ng-model directive defines the model/variable to be used in AngularJS Application. In the following example, we define a model named name.
...

Enter your Name:

ng-repeat directive ng-repeat directive repeats HTML elements for each item in a collection. In the following example, we iterate over the array of countries.
...

List of Countries with locale:

  1. {{ 'Country: ' + country.name + ', Locale: ' + country.locale }}
Example The following example shows the use of all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm AngularJS Directives Angular JS Tutorial 17

Sample Application

Enter your Name:

Hello !

List of Countries with locale:

  1. {{ 'Country: ' + country.name + ', Locale: ' + country.locale }}
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. Enter your name and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 18 Angular JS Tutorial 19 Expressions are used to bind application data to HTML. Expressions are written inside double curly braces such as in {{ expression}}. Expressions behave similar to ng- bind directives. AngularJS expressions are pure JavaScript expressions and output the data where they are used. Using numbers

Expense on Books : {{cost * quantity}} Rs

Using String

Hello {{student.firstname + " " + student.lastname}}!

Using Object

Roll No: {{student.rollno}}

Using Array

Marks(Math): {{marks[3]}}

Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned expressions: testAngularJS.htm AngularJS Expressions

Sample Application

6. EXPRESSIONS Angular JS Tutorial 20

Hello {{student.firstname + " " + student.lastname}}!

Expense on Books : {{cost * quantity}} Rs

Roll No: {{student.rollno}}

Marks(Math): {{marks[3]}}

Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 21 AngularJS application mainly relies on controllers to control the flow of data in the application. A controller is defined using ng-controller directive. A controller is a JavaScript object that contains attributes/properties, and functions. Each controller accepts $scope as a parameter, which refers to the application/module that the controller needs to handle.
...
Here, we declare a controller named studentController, using ng-controller directive. As a next step, we define it as follows:  The studentController is defined as a JavaScript object with $scope as an argument.  The $scope refers to application which uses the studentController object. 7. CONTROLLERS Angular JS Tutorial 22  The $scope.student is a property of studentController object.  The firstName and the lastName are two properties of $scope.student object. We pass the default values to them.  The property fullName is the function of $scope.student object, which returns the combined name.  In the fullName function, we get the student object and then return the combined name.  As a note, we can also define the controller object in a separate JS file and refer that file in the HTML page. Now we can use studentController's student property using ng-model or using expressions as follows: Enter first name:
Enter last name:

You are entering: {{student.fullName()}}  We bound student.firstName and student.lastname to two input boxes.  We bound student.fullName() to HTML.  Now whenever you type anything in first name and last name input boxes, you can see the full name getting updated automatically. Example The following example shows the use of controller: testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Controller

AngularJS Sample Application

Angular JS Tutorial 23
Enter first name:

Enter last name:

You are entering: {{student.fullName()}}
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 24 Angular JS Tutorial 25 Filters are used to modify the data. They can be clubbed in expression or directives using pipe (|) character. The following list shows commonly used filters. S.No. Name Description 1 uppercase converts a text to upper case text. 2 lowercase converts a text to lower case text. 3 currency formats text in a currency format. 4 filter filter the array to a subset of it based on provided criteria. 5 orderby orders the array based on provided criteria. Uppercase Filter This adds uppercase filter to an expression using pipe character. Here, we add uppercase filter to print student name in capital letters. Enter first name: Enter last name: Name in Upper Case: {{student.fullName() | uppercase}} Lowercase Filter This adds lowercase filter to an expression using pipe character. Here, we add lowercase filter to print student name in small letters. Enter first name: Enter last name: Name in Lower Case: {{student.fullName() | lowercase}} Currency Filter This adds currency filter to an expression that returns a number. Here, we add currency filter to print fees using currency format. 8. FILTERS Angular JS Tutorial 26 Enter fees: fees: {{student.fees | currency}} Filter Filter To display only required subjects, we use subjectName as filter. Enter subject: Subject:
  • {{ subject.name + ', marks:' + subject.marks }}
Orderby Filter To order subjects by marks, we use orderBy marks. Subject:
  • {{ subject.name + ', marks:' + subject.marks }}
Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned filters. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Tutorial 27 Angular JS Filters

AngularJS Sample Application

Enter first name:
Enter last name:
Enter fees:
Enter subject:

Name in Upper Case: {{student.fullName() | uppercase}}
Name in Lower Case: {{student.fullName() | lowercase}}
fees: {{student.fees | currency}}
Subject:
  • {{ subject.name + ', marks:' + subject.marks }}
Angular JS Tutorial 28
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser. See the result. Angular JS Tutorial 29 Angular JS Tutorial 30 Table data is generally repeatable. The ng-repeat directive can be used to draw table easily. The following example shows the use of ng-repeat directive to draw a table:
Name Marks
{{ subject.name }} {{ subject.marks }}
Table can be styled using CSS Styling. Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Table

AngularJS Sample Application

Angular JS Tutorial 32
Enter first name:
Enter last name:
Name: {{student.fullName()}}
Subject:
Name Marks
{{ subject.name }} {{ subject.marks }}
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 34 Angular JS Tutorial 35 The following directives are used to bind application data to attributes of HTML DOM elements: S.No. Name Description 1 ng-disabled Disables a given control. 2 ng-show Shows a given control. 3 ng-hide Hides a given control. 4 ng-click Represents a AngularJS click event. ng-disabled Directive Add ng-disabled attribute to an HTML button and pass it a model. Bind the model to a checkbox and see the variation. Disable Button ng-show Directive Add ng-show attribute to an HTML button and pass it a model. Bind the model to a checkbox and see the variation. Show Button ng-hide Directive Add ng-hide attribute to an HTML button and pass it a model. Bind the model to a checkbox and see the variation. Hide Button 10. HTML DOM Angular JS Tutorial 36 ng-click Directive Add ng-click attribute to an HTML button and update a model. Bind the model to HTML and see the variation.

Total click: {{ clickCounter }}

Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm AngularJS HTML DOM

AngularJS Sample Application

Angular JS Tutorial 37
Disable Button
Show Button
Hide Button

Total click: {{ clickCounter }}

Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 38 Angular JS Tutorial 39 AngularJS supports modular approach. Modules are used to separate logic such as services, controllers, application etc. from the code and maintain the code clean. We define modules in separate js files and name them as per the module.js file. In the following example, we are going to create two modules:  Application Module - used to initialize an application with controller(s).  Controller Module - used to define the controller. Application Module Here is a file named mainApp.js that contains the following code: var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); Here, we declare an application mainApp module using angular.module function and pass an empty array to it. This array generally contains dependent modules. Controller Module studentController.js mainApp.controller("studentController", function($scope) { $scope.student = { firstName: "Mahesh", lastName: "Parashar", fees:500, subjects:[ {name:'Physics',marks:70}, {name:'Chemistry',marks:80}, {name:'Math',marks:65}, {name:'English',marks:75}, {name:'Hindi',marks:67} 11. MODULES Angular JS Tutorial 40 ], fullName: function() { var studentObject; studentObject = $scope.student; return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName; } }; }); Here, we declare a controller studentController module using mainApp.controller function. Use Modules
.. Here, we use application module using ng-app directive, and controller using ng- controller directive. We import the mainApp.js and studentController.js in the main HTML page. Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned modules. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Modules

AngularJS Sample Application

Enter first name:
Enter last name:
Name: {{student.fullName()}}
Subject: Angular JS Tutorial 42
Name Marks
{{ subject.name }}{{ subject.marks }}
mainApp.js var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); studentController.js mainApp.controller("studentController", function($scope) { $scope.student = { firstName: "Mahesh", lastName: "Parashar", fees:500, subjects:[ {name:'Physics',marks:70}, {name:'Chemistry',marks:80}, {name:'Math',marks:65}, {name:'English',marks:75}, {name:'Hindi',marks:67} Angular JS Tutorial 43 ], fullName: function() { var studentObject; studentObject = $scope.student; return studentObject.firstName + " " + studentObject.lastName; } }; }); Output Open the file textAngularJS.htm in a web browser. See the result. Angular JS Tutorial 44 AngularJS enriches form filling and validation. We can use ng-click event to handle the click button and use $dirty and $invalid flags to do the validation in a seamless way. Use novalidate with a form declaration to disable any browser-specific validation. The form controls make heavy use of AngularJS events. Let us have a look at the events first. Events AngularJS provides multiple events associated with the HTML controls. For example, ng-click directive is generally associated with a button. AngularJS supports the following events:  ng-click  ng-dbl-click  ng-mousedown  ng-mouseup  ng-mouseenter  ng-mouseleave  ng-mousemove  ng-mouseover  ng-keydown  ng-keyup  ng-keypress  ng-change Let us go through ng-click: ng-click Reset data of a form using on-click directive of a button. 12. FORMS Angular JS Tutorial 45 Validate Data The following can be used to track error.  $dirty - states that value has been changed.  $invalid- states that value entered is invalid.  $error- states the exact error. Example Following example will showcase all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Forms

AngularJS Sample Application

Enter first name: First Name is required.
Enter last name: Last Name is required. Angular JS Tutorial 47
Email: Email is required. Invalid email address.
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 49 HTML does not support embedding HTML pages within the HTML page. To achieve this functionality, we can use one of the following options:  Using Ajax - Make a server call to get the corresponding HTML page and set it in innerHTML of HTML control.  Using Server Side Includes - JSP, PHP and other web side server technologies can include HTML pages within a dynamic page. Using AngularJS, we can embed HTML pages within an HTML page using ng-include directive.
Example tryAngularJS.htm Angular JS Includes

AngularJS Sample Application

main.htm
Enter first name:
Enter last name:
Name: {{student.fullName()}}
subjects.htm

Subjects:

Angular JS Tutorial 52
Name Marks
{{ subject.name }} {{ subject.marks }}
Output To execute this example, you need to deploy testAngularJS.htm, main.htm, andsubjects.htm to a web server. Open the file testAngularJS.htm using the URL of your server in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 53 AngularJS provides $http control which works as a service to read data from the server. Server makes a database call to get the desired records. AngularJS needs data in JSON format. Once the data is ready, $http can be used to get the data from server in the following manner: function studentController($scope,$http) { var url="data.txt"; $http.get(url).success( function(response) { $scope.students = response; }); } Here, the file data.txt contains student records. $http service makes an ajax call and sets response to its property students. students model can be used to draw tables in HTML. Examples data.txt [ { "Name" : "Mahesh Parashar", "RollNo" : 101, "Percentage" : "80%" }, { "Name" : "Dinkar Kad", "RollNo" : 201, "Percentage" : "70%" 14. AJAX Angular JS Tutorial 54 }, { "Name" : "Robert", "RollNo" : 191, "Percentage" : "75%" }, { "Name" : "Julian Joe", "RollNo" : 111, "Percentage" : "77%" } ] testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Includes

AngularJS Sample Application

Name Roll No Percentage
{{ student.Name }} {{ student.RollNo }} {{ student.Percentage }}
Angular JS Tutorial 56 Output To execute this example, you need to deploy testAngularJS.htm and data.txt file to a web server. Open the file testAngularJS.htm using the URL of your server in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 57 AngularJS supports Single Page Application via multiple views on a single page. To do this, AngularJS has provided ng-view and ng-template directives, and $routeProvider services. ng-view Directive The ng-view directive simply creates a place holder where a corresponding view (HTML or ng-template view) can be placed based on the configuration. Usage Define a div with ng-view within the main module.
...
ng-template Directive The ng-template directive is used to create an HTML view using script tag. It contains idattribute which is used by $routeProvider to map a view with a controller. Usage Define a script block with type as ng-template within the main module.
...
$routeProvider Service The $routeProvider is a key service which sets the configuration of URLs, maps them with the corresponding HTML page or ng-template, and attaches a controller with the same. Usage 1 Define a script block with type as ng-template within the main module.
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Usage 2 Define a script block with main module and set the routing configuration. var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", ['ngRoute']); mainApp.config(['$routeProvider', function($routeProvider) { $routeProvider. when('/addStudent', { templateUrl: 'addStudent.htm', Angular JS Tutorial 59 controller: 'AddStudentController' }). when('/viewStudents', { templateUrl: 'viewStudents.htm', controller: 'ViewStudentsController' }). otherwise({ redirectTo: '/addStudent' }); }]); The following points are important to be considered in above example:  The $routeProvider is defined as a function under config of mainApp module using key as '$routeProvider'.  The $routeProvider.when defines a URL "/addStudent", which is mapped to "addStudent.htm". addStudent.htm should be present in the same path as main HTML page.If the HTML page is not defined, then ng-template needs to be used with id="addStudent.htm". We used ng-template.  The "otherwise" is used to set the default view.  The "controller" is used to set the corresponding controller for the view. Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Views Angular JS Tutorial 60

AngularJS Sample Application

Add Student

View Students

Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 62 Angular JS Tutorial 63 Scope is a special JavaScript object that connects controller with views. Scope contains model data. In controllers, model data is accessed via $scope object. The following important points are considered in above example:  The $scope is passed as first argument to controller during its constructor definition.  The $scope.message and $scope.type are the models which are used in the HTML page.  We assign values to models that are reflected in the application module, whose controller is shapeController.  We can define functions in $scope. Scope Inheritance Scope is controller-specific. If we define nested controllers, then the child controller inherits the scope of its parent controller. The following important points are considered in above example:  We assign values to the models in shapeController.  We override message in child controller named circleController. When message is used within the module of controller named circleController, the overridden message is used. Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives. testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Forms

AngularJS Sample Application

{{message}}
{{type}}

{{message}}
{{type}}

Angular JS Tutorial 65

{{message}}
{{type}}

Angular JS Tutorial 66 Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 67 AngularJS supports the concept of Separation of Concerns using services architecture. Services are JavaScript functions, which are responsible to perform only specific tasks. This makes them individual entities which are maintainable and testable. The controllers and filters can call them on requirement basis. Services are normally injected using dependency injection mechanism of AngularJS. AngularJS provides many inbuilt services. For example, $http, $route, $window, $location etc. Each service is responsible for a specific task such as the $http is used to make ajax call to get the server data, the $route is used to define the routing information, and so on. The inbuilt services are always prefixed with $ symbol. There are two ways to create a service:  Factory  Service Using Factory Method In this method, we first define a factory and then assign method to it. var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); mainApp.factory('MathService', function() { var factory = {}; factory.multiply = function(a, b) { return a * b } return factory; }); Using Service Method In this method, we define a service and then assign method to it. We also inject an already available service to it. mainApp.service('CalcService', function(MathService){ 17. SERVICES Angular JS Tutorial 68 this.square = function(a) { return MathService.multiply(a,a); } }); Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives: testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Forms

AngularJS Sample Application

Enter a number:

Result: {{result}}

Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 70 Angular JS Tutorial 71 Dependency Injection is a software design in which components are given their dependencies instead of hard coding them within the component. This relieves a component from locating the dependency and makes dependencies configurable. This also helps in making components reusable, maintainable and testable. AngularJS provides a supreme Dependency Injection mechanism. It provides following core components which can be injected into each other as dependencies.  Value  Factory  Service  Provider  Constant Value Value is a simple JavaScript object, which is required to pass values to the controller during config phase (config phase is when AngularJS bootstraps itself). //define a module var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); //create a value object as "defaultInput" and pass it a data. mainApp.value("defaultInput", 5); ... //inject the value in the controller using its name "defaultInput" mainApp.controller('CalcController', function($scope, CalcService, defaultInput) { $scope.number = defaultInput; $scope.result = CalcService.square($scope.number); $scope.square = function() { $scope.result = CalcService.square($scope.number); 18. DEPENDENCY INJECTION Angular JS Tutorial 72 } }); Factory Factory is a function which is used to return value. It creates a value on demand whenever a service or a controller requires it. It generally uses a factory function to calculate and return the value. //define a module var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); //create a factory "MathService" which provides a method multiply to return multiplication of two numbers mainApp.factory('MathService', function() { var factory = {}; factory.multiply = function(a, b) { return a * b } return factory; }); //inject the factory "MathService" in a service to utilize the multiply method of factory. mainApp.service('CalcService', function(MathService){ this.square = function(a) { return MathService.multiply(a,a); } }); ... Angular JS Tutorial 73 Service Service is a singleton JavaScript object containing a set of functions to perform certain tasks. Service is defined using service() function and it is then injected into the controllers. //define a module var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); ... //create a service which defines a method square to return square of a number. mainApp.service('CalcService', function(MathService){ this.square = function(a) { return MathService.multiply(a,a); } }); //inject the service "CalcService" into the controller mainApp.controller('CalcController', function($scope, CalcService, defaultInput) { $scope.number = defaultInput; $scope.result = CalcService.square($scope.number); $scope.square = function() { $scope.result = CalcService.square($scope.number); } }); Provider Provider is used by AngularJS internally to create services, factory etc. during the config phase. The following script can be used to create MathService that we created earlier. Provider is a special factory method with get() method which is used to return the value/service/factory. Angular JS Tutorial 74 //define a module var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); ... //create a service using provider which defines a method square to return square of a number. mainApp.config(function($provide) { $provide.provider('MathService', function() { this.$get = function() { var factory = {}; factory.multiply = function(a, b) { return a * b; } return factory; }; }); }); Constant Constants are used to pass values at the config phase considering the fact that value cannot be used during the config phase. mainApp.constant("configParam", "constant value"); Example The following example shows use of all the above mentioned directives: testAngularJS.htm AngularJS Dependency Injection Angular JS Tutorial 75

AngularJS Sample Application

Enter a number:

Result: {{result}}

Angular JS Tutorial 77 Output Open testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 78 Custom directives are used in AngularJS to extend the functionality of HTML. They are defined using directive function. A custom directive simply replaces the element for which it is activated. During bootstrap, the AngularJS application finds matching elements and does one-time activity using its compile() method of the custom directive. Then it processes the element using link() method of the custom directive based on the scope of the directive. AngularJS provides support to create custom directives for the following elements:  Element directive - This activates when a matching element is encountered.  Attribute - This activates when a matching attribute is encountered.  CSS - This activates when a matching CSS style is encountered.  Comment - This activates when a matching comment is encountered. Understanding Custom Directive Define custom HTML tags.
Define custom directive to handle the above HTML tags. var mainApp = angular.module("mainApp", []); //Create a directive, first parameter is the html element to be attached. //We are attaching student html tag. //This directive will be activated as soon as any student element is encountered in html mainApp.directive('student', function() { //define the directive object var directive = {}; //restrict = E, signifies that directive is Element directive directive.restrict = 'E'; 19. CUSTOM DIRECTIVES Angular JS Tutorial 79 //template replaces the complete element with its text. directive.template = "Student: {{student.name}} , Roll No: {{student.rollno}}"; //scope is used to distinguish each student element based on criteria. directive.scope = { student : "=name" } //compile is called during application initialization. AngularJS calls it once when html page is loaded. directive.compile = function(element, attributes) { element.css("border", "1px solid #cccccc"); //linkFunction is linked with each element with scope to get the element specific data. var linkFunction = function($scope, element, attributes) { element.html("Student: "+$scope.student.name +" , Roll No: "+$scope.student.rollno+"
"); element.css("background-color", "#ff00ff"); } return linkFunction; } return directive; }); Define controller to update the scope for directive. Here, we use the value of name attribute as scope's child. mainApp.controller('StudentController', function($scope) { $scope.Mahesh = {}; $scope.Mahesh.name = "Mahesh Parashar"; $scope.Mahesh.rollno = 1; Angular JS Tutorial 80 $scope.Piyush = {}; $scope.Piyush.name = "Piyush Parashar"; $scope.Piyush.rollno = 2; }); Example Angular JS Custom Directives

AngularJS Sample Application


Output Open testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 83 AngularJS supports inbuilt internationalization for three types of filters : Currency, Date, and Numbers. We only need to incorporate corresponding java script according to locale of the country. By default, it considers the locale of the browser. For example, for Danish locale, use the following script: Example Using Danish Locale testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Forms

AngularJS Sample Application

{{fees | currency }}

{{admissiondate | date }}

{{rollno | number }}
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Example Using Browser Locale testAngularJS.htm Angular JS Forms Angular JS Tutorial 85

AngularJS Sample Application

{{fees | currency }}

{{admissiondate | date }}

{{rollno | number }}
Output Open the file testAngularJS.htm in a web browser and see the result. Angular JS Tutorial 86
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