C++ Design Patterns and Derivatives Pricing

This page intentionally left blank C++ DESIGN PATTERNS AND DERIVATIVES PRICING 2nd edition Design patterns are the cutting-edge paradigm for programming in object-oriented lan- guages. Here they are discussed in the context of implementing financial models in C++. Assuming only a basic knowledge of C++ and mathematical finance, the reader is taught how to produce well-designed, structured, reusable code via concrete examples. This new edition includes several new chapters describing how to increase robustness in the presence of exceptions, how to design a generic factory, how to interface C++ with EXCEL, and how to improve code design using the idea of decoupling. Complete ANSI/ISO compatible C++ source code is hosted on an accompanying website for the reader to study in detail, and reuse as they see fit. A good understanding of C++ design is a necessity for working financial mathemati- cian; this book provides a thorough introduction to the topic. Mathematics, Finance and Risk Editorial Board Mark Broadie, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University Sam Howison, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford Neil Johnson, Centre for Computational Finance, University of Oxford George Papanicolaou, Department of Mathematics, Stanford University C++ DESIGN PATTERNS AND DERIVATIVES PRICING M. S. JOSHI University of Melbourne CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK First published in print format ISBN-13 978-0-521-72162-2 ISBN-13 978-0-511-39693-9 © M. S. Joshi 2008 2008 Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521721622 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org eBook (NetLibrary) paperback To Jane Contents Preface page xiii Acknowledgements xvi 1 A simple Monte Carlo model1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The theory 1 1.3 A simple implementation of a Monte Carlo call option pricer 2 1.4 Critiquing the simple Monte Carlo routine 7 1.5 Identifying the classes 9 1.6 What will the classes buy us? 10 1.7 Why object-oriented programming? 11 1.8 Key points 11 1.9 Exercises 12 2 Encapsulation 13 2.1 Implementing the pay-off class 13 2.2 Privacy 15 2.3 Using the pay-off class 16 2.4 Further extensibility defects 19 2.5 The openÐclosed principle 20 2.6 Key points 21 2.7 Exercises 22 3 Inheritance and virtual functions 23 3.1 ‘is a’ 23 3.2 Coding inheritance 24 3.3 Virtual functions 24 3.4 Why we must pass the inherited object by reference 29 3.5 Not knowing the type and virtual destruction 30 3.6 Adding extra pay-offs without changing files 34 vii viii Contents 3.7 Key points 37 3.8 Exercises 37 4 Bridging with a virtual constructor 38 4.1 The problem 38 4.2 A first solution 39 4.3 Virtual construction 43 4.4 The rule of three 51 4.5 The bridge 53 4.6 Beware of new 57 4.7 A parameters class 58 4.8 Key points 65 4.9 Exercises 65 5 Strategies, decoration, and statistics 66 5.1 Differing outputs 66 5.2 Designing a statistics gatherer 66 5.3 Using the statistics gatherer 69 5.4 Templates and wrappers 73 5.5 A convergence table 77 5.6 Decoration 80 5.7 Key points 81 5.8 Exercises 81 6 A random numbers class 83 6.1 Why? 83 6.2 Design considerations 84 6.3 The base class 86 6.4 A linear congruential generator and the adapter pattern 88 6.5 Anti-thetic sampling via decoration 93 6.6 Using the random number generator class 97 6.7 Key points 102 6.8 Exercises 102 7 An exotics engine and the template pattern 103 7.1 Introduction 103 7.2 Identifying components 104 7.3 Communication between the components 105 7.4 The base classes 106 7.5 A BlackÐScholes path generation engine 111 7.6 An arithmetic Asian option 115 7.7 Putting it all together 117 7.8 Key points 120 7.9 Exercises 120 Contents ix 8 Trees 121 8.1 Introduction 121 8.2 The design 123 8.3 The TreeProduct class 125 8.4 A tree class 129 8.5 Pricing on the tree 135 8.6 Key points 139 8.7 Exercises 139 9 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities 141 9.1 The problem 141 9.2 Function objects 142 9.3 Bisecting with a template 145 9.4 NewtonÐRaphson and function template arguments 149 9.5 Using NewtonÐRaphson to do implied volatilities 151 9.6 The pros and cons of templatization 154 9.7 Key points 156 9.8 Exercises 156 10 The factory 157 10.1 The problem 157 10.2 The basic idea 157 10.3 The singleton pattern 158 10.4 Coding the factory 159 10.5 Automatic registration 162 10.6 Using the factory 165 10.7 Key points 166 10.8 Exercises 167 11 Design patterns revisited 168 11.1 Introduction 168 11.2 Creational patterns 168 11.3 Structural patterns 169 11.4 Behavioural patterns 170 11.5 Why design patterns? 171 11.6 Further reading 172 11.7 Key points 172 11.8 Exercise 173 12 The situation in 2007 174 12.1 Introduction 174 12.2 Compilers and the standard library 174 12.3 Boost 176 x Contents 12.4 QuantLib 177 12.5 xlw 177 12.6 Key points 178 12.7 Exercises 178 13 Exceptions 179 13.1 Introduction 179 13.2 Safety guarantees 180 13.3 The use of smart pointers 180 13.4 The rule of almost zero 183 13.5 Commands to never use 184 13.6 Making the wrapper class exception safe 185 13.7 Throwing in special functions 186 13.8 Floating point exceptions 187 13.9 Key points 192 14 Templatizing the factory 197 14.1 Introduction 197 14.2 Using inheritance to add structure 197 14.3 The curiously recurring template pattern 199 14.4 Using argument lists 200 14.5 The private part of the ArgumentList class 206 14.6 The implementation of the ArgumentList 208 14.7 Cell matrices 220 14.8 Cells and the ArgumentLists 224 14.9 The template factory 232 14.10 Using the templatized factory 237 14.11 Key points 242 14.12 Exercises 243 15 Interfacing with EXCEL 244 15.1 Introduction 244 15.2 Usage 245 15.3 Basic data types 247 15.4 Extended data types 248 15.5 xlw commands 250 15.6 The interface file 250 15.7 The interface generator 253 15.8 Troubleshooting 254 15.9 Debugging with xlls 254 15.10 Key points 255 15.11 Exercises 255 Contents xi 16 Decoupling 256 16.1 Introduction 256 16.2 Header files 256 16.3 Splitting files 259 16.4 Direction of information flow and levelization 260 16.5 Classes as insulators 262 16.6 inlining 262 16.7 Template code 263 16.8 Functional interfaces 264 16.9 Pimpls 264 16.10 Key points 265 16.11 Exercises 265 Appendix A BlackÐScholes formulas 266 Appendix B Distribution functions 270 Appendix C A simple array class 274 C.1 Choosing an array class 274 C.2 A simple array class 275 C.3 A simple array class 278 Appendix D The code 285 D.1 Using the code 285 D.2 Compilers 285 D.3 License 285 Appendix E Glossary 286 Bibliography 287 Index 289 Preface This book is aimed at a reader who has studied an introductory book on mathemat- ical finance and an introductory book on C++ but does not know how to put the two together. My objective is to teach the reader not just how to implement models in C++ but more importantly how to think in an object-oriented way. There are already many books on object-oriented programming; however, the examples tend not to feel real to the financial mathematician so in this book we work exclusively with examples from derivatives pricing. We do not attempt to cover all sorts of financial models but instead examine a few in depth with the objective at all times of using them to illustrate certain OO ideas. We proceed largely by example, rewriting, our designs as new concepts are introduced, instead of working out a great design at the start. Whilst this approach is not optimal from a design standpoint, it is more pedagogically accessible. An aspect of this is that our examples are designed to emphasize design principles rather than to illustrate other features of coding, such as numerical efficiency or exception safety. We commence by introducing a simple Monte Carlo model which does not use OO techniques but rather is the simplest procedural model for pricing a call option one could write. We examine its shortcomings and discuss how classes naturally arise from the concepts involved in its construction. In Chapter 2, we move on to the concept of encapsulation Ð the idea that a class allows to express a real-world analogue and its behaviours precisely. In order to illustrate encapsulation, we look at how a class can be defined for the pay-off of a vanilla option. We also see that the class we have defined has certain defects, and this naturally leads on to the openÐclosed principle. In Chapter 3, we see how a better pay-off class can be defined by using inheri- tance and virtual functions. This raises technical issues involving destruction and passing arguments, which we address. We also see how this approach is compatible with the openÐclosed principle. xiii xiv Preface Using virtual functions causes problems regarding the copying of objects of un- known type, and in Chapter 4 we address these problems. We do so by introducing virtual constructors and the bridge pattern. We digress to discuss the ‘rule of three’ and the slowness of new. The ideas are illustrated via a vanilla options class and a parameters class. With these new techniques at our disposal, we move on to looking at more com- plicated design patterns in Chapter 5. We first introduce the strategy pattern that expresses the idea that decisions on part of an algorithm can be deferred by dele- gating responsibilities to an auxiliary class. We then look at how templates can be used to write a wrapper class that removes a lot of our difficulties with memory handling. As an application of these techniques, we develop a convergence table using the decorator pattern. In Chapter 6, we look at how to develop a random numbers class. We first exam- ine why we need a class and then develop a simple implementation which provides a reusable interface and an adequate random number generator. We use the imple- mentation to introduce and illustrate the adapter pattern, and to examine further the decorator pattern. We move on to our first non-trivial application in Chapter 7, where we use the classes developed so far in the implementation of a Monte Carlo pricer for path- dependent exotic derivatives. As part of this design, we introduce and use the tem- plate pattern. We finish with the pricing of Asian options. We shift from Monte Carlo to trees in Chapter 8. We see the similarities and differences between the two techniques, and implement a reusable design. As part of the design, we reuse some of the classes developed earlier for Monte Carlo. We return to the topic of templates in Chapter 9. We illustrate their use by design- ing reusable solver classes. These classes are then used to define implied volatility functions. En route, we look at function objects and pointers to member functions. We finish with a discussion of the pros and cons of templatization. In Chapter 10, we look at our most advanced topic: the factory pattern. This patterns allows the addition of new functionality to a program without changing any existing files. As part of the design, we introduce the singleton pattern. We pause in Chapter 11 to classify, summarize, and discuss the design patterns we have introduced. In particular, we see how they can be divided into creational, structural, and behavioural patterns. We also review the literature on design patterns to give the reader a guide for further study. The final four chapters are new for the second edition. In these our focus is different: rather than focussing exclusively on design patterns, we look at some other important aspects of good coding that neophytes to C++ tend to be unaware of. Preface xv In Chapter 12, we take a historical look at the situation in 2007 and at what has changed in recent years both in C++ and the financial engineering community’s use of it. The study of exception safety is the topic of Chapter 13. We see how making the requirement that code functions well in the presence of exceptions places a large number of constraints on style. We introduce some easy techniques to deal with these constraints. In Chapter 14, we return to the factory pattern. The original factory pattern re- quired us to write similar code every time we introduced a new class hierarchy; we now see how, by using argument lists and templates, a fully general factory class can be coded and reused forever. In Chapter 15, we look at something rather different that is very important in day-to-day work for a quant: interfacing with EXCEL. In particular, we examine the xlw package for building xlls. This package contains all the code necessary to expose a C++ function to EXCEL, and even contains a parser to write the new code required for each function. The concept of physical design is introduced in Chapter 16. We see how the objective of reducing compile times can affect our code organization and design. The code for the examples in the first 11 chapters of this book can be freely downloaded from www.markjoshi.com/design, and any bugfixes will be posted there. The code for the remaining chapters is taken from the xlw project and can be downloaded from xlw.sourceforge.net. All example code is taken from release 2.1. Acknowledgements I am grateful to the Royal Bank of Scotland for providing a stimulating environ- ment in which to learn, study and do mathematical finance. Most of my views on coding C++ and financial modelling have been developed during my time work- ing there. My understanding of the topic has been formed through daily discussions with current and former colleagues including Chris Hunter, Peter J¬ackel, Dhermin- der Kainth, Sukhdeep Mahal, Robin Nicholson and Jochen Theis. I am also grate- ful to a host of people for their many comments on the manuscript, including Alex Barnard, Dherminder Kainth, Rob Kitching, Sukhdeep Mahal, Nadim Mahassen, Hugh McBride, Alan Stacey and Patrik Sundberg. I would also like to thank David Tranah and the rest of the team at Cambridge University Press for their careful work and attention to detail. Finally my wife has been very supportive. I am grateful to a number of people for their comments on the second edi- tion, with particular thanks to Chris Beveridge, Narinder Claire, Nick Denson and Lorenzo Liesch. xvi 1 A simple Monte Carlo model 1.1 Introduction In the first part of this book, we shall study the pricing of derivatives using Monte Carlo simulation. We do this not to study the intricacies of Monte Carlo but because it provides many convenient examples of concepts that can be abstracted. We pro- ceed by example, that is we first give a simple program, discuss its good points, its shortcomings, various ways round them and then move on to a new example. We carry out this procedure repeatedly and eventually end up with a fancy program. We begin with a routine to price vanilla call options by Monte Carlo. 1.2 The theory We commence by discussing the theory. The model for stock price evolution is dSt = µSt dt + σ St dWt , (1.1) and a riskless bond, B, grows at a continuously compounding rate r. The BlackÐ Scholes pricing theory then tells us that the price of a vanilla option, with expiry T and pay-off f , is equal to e−rTE( f (ST )), where the expectation is taken under the associated risk-neutral process, dSt = rSt dt + σ St dWt . (1.2) We solve equation (1.2) by passing to the log and using Ito’s lemma; we compute d log St = r − 1 2 σ 2 dt + σdWt . (1.3) As this process is constant-coefficient, it has the solution log St = log S0 + r − 1 2 σ 2 t + σ Wt . (1.4) 1 2 A simple Monte Carlo model Since Wt is a Brownian motion, WT is distributed as a Gaussian with mean zero and variance T , so we can write WT = √ TN(0, 1), (1.5) and hence log ST = log S0 + r − 1 2 σ 2 T + σ √ TN(0, 1), (1.6) or equivalently, ST = S0e(r− 1 2 σ 2)T +σ √ TN(0,1). (1.7) The price of a vanilla option is therefore equal to e−rTE f S0e(r− 1 2 σ 2)T +σ √ TN(0,1) . The objective of our Monte Carlo simulation is to approximate this expectation by using the law of large numbers, which tells us that if Y j are a sequence of identically distributed independent random variables, then with probability 1 the sequence 1 N N j=1 Y j converges to E(Y1). So the algorithm to price a call option by Monte Carlo is clear. We draw a random variable, x, from an N(0, 1) distribution and compute f S0e(r− 1 2 σ 2)T +σ √ Tx , where f (S) = (S − K)+. We do this many times and take the average. We then multiply this average by e−rT and we are done. 1.3 A simple implementation of a Monte Carlo call option pricer A first implementation is given in the program SimpleMCMain1.cpp. Listing 1.1 (SimpleMCMain1.cpp) // requires Random1.cpp #include #include #include using namespace std; 1.3 A simple implementation of a Monte Carlo call option pricer 3 double SimpleMonteCarlo1(double Expiry, double Strike, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { double variance = Vol*Vol*Expiry; double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r*Expiry +itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double runningSum=0; for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayoff = thisSpot - Strike; thisPayoff = thisPayoff >0 ? thisPayoff : 0; runningSum += thisPayoff; } double mean = runningSum / NumberOfPaths; mean *= exp(-r*Expiry); return mean; } int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; 4 A simple Monte Carlo model cout << "\nEnter strike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; double result = SimpleMonteCarlo1(Expiry, Strike, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"the price is " << result << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } Our program uses the auxiliary files Random1.h and Random1.cpp. Listing 1.2 (Random1.h) #ifndef RANDOM1_H #define RANDOM1_H double GetOneGaussianBySummation(); double GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); #endif 1.3 A simple implementation of a Monte Carlo call option pricer 5 Listing 1.3 (Random1.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in namespace // std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif double GetOneGaussianBySummation() { double result=0; for (unsigned long j=0;j<12;j++) result += rand()/static_cast(RAND_MAX); result -= 6.0; return result; } double GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller() { double result; double x; double y; double sizeSquared; do { x = 2.0*rand()/static_cast(RAND_MAX)-1; y = 2.0*rand()/static_cast(RAND_MAX)-1; sizeSquared = x*x + y*y; } while ( sizeSquared >= 1.0); 6 A simple Monte Carlo model result = x*sqrt(-2*log(sizeSquared)/sizeSquared); return result; } We first include the header file Random1.h. Note that the program has rather than "Random1.h". This means that we have set our com- piler settings to look for header files in the directory where Random1.h is.Inthis case, this is in the directory C/include. (In Visual C++, the directories for in- clude files can be changed via the menus tools, options, directories.) Random1.h tells the main file that the functions double GetOneGaussianBySummation() and double GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller() exist. We include the system file iostream as we want to use cin and cout for the user interface. The system file cmath is included as it contains the basic math- ematical functions exp and sqrt. We have the command using namespace std because all the standard library commands are contained in the namespace std. If we did not give the using directive, then we would have to prefix all their uses by std::, so then it would be std::cout rather than cout. The function SimpleMonteCarlo1 does all the work. It takes in all the standard inputs for the BlackÐScholes model, the expiry and strike of the option, and in addition the number of paths to be used in the Monte Carlo. Before starting the Monte Carlo we precompute as much as possible. Thus we compute the variance of the log of the stock over the option’s life, the adjustment term −1 2 σ 2T for the drift of the log, and the square root of the variance. Whilst we cannot precompute the final value of spot, we precompute what we can and put it in the variable movedSpot. We initialize the variable, runningSum, to zero as it will store the sum so far of the option pay-offs at all times. We now loop over all the paths. For each path, we first draw the random number from the N(0, 1) distribution using the BoxÐMuller algorithm and put it in the variable thisGaussian. The spot at the end of the path is then computed and placed in thisSpot. Note that although our derivation of the SDE involved working with the log of the spot, we have carefully avoided using log in this routine. The reason is that log and exp 1.4 Critiquing the simple Monte Carlo routine 7 are slow to compute in comparison to addition and multiplication, we therefore want to make as few calls to them as possible. We then compute the call option’s pay-off by subtracting the strike and taking the maximum with zero. The pay-off is then added to runningSum and the loop continues. Once the loop is complete, we divide by the number of paths to get the expecta- tion. Finally, we discount to get our estimate of the price which we return. The main program takes in the inputs from the user, calls the Monte Carlo func- tion, and displays the results. It asks for a final input to stop the routine from re- turning before the user has had a chance to read the results. 1.4 Critiquing the simple Monte Carlo routine The routine we have written runs quickly and does what it was intended to do. It is a simple straightforward procedural program that performs as required. However, if we worked with this program we would swiftly run into annoyances. The essence of good coding is reusability. What does this mean? One simple definition is that code is reusable if someone has reused it. Thus reusability is as much a social concept as a technical one. What will make it easy for someone to reuse your code? Ultimately, the important attributes are clarity and elegance of design. If another coder decides that it would take as much effort to recode your routines as to understand them, then he will recode, and his inclination will be to recode in any case, as it is more fun than poring over someone else’s implementation. The second issue of elegance is equally important. If the code is clear but difficult to adapt then another coder will simply abandon it, rather than put lots of effort into forcing it to work in a way that is unnatural for how it was built. The demands of reusability therefore mean we should strive for clarity and ele- gance. In addition, we should keep in mind when considering our original design the possibility that in future our code might need to be extended. We return to our simple Monte Carlo program. Suppose we have a boss and each day he comes by and asks for our program to do something more. If we have designed it well then we will simply have to add features; if we have designed poorly then we will have to rewrite existing code. So what might the evil boss demand? “Do puts as well as calls!” “Ican’t see how accurate the price is, put in the standard error.” “The convergence is too slow, put in anti-thetic sampling.” “I want the most accurate price possible by 9am tomorrow so set it running for 14 hours.” 8 A simple Monte Carlo model “It’s crucial that the standard error is less than 0.0001, so run it until that’s achieved. We’re in a hurry though so don’t run it any longer than strictly necessary.” “I read about low-discrepancy numbers at the weekend. Just plug them in and see how good they are.” “Apparently, standard error is a poor measure of error for low-discrepancy sim- ulations. Put in a convergence table instead.” “Hmm, I miss the standard error can we see that too.” “We need a digital call pricer now!” “What about geometric average Asian calls?” “How about arithmetic average Asian puts?” “Take care of variable parameters for the volatility and interest rates.” “Use the geometric Asian option as a control variate for the arithmetic one.” “These low-discrepancy numbers apparently only work well if you Brownian bridge. Put that in as well.” “Put in a double digital geometric Asian option.” “What about jump risk? Put in a jump-diffusion model.” To adapt the routine as written would require a rewrite to do any of these. We have written the simplest routine we could think of, without considering design issues. This means that each change is not particularly natural and requires extra work. For example, with this style of programming how would we would do the put option? Option one: copy the function, change the name by adding put at the end, and rewrite the two lines where the pay-off is computed. Option two: pass in an extra parameter, possibly as an enum and compute the pay-off via a switch statement in each loop of the Monte Carlo. The problem with the first option is that when we come to the next task, we have to adapt both the functions in the same way and do the same thing twice. If we then need more pay-offs this will rapidly become a maintenance nightmare. The issues with the other option are more subtle. One problem is that a switch statement is an additional overhead so that the routine will now run a little slower. A deeper problem is that when we come to do a different routine which also uses a pay-off, we will have to copy the code from inside the first routine or rewrite it as necessary. This once again becomes a maintenance problem; every time we want to add a new sort of pay-off we would have to go through every place where pay-offs are used and add it on. A C style approach to this problem would be to use a function pointer, we pass a pointer to a function as an argument to the Monte Carlo. The function pointed to is then called via the pointer in each loop to specify the price. Note that the call to the function would have to specify the strike as well as spot since the function 1.5 Identifying the classes 9 could not know its value. Note also that if we wanted to do a double-digital option we would have problems as the double digital pays if and only if spot is between two levels, and we only have one argument, the strike, to play with. The C++ approach to this problem is to use a class. The class would encapsulate the behaviour of the pay-off of a vanilla option. A pay-off object would then be passed into the function as an argument and in each loop a method expressing its value would be called to output the price for that pay-off. We look at the imple- mentation of such a class in the next chapter. 1.5 Identifying the classes In the previous section, we saw that the problem of wanting to add different sorts of vanilla options led naturally to the use of a class to encapsulate the notion of a pay-off. In this section, we look at identifying other natural classes which arise from the boss’s demands. Some of the demands were linked to differing forms that the boss wanted the information in. We could therefore abstract this notion by creating a statistics gath- erer class. We also had differing ways of terminating the Monte Carlo. We could termi- nate on time, on standard error or simply after a fixed number of paths. We could abstract this by writing a terminator class. There were many different issues with the method of random number genera- tion. The routine as it stands relies on the inbuilt generator which we do not know much about. We therefore want to be able to use other random number generators. We also want the flexibility of using low-discrepancy numbers which means an- other form of generation. (In addition, BoxÐMuller does not work well with low- discrepancy numbers so we will need flexibility in the inputs.) Another natural abstraction is therefore a random number generator class. As long as our option is vanilla then specifying its parameters via pay-off and strike is fairly natural and easy; however, it would be neater to have one class that contains both pieces of information. More generally, when we pass to path- dependent exotic options, it becomes natural to have a class that expresses the option’s properties. What would we expect such a class to do? Ultimately, an easy way to decide what the class should and should not know is to think of whether a piece of information would be contained in the term-sheet. Thus the class would know the pay-off of the option. It would know the expiry time. If it was an Asian it would know the averaging dates. It would also know whether the averaging was geometric or arithmetic. It would not know anything about interest rates, nor the value of spot nor the volatility of the spot rate as none these facts are con- tained in the term-sheet. The point here is that by choosing a real-world concept to 10 A simple Monte Carlo model encapsulate, it is easy to decide what to include or not to include. It is also easy for another user to understand how you have decided what to include or not to include. What other concepts can we identify? The concept of a variable parameter could be made into a class. The process from which spot is drawn is another concept. The variable interest rates could be encapsulated via a class that expresses the notion of a discount curve. 1.6 What will the classes buy us? Suppose that having identified all these classes, we implement them. What do we gain? The first gain is that because these classes encapsulate natural financial concepts, we will need them when doing other pieces of coding. For example, if we have a class that does yield curves then we will use it time and time again, as to price any derivative using any reasonable method involves knowledge of the discount curve. Not only will we save time on the writing of code but we will also save time on the debugging. A class that has been tested thoroughly once has been tested forever and in addition, any little quirks that evade the testing regime will be found through repeated reuse. The more times and ways something has been reused the fewer the bugs that will be left. So using reusable classes leads to more reliable code as well as saving us coding time. Debugging often takes at least as much time as coding in any case, so saving time on debugging is a big benefit. A second gain is that our code becomes clearer. We have written the code in terms of natural concepts, so another coder can identify the natural concepts and pick up our code much more easily. A third gain is that the classes will allow us to separate interface from implemen- tation. All the user needs to know about a pay-off class or discount curve class are what inputs yield what outputs? How the class works internally does not matter. This has multiple advantages. The first is that the class can be reused without the coder having to study its internal workings. The second advantage is that because the defining characteristic of the class is what it does but not how it does it, we can change how it does it at will. And crucially, we can do this without rewriting the rest of our program. One aspect of this is that we can first quickly write a suboptimal implementation and improve it later at no cost. This allows us to provide enough functionality to test the rest of the code before devoting a lot of time to the class. A third advantage of separating interface from implementation is that we can write multiple classes that implement the same interface and use them without rewriting all the interface routines. This is one of the biggest advantages of object-oriented design. 1.8 Key points 11 In the next chapter, we look at some of these concepts in the concrete case of a pay-off class. 1.7 Why object-oriented programming? This is a book about implementing pricing models using object-oriented C++ pro- grams. The reader may ask why this is worth learning. A short answer is that this is the skill you need if you want a job working as a quantitative analyst or quantitative developer. But this begs the question of why this is the required skill. Object-oriented programming has become popular as computer projects have be- come larger and larger. A single project may now involve millions of lines of code. No single programmer will ever be able to hold all of that code in his mind at once. Object-oriented programming provides us with a way of coding that corresponds to natural mental maps. We know what each class of objects does, and more impor- tantly we tightly define how they can interact with each other. This allows a clear map in the coder’s mind of how the code fits together. And equally importantly, this allows easy communication of the code’s structure to other programmers in the team. When the coder needs to focus in on a particular part of the code, he need only look at the interior of the particular object involved and its interface with other ob- jects. As long as the interface is not broken, and the new object lives up to the same responsibilities as the old one then there is no danger of unexpected ramifications (i.e. bugs) in distant parts of the code. Thus object-oriented programming leads to more robust code that is easier for teams to work on. 1.8 Key points In this chapter, we have looked at how to implement a simple Monte Carlo rou- tine on a procedural program. We then criticized it from the point of view of easy extensibility and reuse. • Options can be priced by risk-neutral expectation. • Monte Carlo uses the Law of Large Numbers to approximate this risk-neutral expectation. • Reuse is as much a social issue as a technical one. • Procedural programs can be hard to extend and reuse. • Classes allow us to encapsulate concepts which makes reuse and extensibility a lot easier. • Making classes closely model real-world concepts makes them easier to design and to explain. 12 A simple Monte Carlo model • Classes allow us to separate the design of the interface from the coding of the implementation. 1.9 Exercises Exercise 1.1 Modify the program given to price puts. Exercise 1.2 Modify the program given to price double digitals. Exercise 1.3 Change the program so that the user inputs a string which specifies the option pay-off. Exercise 1.4 Identify as many classes as you can in the evil boss’s list of demands. 2 Encapsulation 2.1 Implementing the pay-off class In the last chapter, we looked at a simple Monte Carlo pricer and concluded that the program would be improved if we used a class to encapsulate the notion of the pay-off of a vanilla option. In this section, we look at how such a pay-off might be implemented. In the files PayOff1.h and Payoff1.cpp, we develop such a class. Before looking at the source file, PayOff1.cpp, we examine the more important header file. The header file is much more important because it is all that other files will see, and ideally it is all that the other files need to see. Listing 2.1 (PayOff1.h) #ifndef PAYOFF_H #define PAYOFF_H class PayOff { public: enum OptionType {call, put}; PayOff(double Strike_, OptionType TheOptionsType_); double operator()(double Spot) const; private: double Strike; OptionType TheOptionsType; }; #endif We use an enum to distinguish between different sorts of pay-offs. If we ever want more than put and call, we would add them to the list. We will discuss 13 14 Encapsulation more sophisticated approaches in Chapter 3 but this approach is enough to get us started. The constructor PayOff(double Strike_, OptionType TheOptionsType_) takes in the strike of the option and the type of the option pay-off. The main method of the class is double PayOff::operator()(double spot) const The purpose of this method is that given a value of spot, it returns the value of the pay-off. Note the slightly odd syntax: we have overloaded operator(). To call this method for an object thePayoff with spot given by S we would write thePayoff(S). Thus when use the object it appears more like a function than an object; such objects are often called function objects or functors. (Note that the C++ concept of functor is quite different from the pure mathematical one.) We have defined operator() to be const. This means that the method does not modify the state of the object. This is as we would expect: computing the pay-off does not change the strike or the type of an option. Suppose we did not specify that operator() was const; what would happen? The same functionality would be provided and the code would still compile. How- ever, if a pay-off object was declared const at some point by a user then the com- piler would complain if we tried to call operator(), and give us a complicated message to the effect that we cannot call non const methods of const objects. Thus if we want a method to be usable in const objects we must declare the method const. An alternative approach, adopted by some programmers, is not to use const anywhere. The argument goes along the lines of “If we use const in some places, we must use it everywhere, and all it does is cause trouble and stop me doing what I want so why bother? Life will be much easier if we just do not use it.” Yet I use const as much as possible. The reason is that it is a safety enforce- ment mechanism. Thinking about const forces me to consider the context of an object and whether or not I wish it to change when doing certain things. If I am woolly in my thinking then the compiler will generally squeal when I at- tempt to compile, and thus errors are picked up at compile time instead of at run time. A second benefit is that by giving the compiler the extra information that objects are const, we allow it to make extra optimizations. Code on a good compiler can therefore run faster when const is used. Now we are ready for PayOff1.cpp. 2.2 Privacy 15 Listing 2.2 (PayOff1.cpp) #include #include PayOff::PayOff(double Strike_, OptionType TheOptionsType_) : Strike(Strike_), TheOptionsType(TheOptionsType_) { } double PayOff::operator ()(double spot) const { switch (TheOptionsType) { case call : return max(spot-Strike,0.0); case put: return max(Strike-spot,0.0); default: throw("unknown option type found."); } } 2.2 Privacy We have declared the data in the pay-off class to be private. This means that the data cannot be accessed by code outside the class. The only code that can see, let alone change, their values are the constructor and the method operator(). What does this buy us? After all, for some reason the user might want to know the strike of an option and we have denied him the possibility of finding it out. The reason is that as soon we let the user access the data directly, it is much harder for us to change how the class works. We can think of the class as a contract between coder and user. We, the coder, have provided the user with an interface: if he gives us spot we will give him the value of the pay-off. This is all we have contracted to provide. The user therefore expects and receives precisely that and no more. For example, if the user could see the strike directly and accessed it, and if we changed the class so that the strike was no longer stored directly (which we shall 16 Encapsulation do in the next chapter), then we would get compile errors from everywhere the strike was accessed. If the class had been used a lot in many files, in many different projects (which is after all the objective of reuse), then to find every place where strike had been accessed would be a daunting task. In fact, if this were the case we would probably consider finding them all a considerable waste of time, and we would probably give up reforming the internal workings. Thus by making the data private, we can enforce the contract between coder and user in such a way that the contract does not say anything about the inte- rior workings of the class. If for some reason, we wanted the user to be able to know the strike of the pay-off then we could add in an extra method double GetStrike() const. Whilst this would seem to undo all the benefits of using pri- vate data, this is not so since it still allows us the possibility of storing the data in a totally different way. To conclude, by using private data we can rework the interior workings of a class as and when we need to without worrying about the impact on other code. That is, private data helps us to separate interface and implementation. 2.3 Using the pay-off class Having designed a pay-off class, we want to use it in our Monte Carlo routines. We do this in the function SimpleMonteCarlo2 which is declared in SimpleMC.h and defined in SimpleMC.cpp. Listing 2.3 (SimpleMC.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC_H #define SIMPLEMC_H #include double SimpleMonteCarlo2(const PayOff& thePayOff, double Expiry, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths); #endif Listing 2.4 (SimpleMC.cpp) #include #include #include 2.3 Using the pay-off class 17 // the basic math functions should be in // namespace std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif double SimpleMonteCarlo2(const PayOff& thePayOff, double Expiry, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { double variance = Vol*Vol*Expiry; double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r*Expiry +itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double runningSum=0; for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayOff = thePayOff(thisSpot); runningSum += thisPayOff; } double mean = runningSum / NumberOfPaths; mean *= exp(-r*Expiry); return mean; } The main change from our original Monte Carlo routine is that we now input a PayOff object instead of a strike. The strike is, of course, now hidden inside the inputted object. We pass the object by reference and make it const as we have no need to change it inside our routine. Note that the only line of our algorithm that is new is double thisPayOff = thePayOff(thisSpot); 18 Encapsulation We illustrate how the routine might be called in SimpleMCMain2.cpp. Here we define both call and put objects and this shows that the routine can now be used without change to prices both types of options. Listing 2.5 (SimpleMCMain2.cpp) /* requires PayOff1.cpp Random1.cpp, SimpleMC.cpp, */ #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nEnter strike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; 2.4 Further extensibility defects 19 cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOff callPayOff(Strike, PayOff::call); PayOff putPayOff(Strike, PayOff::put); double resultCall = SimpleMonteCarlo2(callPayOff, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); double resultPut = SimpleMonteCarlo2(putPayOff, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"the prices are " << resultCall << " for the call and " << resultPut << " for the put\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 2.4 Further extensibility defects We have now set-up a pay-off class. One of our original objectives was to be able to extend the code easily without needing to rewrite other code when we add new pay-offs. Have we achieved this? Yes. Suppose we now want to add in the digital call pay-off. What do we need to do? We add in an extra type, digitalcall, in the enum. We also change the switch statement in the operator() to include the extra case of a digital call and in that case return 1 if spot is above strike and 0 otherwise. 20 Encapsulation Everywhere the PayOff class has been used, in our case the Monte Carlo routine but possibly in many places, the digital call is now available just by passing in a PayOff object in an appropriate state. Do this change for yourself and hit ‘build’. One slightly non-obvious effect is that all the files which involve pay-offs are now recompiled. So although there is no obvious difference in those files, we see something slightly unexpected: as they include the file PayOff1.h, and it has changed, they must be recompiled too. This is a warning sign that the code is not as independent as we would like. In an extreme case, we might not have access to source code for purchased libraries; any programming model that required us to recompile those libraries would be useless to us. In addition even if we could recompile, it might be a time-consuming process which we would prefer to avoid. We would therefore like a way of programming that allows us not just to add functionality without modifying dependent files, but also to be able to do so without having to recompile existing files. In fact, any solution that allowed us to do so would have to allow us to add an extra sort of pay-off without changing the pay-off class that the files using pay-offs see. For if the part that they see changes in any way, the compiler will insist on recompiling them even if the changes do not appear to be material. 2.5 The open–closed principle The previous section’s discussion leads naturally to a programming idea known as the open-closed principle. The ‘open’ refers to the idea that code should always be open for extension. So in this particular case, we should always be able to add extra pay-offs. The ‘closed’ means that the file is ‘closed for modification’. This refers to the idea that we should be able to do the extension without modifying any existing code, and we should be able to do so without even changing anything in any of the existing files. This may seem a little counterintuitive; how can one possibly make new forms of pay-offs without changing the pay-off class? To illustrate the idea be- fore presenting the C++ solution, we consider how we might do this using C style techniques. Suppose instead of making the class contain an enum that defines the option type, we instead use a function pointer. Thus we replace OptionType with double (*FunctionPtr)(double,double). The constructor for the pay-off would then take in the strike and a function pointer. It would store both and when operator() was called it would dereference 2.6 Key points 21 the pointer and call the function pointed to with spot and strike as its argu- ments. This code achieves a lot of our objectives. We can put the function pointed to in anewfile, so the existing file for the pay-off class does not change each time we add a new form of pay-off. This means that neither the pay-off file nor the Monte Carlo file which includes the header file for pay-off need to be recompiled let alone changed. However, there is still a fly in the ointment. What do we do when the boss comes by and demands a double-digital pay-off? The double digital requires two strikes (or barrier levels) and we only have one slot, the strike. Now this was also a problem with our original pay-off class; it too had only one slot for the strike. One solution would be to use an array to specify and store parameters. The strike would be replaced by an array in both constructor and class members. The function pointer would take the array and spot as it arguments. This could be made to work. However, the code is now starting to lose the properties of clarity and elegance which were a large part of our original objectives. So although the function pointer gets us a long way it does not get us far enough and we need a more sophisticated approach. The issue is that we need a way of specifying an object for the pay-off which is not of a predetermined type. This object will contain all the data it needs know and no more. So for a vanilla call or put the object would contain the strike, but for a double digital it would contain both of the two barrier levels. Fortunately, C++ was designed with just this sort of problem in mind, and in the next chapter we shall study how to use inheritance and virtual functions to overcome these problems. We have used the openÐclosed principle as a way of motivating the introduction of these concepts, and we shall repeatedly return to it as a paradigm for evaluating programming approaches. 2.6 Key points In this chapter, we looked at one way of using a class to encapsulate the notion of a pay-off. We then saw some of the advantages of using such a class. We also saw that the class had not achieved all of our objectives. • Using a pay-off class allows us to add extra forms of pay-offs without modifying our Monte Carlo routine. • By overloading operator() we can make an object look like a function. • const enforces extra discipline by forcing the coder to be aware of which code is allowed to change things and which code cannot. • const code can run faster. 22 Encapsulation • The open-closed principle says that code should be open for extension but closed for modification. • Private data helps us to separate interface from implementation. 2.7 Exercises Exercise 2.1 Modify the pay-off class so that it can handle digital options. Exercise 2.2 Modify the pay-off class so that it can handle double-digital options. Exercise 2.3 Test whether on your compiler using const speeds code up. 3 Inheritance and virtual functions 3.1 ‘is a’ We reconsider our PayOff class. At the end of the last chapter, we concluded that we would like to be able to use differing sorts of objects as pay-offs without changing any of the code that takes in pay-off objects. In other words, we would like to be able to say that a call option pay-off ‘is a’ pay-off, and express this idea in code. The mechanism for expressing the ‘is a’ relationship in C++ is inheritance. There are plenty of examples we have already seen where such ‘is a’ relationships are natural. For example, a call option is a vanilla option. The compiler’s built-in random number generator is a random number generator. BoxÐMuller is a method of turning uniform random variables into Gaussian random variables. An Asian option is a path-dependent exotic option. An arithmetic Asian call option is an Asian option, as is a geometric Asian put option. Returning the mean is a way of gathering statistics for a Monte Carlo simulation. Specifying the continuously compounding rate is a way to specify the discount curve. The BlackScholes model is a model of stock price evolution. Thus ‘is a’ relationships are very natural in mathematical finance (as well as in coding and life in general.) We shall use inheritance to express such relationships. We shall refer to the class we inherit from as the base class and the class which does the inheriting will be called the inherited class. The base class will always express a more general concept than the inherited class. Note that there is nothing to stop us inheriting several times. For example, our base might be PathDependentExoticOption. An inherited class might be AsianOption. We might then further inherit AsianPutOption and AsianCallOption from AsianOption. The key point is that each inherited class refines the class above it in the hierar- chy to something more specific. 23 24 Inheritance and virtual functions 3.2 Coding inheritance To indicate that a class, PayOffCall, is inherited from a class PayOff, we use the key word public. Thus when declaring the inherited class, we write class PayOffCall : public PayOff What effect does this have? PayOffCall inherits all the data members and meth- ods of PayOff. And most importantly, the compiler will accept a PayOffCall object wherever it expects a PayOff object. Thus we can write all our code to work off PayOff objects but then use inherited class objects to specify the precise properties. (There are some issues, however; see Section 3.4.) We can also add data members and methods at will. The rules of public in- heritance say that we can access protected data and methods of the base class inside the methods of the inherited class but we cannot access the private data. It is generally recommended to use private data for this reason; if we did otherwise then any changes in the design of the base class might require that any inherited classes be rewritten and at the very least all inherited classes would have to be checked. By using private data, we encapsulate what the base class does, and allow ourselves to reimplement it in future. It is, however, safe to use protected methods, as these, similarly to public methods, define part of the object’s in- terface. As long as the implicit (or ideally explicit) contract which expresses the method’s functionality does not change, it does not matter what interior changes are made. 3.3 Virtual functions Returning to our example of the PayOff class, we redefine the class to work using inheritance. Our base class is still called PayOff but whereas previously it did a lot, it now does almost nothing. In fact, it does one thing; it specifies an interface. We give the code in PayOff2.h and PayOff2.cpp. Listing 3.1 (PayOff2.h) #ifndef PAYOFF2_H #define PAYOFF2_H class PayOff { public: PayOff(){}; virtual double operator()(double Spot) const=0; virtual ~PayOff(){} private: 3.3 Virtual functions 25 }; class PayOffCall : public PayOff { public: PayOffCall(double Strike_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffCall(){} private: double Strike; }; class PayOffPut : public PayOff { public: PayOffPut(double Strike_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffPut(){} private: double Strike; }; #endif Listing 3.2 (PayOff2.cpp) #include #include PayOffCall::PayOffCall(double Strike_) : Strike(Strike_) { } double PayOffCall::operator () (double Spot) const { return max(Spot-Strike,0.0); } double PayOffPut::operator () (double Spot) const { return max(Strike-Spot,0.0); } 26 Inheritance and virtual functions PayOffPut::PayOffPut(double Strike_) : Strike(Strike_) { } The main changes to the pay-off class are that we have added the keyword virtual to operator() and we placed an =0, at the end of operator().We have added in a destructor which is also virtual. We have also abolished all the data from both the constructor and the class definition. We also have two new classes PayOffCall and PayOffPut. Each of these have been inherited from the class PayOff. These classes will now do all the work. The call pay-off ‘is a’ pay-off, and we will use PayOffCall instead of the pay-off class where we need a call pay-off. Similarly for the put pay-off. The crucial point is that the main method, operator() is now virtual. What is a virtual function? In technical terms, it is a function whose address is bound at runtime instead of at compile time. What does that mean? In the code, where a PayOff object has been specified, for example in our simple Monte Carlo routine, the code when running will encounter an object of a class that has been inherited from PayOff. It will then decide what function to call on the basis of what type that object is. So if the object is of type PayOffCall, it calls the operator() method of PayOffCall, and if it is of type PayOffPut, it uses the method from the PayOffPut class and so on. It’s worth understanding how the compiler implements this. Rather than saying, “hmm, what type is this object? Ah, it’s a call so I’ll use the call pay-off function,” it adds extra data to each object of the class which specifies what function to use. In fact, essentially what it stores is a function pointer. So virtual functions are really a fancy way of using function pointers. Indeed, if you run a program involving virtual function pointers through a debugger, and examine through the watch window an object from a class with virtual functions, you will find an extra data member, the virtual function table. This virtual function table is a list of addresses to be called for the virtual functions associated with the class. So if when running a program, a virtual function is encountered, the table is looked up and execution jumps into the function pointed to. Note that this operation takes a small amount of time so efficiency fanatics dislike virtual functions as they cause a small decrease in execution speed. Note also that the amount of memory per object has also increased as the object now contains a lot of extra data.1 1 It is a curious fact that the C++ standard says nothing about how virtual functions are implemented so the effects are compiler dependent: However, modern compilers typically store one copy of the virtual table for each class, and each object contains a pointer to the relevant table. 3.3 Virtual functions 27 If virtual functions are just function pointers, why bother with them? The first reason is that they are syntactically a lot simpler. The structure of our program is much clearer: if we can say this is a pay-off call object and this is a pay-off put object rather than having to say that we have a pay-off object but it contains a pointer to a function defining a call pay-off, we have a gain in clarity. A second and important reason is that we get extra functionality. Depending on the complexity of the pay-off we may need extra data which cannot be ex- pressed by a single number. With inheritance, we simply require the inherited class to contain all the data necessary. Thus for a double-digital pay-off we simply have two doubles expressing the upper and lower barriers. For a power option, we have a double for the strike and an unsigned long for the power. We could even have some complicated object stored as an extra argument. Indeed, if we wanted to do a complicated pay-off as a linear combination of call options, the ex- tra data could be further call options whose pay-offs would be evaluated inside the operator() method and added together. As well as being a virtual function, the operator() method has an =0 after it. This means that it is a pure virtual function. A pure virtual function has the property that it need not be defined in the base class and must be defined in an inherited class. Thus by putting =0 we are saying that the class is incomplete, and that certain aspects of its interface must be programmed in an inherited class. In SimpleMCMain3.cpp we give an example of how to use the new pay-off class. Note that it uses SimpleMC2.h which only differs from SimpleMC.h in the replacement of PayOff.h with PayOff2.h. So we omit it. Listing 3.3 (SimpleMCMain3.cpp) /* requires PayOff2.cpp Random1.cpp SimpleMC2.cpp */ #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; 28 Inheritance and virtual functions double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nEnter strike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffCall callPayOff(Strike); PayOffPut putPayOff(Strike); double resultCall = SimpleMonteCarlo2(callPayOff, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); double resultPut = SimpleMonteCarlo2(putPayOff, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"the prices are " << resultCall << " for the call and " 3.4 Why we must pass the inherited object by reference 29 << resultPut << " for the put\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 3.4 Why we must pass the inherited object by reference In our Monte Carlo routine, we have a parameter of type const PayOff& called thePayOff. This means that the parameter is being passed by reference rather than by value. The routine therefore works off the original object passed in. If we had not used the ‘&’ it would copy the object: it would be passed by value not by reference. Suppose we change the parameter to type PayOff with or without the const, what happens? The code will not compile. Why not? When the argument Payoff is encountered, the compiler refuses to create an object of type PayOff because it has a pure virtual method. The method operator() has not been defined, and the rules of C++ say that you cannot create an object of a type with a pure virtual method. How could we get round this? Suppose we decide to make operator() an ordinary virtual function by defining it. For example, we could just make it return 0 and still override in the inherited clases as before. The code with the ‘&’ would compile and run as before, giving the same results. The code without the ‘&’ would now compile and run. However, the price of every option would be zero, which is certainly not what we want. This happens because when the compiler encounters the argument of type PayOff, the input parameter is copied into a variable of type PayOff. This occurs because the compiler will call the copy constructor of PayOff. Like all copy constructors, it takes in an object of type const PayOff&. As the compiler happily accepts references to inherited objects instead of references to base-class objects this is legal and the compiler does not complain. However, the copy constructor of PayOff is not interested in all the extra data and information contained in the inherited object: it just looks down the data coming from the base class and copies it into the new object. As the new object is truly a base class object rather than an inherited class object pretending to be a base class object, its virtual functions will be those of the base class. This all means that the new variable has the size and data of a PayOff object regardless of the type of the inputted object. The compiler therefore truncates all 30 Inheritance and virtual functions the additional data members which have been added, and the virtual function table is that of the base class object not the inherited class. In fact, disastrous things would occur if the new object inherited the virtual function table of the inherited object, as the virtual methods would try to access non-existent data members with possibly dangerous consequences. Making the base class method concrete instead of pure virtual was therefore a mistake, and, in fact, the compiler’s rejection of the argument without the ‘&’ was saving us from a dangerous error. It’s worth thinking a little about what actually happens when the object is passed by reference. All that happens is that the function is passed the address of the object in memory, no copying occurs and the object’s state is precisely as it was outside. However, if the object’s state does change inside the routine it will also change outside which may not be what we want. We therefore include the const to indicate that the routine cannot do anything which may change the state of the object. The function can ‘look but not touch.’ 3.5 Not knowing the type and virtual destruction Generally, one cannot pass an object of one type where another type is expected; a big feature of C++ is that it enforces type security. This means that the compiler picks up many errors at compile time instead of at run time. We cannot even run our program until we have made sure that all objects are of the types expected. This reduces the number of bugs that need to be found while the program is running by enforcing some discipline. However, the rules of inheritance say that we can always pass a reference to an object of an inherited class instead of a reference to a base class object. This means that at times we do not know the type of object. For example, inside the Monte Carlo routine, SimpleMC2, we appear to be using a base class object not an inherited one. There are two ways to forget the type of the object. The first, which we have already used, is to refer to it via a reference to the base class type instead of the inherited class type. The second, related, method is via a pointer. If we have a pointer to an inherited object we can always cast it into a base class object without any trouble. We give an example of this in SimpleMC- Main4.cpp. Listing 3.4 (SimpleMCMain4.cpp) /* requires PayOff2.cpp 3.5 Not knowing the type and virtual destruction 31 Random1.cpp SimpleMC2.cpp */ #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nEnter strike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; unsigned long optionType; cout << "\nenter 0 for call, otherwise put "; cin >> optionType; PayOff* thePayOffPtr; 32 Inheritance and virtual functions if (optionType== 0) thePayOffPtr = new PayOffCall(Strike); else thePayOffPtr = new PayOffPut(Strike); double result = SimpleMonteCarlo2(*thePayOffPtr, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"\nthe price is " << result << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; delete thePayOffPtr; return 0; } The user of our unsophisticated interface enters a zero for a call option and a non- zero number for a put option. We use an if statement to create the pay-off object. Note the important point here is that we use new. Whilst we would like to simply write if (optionType== 0) PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); else PayOffPut thePayOff(Strike); this will not give us what we want. The reason is that whilst the object thePayOff will happily be created, it will be an automatic variable, which is one that automatically disappears whenever the scope is left. In this case, the scope is the dependent clause of the if statement, so as soon we leave the if statement the object no longer exists and any attempts to reference thePayOff will result in compiler errors. On the other hand, when we use new we are instructing the compiler that we wish to take some memory whilst the code is running, and that memory should not be released until we explicitly say so. The object created will therefore continue to exist outside the if statement as desired. The operator new finds enough memory 3.5 Not knowing the type and virtual destruction 33 to put the object into and calls the constructor, placing the object at the memory that has been allocated. It returns a pointer to the object created. Thus the code new PayOffCall(Strike) creates the PayOffCall object and it returns a pointer to the object so we can access it. The returned pointer will be of type PayOffCall*. Fortunately, we can always cast a pointer from an in- herited class pointer into a base class pointer. We therefore assign payOffPtr to the result of new and we have the desired result. Note that we declare payOffPtr outside the if to ensure that it persists after the if statement is com- plete. When we reach the call to the Monte Carlo routine, we can now pass in either a call or a put, depending on what the pointer points to. We dereference the pointer in order to pass in the object rather than the pointer by putting *payOffPtr. The final thing we must do is get rid of the object. By using new, we told the compiler that it must not destroy the object nor deallocate the memory until we say so. If we never tell it to do so then the memory will never be freed up, and our memory will slowly leak away until program crashes. The way we instruct the compiler to destroy the object and deallocate the memory is to use the operator delete. When we call delete,itfirst calls the destructor of the object. At this point we must be careful: we have a pointer to a base object, so which destructor will it call? If the destructor is not virtual then it will call the base class destruc- tor. If the object is of an inherited class this may cause problems as the object will not be destroyed properly. For example, if the inherited class object had an array as a data member then the memory allocated for that array will never be deallocated. In our case, the base class is abstract and there cannot be any objects of its type. This means that calling the base class destructor must be an error. For this reason, we declare the destructor virtual. The compiler then uses the virtual function table to correctly decide which destructor to call. In fact, many compilers issue a warning if you declare a method pure virtual and do not declare the destructor virtual. In fact, when calling and executing the destructor of an inherited class, the com- piler always calls the base class destructor; this ensures that all the data members of the object which arise from the base class are correctly destroyed. In this section, we looked at one case where we did not know the type of an object and this caused us a little trouble, but it was also very useful. By treating the inherited class object as a base class object, we were able to make the same code work regardless of the precise type of the object. The important fact was that whatever the type of the object, it had to implement all the methods defined in the base class and this was enough to ensure that the code ran smoothly. One way of summarizing this situation is to say that the inherited class implements the interface defined by the base class. 34 Inheritance and virtual functions In the next chapter, we will look at some additional problems caused by not knowing types, such as the problem of copying an object of unknown type, and examine their solutions. 3.6 Adding extra pay-offs without changing files One of our objectives when rewriting the PayOff class was to create a class that could be extended without changing any of the existing code. In addition, we wished to be able to add extra pay-offs without having to recompile either the file containing the PayOff class or any files which included the file defining the PayOff class. In this section, we see how to do this with our class definition. Suppose the new pay-off we wish to add is the double digital pay-off. This pay- off pays 1 if spot is between two values and 0 otherwise. We define the new pay-off class in a new file, DoubleDigital.h with the associated code in DoubleDigital.cpp. Listing 3.5 (DoubleDigital.h) #ifndef DOUBLEDIGITAL_H #define DOUBLEDIGITAL_H #include class PayOffDoubleDigital : public PayOff { public: PayOffDoubleDigital(double LowerLevel_, double UpperLevel_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffDoubleDigital(){} private: double LowerLevel; double UpperLevel; }; #endif and the source code is Listing 3.6 (DoubleDigital.cpp) #include 3.6 Adding extra pay-offs without changing files 35 PayOffDoubleDigital::PayOffDoubleDigital(double LowerLevel_, double UpperLevel_) : LowerLevel(LowerLevel_), UpperLevel(UpperLevel_) { } double PayOffDoubleDigital::operator()(double Spot) const { if (Spot <= LowerLevel) return 0; if (Spot >= UpperLevel) return 0; return 1; } The crucial point is that whilst we must include the file DoubleDigital.h in our interface we do not include it in either the Monte Carlo file, SimpleMC2,or the pay-off file, PayOff2. The changes to the interface file are minimal and we have Listing 3.7 (SimpleMCMain5.cpp) /* requires DoubleDigital.cpp PayOff2.cpp Random1.cpp SimpleMC2.cpp */ #include #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Low,Up; double Spot; 36 Inheritance and virtual functions double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nEnter low barrier\n"; cin >> Low; cout << "\nEnter up barrier\n"; cin >> Up; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffDoubleDigital thePayOff(Low,Up); double result = SimpleMonteCarlo2(thePayOff, Expiry, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"\nthe price is " << result << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 3.8 Exercises 37 Thus adding the new pay-off only required recompilation of one file rather than many and this achieves one objective: the PayOff class is open for extension but closed for modification. In particular, we could have added the new pay-off even if we did not have access to the source code of the PayOff class. What we would really like is to be able to add new pay-offs without changing any files. That is we would like to be able to add new pay-offs without changing the interfacing file. In the interface, the user would simply type the name of the pay- off and this would be translated into the relevant pay-off. Rather surprisingly it is possible to do this. The solution is to use a design known as the Factory pattern. We shall discuss how to do this in Chapter 10. 3.7 Key points In this chapter, we looked at how inheritance could be used to implement a PayOff class that is closed for modification but open for extension. • Inheritance expresses ‘is a’ relationships. • A virtual function is bound at run time instead of at compile time. • We cannot have objects from classes with pure virtual functions. • We have to pass inherited class objects by reference if we do not wish to change the virtual functions. • Virtual functions are implemented via a table of function pointers. • If a class has a pure virtual functions then it should have a virtual destructor. 3.8 Exercises Exercise 3.1 Write an inherited class that does power options, and use it to price some. Exercise 3.2 Implement an interface in which the user inputs a string and this is turned into a pay-off class. Exercise 3.3 In the evil boss’s list of demands in Chapter 1, try to identify as many inheritance relationships as possible. 4 Bridging with a virtual constructor 4.1 The problem We have written a simple Monte Carlo program which uses a polymorphic class PayOff to determine the pay-off of the vanilla option to be priced. If we think about the real-world objects we wish to model, a very natural object is the option itself. At the moment, we have two pieces of data, the expiry and the pay-off, it would be much more natural to have a single piece of data, the option, which encompassed both. How would we do this? One simple solution is simply to copy all the pay-off code we have written, add an extra data member, Expiry, to the base class and an extra method, GetExpiry, to the base class and be done. However, this rather spoils the paradigm of code reuse Ð we would like to reuse the same code rather than cut and paste it. In addition, if we do this for each new class of options, then it will be very time consuming to add new types of pay-offs as we will have to write a new inherited class for each option type. A preferable solution would be to define a Vanilla Option class which has as data members a PayOff object and a double to represent expiry. However, if we try this we immediately hit a snag; the class PayOff is abstract. The compiler will squeal if we attempt to have a data member for our class of type PayOff, as you cannot instantiate an object from an abstract class. The issues we encounter here are very similar to those of Section 3.4. As there, making the PayOff class non-abstract by defining operator() in the base class causes more trouble than it solves. Any attempt to make the data member equal to an inherited class member will simply result in the object being copied and truncated into a base class object which is not what we want. What we want is for the Vanilla Option object to be able to contain an object from an unknown class. Note that as the size of the unknown class object will not be constant, we will not be able to put it directly in the Vanilla Option object as this would lead to Vanilla Option objects being of variable size. This is something 38 4.2 A first solution 39 that is not allowed in C++. However, it is possible to refer to extra data outside the object using pointers or references. This is after all what an array, or a list, or a string, does. One solution is therefore to store a reference to a pay-off object instead of a pay-off object. 4.2 A first solution In this section, we implement a Vanilla Option class using a reference to a pay-off object and then discuss what’s wrong with it. Listing 4.1 (Vanilla1.h) #ifndef VANILLA_1_H #define VANILLA_1_H #include class VanillaOption { public: VanillaOption(PayOff& ThePayOff_, double Expiry_); double GetExpiry() const; double OptionPayOff(double Spot) const; private: double Expiry; PayOff& ThePayOff; }; #endif The source file is Listing 4.2 (Vanilla1.cpp) #include VanillaOption::VanillaOption(PayOff&ThePayOff_, double Expiry_) : ThePayOff(ThePayOff_), Expiry(Expiry_) { } 40 Bridging with a virtual constructor double VanillaOption::GetExpiry() const { return Expiry; } double VanillaOption::OptionPayOff(double Spot) const { return ThePayOff(Spot); } This is all very straightforward. The only subtlety is that the class member data is of type PayOff& instead of PayOff. However, we can use a reference to a pay-off object in precisely the same way as a pay-off object so this causes no extra coding. Our class provides two methods, one giving the expiry of the option and the other stating the pay-off at expiry given spot. We can now rewrite the Monte Carlo routine to use the VanillaOption class. We thus have Listing 4.3 (SimpleMC3.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC3_H #define SIMPLEMC3_H #include double SimpleMonteCarlo3(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths); #endif and Listing 4.4 (SimpleMC3.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in namespace // std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif 4.2 A first solution 41 double SimpleMonteCarlo3(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { double Expiry = TheOption.GetExpiry(); double variance = Vol*Vol*Expiry; double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r*Expiry +itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double runningSum=0; for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayOff = TheOption.OptionPayOff(thisSpot); runningSum += thisPayOff; } double mean = runningSum / NumberOfPaths; mean *= exp(-r*Expiry); return mean; } /* Our new routine is very similar to the old one, the difference being that we pass in an option object instead of pay-off and an expiry separately. We obtain the expiry from the option via GetExpiry(). Our main routine is then Listing 4.5 (VanillaMain1.cpp) /* requires DoubleDigital.cpp PayOff2.cpp Random1.cpp SimpleMC3.cpp 42 Bridging with a virtual constructor Vanilla1.cpp */ #include #include #include using namespace std; #include int main() { double Expiry; double Low,Up; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nEnter low barrier\n"; cin >> Low; cout << "\nEnter up barrier\n"; cin >> Up; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffDoubleDigital thePayOff(Low,Up); 4.3 Virtual construction 43 VanillaOption theOption(thePayOff, Expiry); double result = SimpleMonteCarlo3(theOption, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"\nthe price is " << result << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } The main change is that now we first pass a PayOff object and the expiry time into a VanillaOption object and that is then passed into the Monte Carlo. This program will compile and run but I do not like it. Why not? The VanillaOption class stores a reference to a PayOff object which was defined outside the class. This means that if we change that object then the pay-off of the vanilla option will change. The vanilla option will not exist as independent object in its own right but will instead always be dependent on the PayOff ob- ject constructed outside the class. This is a recipe for trouble. The user of the VanillaOption will not expect changes to the PayOff object to have such an effect. In addition, if the PayOff object had been created using new as we did in the last chapter then it might be deleted before the option ceased to exist which would result in the vanilla option calling methods of a non-existent object which is bound to cause crashes. Similarly, if the option was created using new then it would likely exist long after the PayOff object had ceased to exist, and we would get similarly dangerous behaviour. 4.3 Virtual construction What do we really want to do? We want the vanilla option to store its own copy of the pay-off. However, we do not want the vanilla option to know the type of the pay-off object nor anything about any of its inherited classes for all the reasons we discussed in the last chapter. Our solution there was to use virtual functions: how can we use them here? Well the object knows its own type so it can certainly make a copy of itself. Thus we define a virtual method of the base class which causes the object to create a copy of itself and return a pointer to the copy. 44 Bridging with a virtual constructor Such a method is called a virtual copy constructor. The method is generally given the name clone. Thus if we want the PayOff class to be virtually copyable, we add a pure virtual method to the base class by virtual PayOff* clone() const=0; and define it in each inherited class. For example, PayOff* PayOffCall::clone() const { return new PayOffCall(*this); } Note that the statement new PayOffCall(*this); says create a copy of the ob- ject for which the clone method has been called, as the this pointer always points to the object being called. The call to clone is then a call to the copy constructor of PayOffCall which returns a copy of the original PayOffCall, and because the operator new has been used, we can be sure that the object will continue to exist. Note that we have made the return type of clone PayOff* which is a pointer to the base class object. Strictly speaking according to the standard, we should be able to change the return type to PayOffCall*, as it is permissible according to the standard to change the return type of a virtual function from a base class pointer to a pointer to the inherited class. As inherited class pointers can always be converted into base class pointers, this does not cause problems. However many compilers will not compile this syntax, as this is an exception to the general rule that you cannot override the return type of a virtual function. We give the revised PayOff class in PayOff3.h.Wenowhave Listing 4.6 (PayOff3.h) #ifndef PAYOFF3_H #define PAYOFF3_H class PayOff { public: PayOff(){}; virtual double operator()(double Spot) const=0; virtual ~PayOff(){} virtual PayOff* clone() const=0; 4.3 Virtual construction 45 private: }; class PayOffCall : public PayOff { public: PayOffCall(double Strike_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffCall(){} virtual PayOff* clone() const; private: double Strike; }; class PayOffPut : public PayOff { public: PayOffPut(double Strike_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffPut(){} virtual PayOff* clone() const; private: double Strike; }; #endif and PayOff3.cpp Listing 4.7 (PayOff3.cpp) #include #include PayOffCall::PayOffCall(double Strike_) : Strike(Strike_) { } 46 Bridging with a virtual constructor double PayOffCall::operator () (double Spot) const { return max(Spot-Strike,0.0); } PayOff* PayOffCall::clone() const { return new PayOffCall(*this); } double PayOffPut::operator () (double Spot) const { return max(Strike-Spot,0.0); } PayOffPut::PayOffPut(double Strike_) : Strike(Strike_) { } PayOff* PayOffPut::clone() const { return new PayOffPut(*this); } We similarly have to change the contents of DoubleDigital to reflect the extra method in the base class. We do this in DoubleDigital2.h and in DoubleDigital2.cpp, which we do not reproduce here. Using PayOff3.h, we can now make copies of PayOff objects of unknown type and reimplement the VanillaOption class accordingly. Listing 4.8 (Vanilla2.h) #ifndef VANILLA_2_H #define VANILLA_2_H #include class VanillaOption { public: VanillaOption(const PayOff& ThePayOff_, double Expiry_); 4.3 Virtual construction 47 VanillaOption(const VanillaOption& original); VanillaOption& operator=(const VanillaOption& original); ~VanillaOption(); double GetExpiry() const; double OptionPayOff(double Spot) const; private: double Expiry; PayOff* ThePayOffPtr; }; #endif and the source file is Listing 4.9 (Vanilla2.cpp) #include VanillaOption::VanillaOption(const PayOff& ThePayOff_, double Expiry_) : Expiry(Expiry_) { ThePayOffPtr = ThePayOff_.clone(); } double VanillaOption::GetExpiry() const { return Expiry; } double VanillaOption::OptionPayOff(double Spot) const { return (*ThePayOffPtr)(Spot); } VanillaOption::VanillaOption(const VanillaOption& original) { Expiry = original.Expiry; ThePayOffPtr = original.ThePayOffPtr->clone(); } 48 Bridging with a virtual constructor VanillaOption& VanillaOption:: operator=(const VanillaOption& original) { if (this != &original) { Expiry = original.Expiry; delete ThePayOffPtr; ThePayOffPtr = original.ThePayOffPtr->clone(); } return *this; } VanillaOption::~VanillaOption() { delete ThePayOffPtr; } We modify SimpleMC3 to get SimpleMC4 by changing the name of the include file to be Vanilla2.h and doing nothing else. Listing 4.10 (SimpleMC4.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC4_H #define SIMPLEMC4_H #include double SimpleMonteCarlo3(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths); #endif Listing 4.11 (SimpleMC4.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in namespace std // but aren’t in VCPP6 4.3 Virtual construction 49 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif double SimpleMonteCarlo3(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, double Vol, double r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { double Expiry = TheOption.GetExpiry(); double variance = Vol*Vol*Expiry; double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r*Expiry +itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double runningSum=0; for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayOff = TheOption.OptionPayOff(thisSpot); runningSum += thisPayOff; } double mean = runningSum / NumberOfPaths; mean *= exp(-r*Expiry); return mean; } /* Our main program is now VanillaMain2.cpp. Listing 4.12 (VanillaMain2.cpp) /* requires PayOff3.cpp, Random1.cpp, SimpleMC4.cpp Vanilla2.cpp */ 50 Bridging with a virtual constructor #include #include using namespace std; #include int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); VanillaOption theOption(thePayOff, Expiry); double result = SimpleMonteCarlo3(theOption, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); 4.4 The rule of three 51 cout <<"\nthe call price is " << result << "\n"; VanillaOption secondOption(theOption); result = SimpleMonteCarlo3(secondOption, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"\nthe call price is " << result << "\n"; PayOffPut otherPayOff(Strike); VanillaOption thirdOption(otherPayOff, Expiry); theOption = thirdOption; result = SimpleMonteCarlo3(theOption, Spot, Vol, r, NumberOfPaths); cout <<"\nthe put price is " << result << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } /* The actual syntax in our main program has not changed much. 4.4 The rule of three One difference between the VanillaOption class and all the classes we have pre- viously defined is that we have included an assignment operator (i.e. operator=) and a copy constructor. The reason is that whilst the compiler by default generates these methods, the compiler’sdefinitions are inadequate. If we do not declare the copy constructor then the compiler will perform a shal- low copy as opposed to a deep copy. A shallow copy means that the data members have simply been copied, whilst this is adequate when no memory allocation is 52 Bridging with a virtual constructor required it will lead to disaster when it does. If we have shallow copied a Vanilla- Option then both copies of the object have the same member ThePayOff- Ptr, so any modifications to the object we have pointed-to will have the same effect in each copy. Whilst for our particular object this is not really an issue as we do not want to change it, in a more complicated class this would certainly lead to trouble. More seriously, when the one of the two VanillaOption objects goes out of scope then its destructor will be called and the pointed-to PayOff object will be deleted. The object remaining will now be in trouble as attempts to use its pointer will lead to methods of a non-existent object being called. On top of which when the remaining object goes out of scope, its destructor will be called and there will be a second attempt to delete the pointed-to object. As the object has already been deleted, this will generally result in a crash. Thus if we write a class involving a destructor, we will generally need a copy constructor too. In fact, we have very similar issues with the assignment operator so it is necessary to write it as well. This leads to the “rule of three,” which states that if any one of destructor, assignment operator and copy constructor is needed for a class then all three are. Whilst it is possible to construct examples for which this is not true, it is a very good rule of thumb. If you feel that you will never want to copy or assign objects from a class and do not bother to write the appropriate methods then you are storing up trouble; when someone does use the copy constructor the compiler will not complain but the code will crash. One solution is to declare the copy constructor but make it private. The attempt to use it will then result in a compile-time error instead of a run-time error which would be more easily spotted and fixed. (Similarly for the assignment operator.) We analyze the copy constructor from VanillaOption. It copies the value of Expiry from the original into the copy, naturally enough. For the pointer, we call the clone method generating a copy of the PayOff object which we store in the copy’s pointer. Note that the data members of the original and its copy will not be equal, since the pointers will have different values. However, this is precisely what we want, as we do not want them to be using the original PayOff object. Note, however, that if we decided to define a comparison operator (i.e. opera- tor==) for the class, we would have to be careful to compare the objects pointed to rather than the pointers, or we would always get false. Having analyzed the copy constructor, let’s look at the assignment operator. The first thing to note is that its return type is VanillaOption&. The effect of this is that it is legitimate to code a=b=c; which is equivalent to b=c; a=b; 4.5 The bridge 53 but saves a little typing. The second, odder, point is that it it also legitimate to code (a=b) = c; which is equivalent to a=b; a=c; which is not particularly useful. If we made the return type const then the second of these examples would not compile which might be regarded as an advantage; however, for built-in types the return type has no const and it is generally better to be consistent. Note that if we had made the return type void, the first exam- ple would not compile. If we had made it VanillaOption rather than Vanilla- Option& then the two examples would both compile but give odd behaviour. The first would work but might result in extra copying of objects which would waste time. The second would end with a being equal to b, as the returned object from a=b would have nothing to do with a any more and would happily be assigned the value of c and then disappear. The second point to note about the assignment operator is that the first thing we do is check against self-assignment. If we accidentally coded a=a, we would not want the code to crash. Whilst it might seem an unlikely occurence when objects are being accessed through pointers it is not immediately obvious whether two objects are actually the same object. By checking if the address of the assigning object is equal to the this pointer, we check against this eventuality and do nothing if it occurs as nothing is needed to be done to ensure that a is equal to a. The rest of the assignment operator is really just a combination of destructor and copy constructor. The destructor part is needed to get rid of the PayOff which the object owned before, as otherwise it would never be deleted. The copy constructor part clones the pointed-to object so the new version of the assigned part has its own copy of the object as desired. 4.5 The bridge We have now achieved what we desired: the vanilla option class can be happily copied and moved around just like any other class and it uses the code already written for the PayOff class so we have no unnecessary duplication. However, there is still one aspect of our implementation which is slightly annoying Ð we had to write special code to handle assignment, construction and destruction. Every time we want to write a class with these properties, we will have to do the same thing again and again. This is rather contrary to the paradigm of reuse. What we would really like is a pay-off class that has the nice polymorphic features that our class does, whilst taking care of its own memory management. There are a couple of approaches to solving this problem. One is to use a wrapper class that has 54 Bridging with a virtual constructor been templatized: this is really generic programming rather than object-oriented programming, and we explore this approach in Section 5.4. The other is known as the bridge pattern. Suppose we take the vanilla option class and get rid of the member Expiry and the method GetExpiry. We then are left with a class that does nothing except store a pointer to an option pay-off and takes care of memory handling. This is precisely what we want. We present such a class: Listing 4.13 (PayOffBridge.h) #ifndef PAYOFFBRIDGE_H #define PAYOFFBRIDGE_H #include class PayOffBridge { public: PayOffBridge(const PayOffBridge& original); PayOffBridge(const PayOff& innerPayOff); inline double operator()(double Spot) const; ~PayOffBridge(); PayOffBridge& operator=(const PayOffBridge& original); private: PayOff* ThePayOffPtr; }; inline double PayOffBridge::operator()(double Spot) const { return ThePayOffPtr->operator ()(Spot); } #endif Listing 4.14 (PayOffBridge.cpp) #include PayOffBridge::PayOffBridge(const PayOffBridge& original) { 4.5 The bridge 55 ThePayOffPtr = original.ThePayOffPtr->clone(); } PayOffBridge::PayOffBridge(const PayOff& innerPayOff) { ThePayOffPtr = innerPayOff.clone(); } PayOffBridge::~PayOffBridge() { delete ThePayOffPtr; } PayOffBridge& PayOffBridge::operator= (const PayOffBridge& original) { if (this != &original) { delete ThePayOffPtr; ThePayOffPtr = original.ThePayOffPtr->clone(); } return *this; } We test the new class in VanillaMain3.cpp. This file is almost identical to VanillaMain2.cpp so we do not present it here but it is included on the accom- panying CD. It includes Vanilla3.h instead of Vanilla2.h and SimpleMC5.h instead of SimpleMC4.h, the only differences being the inclusion of PayOff- Bridge.h.InVanilla3.h, we code the vanilla option in the way we originally wanted to! That is, we treat the pay-off as an ordinary object requiring no special treatment. Listing 4.15 (Vanilla3.h) #ifndef VANILLA_3_H #define VANILLA_3_H #include class VanillaOption { 56 Bridging with a virtual constructor public: VanillaOption(const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_,double Expiry); double OptionPayOff(double Spot) const; double GetExpiry() const; private: double Expiry; PayOffBridge ThePayOff; }; #endif and Listing 4.16 (Vanilla3.cpp) #include VanillaOption::VanillaOption(const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_, double Expiry_) : ThePayOff(ThePayOff_), Expiry(Expiry_) { } double VanillaOption::GetExpiry() const { return Expiry; } double VanillaOption::OptionPayOff(double Spot) const { return ThePayOff(Spot); } Everything in Vanilla3.h is totally straightforward as all the work has already been done for by the bridged class. An interesting aspect of VanillaMain3.cpp is that we do not have to change the lines PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); VanillaOption theOption(thePayOff, Expiry); 4.6 Beware of new 57 Although the VanillaOption constructor expects an argument of type PayOffBridge, it happily accepts the argument of type PayOffCall. The rea- son is that there is a constructor for PayOffBridge which takes in an object of type PayOff&. The compiler automatically accepts the inherited class object as a substitute for the base class object, and then silently converts it for us into the PayoffBridge object which is then passed to the VanillaOption constructor. 4.6 Beware of new We have presented the bridge as a solution to the problem of developing an open- closed pay-off class. It is a very good solution and we will use this approach again and again. However, there is a downside which it is important to be aware of: new is slow. Everytime we copy a bridged object, we are implicitly using the new command. So if our code involves a lot of passing around of bridged objects, we had best be sure that we do not copy them unnecessarily, or we will spend all our time calling the new function. One easy way to reduce the amount of copying is to always pass parameters by reference. Why is new slow? To understand this, we first have to understand what it actually does. When we create variables normally, that is when not using new, the compiler gets them from an area of memory known as the stack. The important point is that these variables are always destroyed in reverse order from their creation (which is why the memory area is called the stack). Each variable as declared is added to the top of the stack, and when destroyed is removed from the top; in fact, all that happens is that the code remembers a different point as the top. This is very easy to do but really depends rather heavily on the fact that the order of creation is the reverse of the order of destruction. Thus the variable to be destroyed is always the variable at the top of the stack. Suppose we want to destroy variables in a different order, which is what we are really doing when we use new; remember that a variable created by new persists until the coder tells it to disappear. If we were using the stack we would have to scan down to the point where the variable was stored. We would then need to move all the variables further up the stack down a bit to cover up the gap caused by the release of memory. Clearly, this could be very time-consuming. The compiler therefore does not use the stack for new but instead uses a different area of memory known as the heap. For this area of memory, the code keeps track of which pieces are in use and which pieces are not. Everytime new is called, the compiler has to find an empty piece of memory which is large enough and mark 58 Bridging with a virtual constructor the memory as being in use. When delete is called, the code marks the memory as being free again. The upshot of all this is that calling new involves a lot of behind the scenes work which you would probably rather not have to think about. One solution to the time-consumption of new is to rewrite it. This is allowed by the standard. It is, perhaps, a little surprising that one can rewrite new to be more efficient than a good compiler. The reason that this is possible is that the coder has a better idea of what objects will be needed during his program’s run, and possibly in what order they will be created. This allows the programmer to make extra assumptions not available to the compiler, and thus to speed things up. For example, if the programmer knows that a lot of PayOffCall objects will be used, he could section off an area just for PayOffCall objects and allocate them and deallocate them as necessary. We shall not further explore how to rewrite new,butfinish with an admonition that it should never be used explicitly nor implicitly within time-critical loops. 4.7 A parameters class We know that eventually the evil boss is going to demand a variable parame- ters Monte Carlo routine. Let’s apply the ideas of this chapter to developing a Parameters class which allows easy extension to variable parameters without actually putting them in. Note the crucial distinction between including variable parameters, and redesigning so that it would be easy to add them if one so desired. What should a parameters class do? We want it to be able to store parameters such as volatility or interest rates or, in a more general set-up, jump intensity. What information will we want to get out from the class? When implementing a financial model, we never actually need the instantaneous value of parameter: it is always the integral or the integral of the square that is important. For example, in our simple Monte Carlo model, we need the square integral of the volatility from time zero to expiry, and the integral of r over the same interval. Similarly, for jump intensity it is the integral over a time interval that is important. Our parameters class should therefore be able to tell us the integral or integral square over any time interval, and nothing else. What sort of differing parameters might we want? It is important in object- oriented programming to think to the future, and therefore think about not just what we want now but what we might want in the future. The simplest possible sort of parameter is a constant and our class should certainly able to encompass that. Some other obvious sorts of parameters are a polynomial, a piece-wise con- stant function, and an exponentially decaying function. For all of these, finding the integral and square integral over definite intervals is straightforward. 4.7 A parameters class 59 We employ the bridge design. We therefore define a class Parameters that han- dles the interaction without the outside world, and the memory handling. Its only data member is a pointer to an abstract class, ParametersInner, which defines the interface that the concrete classes we will eventually implement must fulfill. We also include the clone method, as well as Integral and IntegralSquare meth- ods, so the wrapper class, Parameters, can handle the copying. We then inherit classes such as ParametersConstant from ParametersInner. As with the pay- off class, additional classes can then be added in separate files, and their addition will not require any recompilation or changes in routines that use the Parameters class. We give a possible implementation: Listing 4.17 (Parameters.h) #ifndef PARAMETERS_H #define PARAMETERS_H class ParametersInner { public: ParametersInner(){} virtual ParametersInner* clone() const=0; virtual double Integral(double time1, double time2) const=0; virtual double IntegralSquare(double time1, double time2) const=0; virtual ~ParametersInner(){} private: }; class Parameters { public: Parameters(const ParametersInner& innerObject); Parameters(const Parameters& original); Parameters& operator=(const Parameters& original); virtual ~Parameters(); 60 Bridging with a virtual constructor inline double Integral(double time1, double time2) const; inline double IntegralSquare(double time1, double time2) const; double Mean(double time1, double time2) const; double RootMeanSquare(double time1, double time2) const; private: ParametersInner* InnerObjectPtr; }; inline double Parameters::Integral(double time1, double time2) const { return InnerObjectPtr->Integral(time1,time2); } inline double Parameters::IntegralSquare(double time1, double time2) const { return InnerObjectPtr->IntegralSquare(time1,time2); } class ParametersConstant : public ParametersInner { public: ParametersConstant(double constant); virtual ParametersInner* clone() const; virtual double Integral(double time1, double time2) const; virtual double IntegralSquare(double time1, double time2) const; private: double Constant; double ConstantSquare; }; #endif and the source file 4.7 A parameters class 61 Listing 4.18 (Parameters.cpp) #include Parameters::Parameters(const ParametersInner& innerObject) { InnerObjectPtr = innerObject.clone(); } Parameters::Parameters(const Parameters& original) { InnerObjectPtr = original.InnerObjectPtr->clone(); } Parameters& Parameters::operator=(const Parameters& original) { if (this != &original) { delete InnerObjectPtr; InnerObjectPtr = original.InnerObjectPtr->clone(); } return *this; } Parameters::~Parameters() { delete InnerObjectPtr; } double Parameters::Mean(double time1, double time2) const { double total = Integral(time1,time2); return total/(time2-time1); } double Parameters::RootMeanSquare(double time1, double time2) const { double total = IntegralSquare(time1,time2); return total/(time2-time1); 62 Bridging with a virtual constructor } ParametersConstant::ParametersConstant(double constant) { Constant = constant; ConstantSquare = Constant*Constant; } ParametersInner* ParametersConstant::clone() const { return new ParametersConstant(*this); } double ParametersConstant::Integral(double time1, double time2) const { return (time2-time1)*Constant; } double ParametersConstant::IntegralSquare(double time1, double time2) const { return (time2-time1)*ConstantSquare; } We have added a couple of useful, if unnecessary, methods to the Parameters class. The Mean method returns the average value of the parameter between two times, and is implemented by calling the Integral method which does all the work. The RMS method returns the root-mean-square of the parameter between two times. As it is the root-mean-square of the volatility that is appropriate to use in the BlackÐScholes formula when volatility is variable, this comes in useful. The rest of the code works in the same way as for the PayOff class. We give one inherited class, the simplest possible one, ParametersConstant, which enacts a constant parameter. As well as storing the value of the constant, we also store its square in order to minimize time spent computing the square integral. In this case, the saving is rather trivial, but the principle that time can be saved by computing values, which may be needed repeatedly, once and for all in the constructor, is worth remembering. 4.7 A parameters class 63 In SimpleMC6, we give a modified implementation of the simple Monte Carlo which uses the new classes. First though we need Listing 4.19 (SimpleMC6.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC6_H #define SIMPLEMC6_H #include #include double SimpleMonteCarlo4(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths); #endif Listing 4.20 (SimpleMC6.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in namespace // std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif double SimpleMonteCarlo4(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { double Expiry = TheOption.GetExpiry(); double variance = Vol.IntegralSquare(0,Expiry); double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); 64 Bridging with a virtual constructor double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r.Integral(0,Expiry) + itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double runningSum=0; for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayOff = TheOption.OptionPayOff(thisSpot); runningSum += thisPayOff; } double mean = runningSum / NumberOfPaths; mean *= exp(-r.Integral(0,Expiry)); return mean; } with the obvious corresponding changes in the header file. The main difference from the previous version is that instead of computing Vol*Vol*Expiry and r*Expiry, the IntegralSquare and Integral methods of the Parameters class are called. Note that by forcing us to go via the methods of the Parameters class, the new design makes the code more comprehensible. We know immediately from looking at it that the integral of r is used, as is the square-integral of the volatility. In VanillaMain4.cpp, we adapt our main program to use the Parameters class. The main difference from the previous version is that we create a ParametersConstant object from the inputs which is then passed into the Monte Carlo routine. Note that we do not have to create the Parameters object explicitly; the conversion is done implicitly by the compiler. The relevant portion of code is 4.9 Exercises 65 ParametersConstant VolParam(Vol); ParametersConstant rParam(r); double result = SimpleMonteCarlo4(theOption, Spot, VolParam, rParam, NumberOfPaths); 4.8 Key points • Cloning gives us a method of implementing a virtual copy constructor. • The rule of three says that if we need any one of copy constructor, destructor and assignment operator then we need all three. • We can use a wrapper class to hide all the memory handling, allowing us to treat a polymorphic object just like any other object. • The bridge pattern allows us to separate interface and implementation, enabling us to vary the two independently. • The new command is slow. • We have to be careful to ensure that self-assignment does not cause crashes. 4.9 Exercises Exercise 4.1 Test how fast new is on your computer and compiler. Do this by using it to allocate an array of doubles, ten thousand times. See how the speed varies with array size. If you have more than one compiler see how they compare. Note that you can time things using the clock() function. Exercise 4.2 Find out about an auto ptr. Observe that it cannot be copied in the usual sense of copying. Show that a class with an auto ptr data member will need a copy constructor but not a destructor. Exercise 4.3 Implement a piecewise-constant parameters class. 5 Strategies, decoration, and statistics 5.1 Differing outputs Our Monte Carlo routine is now easily extendible to handle any pay-off and time- dependent parameters. However, there are plenty of valid criticisms that could still be made. One thing that is definitely lacking is the absence of any indication of the simulation’s convergence. We could make the routine return standard error, or a convergence table, or simply have it return the value for every single path and analyze the results elsewhere. As we are trying to develop an object-oriented routine, we make the statistics gatherer an input. Thus the Monte Carlo routine will take in a statistics gatherer object, store the results in it and the statistics gatherer will then output the statistics as required. This technique of using an auxiliary class to decide how part of an algorithm is implemented is sometimes called the strategy pattern. 5.2 Designing a statistics gatherer We want our statistics gatherer to be reusable; there are plenty of circumstances where such a routine might be useful. For example, we might have many other Monte Carlo routines such as an exotics pricer or a BGM pricer for interest-rate derivatives. Also, if we are developing a risk system, we might be more interested in the ninety-fifth percentile, or in the conditional expected shortfall, than in the mean or variance. What should the routine do? It must have two principal methods. The first should take in data for each path. The second must output the desired statistics. Since we do not wish to specify what sort of statistics are being gathered in advance, we proceed via an abstract base class using virtual methods, just as we did for the PayOff and Parameters classes. However, as most of the time we will not need to copy these objects we do not bother with the bridge but work with the base class by reference. 66 5.2 Designing a statistics gatherer 67 We have to decide the precise interface for our two principal methods. They will be pure virtual functions declared in the base class and defined in the concrete in- herited class. Our first method, DumpOneResult, we make quite simple: it takes in a double and returns nothing. Note that it is not a const method, since by its very nature it must update the statistics stored inside the object. Note that we have not allowed the possibility of dumping more than one value per path, which could be argued to be a defect. The object will store what it needs to in order to com- pute the statistics desired and no more. So if statistics gatherer’s job is to compute the mean, then it need only store the running sum and the number of paths. How- ever, for a more complicated statistic we might need the value for every path to be stored. Our second method, which will indeed return the results, requires a little more thought. We have to decide what sort of object to return the results in. Another issue is whether it should be possible to ask for statistics en route or ought we be able to call the method for returning results only once. With regard to the form in which to return results, we opt for a vector of vectors. This will allow us to easily return a table if we so desire. Whilst this would not be a great way to implement a matrix-class if we were doing linear al- gebra, the return statistics are not a matrix, just a table and this is sufficient for our purposes. We opt to allow the return statistics method to be called many times and therefore name it GetResultsSoFar. This will cost us little (possibly nothing), and will be more robust than an object that crashes if the get results method is called twice. We make it a const method as it should not change the state of the object in any substantive way: this enforces the rule that the method can be called many times. Listing 5.1 (MCStatistics.h) #ifndef STATISTICS_H #define STATISTICS_H #include class StatisticsMC { public: StatisticsMC(){} virtual void DumpOneResult(double result)=0; virtual std::vector > GetResultsSoFar() const=0; 68 Strategies, decoration, and statistics virtual StatisticsMC* clone() const=0; virtual ~StatisticsMC(){} private: }; class StatisticsMean : public StatisticsMC { public: StatisticsMean(); virtual void DumpOneResult(double result); virtual std::vector > GetResultsSoFar() const; virtual StatisticsMC* clone() const; private: double RunningSum; unsigned long PathsDone; }; #endif Our abstract base class is StatisticsMC. It has the pure virtual functions Dump- OneResult and GetResultsSoFar. We include the clone method to allow for the possibility of virtual copy construction. We also make the destructor virtual, as any cloned objects will likely need to be destroyed via pointers to the base class which will not know their type, as usual. The base class does nothing but the important task of defining an interface. We give a very simple inherited class StatisticsMean, which returns the mean of the simulation, just as our routine previously did. The source code is included in MCStatistics.cpp. Listing 5.2 (MCStatistics.cpp) #include using namespace std; StatisticsMean::StatisticsMean() : RunningSum(0.0), PathsDone(0UL) { 5.3 Using the statistics gatherer 69 } void StatisticsMean::DumpOneResult(double result) { PathsDone++; RunningSum += result; } vector > StatisticsMean::GetResultsSoFar() const { vector > Results(1); Results[0].resize(1); Results[0][0] = RunningSum / PathsDone; return Results; } StatisticsMC* StatisticsMean::clone() const { return new StatisticsMean(*this); } Note that whilst we write the DumpOneResult method to be efficient since it will be called in every iteration of the loop, we do not worry about efficiency for GetResultsSoFar, as it will generally be called only once per simulation. 5.3 Using the statistics gatherer Having written a class for gathering statistics, we now need to modify our Monte Carlo routine to make use of it. We do this in the function SimpleMonteCarlo5 which is declared in SimpleMC7.h. Listing 5.3 (SimpleMC7.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC7_H #define SIMPLEMC7_H #include #include 70 Strategies, decoration, and statistics #include void SimpleMonteCarlo5(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths, StatisticsMC& gatherer); #endif Note that the StatisticsMC object is passed in by reference and is not const. This is crucial as we want the object passed in to gather the information given to it and for this information to be available after the function has returned. If we had passed by value then the object outside would not change, and all the results would disappear at the end of the function which we emphatically do not want. If the object was const, then it would not be possible to put any new data into it which would be useless. Previously, our routine returned a double; now it is void as all the data to be returned is inside the object gatherer. We define the function in SimpleMC7.cpp: Listing 5.4 (SimpleMC7.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be // in namespace std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif void SimpleMonteCarlo5(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths, StatisticsMC& gatherer) { double Expiry = TheOption.GetExpiry(); double variance = Vol.IntegralSquare(0,Expiry); double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); 5.3 Using the statistics gatherer 71 double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r.Integral(0,Expiry)+itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double discounting = exp(-r.Integral(0,Expiry)); for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { double thisGaussian = GetOneGaussianByBoxMuller(); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp( rootVariance*thisGaussian); double thisPayOff = TheOption.OptionPayOff(thisSpot); gatherer.DumpOneResult(thisPayOff*discounting); } return; } Our routine appears simpler than SimpleMonteCarlo4; all the work previously spent accounting the results is now sublimated into the line on which we call .DumpOneResult. Of course, the code has not disappeared; it has simply moved into a different file. Thus the strategy pattern gives us a readability benefit as well as flexibility. We illustrate how the gatherer might be called in StatsMain1.cpp: Listing 5.5 (StatsMain1.cpp) /* uses source files MCStatistics.cpp, Parameters.cpp, PayOff3.cpp, PayOffBridge.cpp, Random1.cpp, SimpleMC7.cpp, Vanilla3.cpp, */ #include #include using namespace std; #include #include 72 Strategies, decoration, and statistics int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); VanillaOption theOption(thePayOff, Expiry); ParametersConstant VolParam(Vol); ParametersConstant rParam(r); StatisticsMean gatherer; SimpleMonteCarlo5(theOption, Spot, VolParam, rParam, 5.4 Templates and wrappers 73 NumberOfPaths, gatherer); vector > results = gatherer.GetResultsSoFar(); cout <<"\nFor the call price the results are \n"; for (unsigned long i=0; i < results.size(); i++) { for (unsigned long j=0; j < results[i].size(); j++) cout << results[i][j] << " "; cout << "\n"; } double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } Our output of the results is now a bit more complicated in that we have to loop over the vector of vectors in order to display the results. Of course, for the particular class we have defined, only one number is returned so this is not strictly necessary. However, by writing it for the most general sort of return statement from a statistics gatherer, we produce more robust code. After all, the object has contracted to return a vector of vectors, and we should code in accordance with this contract, and make no extra assumptions. 5.4 Templates and wrappers We have created a class hierarchy for gathering statistics. This hierarchy includes a virtual constructor, clone, so we can copy these objects without knowing their type. However, if we wish to start copying and storing the objects then we have a slight issue in that, just as with our PayOff class, this will have to be done manually unless we write an extra wrapper class to do it for us. In the next section, we give an example where this copying will be necessary, so we do need to provide a wrapper class. It becomes clear at this point that we will need to write these wrapper classes repeatedly in a very similar way. We therefore present a templatized solution. The name of the base class to be wrapped is taken as an argument to the wrapper class and it can then be used for any class which provides a clone method. 74 Strategies, decoration, and statistics Our Wrapper class provides various functionalities which are intended to make it act like a pointer to a single object but with added responsibilities. The added responsibilities are that the pointer is both responsible for and owns the object pointed to at all times. Thus if we copy the Wrapper object, the pointed-to object is also copied, so that each Wrapper object has its own copy of the pointed-to object. When the Wrapper object ceases to exist because of going out of scope, or being deleted, the pointed-to object is automatically deleted as well. If we set one Wrapper object equal to another, then the object previously pointed to must be deleted, and then a copy of the new object must be created so each Wrapper still owns precisely one object. In addition, it must be possible to dereference the Wrapper to obtain the under- lying object. In other words, if you put *mywrapper then you should obtain the object pointed to by mywrapper. We do this by overloading the operator*() and just make it return the dereferenced inner pointer. We also want to be able to access the methods of the inner object. Whilst this can always be done by putting (*mywrapper).theMethod(), it is a lot less elegant than being able to type myWrapper->theMethod(), which is the normal code for an ordinary pointer. We provide this functionality by overloading operator->(). We provide the relevant code in Wrapper.h. Listing 5.6 (Wrapper.h) #ifndef WRAPPER_H #define WRAPPER_H template< class T> class Wrapper { public: Wrapper() { DataPtr =0;} Wrapper(const T& inner) { DataPtr = inner.clone(); } ~Wrapper() { if (DataPtr !=0) 5.4 Templates and wrappers 75 delete DataPtr; } Wrapper(const Wrapper& original) { if (original.DataPtr !=0) DataPtr = original.DataPtr->clone(); else DataPtr=0; } Wrapper& operator=(const Wrapper& original) { if (this != &original) { if (DataPtr!=0) delete DataPtr; DataPtr = (original.DataPtr !=0) ? original.DataPtr->clone() : 0; } return *this; } T& operator*() { return *DataPtr; } const T& operator*() const { return *DataPtr; } const T* const operator->() const { return DataPtr; } 76 Strategies, decoration, and statistics T* operator->() { return DataPtr; } private: T* DataPtr; }; #endif We start before each declaration with the command template to let the compiler know we are writing template code. The class T will be spec- ified elsewhere. The compiler will produce one copy of the code for each dif- ferent sort of T that is used. Thus if we declare Wrapper TheStatsGatherer;, the compiler will then proceed to create the code by sub- stituting MCStatistics for T everywhere, and then compile it. This has some side effects: the first is that all the code for the Wrapper template is in the header file Ð there is no wrapper.cpp file. The second is that if we use the Wrapper class many times, we have to compile a lot more code than we might actually expect. Whilst this is not really an issue for this class, it could be one for a complicated class, where we might end up with rather slow compile times and a much larger than ex- pected executable. There are some other effects and we will return to this topic in Section 9.6. We provide the Wrapper class with a default constructor. This means that it is possible to have a Wrapper object which points to nothing. If we did not then a declaration such as std::vector > StatisticsGatherers(10); would not compile: the constructor for vector would look for the default con- structor for Wrapper in order to create the ten copies specified, and not find it. Why would we want a vector of Wrappers? We saw in Section 3.4 that we can get into trouble if we try to copy inherited objects into base class objects without a wrapper class. The same reasons apply here. We cannot declare a vector of base class objects as they are abstract, and even if they were not, they would be the wrong size. We therefore have to store pointers, references or wrap- pers, and wrappers are the easiest option; they take care of all the memory handling for us. Given that a Wrapper object can point to nothing, we have to be able to take this into account when writing the class’s methods. We indicate that the object points to 5.5 A convergence table 77 nothing by setting the pointer to zero. When carrying out copying and assignment, we then have to take care of this special case. We provide two different versions of the dereferencing operator *, as it should be possible to dereference both const and non-const objects. As one would expect, the const version returns a const object and the non-const version does not. We have declared the two operators inline to ensure that there is no performance overhead induced by going via a wrapper. Similarly, we declare the operator-> to have both const and non-const ver- sions. The syntax here is a little strange in that all the operator does is return the pointer. However, there are special rules for overloading -> which ensure that any method following -> is correctly invoked for the pointer returned. 5.5 A convergence table If we use a statistics gatherer and run the simulation it will tell us the relevant statistics for the entire simulation. However, it does not necessarily give us a feel for how well the simulation has converged. One standard method of checking the convergence is to examine the standard error of the simulation; that is measure the sample standard deviation and divide by the square root of the number of paths. If one is using low-discrepancy numbers this measure does not take account of their special properties and, in fact, it predicts the same error as for a pseudo-random simulation (see for example [10]). Which we can expect to be too large. (Else why use low-discrepancy numbers?) One alternative method is therefore to use a convergence table. Rather than re- turning statistics for the entire simulation, we instead return them for every power of two to get an idea of how the numbers are varying. We could just write a class directly to return such a table for the mean, but since we might want to do this for any statistic, we do it in a reusable fashion. Our class must contain a statistics gatherer in order to decide for which statis- tics to create a convergence table. On the other hand, it must implement the same interface as all the other statistics gatherers so we can plug it into the same sim- ulations. We therefore define a class ConvergenceTable which is inherited from MCStatistics, and has a wrapper of an MCStatistics object as a data member. The fact that the class is inherited from MCStatistics guarantees that from the outside it looks just like any other statistics-gatherer object. The difference on the inside is that we can make the data member refer to any kind of statistics gatherer we like, and so we have a convergence table for any statistic for which a statistics gatherer has been written. We give the implementation in ConvergenceTable.h and ConvergenceTable.cpp. 78 Strategies, decoration, and statistics Listing 5.7 (ConvergenceTable.h) #ifndef CONVERGENCE_TABLE_H #define CONVERGENCE_TABLE_H #include #include class ConvergenceTable : public StatisticsMC { public: ConvergenceTable(const Wrapper& Inner_); virtual StatisticsMC* clone() const; virtual void DumpOneResult(double result); virtual std::vector > GetResultsSoFar() const; private: Wrapper Inner; std::vector > ResultsSoFar; unsigned long StoppingPoint; unsigned long PathsDone; }; #endif Listing 5.8 (ConvergenceTable.cpp) #include ConvergenceTable::ConvergenceTable(const Wrapper& Inner_) : Inner(Inner_) { StoppingPoint=2; PathsDone=0; } StatisticsMC* ConvergenceTable::clone() const { return new ConvergenceTable(*this); } 5.5 A convergence table 79 void ConvergenceTable::DumpOneResult(double result) { Inner->DumpOneResult(result); ++PathsDone; if (PathsDone == StoppingPoint) { StoppingPoint*=2; std::vector > thisResult(Inner->GetResultsSoFar()); for (unsigned long i=0; i < thisResult.size(); i++) { thisResult[i].push_back(PathsDone); ResultsSoFar.push_back(thisResult[i]); } } return; } std::vector > ConvergenceTable::GetResultsSoFar() const { std::vector > tmp(ResultsSoFar); if (PathsDone*2 != StoppingPoint) { std::vector > thisResult(Inner->GetResultsSoFar()); for (unsigned long i=0; i < thisResult.size(); i++) { thisResult[i].push_back(PathsDone); tmp.push_back(thisResult[i]); } } return tmp; } Note that we do not write a copy constructor, destructor or assignment operator as the class itself does no dynamic memory allocation. Dynamic memory allocation 80 Strategies, decoration, and statistics does occur inside the class but it is all handled automatically by the Wrapper tem- plate class. The class does not do a huge amount; every result passed in is passed to the inner class. When we reach a point where the number of paths done is a multiple of two, the inner class’s GetResults() method is called, and the results stored with the number of paths done so far added in. When the class’sownGetResults() methods is called, it calls the inner class’s method one more time if necessary and then spits out all the stored results. In StatsMain2.cpp, we illustrate how the routine might be called: Listing 5.9 StatisticsMean gatherer; ConvergenceTable gathererTwo(gatherer); SimpleMonteCarlo5(theOption, Spot, VolParam, rParam, NumberOfPaths, gathererTwo); vector > results = gathererTwo.GetResultsSoFar(); First create a StatisticsMean object: then pass it into a ConvergenceTable object, gatherTwo. Note the constructor takes a Wrapper object but the compiler happily does this conversion for us. We then pass the new gatherer into SimpleMonteCarlo5 which has not required any changes. We have also not made any changes to either of the MCStatistics files. 5.6 Decoration The technique of the last section is an example of a standard design pattern called the decorator pattern. We have added functionality to a class without changing the interface. This process is called decoration. The most important point is that, since the decorated class has the same interface as the undecorated class, any decoration which can be applied to the original class can also be applied to the decorated class. We can therefore decorate as many times as we wish. It would be syntactically legal (but not useful), for example, to have a convergence table of convergence tables. We will more often wish to decorate several times but in differing manners. 5.8 Exercises 81 How else might we want to decorate? If we have a stream of numbers defining a time series, we often want the statistics of the successive increments instead of the numbers themselves. A decorator class could therefore do this differencing and pass the difference into the inner class. We might want more than one statistic for a given set of numbers; rather than writing one class to gather many statistics, we could write a decorator class which contains a vector of statistics gatherers and passes the gathered value to each one individually. The GetResults() method would then garner the results from each of the inner gatherers and collate them. We can also apply these decoration ideas to the Parameters class. We could define a class that takes the linear multiple of an inner Parameters object for example. This class would simple multiply the integral by a given constant, and the square integral by its square. 5.7 Key points In this chapter, we have seen that we can allow the user to specify aspects of how an algorithm works by making part of the algorithm be carried out in an inputted class. We have also examined the techniques of decoration and templatization. • Routines can be made more flexible by using the strategy pattern. • Making part of an algorithm be implemented by an inputted class is called the strategy pattern. • For code that is very similar across many different classes, we can use templates to save time in rewriting. • If we want containers of polymorphic objects, we must use wrappers or pointers. • Decoration is the technique of adding functionality by placing a class around a class which has the same interface; i.e. the outer class is inherited from the same base class. • A class can be decorated several times. 5.8 Exercises Exercise 5.1 Write a statistics gathering class that computes the first four moments of a sample. Exercise 5.2 Write a statistics gathering class that computes the value at risk of a sample. Exercise 5.3 Write a statistics gathering class that allows the computation of sev- eral statistics via inputted classes. 82 Strategies, decoration, and statistics Exercise 5.4 Use the strategy pattern to allow the user to specify termination con- ditions for the Monte Carlo, e.g., time spent or paths done. Exercise 5.5 Write a terminator class that causes termination when either of two inner terminator classes specifies termination. Exercise 5.6 * Write a template class that implements a reference counted wrapper. This will be similar to the wrapper class but instead of making a clone of the inner object when the wrapper is copied, an internal counter is increased and the inner object is shared. When a copy is destroyed, the inner counter is decremented. When the inner counter reaches zero, the object is destroyed. Note that both the counter and the inner object will be shared across copies of the object. (This exercise is harder than most in this book.) 6 A random numbers class 6.1 Why? So far, we have been using the inbuilt random number generator, rand. In this chapter, we look at how we might implement a class to encapsulate random number generation. There are a number of reasons we might wish to do this. rand is implementation dependent. The standard specifies certain properties of rand and gives an example of how it could be implemented but it does not actually specify the details. This has important consequences for us. The first is simply that we cannot expect any consistency across compilers. If we decide to test our code by running it on multiple platforms, we can expect to obtain differing streams of random numbers and whilst our Monte Carlo simulations should still converge to the same number, this is a lot weaker than having every single random draw match- ing. Thus our code becomes harder to test. A second issue is that we do not know how good the compiler’s implementation is. Either we have to get hold of technical documents for every compiler we use and make sure that the implementors have done a good job, or we have to run a number of statistical tests to ensure that rand is up to the job. Note that for most simulations we will actually need many random draws for each path, and so it is not enough for us to check that single draws do a good job of simulating the uniform distribution; instead we need a large number of successive draws to do a good job of filling out the unit hypercube, which is much tougher. rand is not predictable. A crucial aspect of running Monte Carlo simulations is that they must be reproducible. If we run the same simulation twice we want to obtain precisely the same random numbers. We can achieve this with rand by using the srand command to set the seed which will guarantee the same number stream from rand every time. The problem is that the seed is a global variable. This means that calling rand in different parts of the program will cause totally unrelated pieces of code to affect each other’s operation. We therefore want to be 83 84 A random numbers class able to insulate the random number stream used by a particular simulation from the rest of the program. Another advantage of using a class is that we can decorate it. For example, sup- pose we wish to use anti-thetic sampling. We could write a decorator class that does anti-thetic sampling. This can then be combined with any random number generator we have written, and plugged into the Monte Carlo simulator, with no changes to the simulator class. If we used rand directly we would have to fiddle with the guts of the simulator class. Similarly, if we wish to carry out moment matching we could use a decorator class and then plug the decorated class into the simulator. A further reason is that we might decide not to use pseudo-random (i.e. random) numbers but low-discrepancy numbers instead. Low-discrepancy numbers (some- times called quasi-random numbers) are sequences of numbers designed to do a good job of filling out space. They are therefore anything but random. However, they have the right statistical properties to guarantee that simulations converge to the correct answer. Their space-filling properties mean they make simulations con- verge faster. If we are using a random number class, we could replace this class with a generator for low-discrepancy numbers without changing the interior of our code. 6.2 Design considerations As we want the possibility of having many random number generators and we want to be able to add new ones later on without recoding, we use an abstract base class to specify an interface. Each individual generator will then be inherited from it. In order to specify the interface, we have to identify what we want from any random number class. Generally, when working with any Monte Carlo simulation, the simulation will have a dimensionality which is the number of random draws needed to simulate one path. This number is equal to the number of variables of integration in the underlying integral which we are trying to approximate. It is generally cleaner therefore to obtain all the draws necessary for a path in one go. This has the added advantage that a random number generator can protest (i.e. throw an error) if it is being used beyond its dimensional specification. Additionally, when working with low-discrepancy numbers it is essential that the generator know the dimensionality as the generator has to be set up specifically for each choice of dimension. This means that we need methods to set the dimensionality, and to obtain an array of uniforms of size dimensionality from the generator. We also provide a method that states the dimensionality. 6.2 Design considerations 85 For financial applications, we will want standard Gaussian draws more often than uniforms so we will want a method of obtaining them instead. In fact, we can separate out the creation of the uniforms and their conversion into Gaussians. The conversion into Gaussians can therefore be done in a generator-independent fashion and this means that it can be implemented as a method of the base class which calls the virtual method that creates the uniform draws. What else might we want? For many applications, it is necessary to generate the same stream of random numbers twice. For example, if we wish to compute Greeks by bumping parameters, the error is much smaller if the same numbers are used twice. (See for example [11]or[13].) Or if we wish to carry out moment matching, the reuse of the same random numbers stream twice enables us to avoid storing all the numbers generated. Thus we include methods to reset the generator to its initial state, and to set the seed of the generator. Occasionally, we wish to be sure of having a different stream of random num- bers. For example, when carrying out an optimization in order to estimate an exer- cise strategy, we generally use one set of random numbers to optimize parameters for the strategy, and then having chosen the strategy we run a second simulation with different random numbers to estimate the price. This allows us to be sure that the optimization has not exploited the micro-structure of the random number stream. A simple way to achieve the differing streams of numbers is to make sure the generator skips a number of paths equal to the number used for the first simu- lation. We therefore include a method which allows us to skip paths. Finally, we may wish to copy a random number generator for which we do not know the type. We therefore include a clone method to enable virtual construc- tion. One extra issue we have to think about is in what range a uniform should lie. The uniform distribution is generally defined to be a density function on the interval [0, 1] such that the probability that a draw X lies in an interval of length α is α. The subtlety lies in whether we allow the values 0 and 1 to be taken. Since taking either value is a probability zero event allowing or disallowing either value will not effect the statistical properties of our simulation, but they can have practical effects. For example, if we elect to convert the uniforms into Gaussians by using the inverse cumulative normal function (which we will) then the numbers 0 and 1 cause us difficulties since the inverse cumulative normal function naturally maps them to −∞ and +∞. To avoid these difficulties, we therefore require that our uniform variates never take these values and thus lie in the open interval (0, 1). The main side effect of this choice is that if we use random generators written by others then we need to check that they satisfy the same convention, and if not, adapt them appropriately. 86 A random numbers class 6.3 The base class We specify the interface via a base class as follows, Random2.h, Listing 6.1 (Random2.h) #ifndef RANDOM2_H #define RANDOM2_H #include class RandomBase { public: RandomBase(unsigned long Dimensionality); inline unsigned long GetDimensionality() const; virtual RandomBase* clone() const=0; virtual void GetUniforms(MJArray& variates)=0; virtual void Skip(unsigned long numberOfPaths)=0; virtual void SetSeed(unsigned long Seed) =0; virtual void Reset()=0; virtual void GetGaussians(MJArray& variates); virtual void ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality); private: unsigned long Dimensionality; }; unsigned long RandomBase::GetDimensionality() const { return Dimensionality; } #endif Whilst most of the methods of RandomBase are pure virtual, three are not. The method GetGaussians transforms uniforms obtained from the GetUniforms method into standard Gaussian distributions. It does this via an approximation to 6.3 The base class 87 the inverse cumulative normal function due to Moro, [21]. As this method only uses one uniform to produce a Gaussian and enacts precisely the definition of the Gaussian distribution it is very robust and works under all circumstances. Never- theless, we make the method virtual to allow the possibility that for a particular generator there is another preferred conversion method. Or even to allow the pos- sibility that the generator provides normals which are then converted into uniforms by the GetUniforms method. The GetDimensionality method simply returns the dimensionality of the gen- erator and there is no need for it to be virtual. We also have the concrete virtual function ResetDimensionality. As the base class stores dimensionality, it must be told when dimensionality changes: that is the purpose of this function. However, the function is virtual because generally if dimensionality changes, the random number generator will also need to know. Suppose we have overriden this virtual function in an inherited class. Calling the method thus only calls the inherited class method and the base class method is ig- nored; however, we still need the base class method to be called; this has to be done by the inherited class method. The syntax to do this is to prefix the method with RandomBase::. The compiler then ignores the virtual function table and instead knows to call the method associated to the base class. Note that we define the interface for GetUniforms and GetGaussians via a ref- erence to an array. The reason we do this is that we do not wish to waste time copy- ing arrays. Also remember that arrays of dynamic size generally involve dynamic memory allocation, i.e. new, and therefore are quite slow to create and to destroy. We want to minimize unnecessary operations, and by passing the return values into a pre-generated array we avoid all this. The array class used here is quite simple and given in Appendix C. We assume that the array is of sufficient size. We could check that it is big enough but that could result in substantial overhead. One solu- tion would be to check the size only if a compiler flag was set, e.g. in debug mode. Note that one disadvantage of this approach is that we are now bound to this array class. How could we overcome that disadvantage? One solution would be to simply pass in a pointer, and write to the memory locations pointed to. However, the use of raw pointers tends to lead to code that is hard to debug, and is therefore best avoided. Another solution is to templatize so that the array class is a template argument and the code will then work with any array class which has the requisite methods. A related solution is to use iterators. An iterator is a generalization of a pointer and we could templatize the code to work off any iterator. We do not explore these options here but the reader should bear them in mind if he wishes to adapt the code. The source code for the base class is quite simple as it does not do very much: 88 A random numbers class Listing 6.2 (Random2.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in namespace // std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif void RandomBase::GetGaussians(MJArray& variates) { GetUniforms(variates); for (unsigned long i=0; i < Dimensionality; i++) { double x=variates[i]; variates[i] = InverseCumulativeNormal(x); } } void RandomBase::ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality) { Dimensionality = NewDimensionality; } RandomBase::RandomBase(unsigned long Dimensionality_) : Dimensionality(Dimensionality_) { } The inverse cumulative normal function is included in the file Normals and is a piece-wise rational approximation. See Appendix B. 6.4 A linear congruential generator and the adapter pattern We now need to actually write a random number generator. A simple method of generating random numbers is a linear congruential generator. We present a 6.4 A linear congruential generator and the adapter pattern 89 generator called by Park & Miller the minimal standard generator. In other words, it is a generator that provides a minimum guaranteed level of statistical accuracy. We refer the reader to [28] for further discussion of this and many other random number generators. We present the generator in two pieces. A small inner class that develops a ran- dom generator that returns one integer (i.e., long) every time it is called, and a larger class that turns the output into a vector of uniforms in the format desired. We present the class definition in ParkMiller.h. Listing 6.3 (ParkMiller.h) #ifndef PARK_MILLER_H #define PARK_MILLER_H #include class ParkMiller { public: ParkMiller(long Seed = 1); long GetOneRandomInteger(); void SetSeed(long Seed); static unsigned long Max(); static unsigned long Min(); private: long Seed; }; class RandomParkMiller : public RandomBase { public: RandomParkMiller(unsigned long Dimensionality, unsigned long Seed=1); virtual RandomBase* clone() const; virtual void GetUniforms(MJArray& variates); virtual void Skip(unsigned long numberOfPaths); virtual void SetSeed(unsigned long Seed); virtual void Reset(); 90 A random numbers class virtual void ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality); private: ParkMiller InnerGenerator; unsigned long InitialSeed; double Reciprocal; }; #endif The inner class is quite simple. It develops a sequence of uncorrelated longs. The seed can be set either in the constructor or via a set seed method. We give two extra methods which indicate the minimum and maximum values that the generator can give out. Such information is crucial to a user who wishes to convert the output into uniforms, as they will need to subtract the minimum and divide by the maximum minus the minimum to get a number in the interval [0, 1]. The bigger class is inherited from RandomBase. It has all the methods that it re- quires. Its main data member is a ParkMiller generator object. It also remembers the initial seed, and the reciprocal of the maximum value plus one, to save time then turning the output of the inner generator into uniforms. Our pattern here is an example of the adapter pattern. We have a random gen- erator which works and is effective, however its interface is not what the rest of the code expects. We therefore write a class around it which adapts its interface into what we want. Whenever we use old code or import libraries, it is rare for the interfaces to fit precisely with what we have been using, and the adapter pattern is then necessary. To use the adapter pattern simply means to use an intermediary class which transforms one interface into another. It is the coding equivalent of a plug adapter. The implementation of these classes is straightforward. The generator relies on modular arithmetic. The basic idea is that if you repeatedly multiply a number by a large number, and then take the modulus with respect to another number, then the successive remainders are effectively random. We refer the reader to [28]for discussion of the mathematics and the choice of the constants. Listing 6.4 (ParkMiller.cpp) #include const longa=16807; const longm=2147483647; const longq=127773; const long r = 2836; 6.4 A linear congruential generator and the adapter pattern 91 ParkMiller::ParkMiller(long Seed_ ) : Seed(Seed_) { if (Seed ==0) Seed=1; } void ParkMiller::SetSeed(long Seed_) { Seed=Seed_; if (Seed ==0) Seed=1; } unsigned long ParkMiller::Max() { return m-1; } unsigned long ParkMiller::Min() { return 1; } long ParkMiller::GetOneRandomInteger() { long k; k=Seed/q; Seed=a*(Seed-k*q)-r*k; if (Seed < 0) Seed += m; return Seed; } RandomParkMiller::RandomParkMiller(unsigned long Dimensionality, unsigned long Seed) : RandomBase(Dimensionality), InnerGenerator(Seed), 92 A random numbers class InitialSeed(Seed) { Reciprocal = 1/(1.0+InnerGenerator.Max()); } RandomBase* RandomParkMiller::clone() const { return new RandomParkMiller(*this); } void RandomParkMiller::GetUniforms(MJArray& variates) { for (unsigned long j=0; j < GetDimensionality(); j++) variates[j] = InnerGenerator.GetOneRandomInteger()*Reciprocal; } void RandomParkMiller::Skip(unsigned long numberOfPaths) { MJArray tmp(GetDimensionality()); for (unsigned long j=0; j < numberOfPaths; j++) GetUniforms(tmp); } void RandomParkMiller::SetSeed(unsigned long Seed) { InitialSeed = Seed; InnerGenerator.SetSeed(Seed); } void RandomParkMiller::Reset() { InnerGenerator.SetSeed(InitialSeed); } void RandomParkMiller::ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality) { RandomBase::ResetDimensionality(NewDimensionality); InnerGenerator.SetSeed(InitialSeed); } 6.5 Anti-thetic sampling via decoration 93 Note that we check whether the seed is zero. If it is we change it to 1. The reason is that a zero seed yields a chain of zeros. Note the advantage of a class-based implementation here. The seed is only inputted in the constructor and the set seed method, which are called only rarely, so we can put in extra tests to make sure the seed is correct with no real overhead. If the seed had to be checked every time the random number generator was called, then the overhead would be substantial indeed. The implementation of the adapter class is quite straightforward. Note that we divide the outputs of the inner class by the maximum plus 1, and so ensure that we obtain random numbers on the open interval (0, 1) rather than the closed one; this means that we will have no trouble with the inverse cumulative normal function. 6.5 Anti-thetic sampling via decoration A standard method of improving the convergence of Monte Carlo simulations is anti-thetic sampling. The idea is very simple, if a X is a draw from a standard Gaussian distribution so is −X. This means that if we draw a vector (X1,...,Xn) for one path then instead of drawing a new vector for the next path we simply use (−X1,...,−Xn). This method guarantees that, for any even number of paths drawn, all the odd moments of the sample of Gaussian variates drawn are zero, and in particular the mean is correct. This generally, but not always, causes simula- tions to converge faster. See [11] for discussion of the pros and cons of anti-thetic sampling. We wish to implement anti-thetic sampling in such a way that it can be used with any random number generator and with any Monte Carlo simulation in such a way that we only have to implement it once. The natural way to do this is the decorator pattern. The decoration can be applied to any generator so it fulfills the first criterion, and the fact that the interface is unchanged means that we can plug the decorated class into any socket which the original class fitted. We implement such a decorator class in AntiThetic.h and AntiThetic.cpp. Listing 6.5 (AntiThetic.h) #ifndef ANTITHETIC_H #define ANTITHETIC_H #include #include class AntiThetic : public RandomBase { 94 A random numbers class public: AntiThetic(const Wrapper& innerGenerator ); virtual RandomBase* clone() const; virtual void GetUniforms(MJArray& variates); virtual void Skip(unsigned long numberOfPaths); virtual void SetSeed(unsigned long Seed); virtual void ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality); virtual void Reset(); private: Wrapper InnerGenerator; bool OddEven; MJArray NextVariates; }; #endif The decorator class is quite simple. It has an array as a data member to store the last vector drawn, and a boolean to indicate whether the next draw should be drawn from the inner generator, or be the anti-thetic of the last draw. A copy of the gen- erator we are using is stored using the Wrapper template class and cloning, as usual. Note that we are actually taking a copy of the generator here so that the se- quence of draws from the original generator will not be affected by drawing from the anti-thetic generator. Listing 6.6 (AntiThetic.cpp) #include AntiThetic::AntiThetic(const Wrapper& innerGenerator ) : RandomBase(*innerGenerator), InnerGenerator(innerGenerator) { 6.5 Anti-thetic sampling via decoration 95 InnerGenerator->Reset(); OddEven =true; NextVariates.resize(GetDimensionality()); } RandomBase* AntiThetic::clone() const { return new AntiThetic(*this); } void AntiThetic::GetUniforms(MJArray& variates) { if (OddEven) { InnerGenerator->GetUniforms(variates); for (unsigned long i =0; i < GetDimensionality(); i++) NextVariates[i] = 1.0-variates[i]; OddEven = false; } else { variates = NextVariates; OddEven = true; } } void AntiThetic::SetSeed(unsigned long Seed) { InnerGenerator->SetSeed(Seed); OddEven = true; } void AntiThetic::Skip(unsigned long numberOfPaths) { if (numberOfPaths ==0) return; if (OddEven) 96 A random numbers class { OddEven = false; numberOfPaths--; } InnerGenerator->Skip(numberOfPaths / 2); if (numberOfPaths % 2) { MJArray tmp(GetDimensionality()); GetUniforms(tmp); } } void AntiThetic::ResetDimensionality(unsigned long NewDimensionality) { RandomBase::ResetDimensionality(NewDimensionality); NextVariates.resize(NewDimensionality); InnerGenerator->ResetDimensionality(NewDimensionality); } void AntiThetic::Reset() { InnerGenerator->Reset(); OddEven =true; } The implementation of the class is quite straightforward. Most of the methods consist of simply forwarding the request to the inner class, together with book- keeping for odd and even paths. The main GetUniforms method, gets uniforms from the inner generator for the odd draws, stores the results, X j , and returns (1 − X1,...,1 − Xn) for the even draws. Note that N −1(1 − x) =−N −1(x), (6.1) so this will yield the negative of the Gaussian variates if the GetGaussians method is used, as we wanted. 6.6 Using the random number generator class 97 Note the syntax for initialization in the constructor. We have RandomBase (*innerGenerator).AsinnerGenerator is a wrapped pointer, * gives us the value of the inner object which is a member of some inherited class. However, we can always treat any inherited class object as a base class object so the call to RandomBase invokes the base class copy constructor, copying the base class data in innerGenerator, and thus ensuring that the new object has the correct dimensionality stored. 6.6 Using the random number generator class Now that we have a random number generator class, we need to adapt our Monte Carlo code to work with it. We give an adapted vanilla option pricer in SimpleMC8.h and SimpleMC8.cpp. The header file declares the new func- tion. Listing 6.7 (SimpleMC8.h) #ifndef SIMPLEMC8_H #define SIMPLEMC8_H #include #include #include #include void SimpleMonteCarlo6(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths, StatisticsMC& gatherer, RandomBase& generator); #endif We have chosen to take the random number generator in as a non-const reference. It cannot be a const reference as the act of drawing a random number changes the generator and is therefore implemented by a non-const method. The effect of this is that any random numbers drawn inside the function will not be produced outside the function, but instead the generator will continue where the function left off. If we wanted the generator to be totally unaffected by what happened inside the function, we would change the function to take in the object by value instead. Or alternatively, we could copy the object and pass in the copy to the function, which 98 A random numbers class would have the same net effect. As usual, we use a reference to the base class in order to allow the caller to decide how to implement the generator. The implementation is as follows: Listing 6.8 (SimpleMC8.cpp) #include #include #include // the basic math functions should be in // namespace std but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif void SimpleMonteCarlo6(const VanillaOption& TheOption, double Spot, const Parameters& Vol, const Parameters& r, unsigned long NumberOfPaths, StatisticsMC& gatherer, RandomBase& generator) { generator.ResetDimensionality(1); double Expiry = TheOption.GetExpiry(); double variance = Vol.IntegralSquare(0,Expiry); double rootVariance = sqrt(variance); double itoCorrection = -0.5*variance; double movedSpot = Spot*exp(r.Integral(0,Expiry) + itoCorrection); double thisSpot; double discounting = exp(-r.Integral(0,Expiry)); MJArray VariateArray(1); for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfPaths; i++) { 6.6 Using the random number generator class 99 generator.GetGaussians(VariateArray); thisSpot = movedSpot*exp(rootVariance*VariateArray[0]); double thisPayOff = TheOption.OptionPayOff(thisSpot); gatherer.DumpOneResult(thisPayOff*discounting); } return; } We only comment on the new aspects of the routine. We first reset the generator’s dimensionality to 1 as pricing a vanilla option is a one-dimensional integral Ð we just need the location of the final value of spot. We set up the array in which to store the variate before we set up the main loop, once and for all. This avoids any difficulties with speed in the allocation of dynamically sized arrays. The GetGaussians method of the generator is used to write the variates (in this case just one variate, of course) into the array. This variate is then used as before to compute the final value of spot. We give an example of using this routine with anti-thetic sampling in Random- Main3.cpp. Listing 6.9 (RandomMain3.cpp) /* uses source files AntiThetic.cpp Arrays.cpp, ConvergenceTable.cpp, MCStatistics.cpp Normals.cpp Parameters.cpp, ParkMiller.cpp PayOff3.cpp, PayOffBridge.cpp, Random2.cpp, SimpleMC8.cpp Vanilla3.cpp, */ #include #include #include 100 A random numbers class using namespace std; #include #include #include #include int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); VanillaOption theOption(thePayOff, Expiry); ParametersConstant VolParam(Vol); ParametersConstant rParam(r); 6.6 Using the random number generator class 101 StatisticsMean gatherer; ConvergenceTable gathererTwo(gatherer); RandomParkMiller generator(1); AntiThetic GenTwo(generator); SimpleMonteCarlo6(theOption, Spot, VolParam, rParam, NumberOfPaths, gathererTwo, GenTwo); vector > results = gathererTwo.GetResultsSoFar(); cout <<"\nFor the call price the results are \n"; for (unsigned long i=0; i < results.size(); i++) { for (unsigned long j=0; j < results[i].size(); j++) cout << results[i][j] << " "; cout << "\n"; } double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } We create a ParkÐMiller random number generator object and then wrap it with an anti-thetic decorator. This decorated object is then passed into the new Monte Carlo routine. As usual, the routine is not aware of the fact that the passed-in object has been decorated but simply uses it in the same way as any other random number generator. The big difference between our new program and the old ones is that the results are now compiler-independent. The numbers returned are now precisely the same under Borland 5.5, Visual C++ 6.0 and MingW 2.95, since we have removed 102 A random numbers class the dependency on the inbuilt rand() function which previously made our results compiler-dependent. This gives us an extra robustness test; if our results are not now compiler-independent we should be worried and find out why! 6.7 Key points In this chapter, we developed a random number generator class and saw how anti- thetic sampling could be implemented via decoration. • rand is implementation-dependent. • Results from rand() are not easily reproducible. • We have to be sure that a random generator is capable of the dimensionality necessary for a simulation. • Using a random number class allows us to use decoration. • The inverse cumulative normal function is the most robust way to turn uniform variates from the open interval, (0, 1), into Gaussian variates. • Using a random number class makes it easier to plug in low-discrepancy num- bers. • Anti-thetic sampling can be implemented via decoration. 6.8 Exercises Exercise 6.1 For various cases compare convergence of Monte Carlo simulations with and without anti-thetic sampling. Exercise 6.2 Obtain another random number generator and fit it into the class hi- erarchy given here. (See [28]orwww.boost.org for other generators.) Exercise 6.3 Code up a low-discrepancy number generator and integrate it into the classes here. (See [28]or[11].) 7 An exotics engine and the template pattern 7.1 Introduction We have now developed quite a few sets of components: random number gener- ators, parameters classes, pay-off classes, statistics gatherers and a wrapper tem- plate. Having developed all these components with the objective of reusability, we examine in this chapter how to put them together to price path-dependent exotic op- tions. Our objective is to develop a flexible Monte Carlo pricer for exotic options which pay off at some future date according to the value of spot on a finite number of dates. We will work within a deterministic interest rate world, and assume the BlackÐScholes model of stock price evolution. We assume that our derivative is discrete, i.e. that it depends upon the value of spot on a discrete set of times. Thus our derivative is associated to a set of times, t1, t2,...,tn, and pays at some time T a function f (St1 ,...,Stn ) of the value of spot at those times. For example, a one-year Asian call option struck at K with monthly resets would pay 1 12 12 j=1 St j − K + , where t j = j/12, at time 1. More generally, the derivative could possibly pay cash-flows at more than one time. For example, a discrete barrier knock-out option could pay an ordi- nary vanilla pay-off at the time of expiry, and a rebate at the time of knock-out otherwise. We do not consider American or Bermudan options here as the techniques in- volved are quite different. Note, however, that once an exercise strategy has been chosen the option is really just a path-dependent derivative and so the option can be evaluated by these techniques for any given fixed exercise strategy. 103 104 An exotics engine and the template pattern 7.2 Identifying components Before designing our engine let’s identify what it will have to do. For each path, we generate a discounted pay-off which is then averaged over all paths to obtain a price. To generate a pay-off for a path, we have to know the path of stock prices at the relevant times, plug this path into the pay-off function of the option to obtain the cash-flows, and then discount these cash-flows back to the start to obtain the price for that path. We can therefore identify four distinct actions: (i) the generation of the stock price path; (ii) the generation of cash-flows given a stock price path; (iii) the discounting and summing of cash-flows for a given path; (iv) the averaging of the prices over all the paths. We already have a suitable component for the last of these actions: the statistics gatherer. We will just plug in the class we have already written at the appropriate point. For the second action, we are purely using the definition of the derivative to determine what its pay-off is, given a set of stock prices. An obvious component for our model is therefore a path-dependent exotic option class which will encapsulate the information which would be written in the term-sheet for the option. Note that by defining the concept we model by the term-sheet, we make it clear that the class will not involve interest rates nor knowledge of volatility nor any aspect of the stock price process. A consequence of this is that the option class can only ever say what cash-flows occur and when; it cannot say anything about their discounted values because that would require knowledge of interest rates. Note the general point here that, by defining the concept in real-world terms, it becomes very easy to decide what should and should not be contained in the class. Another consequence is that the component is more easily reusable; if we decide to do jump-diffusion pricing or stochastic interest rates, this class will be reusable without modification, and that would not be the case if we had included information about interest rates or volatility. There is more than one way to handle the two remaining tasks: path generation and cash-flow accounting. The latter will be the same for any deterministic interest- rate model and it is therefore natural to include it as part of our main engine class. We can require path generation to be an input to our main class, and therefore define it in terms of its own class hierarchy, or via a virtual method of the base class. A third option, which we do not explore, would be to make it a template parameter, which would avoid the small overhead of a virtual function call. The option we will pursue here is to make path generation a virtual method of the base class. This is an example of the template design pattern, which should not be confused with templatized code. The idea here is that the base class sets up a structure with methods that control everything Ð in this case it would be methods 7.3 Communication between the components 105 to run the simulation and account for each path Ð though the main work of actually generating the path is not defined in the base class, but is instead called via a pure virtual function. This pure virtual function must therefore be defined in an inherited class. Thus as in templatized code, the code is set up more to define a structure than to do the real work which is coded elsewhere. 7.3 Communication between the components Having identified what our components will be, we still need to assess what infor- mation has to be passed between them, and we need to decide how to carry out the communication. The product will take in a vector of spot values for its relevant times and spit out the cash-flows generated. A couple of immediate consequences of this are that there has to be a mechanism for the product to tell the path generator for which times it needs the value of spot, and that we need to decide how to define a cash-flow object. To deal with the first of these, we include a method GetLookAtTimes; this passes back an array of times that are relevant to the pay-off function of the prod- uct. For the definition of cash-flow objects, there are a couple of options. The first obvious approach is to simply make a cash-flow a pair of doubles which define the amount and the time of the cash-flow. This approach has the disadvantage that if we have a complicated term structure of interest rates, the action of computing the discount factor for the cash-flow time may be slow, and with the product being allowed to pass back an arbitrary time, this discounting will have to be done on every path. Whilst one could cache already-computed times, there is then still the problem that searching the cache for the already-computed times will take time. In practice, many products can only pay off at one time. This means that it would be better to pre-compute the discount factor for that time. However, we would still need to know in advance what that time is. We therefore require our product to have another method, PossibleCashFlowTimes, which returns an array defining the possible times. As the engine will know all the possible times in advance we can return a cash-flow as a pair: an index and an amount. The index is now an unsigned long instead of a double. The engine will now precompute all the discount factors and then simply use the index to look up an array to get the dis- counting for any given cash-flow. We still have to decide the syntax for the main method CashFlows. The method takes in an array defining spot values, and returns cash-flows. As we allow the possibility of more than one cash-flow, we must use a container to pass them back. We use the STL vector class. Whilst it would be tempting to make the return type of the class vector, this would have timing disadvantages. We would have to create a new vector every time the method was called, and this could be time consuming because any dynamically sized container class must involve memory 106 An exotics engine and the template pattern allocation. We therefore take an argument of type vector& into which we write the cash-flows. We still have the issue that the vector will need to be of the correct size. One solution is for the method to resize it as necessary but this could be time consuming. First, resizing can involve memory allocation though this is not a huge issue since the memory allocated for an STL vector never shrinks so if the same vector is used every time it will rapidly grab enough memory and then will need no more. Second, some implementations of the STL explicitly destroy all the objects in the vector during a resize, which means that every resize involves looping, and is therefore unnecessarily slow even when no memory allocation is necessary. The solution we adopt is to tell the outside engine how big the vector has to be, and then each time the method is called, to return an unsigned long saying how many cash-flows have been generated. Thus we have two pure virtual methods: virtual unsigned long MaxNumberOfCashFlows() const=0; virtual unsigned long CashFlows(const MJArray& SpotValues, std::vector& GeneratedFlows) const=0; So in summary our objects will communicate as follows: (i) The path generator asks the product what times it needs spot for, and it passes back an array. (ii) The accounting part of the engine asks the product what cash-flow times are possible, and it passes back an array. The engine then computes all the possi- ble discount factors. (iii) The accounting part of the engine asks the product the maximum number of cash flows it can generate, and sets up a vector of that size. (iv) For each path, the engine gets an array of spot values from the path generator. (v) The array of spot values is passed into the product, which passes back the number of cash-flows, and puts their values into the vector. (vi) The cash-flows are discounted appropriately and summed, and the total value is passed into the statistics gatherer. (vii) After all the looping is done, the final results are obtained from the statistics gatherer. 7.4 The base classes Having discussed in previous sections what classes will be needed and how they should communicate, in this section we give the implementations of the base classes. In PathDependent.h,wedefine the CashFlow and the PathDependent classes which give our path-dependent exotic option. 7.4 The base classes 107 Listing 7.1 (PathDependent.h) #ifndef PATH_DEPENDENT_H #define PATH_DEPENDENT_H #include #include class CashFlow { public: double Amount; unsigned long TimeIndex; CashFlow(unsigned long TimeIndex_=0UL, double Amount_=0.0) : TimeIndex(TimeIndex_), Amount(Amount_){}; }; class PathDependent { public: PathDependent(const MJArray& LookAtTimes); const MJArray& GetLookAtTimes() const; virtual unsigned long MaxNumberOfCashFlows() const=0; virtual MJArray PossibleCashFlowTimes() const=0; virtual unsigned long CashFlows(const MJArray& SpotValues, std::vector& GeneratedFlows) const=0; virtual PathDependent* clone() const=0; virtual ~PathDependent(){} private: MJArray LookAtTimes; }; #endif The CashFlow class is really just a struct as it has public data members. Note that we ensure that it has a default constructor by giving the constructor default arguments, this is necessary in order to use it with STL containers which need 108 An exotics engine and the template pattern a default constructor for certain operations such as creating a vector of arbitrary size. The base class for PathDependent really does not do much except define the interface. We have made the base class store the LookAtTimes as every possi- ble product will need these times, and provided the method GetLookAtTimes to obtain them. As usual, we include a clone method for virtual copy construction, and a virtual destructor to make sure that there are no memory leaks arising from destroying base class objects instead of inherited ones. The source code is suitably short: Listing 7.2 (PathDependent.cpp) #include PathDependent::PathDependent(const MJArray& LookAtTimes_) : LookAtTimes(LookAtTimes_) {} const MJArray& PathDependent::GetLookAtTimes() const { return LookAtTimes; } There is a bit more to the base class for the engine as it will actually handle the accounting for the cash-flows. Listing 7.3 (ExoticEngine.h) #ifndef EXOTIC_ENGINE_H #define EXOTIC_ENGINE_H #include #include #include #include #include class ExoticEngine { public: ExoticEngine(const Wrapper& The Product_, const Parameters& r_); virtual void GetOnePath(MJArray& SpotValues)=0; 7.4 The base classes 109 void DoSimulation(StatisticsMC& TheGatherer, unsigned long NumberOfPaths); virtual ~ExoticEngine(){} double DoOnePath(const MJArray& SpotValues) const; private: Wrapper TheProduct; Parameters r; MJArray Discounts; mutable std::vector TheseCashFlows; }; #endif The engine has four data members. The product is stored using the Wrapper tem- plate as we do not know its type. The interest rates are stored using the Parameters class which will allow us variable ones if we so desire. We also delegate computa- tion of integrals to the Parameters class, and not have to worry about them here. We have an array Discounts, which will be used to store the discount factors in order for the possible cash-flow times. Finally we have a mutable data mem- ber TheseCashFlows. This means that it can change value inside const member functions. The idea is that the variable is not really a data member, but instead it is a workspace variable: this it is faster to declare once and for all in the class defini- tion. Remember that creating and destroying containers can be time-consuming so we design the class so that the vector is created once and for all at the beginning. Note that we split our main method; it has two auxiliary methods, DoOnePath and GetOnePath. The second of these is pure virtual and therefore will be defined in an inherited class which will involve a choice of stochastic process and model. Note that this method is not constant as we will want a different set of spot values every time, and so it will necessarily change something about the state of the object. The other of the methods does everything necessary for one path given the spot values. This is const as turning spot values into prices is a purely functional action with no underlying changes. Both these methods pass arrays by reference in order to avoid any memory allocation. Note the implicit assumption that the array passed into GetOnePath is of the correct size. The source code for implementing the base class is fairly simple and straightfor- ward as all the hard work has been hived off into auxiliary classes. Listing 7.4 (ExoticEngine.cpp) #include #include 110 An exotics engine and the template pattern ExoticEngine::ExoticEngine(const Wrapper& TheProduct_, const Parameters& r_) : TheProduct(TheProduct_), r(r_), Discounts(TheProduct_->PossibleCashFlowTimes()) { for (unsigned long i=0; i < Discounts.size(); i++) Discounts[i] = exp(-r.Integral(0.0, Discounts[i])); TheseCashFlows.resize(TheProduct->MaxNumberOfCashFlows()); } void ExoticEngine::DoSimulation(StatisticsMC& TheGatherer, unsigned long NumberOfPaths) { MJArray SpotValues(TheProduct->GetLookAtTimes().size()); TheseCashFlows.resize(TheProduct->MaxNumberOfCashFlows()); double thisValue; for (unsigned long i =0; i < NumberOfPaths; ++i) { GetOnePath(SpotValues); thisValue = DoOnePath(SpotValues); TheGatherer.DumpOneResult(thisValue); } return; } double ExoticEngine::DoOnePath(const MJArray& SpotValues) const { unsigned long NumberFlows = TheProduct->CashFlows(SpotValues, TheseCashFlows); double Value=0.0; 7.5 A BlackÐScholes path generation engine 111 for (unsigned i =0; i < NumberFlows; ++i) Value += TheseCashFlows[i].Amount * Discounts[TheseCashFlows[i].TimeIndex]; return Value; } The constructor stores the inputs, computes the discount factors necessary, and makes sure the cash-flows vector is of the correct size. The DoSimulation method loops through all the paths, calling GetOnePath to get the array of spot value and then passes them into DoOnePath to get the value for that set of spot values. This value is then dumped into the statistics gatherer. DoOnePath is only slightly more complicated. The array of spot values is passed into the product to get the cash-flows. These cash-flows are then looped over and discounted appropriately. The discounting is simplified by using the precomputed discount factors. We have now set up the structure for pricing path-dependent exotic derivatives but we still have to actually define the classes which will do the path generation and define the products. 7.5 A BlackÐScholes path generation engine The BlackÐScholes engine will produce paths from the risk-neutral BlackÐScholes process. The paths will be an array of spot values at the times specified by the product. We allow the possibility of variable interest rates and dividend rates, as well as variable but deterministic volatility. The stock price therefore follows the process dSt = (r(t) − d(t))St dt + σ(t)St dWt , (7.1) with S0 given. To simulate this process at times t0, t1,...,tn−1, we need n independent N(0, 1) variates W j andweset log St0 = log S0 + t0 0 r(s) − d(s) − 1 2 σ(s)2 ds + t0 0 σ(s)2dsW0, (7.2) and put log St j = log St j−1 + t j t j−1 r(s) − d(s) − 1 2 σ(s)2 ds + t j t j−1 σ(s)2dsWj . (7.3) 112 An exotics engine and the template pattern We implement this procedure in ExoticBSEngine.h and ExoticBS- Engine.cpp. Listing 7.5 (ExoticBSEngine.h) #ifndef EXOTIC_BS_ENGINE_H #define EXOTIC_BS_ENGINE_H #include #include class ExoticBSEngine : public ExoticEngine { public: ExoticBSEngine(const Wrapper& TheProduct_, const Parameters& R_, const Parameters& D_, const Parameters& Vol_, const Wrapper& TheGenerator_, double Spot_); virtual void GetOnePath(MJArray& SpotValues); virtual ~ExoticBSEngine(){} private: Wrapper TheGenerator; MJArray Drifts; MJArray StandardDeviations; double LogSpot; unsigned long NumberOfTimes; MJArray Variates; }; #endif Listing 7.6 (ExoticBSEngine.cpp) #include #include void ExoticBSEngine::GetOnePath(MJArray& SpotValues) { TheGenerator->GetGaussians(Variates); 7.5 A BlackÐScholes path generation engine 113 double CurrentLogSpot = LogSpot; for (unsigned long j=0; j < NumberOfTimes; j++) { CurrentLogSpot += Drifts[j]; CurrentLogSpot += StandardDeviations[j]*Variates[j]; SpotValues[j] = exp(CurrentLogSpot); } return; } ExoticBSEngine::ExoticBSEngine(const Wrapper& TheProduct_, const Parameters& R_, const Parameters& D_, const Parameters& Vol_, const Wrapper& TheGenerator_, double Spot_) : ExoticEngine(TheProduct_,R_), TheGenerator(TheGenerator_) { MJArray Times(TheProduct_->GetLookAtTimes()); NumberOfTimes = Times.size(); TheGenerator->ResetDimensionality(NumberOfTimes); Drifts.resize(NumberOfTimes); StandardDeviations.resize(NumberOfTimes); double Variance = Vol_.IntegralSquare(0,Times[0]); Drifts[0] = R_.Integral(0.0,Times[0]) - D_.Integral(0.0,Times[0]) - 0.5 * Variance; StandardDeviations[0] = sqrt(Variance); for (unsigned long j=1; j < NumberOfTimes; ++j) { 114 An exotics engine and the template pattern double thisVariance = Vol_.IntegralSquare(Times[j-1],Times[j]); Drifts[j] = R_.Integral(Times[j-1],Times[j]) - D_.Integral(Times[j-1],Times[j]) - 0.5 * thisVariance; StandardDeviations[j] = sqrt(thisVariance); } LogSpot = log(Spot_); Variates.resize(NumberOfTimes); } The integrals and square-roots are the same for every path and so can be precom- puted. The constructor therefore gets the times from the product, and uses them to compute the integrals of the drifts and the standard deviations which are stored as data members. Note that the class does not bother to store the times as it is only the constructor which needs to know what they are. In any case, the product is passed up to the base class and it could be retrieved from there if it were necessary. The generation will of course require a random number generator and we pass in a wrapped RandomBase object to allow us to plug in any one we want without having to do any explicit memory handling. We have a data member Variates so that the array can be defined once and for all at the beginning: once again this is with the objective of avoiding unnecessary creation and deletion of objects. We store the log of the initial value of spot as this is the most convenient for carrying out the path generation. As we have done a lot of precomputation in the constructor, the routine to actu- ally generate a path is fairly simple. We simply get the variates from the generator and loop through the times. For each time, we add the integrated drift to the log, and then add the product of the random number and the standard deviation. To minimize the number of calls to log and exp, we keep track of the log of the spot at all times, and convert into spot values as necessary. We thus have NumberOfTimes calls to exp each path and no calls to log. As we will have to exponentiate to change our Gaussian into a log-normal variate at some point, this appears to be optimal for this design. If we were really worried that too much time was being spent on com- puting exponentials, one solution would be to change the design and pass the log of the values of spot back, and then pass these log values into the product. The prod- uct would then have the obligation to exponentiate them if necessary. For certain products such as a geometric Asian option this might well be faster as it would only involve one exponentiation instead of many. The main downside would be that for 7.6 An arithmetic Asian option 115 certain processes, such as a normal process or displaced diffusion, one might end up having to take unnecessary logs. 7.6 An arithmetic Asian option Before we can run our engine, we need one last thing, namely a concrete product to put in it. One simple example is an arithmetic Asian option. Rather than define a different class for each sort of pay-off, we use the already developed PayOff class as a data member. The header file for the class is quite simple: Listing 7.7 (PathDependentAsian.h) #ifndef PATH_DEPENDENT_ASIAN_H #define PATH_DEPENDENT_ASIAN_H #include #include class PathDependentAsian : public PathDependent { public: PathDependentAsian(const MJArray& LookAtTimes_, double DeliveryTime_, const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_); virtual unsigned long MaxNumberOfCashFlows() const; virtual MJArray PossibleCashFlowTimes() const; virtual unsigned long CashFlows(const MJArray& SpotValues, std::vector& GeneratedFlows) const; virtual ~PathDependentAsian(){} virtual PathDependent* clone() const; private: double DeliveryTime; PayOffBridge ThePayOff; unsigned long NumberOfTimes; }; #endif The methods defined are just the ones required by the base class. We pass in the averaging times as an array and we provide a separate delivery time to allow for the possibility that the pay-off occurs at some time after the last averaging date. Note 116 An exotics engine and the template pattern that the use of PayOffBridge class means that the memory handling is handled internally, and this class does not need to worry about assignment, copying and destruction. The source file is fairly simple too. Listing 7.8 (PathDependentAsian.cpp) #include PathDependentAsian::PathDependentAsian(const MJArray& LookAtTimes_, double DeliveryTime_, const PayOffBridge&ThePayOff_) : PathDependent(LookAtTimes_), DeliveryTime(DeliveryTime_), ThePayOff(ThePayOff_), NumberOfTimes(LookAtTimes_.size()) { } unsigned long PathDependentAsian::MaxNumberOfCashFlows() const { return 1UL; } MJArray PathDependentAsian::PossibleCashFlowTimes() const { MJArray tmp(1UL); tmp[0] = DeliveryTime; return tmp; } unsigned long PathDependentAsian::CashFlows(const MJArray& SpotValues, std::vector& GeneratedFlows) const { double sum = SpotValues.sum(); double mean = sum/NumberOfTimes; GeneratedFlows[0].TimeIndex = 0UL; 7.7 Putting it all together 117 GeneratedFlows[0].Amount = ThePayOff(mean); return 1UL; } PathDependent* PathDependentAsian::clone() const { return new PathDependentAsian(*this); } Note that our option only ever returns one cash-flow so the maximum number of cash-flows is 1. It only ever generates cash-flows at the delivery time so the PossibleCashFlowTimes method is straightforward too. The CashFlows method takes the spot values, sums them, divides by the number of them and calls ThePay- Off to find out what the pay-off is. The answer is then written into the Generated- Flows array and we are done. 7.7 Putting it all together We now have everything we need to price an Asian option. We give an example of a simple interface program in EquityFXMain.cpp. Listing 7.9 (EquityFXMain.cpp) /* uses source files AntiThetic.cpp Arrays.cpp, ConvergenceTable.cpp, ExoticBSEngine.cpp ExoticEngine.cpp MCStatistics.cpp Normals.cpp Parameters.cpp, ParkMiller.cpp, PathDependent.cpp PathDependentAsian.cpp PayOff3.cpp, PayOffBridge.cpp, Random2.cpp, */ 118 An exotics engine and the template pattern #include #include using namespace std; #include #include #include #include #include int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; double d; unsigned long NumberOfPaths; unsigned NumberOfDates; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nd\n"; cin >> d; cout << "Number of dates\n"; cin >> NumberOfDates; 7.7 Putting it all together 119 cout << "\nNumber of paths\n"; cin >> NumberOfPaths; PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); MJArray times(NumberOfDates); for (unsigned long i=0; i < NumberOfDates; i++) times[i] = (i+1.0)*Expiry/NumberOfDates; ParametersConstant VolParam(Vol); ParametersConstant rParam(r); ParametersConstant dParam(d); PathDependentAsian theOption(times, Expiry, thePayOff); StatisticsMean gatherer; ConvergenceTable gathererTwo(gatherer); RandomParkMiller generator(NumberOfDates); AntiThetic GenTwo(generator); ExoticBSEngine theEngine(theOption, rParam, dParam, VolParam, GenTwo, Spot); theEngine.DoSimulation(gathererTwo, NumberOfPaths); vector > results = gathererTwo.GetResultsSoFar(); cout <<"\nFor the Asian call price the results are \n"; { for (unsigned long i=0; i < results.size(); i++) { for (unsigned long j=0; j < results[i].size(); j++) cout << results[i][j] << " "; cout << "\n"; 120 An exotics engine and the template pattern }} double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 7.8 Key points In this chapter, we saw how we can put the ideas developed in the previous chapters together to build a pricer for exotic options. • An important part of the design process is identifying the necessary components and specifying how they talk to each other. • The template pattern involves deferring the implementation of an important part of an algorithm to an inherited class. • If an option class knows nothing that is not specified in the term-sheet then it is much easier to reuse. • We can reuse the PayOff class to simplify the coding of our more complicated path-dependent derivatives. 7.9 Exercises Exercise 7.1 Write a class to do geometric Asian options. Exercise 7.2 Write a class to do discrete knock-out options that pay a rebate at the time of rebate. Exercise 7.3 Rewrite the classes here so that they pass the logs of spot values around instead of the spot values. Show that the discrete barrier option and the geometric Asian need fewer exponentiations. Exercise 7.4 Implement an engine for pricing when the spot price is normal instead of log-normal. Exercise 7.5 Write a class that pays the difference in pay-offs of two arbitrary path-dependent derivatives. 8 Trees 8.1 Introduction We have studied Monte Carlo code in detail: now we examine how we can apply similar techniques to pricing on trees. Before we can start designing the code, we need to fix the underlying mathematics. The point of view we adopt is that a tree is a method of approximating the risk-neutral expectation. In particular, we assume that we are pricing a derivative on a stock following geometric Brownian motion with a constant volatility σ. We let the continuously compounding interest rate be r and the continuous dividend rate be d. The dynamics for the stock in the risk- neutral measure are therefore dS= (r − d)Sdt + σ SdWt . (8.1) The value of a European option with expiry T is then e−rTE(C(S, T )), (8.2) where C(S, T ) is the final pay-off. When we price on a binomial tree, we divide time into steps and across each step we assume that the underlying Brownian motion can only move a fixed amount up or down. The dynamics of the stock price under geometric Brownian motion are such that St = S0e(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)t+σ Wt . (8.3) We wish to discretize Wt .WehaveN steps to get from 0 to T . Each time step is therefore of length T/N. Across step l, we need to approximate W(l+1)T/N − WlT/N = T N N(0, 1). (8.4) There is only one random variable taking precisely two values which has the same mean and variance as N(0, 1), and this variable takes ±1 with probability 1/2. We 121 122 Trees therefore take a set of N independent random variables X j with this distribution, and approximate WlT/N by Yl = T N l j=1 X j . (8.5) The approximation for SlT/N is then S0e(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)lT/N+σYl . Note the crucial point here that since the value of St does not depend on the path of Wt but solely upon its value at time t, it is only the value of Yl that matters not the value of each individual X j . This is crucial because it means that our tree is recombining; it does not matter whether we go down then up, or up then down. This is not the case if we allow variable volatility, which is why we have assumed its constancy. The nature of martingale pricing means that the value at a given time-step is equal to the discounted value at the next time-step, thus if we let Sl,k be the value of the stock at time Tl/N if Yl is k, we have that C(Sl,k, Tl/N) = e−rT/N E(Sl+1(Yl+1|Yl = k)), = 1 2e−rT/N C Sl,ke(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)T/N+σ√ T/N ,(l + 1)T/N + C Sl,ke(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)T/N−σ√ T/N ,(l + 1)T/N . (8.6) Note that we are not doing true martingale pricing in the discrete world in that we are not adjusting probabilities to make sure the assets are discrete martingales; we are instead approximating the continuous martingales with discrete random vari- ables which are almost, but not quite, martingales. What does all this buy us? The value of C(SN,k) is easy to compute for any value of k: we just plug the stock price into the final pay-off. Since we have a formula that expresses the value at step l into that at step l + 1, we can now just backwards iterate through the tree in order to get the price at time zero. However, the purpose of a tree is not to price a European option; there are lots of better ways of doing that, including analytical solutions and numerical integration. The reason trees were introduced was that they give an effective method for pricing American options. The analysis for an American option is similar except that the value at a point in the tree is the maximum of the exercise value at that point and the discounted expected value at the next time. This corresponds to the optimal strategy of exercise if and only if exercise gives more money than not exercising. Our algorithm for pricing an American option is therefore as follows: 8.2 The design 123 (i) Create an array of final spot values which are of the form S0e(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)T +σ√ T/Nj where j ranges from −N to N. (ii) For each of these spot values evaluate the pay-off and store it. (iii) At the previous time-slice compute the possible values of spot: these will be of the form S0e(r−d− 1 2 σ 2)(N−1)T/N+σ√ T/Nj, where j ranges from −(N − 1) to N − 1. (iv) For each of these values of spot, compute the pay-off and take the maximum with the discounted pay-off of the two possible values of spot at the next time. (v) Repeat 3,4 until time zero is reached. What else could we price on a tree? We could do a barrier option or an Ameri- can option that could only be exercised within certain time periods. For a knock-out barrier option, the procedure would be the same as for the European, except that the value at a point in the tree would be zero if it lay behind the barrier. For an Amer- ican option with limited early exercise the procedure would be the same again, except that we would only take the maximum at times at which early exercise was allowed. So in each case, when we change the option, all that alters is the rule for updating the value at a point in the tree. Note that in our formulation, we have not used any no-arbitrage arguments. The reason is that we have implicitly assumed that the no-arbitrage arguments have been done in the continuous case before any discretization has been carried out. This means that the completeness property of a binomial tree, i.e. that it generates a unique no-arbitrage price, is not relevant. In particular, we could replace X j by any random variable with mean 0 and variance 1. If we use X j which takes values − √ 2, 0, √ 2 with probabilities 0.25, 0.5 and 0.25 respectively, then we obtain a trinomial tree on which we could carry out a very similar analysis and algorithm. We could in fact go much further and have as many values as we wanted as long as we took care to make sure that the tree still recombined. 8.2 The design Having re-examined the mathematics and the algorithms, we are now in a position to think about the design. Here are some concepts that our discussion has thrown up: • the discretization; • the final pay-off of the option; 124 Trees • the rule for deciding the value of an option at a point in the tree given spot and the discounted future value of the option. The first of these concepts decides the shape of the tree, whereas the second and third are properties of the option. There is thus an obvious orthogonalization: we have a tree class which handles the discretization, and a second class which deals with the final pay-off and the rule at previous times. In fact, we have already developed a class, PayOff, to encapsulate vanilla option pay-offs and it is ideal for reuse here. There are a number of ways we could approach the second class. We could in- herit from PayOffBridged since we could view our class as adding structure to an existing class. Whilst this would work in code, I personally dislike it as an option being priced on a tree is not a type of pay-off, and so the inheritance is not express- ing an is a relationship. Another approach might be simply to define a second class to do the calculation rule, and plug both the final pay-off and the calculation rule into the tree. Since for American options the final pay-off is generally relevant at all times, such an approach seems sub-optimal as it might require two copies of the pay-off. Ultimately, the pay-off is an aspect of the option, and it therefore makes more sense to define it as data member of the class which can referenced via a final pay- off method. Thus we define options on trees via an abstract base class which has three defining methods: • FinalTime indicates the expiry time of the option; • FinalPayOff gives the final pay-off as a function of spot; • PreFinalValue gives the value at a point in the tree as a function of spot, time and the discounted future value of the option. Note that by defining the option class in this fashion, we have not allowed it to know anything about interest rates nor the process of the underlying. This means it can be used in any tree-like structure provided the structure is always in a position to let it know its own discounted future value. Note the difference here between the option classes we are defining here and those we defined for Monte Carlo: whilst we are trying to encapsulate similar concepts, the difference is in the information we are able to feed in at a given time. For Monte Carlo, the entire history of spot is easy but the discounted future value of an option is hard, whereas on a tree the discounted future value is easy but the history is hard. However, both classes have easy access to the pay-off which means we are able to share the pay-off class. Our other concept is the tree itself. The tree really has two aspects: the placement of the nodes of the tree and the computing of the option value at each of the nodes. Whilst we could further orthogonalize and define separate classes for each of these, we write a single class to do the binomial tree which takes in an option as an argument. An important point to note is that as the placement of the nodes does 8.3 The TreeProduct class 125 not depend upon the option, we can save ourselves time if we want to price several options by placing the nodes once and then pricing all the options on the same tree. Given this fact, we design our tree class in such a way that the tree is built once, and then any option can be valued on the tree via a separate method. 8.3 The TreeProduct class As we have decided to model the tree and the product separately, we develop a class hierarchy for the products we can value on trees. As usual, we use an ab- stract base class to define an interface. We define the class, TreeProduct,in TreeProducts.h. Listing 8.1 (TreeProducts.h) #ifndef TREE_PRODUCTS_H #define TREE_PRODUCTS_H class TreeProduct { public: TreeProduct(double FinalTime_); virtual double FinalPayOff(double Spot) const=0; virtual double PreFinalValue(double Spot, double Time, double DiscountedFutureValue) const=0; virtual ~TreeProduct(){} virtual TreeProduct* clone() const=0; double GetFinalTime() const; private: double FinalTime; }; #endif The only data member for the base class is FinalTime, and we provide a GetFinalTime to allow its value to be read. Note that this places the constraint on our products that they actually have a time of expiry! Thus we are implicitly disallowing perpetual options, however this is a good thing as it is not clear how to go about valuing such an option using a tree. Ultimately, one would have to approximate using a product with a finite expiry and it is probably better to do so explicitly than implicitly. 126 Trees We provide the usual clone method and a virtual destructor to allow virtual copying, and to ensure the absence of memory leaks after virtual copying. The remaining methods are pure virtual and specify the value of the product at expiry and at previous times as we discussed above. As most of the base class is abstract the source file is short: Listing 8.2 (TreeProducts.cpp) #include TreeProduct::TreeProduct(double FinalTime_) : FinalTime(FinalTime_) { } double TreeProduct::GetFinalTime() const { return FinalTime; } We provide below two concrete implementations of tree products: the European option and the American option. As we specify the pay-off using the PayOff- Bridged class, we do not need to write separate classes for calls and puts. The header files are straightforward, the only changes from the base class being the addition of a data member to specify the pay-off and the fact that virtual methods are now concrete instead of abstract. Note that everything to do with the expiry time is taken care of by the base class; the constructors need only pass it on to the base class. Listing 8.3 (TreeAmerican.h) #ifndef TREE_AMERICAN_H #define TREE_AMERICAN_H #include #include class TreeAmerican : public TreeProduct { public: TreeAmerican(double FinalTime, const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_); 8.3 The TreeProduct class 127 virtual TreeProduct* clone() const; virtual double FinalPayOff(double Spot) const; virtual double PreFinalValue(double Spot, double Time, double DiscountedFutureValue) const; virtual ~TreeAmerican(){} private: PayOffBridge ThePayOff; }; #endif The header for the European option is very similar: Listing 8.4 (TreeEuropean.h) #ifndef TREE_EUROPEAN_H #define TREE_EUROPEAN_H #include #include class TreeEuropean : public TreeProduct { public: TreeEuropean(double FinalTime, const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_); virtual TreeProduct* clone() const; virtual double FinalPayOff(double Spot) const; virtual double PreFinalValue(double Spot, double Time, double DiscountedFutureValue) const; virtual ~TreeEuropean(){} private: PayOffBridge ThePayOff; }; #endif 128 Trees The source files are also straightforward. Listing 8.5 (TreeAmerican.cpp) #include #include TreeAmerican::TreeAmerican(double FinalTime, const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_) : TreeProduct(FinalTime), ThePayOff(ThePayOff_) { } TreeProduct* TreeAmerican::clone() const { return new TreeAmerican(*this); } double TreeAmerican::FinalPayOff(double Spot) const { return ThePayOff(Spot); } double TreeAmerican::PreFinalValue(double Spot, double , // Borland compiler doesnt like unused named variables double DiscountedFutureValue) const { return max(ThePayOff(Spot), DiscountedFutureValue); } and Listing 8.6 (TreeEuropean.cpp) #include #include TreeEuropean::TreeEuropean(double FinalTime, const PayOffBridge& ThePayOff_) : TreeProduct(FinalTime), ThePayOff(ThePayOff_) 8.4 A tree class 129 { } double TreeEuropean::FinalPayOff(double Spot) const { return ThePayOff(Spot); } double TreeEuropean::PreFinalValue(double, //Spot, Borland compiler double, //Time, doesnt like unused named variables double DiscountedFutureValue) const { return DiscountedFutureValue; } TreeProduct* TreeEuropean::clone() const { return new TreeEuropean(*this); } The implementations of the methods are very simple Ð all the pay-offs are sub- contracted to the PayOffBridged class in any case. For the European option at an interior node, the rule for computing the PreFinalValue is very simple: just return the discounted future value that was input. For the American option, it is only slightly harder; we take the maximum with the intrinsic value. Note the slight oddity that we do not name the unused variables Spot and Time in the PreFinalValue method. This is because some compilers issue a warning if a variable is named but not used, to ensure that variables are not left unused accidentally. 8.4 A tree class We give a simple implementation of a binomial tree class in this section. We design the tree to work in three pieces. The constructor does little except store the parame- ters. The BuildTree method actually makes the tree. In particular, it computes the locations of all the nodes, and the discounts needed to compute the expectations backwards in the tree. As it is not intended that the BuildTree method should be called from outside the class, we make it protected which allows the possibil- ity that an inherited class may wish to use it without allowing any other external access. 130 Trees The method which does the actual pricing is GetThePrice. Note that it takes in a TreeProduct by reference. As the argument is an abstract base class this means that an object from an inherited class must be passed in. Note that since we not need to store the object passed in, we do not need virtual constructors, wrappers or bridges. This method builds the tree if necessary, checks that the product has the right expiry time and then prices it. Our design is such that we can price multiple products with the same expiry; we call the method multiple times and only build the tree once. As we wish to be able to do this, we store the entire tree. Note that this is not really necessary since for any given time slice, we only need the next time slice and so we could easily save a lot of memory by only ever having two arrays defined. However, unless one is doing an awful lot of steps, memory will not be an issue, and this approach has the added benefit that if one wishes to analyze certain aspects of the product, such as where the exercise boundary lies for an American option, it is better to have the entire tree. We present the class in BinomialTree.h. Listing 8.7 (BinomialTree.h) #pragma warning( disable : 4786 ) #include #include #include #include class SimpleBinomialTree { public: SimpleBinomialTree(double Spot_, const Parameters& r_, const Parameters& d_, double Volatility_, unsigned long Steps, double Time); double GetThePrice(const TreeProduct& TheProduct); protected: void BuildTree(); private: 8.4 A tree class 131 double Spot; Parameters r; Parameters d; double Volatility; unsigned long Steps; double Time; bool TreeBuilt; std::vector > > TheTree; MJArray Discounts; }; Note that we store the tree as a vector of vectors of pairs of doubles. This is why we have the #pragma at the start; without the pragma, we get a warning message telling us that the debug info is too long (under Visual C++ 6.0). A pair is a simple template class in the STL which simply gives a class with two data members of the appropriate types. They are accessed as public members as first and second. Note that an alternative implementation would be to have two trees: one for the spot and another for option values. However, that would require twice as much work when resizing, and more importantly one would then have to be careful to ensure that spot and the associated option value were always attached to the same indices. With the use of a pair, we get this for free. We have allowed general Parameters for r and d: this is because variable in- terest and dividend rates change little in the analysis or construction of the tree. If we can add extra functionality with little cost, why not do so? We do not, however, allow variable volatility as it greatly complicates node placement; we would lose the property that the spot price is a simple function of the underlying Brownian motion. We use a bool to indicate whether the tree has been built yet. We store the number of steps as an unsigned long and this is fixed in the constructor. One could easily add an additional method to allow the number of steps to be changed; however one would gain little over just instantiating a new object with a different number of steps. We have a data member for the discount factors needed so that they need only be computed once in BuildTree. We present the source code in BinomialTree.cpp. Listing 8.8 (BinomialTree.cpp) #include #include #include 132 Trees // the basic math functions should be in namespace std // but aren’t in VCPP6 #if !defined(_MSC_VER) using namespace std; #endif SimpleBinomialTree::SimpleBinomialTree(double Spot_, const Parameters& r_, const Parameters& d_, double Volatility_, unsigned long Steps_, double Time_) : Spot(Spot_), r(r_), d(d_), Volatility(Volatility_), Steps(Steps_), Time(Time_), Discounts(Steps) { TreeBuilt=false; } void SimpleBinomialTree::BuildTree() { TreeBuilt = true; TheTree.resize(Steps+1); double InitialLogSpot = log(Spot); for (unsigned long i=0; i <=Steps; i++) { TheTree[i].resize(i+1); double thisTime = (i*Time)/Steps; double movedLogSpot = InitialLogSpot + r.Integral(0.0, thisTime) - d.Integral(0.0, thisTime); 8.4 A tree class 133 movedLogSpot -= 0.5*Volatility*Volatility*thisTime; double sd = Volatility*sqrt(Time/Steps); for (long j = -static_cast(i), k=0; j <= static_cast(i); j=j+2,k++) TheTree[i][k].first = exp(movedLogSpot+ j*sd); } for (unsigned long l=0; l (Steps), k=0; j <=static_cast( Steps); j=j+2,k++) TheTree[Steps][k].second = TheProduct.FinalPayOff(TheTree[Steps][k].first); for (unsigned long i=1; i <= Steps; i++) { unsigned long index = Steps-i; double ThisTime = index*Time/Steps; for (long j = -static_cast(index), k=0; j <= static_cast(index); j=j+2,k++) { double Spot = TheTree[index][k].first; 134 Trees double futureDiscountedValue = 0.5*Discounts[index]* (TheTree[index+1][k].second + TheTree[index+1][k+1].second); TheTree[index][k].second = TheProduct.PreFinalValue(Spot,ThisTime, futureDiscountedValue); } } return TheTree[0][0].second; } The code is fairly straightforward. The constructor initializes the basic class vari- ables and does not do much else. The method BuildTree creates the tree. We resize the vector describing all the layers first. We then resize each layer so that it is of the correct size. Note that as the number of nodes in a layer grows with the number of steps, these inner vectors are all of different sizes. We then compute a basepoint for the layer in log-space which is just the zero Brownian motion point. We then loop through the nodes in each layer writing in the appropriate value of spot. Note that as we are dealing with points in the tree corresponding to down moves we count using a long. This long has to be compared to the unsigned long i for the termination condition. We therefore have to be careful; if we simply com- pare these numbers a likely effect is that the routine will conclude that −1 is bigger than 1. Why? The compiler will implicitly convert the long into a large unsigned long. Clearly this is not the desired effect so we convert the unsigned long into a long before the comparison. After setting up the tree, we also set up the array of Discounts which are product-independent, and therefore only need to be done once. The main routine for actually doing the pricing, GetThePrice, is also straight- forward. We have put in a test to make sure that the tree and product are compatible. This throws an error which is a simple string if they are not. Note that this means the program will terminate unless we have written a catch which is capable of catching the string. We simply iterate backwards through the tree. First we compute the final layer using the FinalPayOff and write the values into the second element of each pair in the final layer. After this we simply iterate backwards, computing as we go. The final value of the product is then simply the value of the option at the single node in the first layer of the tree, and that is what we return. 8.5 Pricing on the tree 135 8.5 Pricing on the tree Having written all the classes we need to actually put them together to price some- thing. We give a simple interface in TreeMain.cpp. Listing 8.9 (TreeMain.cpp) /* requires Arrays.cpp BinomialTree.cpp BlackScholesFormulas.cpp Normals.cpp Parameters.cpp PayOff3.cpp PayOffBridge.cpp PayOffForward.cpp TreeAmerican.cpp TreeEuropean.cpp TreeProducts.cpp */ #include #include #include #include #include #include using namespace std; #include int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double Vol; double r; double d; unsigned long Steps; 136 Trees cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter vol\n"; cin >> Vol; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nd\n"; cin >> d; cout << "\nNumber of steps\n"; cin >> Steps; PayOffCall thePayOff(Strike); ParametersConstant rParam(r); ParametersConstant dParam(d); TreeEuropean europeanOption(Expiry,thePayOff); TreeAmerican americanOption(Expiry,thePayOff); SimpleBinomialTree theTree(Spot,rParam,dParam,Vol,Steps, Expiry); double euroPrice = theTree.GetThePrice(europeanOption); double americanPrice = theTree.GetThePrice(americanOption); cout << "euro price" << euroPrice << "amer price" << americanPrice << "\n"; double BSPrice = BlackScholesCall(Spot,Strike,r,d, Vol,Expiry); cout << "BS formula euro price" << BSPrice << "\n"; 8.5 Pricing on the tree 137 PayOffForward forwardPayOff(Strike); TreeEuropean forward(Expiry,forwardPayOff); double forwardPrice = theTree.GetThePrice(forward); cout << "forward price by tree" << forwardPrice << "\n"; double actualForwardPrice = exp(-r*Expiry)*(Spot*exp((r-d)*Expiry)-Strike); cout << "forward price" << actualForwardPrice << "\n"; Steps++; // now redo the trees with one more step SimpleBinomialTree theNewTree(Spot,rParam,dParam,Vol, Steps,Expiry); double euroNewPrice = theNewTree.GetThePrice(europeanOption); double americanNewPrice = theNewTree.GetThePrice(americanOption); cout << "euro new price" << euroNewPrice << "amer new price" << americanNewPrice << "\n"; double forwardNewPrice = theNewTree.GetThePrice(forward); cout << "forward price by new tree" << forwardNewPrice << "\n"; double averageEuro = 0.5*(euroPrice+euroNewPrice); double averageAmer = 0.5*(americanPrice+americanNewPrice); double averageForward = 0.5*(forwardPrice+forwardNewPrice); cout << "euro av price" << averageEuro << "amer av price" << averageAmer << "\n"; cout << "av forward" << averageForward << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 138 Trees To illustrate certain aspects of tree pricing, we price the European call, the Amer- ican call and the forward. We then reprice them using one extra step. The rea- son we do this is that often pricing on trees gives rise to a zig-zag behaviour as nodes go above and below the money. The average of the price for two succes- sive steps is therefore often a lot more accurate than a single price. We give the comparison BlackÐScholes price for the European option as an assessment of ac- curacy. The code for the BlackÐScholes price is in BlackScholesFormulas.h and BlackScholesFormulas.cpp; we discuss it in Appendix A. A standard way of improving the accuracy of American option pricing is to use the European price as a control. As we know the true price of the European and we know the tree price also, we can assume that the American option has the same amount of error as the European and adjust its price accordingly. The principle here is the same as that for a control variate in Monte Carlo simulation. We also give the price of a forward. Note that if we had required the discounted discretized process to be a martingale, then the forward would be priced absolutely correctly; however as it is only an approximation to a martingale rather than actu- ally being one, the forward need not be precise. As we have not defined a class for the forward’s pay-off before, we define one in PayOffForward.h and PayOffForward.cpp. Listing 8.10 (PayOffForward.h) #ifndef PAY_OFF_FORWARD_H #define PAY_OFF_FORWARD_H #include class PayOffForward : public PayOff { public: PayOffForward(double Strike_); virtual double operator()(double Spot) const; virtual ~PayOffForward(){} virtual PayOff* clone() const; private: double Strike; }; #endif 8.7 Exercises 139 Listing 8.11 (PayOffForward.cpp) #include double PayOffForward::operator () (double Spot) const { return Spot-Strike; } PayOffForward::PayOffForward(double Strike_) : Strike(Strike_) { } PayOff* PayOffForward::clone() const { return new PayOffForward(*this); } The class is straightforward and the only difference from the class defined for the call is that we take spot minus strike, instead of the call pay-off. 8.6 Key points In this chapter we have used the patterns developed earlier in the book to develop routines for pricing on trees. • Tree pricing is based on the discretization of a Brownian motion. • Trees are a natural way to price American options. • On a tree, knowledge of discounted future values is natural but knowing about the past is not. • We can re-use the pay-off class when defining products on trees. • By having a separate class encapsulating the definition of a derivative on a tree, we can re-use the products for more general structures. • European options can be used as controls for American options. 8.7 Exercises We have developed a very simple tree and treated a couple of simple products. The approach here can easily be extended to many more cases. We suggest a few possibilities for the reader to try. 140 Trees Exercise 8.1 Find a class that does barrier options in the same TreeProduct class hierarchy. Try it out. How stable is the price? How might you improve the stability? Exercise 8.2 Develop a binomial tree for which the memory requirements grow linearly with the number of steps. How do the memory requirements grow for the class here? Exercise 8.3 Write a trinomial tree class. Exercise 8.4 Modify the code so that it will work under variable volatility. The key is to ensure that the integral of the square of the vol across each time step is the same. This means that the time steps will be of unequal length. Exercise 8.5 Modify the tree so the implied stock price process makes the dis- counted price a martingale. Compare convergence for calls, puts and forwards. Exercise 8.6 Implement an American knock-in option pricer on a tree. (Use an additional auxiliary variable to indicate whether or not the option has knocked-in, and compute the value at each node in both cases.) 9 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities 9.1 The problem Whatever model one is using to compute vanilla options’ prices, it is traditional to quote prices in terms of the BlackÐScholes implied volatility. The implied volatility is by definition the number to plug into the BlackÐScholes formula to get the price desired. Thus we have the problem that we must solve the problem of finding the value σ such that BS(S, K,r, d, T,σ)= quoted price. In other words, we must invert the map σ → BS(S, K,r, d, T,σ) with the other parameters fixed. The BlackÐScholes formula is sufficiently complicated that there is no analytic inverse and this inversion must be carried out numerically. There are many algo- rithms for implementing such inversions; we shall study two of the simplest: bisec- tion and NewtonÐRaphson. Our objective, as usual, is to illustrate the programming techniques for defining the interfaces in a reusable fashion rather than to implement the most efficient algorithms available. Indeed, we hope that the reader will com- bine the techniques here with algorithms found elsewhere, in for example [28], to produce robust and efficient reusable code. Before proceeding to the coding and design issues, we recall the details of the aforementioned algorithms. Given a function, f , of one variable we wish to solve the equation f (x) = y. (9.1) In the above, f is the BlackÐScholes formula, x is volatility and y is the price. If 141 142 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities the function f is continuous, and for some a and b we have f (a)y, (9.3) then there must exist some c in the interval (a, b) such that f (c) = x. Bisection is one technique to find c. The idea is straightforward: we simply take the midpoint, m, of the interval, then one of three things must occur: • f (m) = y and we are done; • f (m)y in which case there must be a solution in (a, m). Thus by taking the midpoint, we either find the solution, or halve the size of the interval in which the solution exists. Repeating we must narrow in on the solution. In practice, we would terminate when we achieve | f (m) − y| <, (9.4) for some pre-decided tolerance, . Bisection is robust but is not particularly fast. When we have a well-behaved function with an analytic derivative then NewtonÐRaphson can be much faster. The idea of NewtonÐRaphson is that we pretend the function is linear and look for the solution where the linear function predicts it to be. Thus we take a starting point, x0, and approximate f by g0(x) = f (x0) + (x − x0) f (x0). (9.5) We have that g0(x) is equal to zero if and only if x = y − f (x0) f (x0) + x0. (9.6) We therefore take this value as our new guess x1. We now repeat until we find that f (xn) is within of y. NewtonÐRaphson is much faster than bisection provided we have an easily eval- uated derivative. This is certainly the case for the BlackÐScholes function. Indeed, for a call option the vega is easier to compute than the price is. However, as it in- volves passing two functions rather than one to a solver routine, it requires more sophisticated programming techniques to implement re-usably. 9.2 Function objects We want to implement the bisection algorithm in a re-usable way; this means that we will need a way to pass the function f into the bisection routine. Since f may well be defined, as it is in our case, in terms of the value of a more complicated 9.2 Function objects 143 function with many parameters fixed, we will also need somehow to pass in the values of those auxiliary parameters. There are, in fact, many different ways to tackle this problem. One method we have already studied is the engine template. With this approach, we define a base class for which the main method is to carry out the bisection. The main method calls a pure virtual method to get the value of f (x). For any specific problem, we then define an inherited class which implements f appropriately. Whilst this method can work effectively, there are a couple of disadvantages. The first is that the function call is virtual which can lead to efficiency problems. There are two causes: the first is that to call a virtual function, the processor has to look up a virtual function table each time the function is called, and then jump to a location specified by the table. Clearly, it would be slightly faster not to have to look up the table. A more subtle and serious speed issue is that it is not possible to inline virtual functions. If the function is known beforehand, the compiler can inline it and eliminate the mechanics of the function call altogether. In addition, the compiler may be able to make additional optimizations as it sees all the code together at once. Whilst these speed issues are not particularly important whilst designing a solver, they are more critical when writing a class for other numerical routines such as numeric integration where often a large of calls are made to a function which is fast to evaluate. We therefore wish to develop a pattern which can be used in those contexts too. The second disadvantage of inheriting from a solver base class is that it inhibits other inheritance. If we wish to inherit the class defining our function from some other class, we cannot inherit from the solver class as well without using multiple inheritance. Of course, one could use multiple inheritance but it tends to be tricky to get it to work in a bug-free fashion and I therefore tend to avoid it. Having decided that we want to be able to input a function to our routine with- out using virtual functions, what other options do we have? One solution would be to use a function pointer but this would buy us little (if anything) over virtual functions. Another approach is templatization. The crucial point is that with tem- platization the type of the function being used in the optimization is decided at compile time rather than at runtime. This means that the compiler can carry out optimizations and inlining that depend on the type of the function since that infor- mation is now available to it. The approach we adopt for specifying the function we wish to optimize uses the function object.Wefirst encountered function objects in Section 2.1 when defining pay-offs. Recall that a function object is by definition an object for which operator() is defined. So if we have an object f of a class T for which const operator()( double x) const 144 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities has been defined it is then legitimate to write f(y) for a double y, and this is equivalent to f.operator()(y). Thus our object f can be used with function-like syntax. However, as f is an object it can contain extra information. Thus if we want to solve for the implied volatility, the function object will take the volatility as an argument, but will also have, as extra parameters already stored, the values of r, d, T, S and K. We thus obtain the class defined in BSCallClass.h: Listing 9.1 // // BSCallClass.h // #ifndef BS_CALL_CLASS_H #define BS_CALL_CLASS_H class BSCall { public: BSCall(double r_, double d_, double T, double Spot_, double Strike_); double operator()(double Vol) const; private: double r; double d; double T; double Spot; double Strike; }; #endif The source file is simple: 9.3 Bisecting with a template 145 Listing 9.2 // // BSCallClass.cpp // #include #include BSCall::BSCall(double r_, double d_, double T_, double Spot_, double Strike_) : r(r_),d(d_), T(T_),Spot(Spot_), Strike(Strike_) {} double BSCall::operator()(double Vol) const { return BlackScholesCall(Spot,Strike,r,d,Vol,T); } The constructor simply initializes the class data members, which are the parame- ters needed to price a call option under BlackÐScholes except the volatility. The operator() takes in the volatility and then invokes the BlackÐScholes formula. This is the simplest possible implementation of the class. If we were truly wor- ried about efficiency considerations, we could code the formula directly and pre- compute as much of it as possible in the constructor. We could have for example a class data member, Moneyness, set to the log of Spot divided by Strike, and then we would not have to compute it every time. 9.3 Bisecting with a template In the previous section, we showed how we could define a class for which the syn- tax f(x) makes sense when f was an object of the class, and x was a double.We still need to get the object f into our solver routine, however. We do so via templa- tization. The basic idea of templatization is that you can write code that works for many classes simultaneously provided they are required to have certain operations defined with the same syntax. In this case, our requirement is that the class should have double operator()( double ) const 146 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities defined, and thus that the syntax f(y) is well-defined for class objects as we dis- cussed above. We present the Bisection function in Bisection.h: Listing 9.3 (Bisection.h) template double Bisection(double Target, double Low, double High, double Tolerance, T TheFunction) { double x=0.5*(Low+High); double y=TheFunction(x); do { if (y < Target) Low=x; if (y > Target) High = x; x = 0.5*(Low+High); y = TheFunction(x); } while ( (fabs(y-Target) > Tolerance) ); return x; } We only present a header file, since for template code we cannot precompile in a source file Ð we do not know the type of the object T. The function is quite simple. We specify that it is templatized via the template at the top. If we invoke the function with the template argument BSCall via Bisection then every T will be converted into a BSCall before the function is compiled. Once we have fixed the type of the template argument, there is really very little to the function. We take the midpoint of the interval evaluate the function there, and 9.3 Bisecting with a template 147 switch to the left or right side of the interval by redefining Low and High until the value at the midpoint is close enough to the target, and we then return. Note that we have defined the type of the function object passed in as T The- Function: we could equally well have put const T& TheFunction. The syntax we have adopted involves copying the function object, and is therefore arguably less good than the alternative. The reason I have done it this way is to highlight the fact that the standard template library always uses the former syntax. A conse- quence of this is that one needs to be careful when using function objects with the STL not to define function objects which are expensive to copy (or, even worse, impossible to copy.) We now give a simple example of an implied volatility function: Listing 9.4 (SolveMain1.cpp) /* Needs BlackScholesFormulas.cpp BSCallClass.cpp Normals.cpp */ #include #include #include #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double r; double d; double Price; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; 148 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter price\n"; cin >> Price; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nd\n"; cin >> d; double low,high; cout << "\nlower guess\n"; cin >> low; cout << "\nhigh guess\n"; cin >> high; double tolerance; cout << "\nTolerance\n"; cin >> tolerance; BSCall theCall(r,d,Expiry,Spot,Strike); double vol = Bisection(Price,low,high,tolerance,theCall); double PriceTwo = BlackScholesCall(Spot,Strike,r,d,vol,Expiry); cout << "\n vol " << vol << " pricetwo " << PriceTwo << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } 9.4 NewtonÐRaphson and function template arguments 149 As usual, we input all the necessary parameters. We then put them together to create a BSCall object. We then call the Bisection function to find the volatility. Note that we have not put Bisection. The compiler deduces the type of the template argument from the fact that our final argument in the function call is theCall. We only have to specify the template argument when the compiler does not have a sufficient amount of other information to deduce it. Our function finishes by getting the price via the BlackÐScholes functions for the implied volatility that was found. If everything is working correctly then this will give the original price inputted. 9.4 NewtonÐRaphson and function template arguments We now want to adapt the pattern we have presented to work for NewtonÐRaphson as well as for bisection. The fundamental difference from a design viewpoint is that NewtonÐRaphson involves two functions, the value and the derivative, whereas bi- section involves just one. One solution would be simply to pass in two function objects: one for the value and another for the derivative. This is unappealing, how- ever, in that we would then need to initialize a set of parameters for each object and we would have to be careful to make sure they are the same. More fundamentally, the value and the derivative are really two aspects of the same thing rather than two separate functions and so having two objects does not express well our conceptual model of them. A second solution is to assume a name for the derivative function. After all, that is essentially what we did for the value function; it was a special name with special syntax but ultimately it was just assuming a name. Thus we could assume that the class had a method double Derivative(double ) const defined and at appropriate points in our function we would then put TheFunction.Derivative(x). This would certainly work. However, it is a little ugly and if our class already had a derivative defined under a different name, it would be annoying. Fortunately, there is a way of specifying which class member function to call at compile time using templatization. The key to this is a pointer to a member function. A pointer to a member function is similar in syntax and idea to a function pointer, but it is restricted to methods of a single class. The difference in syntax is that the class name with a :: must be attached to the * when it is declared. Thus to declare a function pointer called Derivative which must point to a method of 150 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities the class T,wehave double (T::*Derivative)(double) const The function Derivative is a const member function which takes in a double as argument and outputs a double as return value. If we have an object of class T called TheObject and y is a double, then the function pointed to can be invoked by TheObject.*Derivative(y) Whilst the syntax is a little cumbersome, the key is to realise that it is the same for ordinary function pointers except that T:: must be added to the * for declarations and TheObject. must be added for invocations. We can now use a function pointer to specify both the derivative and the value. As we would like to avoid the time spent on evaluating the pointers, we can make them template parameters rather than arguments to our function. This means that the compiler can treat them just like any other function call, and as their types are decided at compile time they can be inlined. Our NewtonÐRaphson routine is therefore as follows: Listing 9.5 (NewtonRaphson.h) template double NewtonRaphson(double Target, double Start, double Tolerance, const T& TheObject) { double y = (TheObject.*Value)(Start); double x=Start; while ( fabs(y - Target) > Tolerance ) { double d = (TheObject.*Derivative)(x); x+= (Target-y)/d; y = (TheObject.*Value)(x); } return x; } 9.5 Using NewtonÐRaphson to do implied volatilities 151 We have three template parameters: the class, the pointer to the value function for that class, and the pointer to the derivative function for that class. The routine is short and simple, now that we have the right structure. As usual, we keep repeating until close enough to the root. We have not included the checks required to ensure that the loop does not repeat endlessly if the sequence fails to converge to a root, but such additions are easily put in. 9.5 Using NewtonÐRaphson to do implied volatilities Now that we have developed a NewtonÐRaphson routine, we want to use it to compute implied volatilities. Our class will therefore have to support pricing as a function of volatility and the vega as a function of volatility. As before, the other parameters will be class data members which are not inputted in the constructor rather than via these methods. We present a suitable class in BSCallTwo.h and BSCallTwo.cpp. Listing 9.6 (BSCallTwo.h) #ifndef BS_CALL_TWO_H #define BS_CALL_TWO_H class BSCallTwo { public: BSCallTwo(double r_, double d_, double T, double Spot_, double Strike_); double Price(double Vol) const; double Vega(double Vol) const; private: double r; double d; double T; double Spot; double Strike; }; #endif 152 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities The methods just call the relevant functions. As before, we could optimize by pre- computing as much as possible, and inlining the methods. Listing 9.7 (BSCallTwo.cpp) #include #include BSCallTwo::BSCallTwo(double r_, double d_, double T_, double Spot_, double Strike_) : r(r_),d(d_), T(T_),Spot(Spot_), Strike(Strike_) {} double BSCallTwo::Price(double Vol) const { return BlackScholesCall(Spot,Strike,r,d,Vol,T); } double BSCallTwo::Vega(double Vol) const { return BlackScholesCallVega(Spot,Strike,r,d,Vol,T); } We present an example of using the combination of NewtonRaphson and BSCallTwo in SolveMain2.cpp. Listing 9.8 (SolveMain2.cpp) /* Needs BlackScholesFormulas.cpp BSCallTwo.cpp Normals.cpp */ #include #include #include #include #include 9.5 Using NewtonÐRaphson to do implied volatilities 153 using namespace std; int main() { double Expiry; double Strike; double Spot; double r; double d; double Price; cout << "\nEnter expiry\n"; cin >> Expiry; cout << "\nStrike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\nEnter spot\n"; cin >> Spot; cout << "\nEnter price\n"; cin >> Price; cout << "\nr\n"; cin >> r; cout << "\nd\n"; cin >> d; double start; cout << "\nstart guess\n"; cin >> start; double tolerance; cout << "\nTolerance\n"; cin >> tolerance; BSCallTwo theCall(r,d,Expiry,Spot,Strike); 154 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities double vol=NewtonRaphson(Price, start, tolerance, theCall); double PriceTwo = BlackScholesCall(Spot,Strike,r,d,vol,Expiry); cout << "\n vol " << vol << " \nprice two:" << PriceTwo << "\n"; double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } Our new main program is very similar to the one we had before. The main change is that this time we specify the template parameters for our NewtonRaphson func- tion, whereas for the Bisection function we did not bother. The reason for the change is that there is not sufficient information for the compiler to deduce the types of the parameters. There is nothing to indicate which member functions of the class are to be used. Even for our class which only has two member functions, these two functions could equally well be the other way round as far the compiler knows. 9.6 The pros and cons of templatization In this chapter, we have used template arguments to achieve re-usability whereas in other chapters, we have used virtual functions and polymorphism. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. The principal difference is that for templates argument types are decided at the time of compilation, whereas for virtual functions the type is not determined until runtime. What consequences does this difference have? The first is speed. No time is spent on deciding which code to run when the code is actually running. In addition, the fact that the compiler knows which code will be run allows it to make extra optimizations which would be hard if not impossible when the decision is made at run time. A second consequence is size. As the code is compiled for each template argu- ment used separately, we have multiple copies of very similar code. For a simple 9.6 The pros and cons of templatization 155 routine such as a solver this is not really an issue but for a complicated routine, this could result in a very large executable. Another aspect of this is slower compiler times since much more code would have to be compiled. If we had several tem- plate parameters the size could multiply out of control. For example, suppose when designing our Monte Carlo path-dependent exotic pricer, we had templatized both the random number generator and the product. If we had six random number gen- erators and ten products, and we wished to allow any combination then we would have sixty times as much code. A third consequence is that it becomes harder for the user of the code to make choices. In the example of the exotics pricer, if the user was allowed to choose the number generator and the product via outside input, we would have to write code that branched into each of the sixty cases and within each branch called the engine and gathered results. As well as the run time versus compile time decision, there are other issues with using templatized code. A simple one is that it is harder to debug. Some debuggers get confused by template code and, for example, refuse to set breakpoints within templates (or else set and ignore them.) Related to this is the fact that compilers will often not actually compile lines of template code that are not used. Thus if a templatized class has a method that is not called anywhere, the code will compile even if it has syntax errors. Only when a line is added that calls the particular method will the compiler errors appear. This can be infuriating as the error may show up a long time afterwards. One way of avoiding these problems is first to write non-template code for a particular choice of the template parameter. This code can be thoroughly tested and debugged, and then afterwards the code can be rewritten by changing the particular parameter into a template parameter. So when should one use templates and when use virtual functions? My prefer- ence is not to use templates unless certain conditions are met. These are that the routine should be short, and potentially re-usable in totally unrelated contexts. So for example, I would use templates for a numerical integration routine and a solver. I would also use templates for a container class; in fact I would generally use the templates given in the standard template library. I would not, however, use tem- plates for an option pricing engine since the code would probably be long and is only relevant to a quite specific context. The general trend in C++ is towards templates. The principal reason is that they are the way to achieve the same speed as lower-level languages. In general, languages exhibit a trade-off between abstraction and efficiency; C++ has always striven to achieve both. Templates are ultimately a way of achieving abstraction without sacrificing efficiency. 156 Solvers, templates, and implied volatilities 9.7 Key points In this chapter we have looked at how to implement solvers using template code. • Templates are an alternative to inheritance for coding without knowing an ob- ject’s precise type. • Template code can be faster as function calls are determined at compile time. • Extensive use of template code can lead to very large executables. • Pointers to member functions can be a useful way of obtaining generic behaviour. • Implied volatility can only be computed numerically. 9.8 Exercises Exercise 9.1 Modify the NewtonÐRaphson routine so that it does not endlessly loop if a root is not found. Exercise 9.2 Take your favourite numerical integration routine, e.g. the trapezium rule, and write a template routine to carry it out. Exercise 9.3 Write a routine to price a vanilla option by Monte Carlo or trees where the pay-off is passed in as a template parameter expressed via a function object. 10 The factory 10.1 The problem Suppose we wish to design an interface which is a little more sophisticated than those we have used so far. The user will input the name of a pay-off and a strike, and the program will then price a vanilla option with that pay-off. We therefore need a conversion routine from strings and strikes to pay-offs. How might we write this? One simple solution is to write a function that takes in the string and the strike, checks against all known types of pay-offs and when it comes across the right one, creates a pay-off of the right type. We would probably implement this via a switch statement. Our conversion routine would then have to include the header files for all possible forms of pay-off, and every time we added a new pay-off we would have to modify the switch statement. Clearly, this solution violates the open-closed principle as any addition involves modification. In this chapter, we present a solution that allows us to add new pay-offs without changing any of the existing files. We simply add new files to the project. Our solution is a design pattern known as the factory pattern. It is so called because it can be used to manufacture objects. Whilst we restrict attention to a simple factory which manufactures pay-offs, the basic pattern can be used in much wider contexts. 10.2 The basic idea Our solution requires each type of pay-off to tell the factory that it exists, and to give the factory a blueprint for its manufacture. In this context a blueprint means an identity string to distinguish that class and a pointer to a function that will create objects of that class. How can we get the class to communicate with the factory, without explicitly calling anything from the main routine? The key lies in global variables. Every global variable is initialized when the program commences before anything else 157 158 The factory happens. If we define a class in such a way that initializing a global variable of that class registers a pay-off class with the factory, then we have achieved what we wanted. This is possible because the initialization involves a call to a constructor, and we can make the constructor do whatever we want. So for each pay-off class, we write an auxiliary class whose constructor registers the pay-off class with our factory, and we declare a global variable of the auxiliary class. In fact, as these auxiliary classes will all be very similar to each other, we adopt a template solution for defining these classes. We also need a factory object for these auxiliary classes to talk to. We cannot make this factory object a global variable, as we have no control over the order in which the global variables are initialized. We need it to exist before the other glob- als are defined as they refer to it. Fortunately, there is a type of variable guaranteed to come into existence at the moment it is first referred to: the static variable. Thus if the registration function contains a static variable which is the factory, then on the first call to the registration function the factory comes into existence. Recall that a static variable defined in a function persists from one call to the next, and only disappears when the program exits. So all the registration function calls will register the pay-off blueprints with the same factory. However, we are not yet done because the creator function will need to have access to the same factory object as the registration function, and if the factory is hidden inside the registration function this will not be possible. The solution to this problem is known as the singleton pattern. 10.3 The singleton pattern We saw in the last section that we need to define a factory via a static variable since it must come into existence as soon as it is referred to when registering the blueprints. We also saw that the same factory must be referred to by every regis- tration, and that the same factory will be needed when creating the pay-offs from strings. So what we need is a factory class for which an object exists as soon as it is required, and for this object to exist until the end of the program. We also do not want any other factory objects to exist as they will just confuse matters; everything must be registered with and built by the same factory. The singleton pattern gives a way of creating a class with these properties. The first thing is that all constructors and assignment operators are made private. This means that factories can only be created from inside methods of the class this gives us firm control over the existence of factory objects. In order to get the one class object that we need, we define a very simple method that defines a class ob- ject as a static variable. Thus if our class is called PayOffFactory,wedefine a class method Instance as follows: 10.4 Coding the factory 159 PayOffFactory& PayOffFactory::Instance() { static PayOffFactory theFactory; return theFactory; } The first time that Instance is called, it creates the static data member the- Factory. As it is a member function, it can do this by using the private default constructor. Every subsequent time the Instance is called, the address of the already-existing static variable theFactory is returned. Thus Instance cre- ates precisely one PayOffFactory object which can be accessed from anywhere by calling PayOffFactory::Instance(). Note that Instance will have to be a static method of PayOffFactory,as the whole point is that it provides you with a PayOffFactory object, and it would be useless if you had to access it from an existing object. Note also that the mean- ing of static here for a function is quite different from the meaning above for a variable; for a function it means that the function can be called directly with- out any attachment to an object. One still has to prefix with the name of class, however. We have now achieved what we needed: we have a way of creating a single factory which can be referenced from anywhere at any time in the program. Note that the name singleton pattern was chosen because precisely one object from the class exists. 10.4 Coding the factory In the last section, we saw how the singleton pattern could be used to create a single factory accessible in any place at any time. We now use this pattern to implement the factory. As well as the instance method discussed above, we will need a method for registering pay-off classes and a method for creating then. How will registration work? Upon registration, we need to know the string iden- tifier for the specific pay-off class and the pointer to the function which actually creates the object in question. These will therefore be the arguments for the regis- tration method. The factory will need to store this information for when the create pay-off method is called. This will require a container class. Fortunately, there is a container in the standard template library which is de- signed for associating identifiers to objects. This container is called the map class. We therefore need a data member which is a map with template arguments std:: string and pointers to create functions. Finally, we need a method which turns a string plus a strike into a PayOff object. Our header file is therefore as follows: 160 The factory Listing 10.1 (PayOffFactory.h) #ifndef PAYOFF_FACTORY_H #define PAYOFF_FACTORY_H #include #if defined(_MSC_VER) #pragma warning( disable : 4786) #endif #include #include class PayOffFactory { public: typedef PayOff* (*CreatePayOffFunction)(double ); static PayOffFactory& Instance(); void RegisterPayOff(std::string, CreatePayOffFunction); PayOff* CreatePayOff(std::string PayOffId,double Strike); ~PayOffFactory(){}; private: std::map TheCreatorFunctions; PayOffFactory(){} PayOffFactory(const PayOffFactory&){} PayOffFactory& operator= (const PayOffFactory&){ return *this;} }; #endif Note the typedef: this allows us to refer to pointers to functions which take in a double and spit out a PayOff* as CreatePayOffFunction. Without this typedef, the syntax would quickly become unmanageable. Note also that we make the CreatePayOff method return a pointer to a PayOff. The reason for this is that it allows the possibility of returning a null pointer if the identity string was not found; otherwise we would have to throw an error or return a default sort of pay- off. We present the source code in PayOffFactory.cpp: 10.4 Coding the factory 161 Listing 10.2 (PayOffFactory.cpp) #if defined(_MSC_VER) #pragma warning( disable : 4786) #endif #include #include using namespace std; void PayOffFactory::RegisterPayOff(string PayOffId, CreatePayOffFunction CreatorFunction) { TheCreatorFunctions.insert(pair (PayOffId,CreatorFunction)); } PayOff* PayOffFactory::CreatePayOff(string PayOffId, double Strike) { map::const_iterator i = TheCreatorFunctions.find(PayOffId); if (i == TheCreatorFunctions.end()) { std::cout << PayOffId << " is an unknown payoff" << std::endl; return NULL; } return (i->second)(Strike); } PayOffFactory& PayOffFactory::Instance() { static PayOffFactory theFactory; return theFactory; } Other than for the Instance() method, which we have already discussed, the methods are really just wrappers for the inner map object. In case the reader is not familiar with the STL map container, we discuss a little how it works. A map is a collection of pairs. We used the pair class to store 162 The factory the nodes of a tree in Chapter 8. Recall that a pair is a simple class consisting of two public data members known as first and second. The types of these data members are template parameters. When working with a map, first is the key or identifier used to look up the object we wish to find which is stored in second. For us this means that the type of the map is map and every pair that we use will be of the same type. The insert method is used to place pairsofstrings and CreatePayOffFunctions into the map.A map has the property that each key is unique so if you insert two pairs with the same key then the second one is ignored. For us, this means that if we give two PayOff classes the same string identifier only one will be registered. It is possi- ble to examine the return type of the insert to determine whether the insertion was successful. The method RegisterPayOff carries out this insertion for our factory. The retrieval is carried out in CreatePayOff:astring is passed in and the find method of map is used. This method returns a const iterator pointing to the pair which has the correct key (i.e. first element) if such a pair exists, and otherwise the iterator points to the end of the map. For the reader who is not familiar with iterators, an iterator is an abstraction of a pointer and works in similar fashion. Just like pointers, they can be dereferenced via * or ->.Aconst iterator is similar to a non-const pointer to const objects. That is, the iterator’s value can be changed, but the value of the thing it points to cannot. Our method therefore uses find to get an iterator. This iterator is then checked to see if the look-up succeeded. If it failed we print an error message and return a null pointer. If is succeeded, we take the second element of the pair pointed to, which is a function pointer, dereference it and call it with argument Strike. Since this function’s job is to create a PayOff object of the relevant type and return a pointer to it, we have achieved our objective; objects of any class previously registered can be created by entering the appropriate string and strike. Whilst we certainly could have programmed our factory without using the STL map class, its existence certainly made the task much easier. We refer the reader to Stroustrup, [31], Section 17.4, Josuttis, [12], and Meyers, [20], for further informa- tion on the map class. 10.5 Automatic registration We discussed above how we could manage registration of PayOff classes by using global variables. Here we look at how to carry out this out. As we mentioned above, 10.5 Automatic registration 163 the code is the same except for class names for each registration so it makes sense to use a template class. We present this template code in PayOffConstructible.h: Listing 10.3 (PayOffConstructible.h) #ifndef PAYOFF_CONSTRUCTIBLE_H #define PAYOFF_CONSTRUCTIBLE_H #if defined(_MSC_VER) #pragma warning( disable : 4786) #endif #include #include #include #include template class PayOffHelper { public: PayOffHelper(std::string); static PayOff* Create(double); }; template PayOff* PayOffHelper::Create(double Strike) { return new T(Strike); } template PayOffHelper::PayOffHelper(std::string id) { PayOffFactory& thePayOffFactory = PayOffFactory::Instance(); thePayOffFactory.RegisterPayOff(id,PayOffHelper::Create); } #endif The helper class we define here has to do two things. It must define a constructor that carries out the registration of the class defined by the template parameters, and 164 The factory it must define a function which will carry out the creation so we have something to use in the registration process! The constructor takes in a string as an argument; this string will be needed to identify the class being registered. The constructor simply first calls Instance to get the address of the factory object, and then calls the RegisterPayOff method of the factory to carry out the registration. Note that the constructor does not actu- ally do anything as regards the actual object being created! In fact, the class has no data members so it would not be possible to do anything. The method Create defines the function used to create the pay-off object on demand. Note that it is static as it should not be associated to any particular class object. The function simply calls the constructor for objects of type T with argument Strike. Of course, there is something slightly subtle here in that the specification of the template parameter, T, is making the choice of which object to construct. Note that we use new as we want the created object to persist after the function is finished. One consequence of this is that the object will have to be properly deleted at some point. PayOffRegistration.cpp includes an example of using the PayOff Helper class. Listing 10.4 (PayOffRegistration.cpp) #include namespace { PayOffHelper RegisterCall("call"); PayOffHelper RegisterPut("put"); } Note that if we were defining a new class, we would probably put this registra- tion in the source file for the class but as we have already defined the call and put classes, we do not do so here. The registration file is quite short. We de- fine two global variables, RegisterCall and RegisterPut. These are of type PayOffHelper and PayOffHelper. As global variables, they are initialized at the start of the program. This initialization carries out the registration as required. Note that we have put a namespace command around the declaration. This means that the variables are in an unnamed namespace and as such are invisi- ble to the rest of the program. So the variables are both global and invisible. Why do we want them invisible? Their purpose is purely to perform the registration, and once that has been done we have no further use for them so it is best to put them out of sight and out of temptation’s reach. 10.6 Using the factory 165 10.6 Using the factory Now we have done all the set-up work, how do we use the factory? We give a very simple example in PayFactoryMain.cpp. Listing 10.5 (PayFactoryMain.cpp) /* Uses PayOff3.cpp PayOffBridge.cpp PayOffFactory.cpp PayOffRegistration.cpp */ #include #include #include #include #include #include using namespace std; int main() { double Strike; std::string name; cout << "Enter strike\n"; cin >> Strike; cout << "\npay-off name\n"; cin >> name; PayOff* PayOffPtr = PayOffFactory::Instance().CreatePayOff(name,Strike); if (PayOffPtr != NULL) { double Spot; cout << "\nspot\n"; cin >> Spot; 166 The factory cout << "\n" << PayOffPtr->operator ()(Spot) << "\n"; delete PayOffPtr; } double tmp; cin >> tmp; return 0; } This routine is very simple but illustrates the important points. The user inputs spot, strike and the name of the option. If an option with that name has been registered then the pay-off is computed, and the object is then deleted. The important point here is that the name definitions are carried out in the file PayOffRegistration.cpp, and this file is not seen directly by any of the other files including the main routine. If we wanted to add another PayOff, say the forward, we could so without modifying any of the existing files. In fact, all we would have to do is add the header and source file for the forward, and in a new file PayOffForwardRegistration.cpp add the declaration PayOffHelper RegisterForward("forward"); As we originally required, this would not require recompilation of any of the orig- inal files. We have therefore achieved our original objective of an open-closed pat- tern. 10.7 Key points In this chapter we have developed the factory pattern and the singleton pattern in order to give a method of adding new pay-off classes to an interface without modifying existing files. • The singleton pattern allows us to create a unique global object from a class and provide a way of accessing it. • The factory pattern allows us to add extra inherited classes to be accessed from an interface without changing any existing files. • The factory pattern can be implemented using the singleton pattern. • The standard template library map class is a convenient way to associate objects with string identifiers. • Placing objects in an unnamed namespace is a way of ensuring that they are not accessed elsewhere. • We can achieve automatic registration of classes by making their registration a side-effect of the creation of global variables from a helper class. 10.8 Exercises 167 We will return to the factory pattern in Chapter 14; there we will see how to imple- ment it in a generic way so that one implementation will do forever. 10.8 Exercises Exercise 10.1 Write a straddle class and register it with the factory. Exercise 10.2 Our class cannot handle a double digital as it needs two strikes. Work out a solution that will handle options with multiple parameters. Exercise 10.3 Integrate the factory with a Monte Carlo routine. 11 Design patterns revisited 11.1 Introduction In this chapter, we revisit and catalogue the design patterns from earlier chapters. We also mention a few other patterns we have not studied which the reader may find helpful. Finally, we discuss further reading on the topic of design patterns. The design patterns we have studied are a small subset of those in the classic book on the topic: Design Patterns,[7], which is often referred to as the ‘Gang of Four’ book. As well as listing the patterns, the authors attempt to classify the patterns according to the contexts in which they are used. In this final chapter, we revisit the patterns the we have studied in the context of that classification. We also mention some patterns discussed there which we have not examined here. 11.2 Creational patterns A creational pattern is a pattern that deals primarily with the creation of new ob- jects. Their purpose is to abstract the creation process which helps the system to be developed independently of the types of individual objects. In fact, sometimes all we can be sure of about these objects, is what class they are inherited from, or in other terms what interface they implement. 11.2.1 Virtual copy constructor We have extensively used the concept of cloning. We need a copy of an object, we do not know its type so we cannot use the copy constructor so we ask the object to provide a copy of itself. Note the general philosophy here is that the object knows more about itself than we do so we ask it to help us out. Note we could easily 168 11.3 Structural patterns 169 modify this pattern to ask the object to make a default object from its class, as once again it knows its class type and we do not. In [7] virtual constructors are known as the ‘Factory Method’. 11.2.2 The factory This is called the ‘abstract factory’ in [7]. The purpose of this pattern is to allow us to have an object that spits out objects as and when we need them. This means in particular that responsibility for creating objects of the relevant type lies with a single object. We thus gain greater control over their creation, which yields greater flexibility in changing the objects used. We principally used this pattern to give an easily extended interface. In particular, we saw that the pattern allows the addition of new classes to an interface without the rewriting of any code. 11.2.3 Singleton We used the singleton pattern to implement our factory. The big advantage of the singleton pattern is that there is a single copy of the object which is accessible from everywhere, without introducing global variables and all the difficulties they imply. Note that if for some reason we wanted more than one copy of the object to exist then we could easily modify the pattern to given us a doubleton or a tripleton and so on. For example, we could define more than one method that performed similarly to our Instance method. 11.2.4 Monostate We have not examined the monostate pattern nor is it covered in Design Patterns, however, it is a useful alternative to the singleton pattern. Rather than only allowing one object from the class to exist, we allow an unlimited number but make them all have the same member variables. Thus all the objects from the class act as one. The way we do this is by making all the data members static. This approach allows us to treat each object from the class like any other, although they are all really the same object. Our factory could easily have been implemented using this pattern. 11.3 Structural patterns A structural pattern is one that deals mainly with how classes are composed to define more intricate structures. They allow us to design code that has extra func- tionality without having to rewrite existing code. 170 Design patterns revisited 11.3.1 Adapter The adapter is a class that translates an interface into a form that other classes expect. It is most useful when we wish to fit code into a structure for which it was not originally designed, either because we have changed our way of doing things or because the code originates elsewhere. For example, if we download a library from the web, its interface is unlikely to conform to what we have been using. By adapting the interface, we can seamlessly integrate it into existing code. We gave an example of the adapter when implementing random number generators. 11.3.2 Bridge The bridge is similar to the adapter in that it defines an interface, and acts as an in- termediary between a client class and the classes implementing the interface. Thus the implementing class can easily be changed without the client class being aware of the change. The main difference between the bridge and the adapter is that the bridge is intended to define an intermediary interface from the start, whereas the adapter is introduced a later stage in order to solve incompatibilities. We used the bridge to create the PayOff and Parameters objects. 11.3.3 Decorator The decorator patterns allows us to change the behaviour of a class at run-time without changing its interface. We add a wrapper class that processes incoming or outgoing messages and then passes them on. We saw that a decorator could be used to implement anti-thetic sampling when studying random number generation. We also saw that it could be used to create convergence tables of statistics when designing statistics gatherers. An attractive aspect of decoration is that we can dec- orate as many times as we like since the interface after decoration is the same as the interface before. 11.4 Behavioural patterns Behavioural patterns are used for the implementation of algorithms. They allow us to vary aspects of algorithms interchangeably. They can also allow us to re-use algorithms in wildly unrelated contexts. 11.4.1 Strategy In the strategy pattern, we defer an important part of algorithm to an inputted object. This allows us to easily change how this particular part of the algorithm 11.5 Why design patterns? 171 behaves. We have used this pattern implicitly and explicitly all through the book. By making the PayOff or VanillaOption an input to our pricer, we are using this pattern. Less trivially, we made the random number generator an input to our Monte Carlo, and the generator is a key part of the algorithm. 11.4.2 Template In the template pattern, rather than inputting an aspect of the algorithm, we defer part of the algorithm’s implementation to an inherited class. The base class thus provides the structure of how the different parts of the algorithm fit together, but does not specify all the details of the implementation. We adopted this approach when designing our exotics Monte Carlo pricer; there we defined the process for the stock price evolution in an inherited class. This allowed the possibility of pricing exotics using a different model in the future. 11.4.3 Iterator We have only briefly mentioned iterators; however, they are an important compo- nent of the standard template library. An iterator is essentially an abstraction of a pointer. As such it should be possible to dereference it, i.e. look at what it points to, increment and decrement it. The idea of iterators is that one can be defined for any sort of data structure, and so if an algorithm is defined in terms of iterators it can be applied to any sort of data structure. In the STL, algorithms take the type of the iterator as a template argument, which allows this generality to be implemented. 11.5 Why design patterns? Why think in terms of design patterns? What has this classification bought us? The first simple thing is that it becomes much easier to explain our code to someone else; remember that re-use is ultimately defined socially not analytically. When describing our code to someone else, if we can describe a class by saying this is such and such standard pattern then they immediately have a mental model of how it works from their previous familiarity with that pattern. A second advantage is that by having familarity with a collection of standard design patterns, we gain an immediate toolbox for solving any problem put in front of us. Thus when confronted with a programming problem, we can approach it by thinking “what design pattern is appropriate here?” rather than by attempting to solve it from scratch. Even if none of the known patterns are appropriate, exami- nation of the problem through the lens of design patterns will help us to solve it. In particular, the knowledge of why the patterns are inappropriate will aid us in developing a solution. 172 Design patterns revisited Of course, most programmers have patterns they implicitly use regularly. Indeed, many experienced programmers reading this book may feel they are only learning a formalization of what they did in any case. The advantage for them in using patterns is that it will help them to think more clearly about what they do and why. 11.6 Further reading There are now many books on the topic of design patterns. We mention a few that the author has found useful. One good and straightforward book which was deliberately written as an easier companion to Design Patterns is Design Pat- terns Explained by Shalloway & Trott. The authors carefully go through many patterns explaining in simple language the concepts introduced in the original book. C++ Programming: with Design Patterns Revealed by Muldner is another in- troductory book which is accessible, and takes the point of view that C++ should be learnt from the start in terms of design patterns. Modern C++ Design by Alexandrescu is a more advanced book. It covers many more intricate ideas using templates than we have had the opportunity to cover here. As well as books explicitly on design patterns, a C++ programmer needs many other standard texts. Some favourites of the author are Effective C++, More Effective C++ and Effective STL by Scott Meyers. These books are collections of programming gems by a C++ expert. The C++ Programming Language by Bjarne Stroustrup. This is the ultimate reference book on C++ by the man who invented the language. The C++ Standard Library by Nicolai Josuttis. This is a comprehensive de- scription of the standard library that ships with any C++ compiler. My favourite introductory book on object-oriented programming is The Tao of Objects by Gary Entsminger. It’s an easy read and concentrates on introducing the basic ideas of OO design. There are now a number of books on C++ and numerical techniques in finance. Of all of these, the one closest in style and approach to this book is the forthcoming: Quantitative Finance: An Object-oriented Approach + C++ by Eric Schl¬ogl. The books by Daniel Duffy are also worthwhile but take a different tack with more emphasis on templates and less on virtual functions. 11.7 Key points • Design patterns can be classified into behavioural, structural and creational pat- terns. 11.8 Exercise 173 • Behavioural patterns are used for the implementation of algorithms. • Structural patterns deal with how classes are composed to create more intricate designs. • A creational pattern deals primarily with the creation of new objects. 11.8 Exercise Exercise 11.1 Implement the factory from Chapter 10 using the monostate pattern instead of the singleton pattern. 12 The situation in 2007 12.1 Introduction The first eleven chapters of this book were written in the summer of 2002. In- evitably, both C++ and quantitative finance have moved on in the last five years, and, in addition, my view of the two subjects has evolved. In this brief chap- ter, I want to discuss some of the changes and set the stage for the newly added chapters. 12.2 Compilers and the standard library In 2002, the most popular compiler for C++ was Visual Studio 6.0. Other pop- ular compilers were g++ 2.95 and Borland 5.5. I therefore targeted the book and the code at those three compilers. Today, Visual Studio has gone through a couple of versions and the most popular version is 8.0. In addition, the up- grade process has been faster than usual in that Microsoft decided to make the “Express” version free. This version contains the full optimizing compiler and IDE (integrated development environment) but omits various added features which are not particularly important to the lone developer. The open source compiler g++ has also evolved and the most recently released version is as part of gcc 4.2.0. In addition, the standard libraries that ship with the compilers have been updated. What difference does this make? The biggest difference for the programmer is that the compilers and libraries are much closer to the C++ ANSI/ISO standard, which was ratified in 1997. They are still not fully compatible in that they do not implement the export keyword. In fact, the only compiler that does is the Comeau Compiler (www.comeaucomputing.com), which is the only fully compatible com- piler. If you are wondering what the export keyword is; don’t. (If you must know, it gives an alternate way of implementing templates that does not require all the code to be in the header file.) 174 12.2 Compilers and the standard library 175 Most of the advantages relate to complicated template code, which we do not attempt to discuss in this book, but refer the reader to [35] for how to make a Turing machine run at compile time using template code. However, some of the advantages are more mundane and are definitely worth mentioning. One example is that for loops variables are now properly scoped. If you declare for (int i =0; i < 10; ++i) { // do stuff } i =0; then you will get a compilation error unless you have declared i before the for loop; this was not true in 6.0. On the other hand, the following code did not compile in 6.0 for (int i =0; i < 10; ++i) { // do stuff } for (int i =0; i < 10; ++i) { // do more stuff } as the variable i is declared twice in the same scope. This can be quite annoying if you are writing for cross-platform compatibility! One solution is to put {,} around the first for loop forcing the correct behaviour in 6.0 without affecting behaviour on the other compilers. Another relevant improvement is that changing the return type of inherited class pointers is supported in 8.0. So we can now make our clone method return a pointer of an inherited class type. That is we can code class Base { public: virtual Base* clone() const=0; // etc }; 176 The situation in 2007 class Inherited : public Base { public: virtual Inherited* clone() const; // etc }; and not get an error about the fact that the return type has changed. This is mainly useful if we have 3 level hierarchies. For example, suppose we decided to imple- ment pay-off type via inheritance (I don’t recommend this, but it serves to illustrate the point), so we have a base class EquityOption, we inherit VanillaOption from this, and CallOption from VanillaOption. Now suppose we declare clone in EquityOption, it will return a pointer of type EquityOption*. Under the old rules, the clone method of CallOption would have had to return a pointer of type EquityOption. This would have made it impossible to use Wrapper, which would be rather inconve- nient. Under the new rules, we return a pointer of the most derived type and it can always be treated as a pointer to a class further up the hierarchy so we have no problems. Another big change that is very convenient is that the standard template library has range-checking in Debug mode in Visual C++ 8.0. With previous versions of the library, this was always a big disadvantage when working with the STL vector in that one either used .at all the time and suffered a performance penalty in Release mode, or spent ages trying to track down out-of-range errors which were not reported. Note that if you are using another compiler, you can get an alternative implementation of the standard library from www.stlport.org which does feature range-checking. 12.3 Boost The Boost project is an open source library designed to extend the C++ standard library. It can be found at www.boost.org. The code is heavily peer-reviewed and required to work across multiple compilers. The intention is that the libraries incorporated in Boost will become part of the C++ Standard in the future, and, indeed, it is already planned to incorporate many of them. Because of this, the licence is very unrestrictive and allows the user basically to do whatever they want with the code. This is different from the GNU licence, which restricts use of the code to applications that distribute source code and allow the user to do the same. From the Boost website, here are some of the requirements met by the licence: 12.5 xlw 177 • Must grant permission without fee to copy, use and modify the software for any use (commercial and non-commercial). • Must require that the license appear with all copies [including redistributions] of the software source code. • Must not require that the license appear with executables or other binary uses of the library. • Must not require that the source code be available for execution or other binary uses of the library. What all this means is that you can use code from Boost in your work without ever having to worry about licensing issues. The main downside of Boost used to be that the installation process was an- noying, they had their own customized routines for installation that you had to use. However, there is now an installer that gives you the pre-compiled binaries for the libraries if you use Visual C++ 7.1 or Visual C++ 8.0. There are far too many libraries to attempt to discuss them here. However, two of particular interest to quantitative analysts are the random number library, and the multi-dimensional array library. We will discuss the smart pointers library a little in Chapter 13. Books are now being written on Boost and a useful one is Beyond the C++ Standard Library by Karlsson. Boost is used heavily by the Quantlib project. 12.4 QuantLib QuantLib is the biggest and most successful open-source project for quantitative finance. It is a large repository of C++ code and can be found at quantlib.org. Similarly to Boost, the license is very unrestrictive, allowing free use in commer- cial software. The objective is to provide a large pricing library for derivatives that can used for many purposes. The code is very much structured as one library, and whilst individual routines can be cut out, it is not designed to facilitate this. Famil- iarity with QuantLib will certainly be an important skill in the future. The author of this book is now a developer on the project. As well as providing a C++ library, QuantLib comes with code for building interfaces to various applications, particularly EXCEL. The main difficulty with QuantLib is that requires a certain amount of sophistication to make sense of the library, so once you are comfortable with C++ start learning, but wait until you are. 12.5 xlw Although in the first part of this book, we concentrated on writing console appli- cations, it is actually rare for quants to work in that way. One of the most common 178 The situation in 2007 modes of working is to write EXCEL plug-ins, known as xlls. These add extra functions to EXCEL, which can be called from the spread-sheet. These work via the C API, which was never very well documented. In order to make interfacing easier, Jerome Lecomte wrote a C++ wrapper called xlw. This made the whole process much simpler but still involved writing a lot of repetitive code. Ferdinando Ametrano took over the project and ported it to sourceforge.net. The author of this book then took over the project and made various changes. The biggest of these is that the interfacing code is now automatically generated; this means that the user has to do very little. Another important aspect of the package is that it works with the free MingW g++ compiler as well as Visual C++ 6.0, 7.1, and 8.0. We will discuss using examples from xlw in the rest of the book, particularly in Chapter 14 where we develop a generic factory using the implementation in xlw as an example. We discuss how to use the xlw project in detail in Chapter 15. The code for xlw can be obtained from xlw.sourceforge.net. 12.6 Key points • The most popular compilers are now Visual Studio 8.0 and gcc 4.2.0. • The new compilers are closer to being compliant with the C++ standard. • Boost is a high-quality free library of C++ code. • QuantLib is the largest library of open source C++ code for quantitative finance. • Most work in quantitative finance is done via interfacing with EXCEL. • xlw provides an easy way to interface with EXCEL. 12.7 Exercises Exercise 12.1 Install Boost on your computer. Exercise 12.2 Interface the Boost random number classes with the path-dependent exotic option pricer developed here. Exercise 12.3 Download and build Quantlib! 13 Exceptions 13.1 Introduction Up till now we have focussed on clarity and code reusability, we have not consid- ered how to cope with things going wrong at run time. The mechanism in C++ designed for coping with errors is throwing an exception. Writing code that func- tions well in the presence of exceptions raises a host of issues that did not exist before. We will look at some of these and see how most of them can be avoided by following some simple rules. Exceptions are raised by the throw command. We specify as an argument an object, X, of any type Y. Execution then immediately moves to the end of the current scope and objects going out of scope are destroyed. If there is a catch command at the end of the scope, which catches objects of type Y, then control passes to the scope of the catch command. If not, then control passes to the end of the enclosing scope, and this keeps happening until the exception is caught, or the enclosing scope is the end of the program and execution terminates, i.e. your program crashes. Note that we can always do a catch-all statement with catch(...). The great virtue of this approach is that we do not have to test the return value of every function or method call to ensure that the last call did not generate an error. The great downside is that code execution order becomes a lot less predictable, and this can cause problems. In particular, if we write code for cleaning up at the end of a scope it may be bypassed by a throw, resulting in things being left in a poor state. This is particularly a problem when memory allocation is in use. Consider the following code snippet with the PayOff class as in Chapter 4. double evaluate(const PayOff& p, double y) { PayOff* payOffPtr = p.clone(); 179 180 Exceptions double x = (*payOffPtr)(y); delete payOffPtr; return x; } This is a little artificial in that no useful purpose is served by making a copy, but if operator() were non-const, this could be useful. In any case, it serves to il- lustrate a point: it is possible that calling operator() will throw an exception. This will be caught somewhere outside the function. The catcher will have no idea that payOffPtr needs to be deleted. The effect will be that the memory allocated by the clone will never be deallocated. If this happens enough times, your appli- cation will run out of memory and crash. If we are writing a stand-alone program that does not bother to catch exceptions, this is not such an issue but as soon as we are working in a system which is not supposed to die every time an exception is thrown, it is a real problem. Given that any piece of code we call may throw an exception, to be sure that our code is correct and remains correct (for the code called may change its implemen- tation), we are forced to program defensively as if an exception could be thrown at any time. 13.2 Safety guarantees There are two standard safety guarantees: • The weak guarantee: the object and program are left in a valid state, and no resources have been leaked. • The strong guarantee: if an exception is thrown during an operation (e.g. a call to a method or a function), then the program is left in the state it was at entry to the operation. The essential difference here is that with the weak guarantee an object’s state can change even though the operation failed, whereas with the strong guarantee the class is promising to undo all changes before throwing. Clearly, the strong guarantee is harder to implement than the weak one. However, it is important to realize that code that is not written with exception safety in mind will satisfy neither. The weak guarantee is also sometimes called the basic guarantee. 13.3 The use of smart pointers Consider again the example of the introduction. What we want to happen is that when the function is exited the memory allocated by the clone command is 13.3 The use of smart pointers 181 deallocated by a call to delete. Exiting can occur either in the conventional way via the return statement, or by the exception being thrown. For both of these, all automatic (i.e. ordinary local) variables are destroyed at the end of the scope. So the solution is to make the deletion a side-effect of these destructions. We have already looked at one smart pointer Wrapper. If we use it here, the code snippet becomes double evaluate(const PayOff& p, double y) { Wrapper payOffPtr(p); double x = (*payOffPtr)(y); return x; } Recall that the Wrapper class will call the clone method internally. The delete command is no longer necessary because the destructor of Wrapper calls it auto- matically. As written, Wrapper cannot be used to take ownership of a raw pointer since it has no constructors that take pointers. However, we can easily add to the file Wrapper.h (see Listing 5.6) an extra constructor in the public section of the class Wrapper(T* DataPtr_ ) { DataPtr =DataPtr_; } and then it would be legitimate to code double evaluate(const PayOff& p, double y) { PayOff* payPtr1= p.clone(); Wrapper payOffPtr(payPtr1); double x = (*payOffPtr)(y); return x; } and retain the automatic deletion of the allocated memory. The Wrapper class is just one example of a smart pointer. There are many examples both in Boost and the standard library. These generally vary according to what happens on copying the pointer. There are four obvious solutions to copying: 182 Exceptions (1) Copy the pointed-to object. (2) Make copying illegal. (3) Have the pointers share ownership of the object. (4) Transfer ownership of the pointer to the new object. The first of these is the approach adopted by the Wrapper class. The main downsides of this approach are that copying may be slow and that it relies heavily on the writer of the pointed-to class having provided a clone() method. With the second, we make the copy constructor and the assignment operator of the object private. Whenever a coder attempts to copy (or assign) the smart pointer, an error message saying that the copy constructor is not available is gen- erated and the user is forced to find an alternate approach. If you want this sort of pointer, use the scoped ptr class from Boost defined in boost/scoped ptr. hpp. Note that the error is generated at compile time rather than run time, since it arises from access permissions to class methods Ð these are checked only at com- pile time. An alternate implementation would be to make the copy constructor and as- signment operator throw. This would be less desirable, however, in that the error would only be generated whilst the code was running, and if the code was rarely used, might take a long time to show up. The third of these approaches is adopted by the boost shared pointer class: shared ptr defined in boost/shared ptr.hpp . We then essentially have a reference-counted pointer class (cf. Exercise 5.6). Every time the shared ptr is copied, a count of how many pointers there are to the object is increased by one, and every time one is destroyed the count is decreased by one. When the count hits zero the pointed-to object is destroyed. We again do not have to worry about exception safety since when the last shared ptr goes out of scope the object is deleted. The main downside of shared ptr is that there is only ever one copy of the object. This means that if one piece of code changes the object, then the object pointed to by all the copied pointers also changes since it is the same object. This means that the programmer has to think a little more than with the scoped ptr or the Wrapper since you have linkage between not obviously connected things. The last of these alternatives is used by the auto ptr class in the standard library defined in the file memory. As with all the other smart pointers, when it goes out of scope the pointed-to object is deleted. However, suppose we code the following double evaluate(const PayOff& p, double y) { std::auto_ptr payPtr1= p.clone(); 13.4 The rule of almost zero 183 double z = (*payPtr1)(y); std::auto_ptr payPtr2(payPtr1); double x = (*payPtr1)(y); return x+z; } We will get a nasty run-time crash at the line where x is declared. Why? The copy- ing of the object payPtr1 into payPtr2 changes the object payPtr1. This is very counter intuitive Ð we ordinarily expect copying an object to have no effect on the original object, but with auto ptrs a great deal changes. All ownership is trans- ferred to the new object and the first pointer becomes a null pointer. This behaviour is occasionally useful when creating an object in a function or method and wishing to return a pointer to it. We want the client to take ownership of the object immediately without further copying and without having to use an unsafe raw pointer, and auto ptr provides this facility. However, so does shared ptr without the strange behaviour. Ultimately, which smart pointer to use is a matter of personal style. The im- portant thing is always to use one and to stay away from raw pointers. I person- ally almost always use the Wrapper, and very occasionally use shared ptr and auto ptr. The reason for preferring Wrapper is that it requires least thought: all deletions occur naturally, and all objects have intuitive copying behaviour. Its only real downside is that it makes object copying slower, but in numerical code you should avoid all copying within tight loops in any case, so this actually has little impact. 13.4 The rule of almost zero The use of smart pointers brings us to a rule of programming. We previously stud- ied the “rule of three”; this said that if you define one of copy constructor, assign- ment operator, and destructor for a class, then you should define all three. The “rule of almost zero” does not contradict this rule but supersedes it by saying that you should always be in the case of not defining any of them. How do we avoid the shallow copy problem discussed in Chapter 4? We use smart pointers to ensure that a shallow copy is sufficient. Every data member will be either an ordinary object which can be copied, or a smart pointer which is copied and assigned in the fashion we have chosen. So if we want objects to be shared between copies, we use shared ptr; if we want to make copying illegal, we use scoped ptr; and if we want the pointed-to objects to be cloned, we use Wrapper. There will be no memory leak issues because the smart pointers delete the pointed-to objects when the compiler-generated destructor is called. We do not waste time writing copy constructors or assignment operators, and we do not have 184 Exceptions to remember to update them when we change the data members of the class Ð for- getting to keep them in line with the class data members is a common source of bugs. Why have we named it the “rule of almost zero” instead of the “rule of zero”? There is one case in which we must declare a destructor but only an empty one! Every time we have a class with abstract methods it is likely to be deleted via pointers to the base class and so we must declare a virtual destructor as discussed in Section 3.5. 13.5 Commands to never use Some commands to never use are: malloc free delete new [] delete [] The first two of these are C commands not C++, and have been superseded by the versions of new and delete. You will get bizarre effects (i.e. crashes) if you try to mix the two sets of commands. The delete command is never necessary because of smart pointers. As long as you ensure that anything created by new is owned by a smart pointer, you need never code delete. The only time I therefore use the delete command is when I am writing a smart pointer. However, with the advent of Boost, you should never need to do this Ð if a pointer doing what you want exists there, use that instead. If I want to create an array of objects, I use the standard library container classes. So if I want n objects of class Option, I just put std::vector




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