Agile Web Application Development with Yii 1.1 and PHP5.pdf


Agile Web Application Development with Yii 1.1 and PHP5 Fast-track your web application development by harnessing the power of the Yii PHP Framework Jeffery Winesett BIRMINGHAM - MUMBAI Agile Web Application Development with Yii 1.1 and PHP5 Copyright © 2010 Packt Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embedded in critical articles or reviews. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this book to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. However, the information contained in this book is sold without warranty, either express or implied. Neither the author, nor Packt Publishing, and its dealers and distributors will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by this book. Packt Publishing has endeavored to provide trademark information about all of the companies and products mentioned in this book by the appropriate use of capitals. However, Packt Publishing cannot guarantee the accuracy of this information. First published: August 2010 Production Reference: 1030810 Published by Packt Publishing Ltd. 32 Lincoln Road Olton Birmingham, B27 6PA, UK. ISBN 978-1-847199-58-4 www.packtpub.com Cover Image by Vinayak Chittar (vinayak.chittar@gmail.com) Credits Author Jeffery Winesett Reviewers Imre Mehesz Jonah Turnquist Kyle Ferreira Acquisition Editor Usha Iyer Development Editors Dhwani Devater Reshma Sundaresan Technical Editors Aditya Belpathak Hyacintha D'Souza Indexer Hemangini Bari Editorial Team Leader Aanchal Kumar Project Team Leader Priya Mukherji Project Coordinator Prasad Rai Proofreader Lesley Harrison Graphics Geetanjali Sawant Production Coordinator Melwyn D'sa Cover Work Melwyn D'sa About the Author Jeffery Winesett is the director of software engineering and application development at Control Group Inc., a New York based consulting firm specializing in delivering technology for big ideas. He has spent the last five of his twelve years of software development focused on delivering large-scale PHP-based applications. Jeffery also writes articles on the topics of PHP, web application frameworks, and software development. He has enjoyed being a Yii evangelist since its early alpha version. I'd like to thank all of the technical reviewers, editors, and staff at Packt for their fantastic contributions, suggestions, and improvements. I'd like to thank Qiang Xue and the entire Yii Framework developer team for creating and maintaining this brilliant framework. Ryan Trammel at Scissortail design for his attention to detail and CSS assistance. My lovely wife Tiffany, for her endless patience throughout this project and Lemmy and Lucie for providing me with an endless supply of sunshine. About the Reviewers Imre Mehesz is a long-time open source and PHP enthusiast. He started with the classic LAMP stack around 2000 and grew into the MVC world with CakePHP, ZendFramework, and now Yii. He brought Yii into his professional life and runs the Yii Radio podcast. I would like to thank Qiang for creating this framework, and my wife who puts up with my craziness for open source development. Jonah Turnquist is a self-taught web developer and a college student. He is a part of the developer team for the Yii Framework, mainly contributing to the official extension library, Zii. Meanwhile, he is attending a junior college in California, and he is on his way to being transferred to a four year degree in college in the Fall of 2010. He is studying Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Kyle Ferreira is a student at the University of Ontario, Institute of Technology taking a four year degree in IT (BIT) under Network Security. As a student, he has spent a lot of time researching IT security-related topics, and has valued experience working with various computer languages and equipment. He's currently running his own business in web design and development, using the Yii Framework as the basis for a lot of large projects. I would like to thank Packt Publishing and its staff for this opportunity to contribute to this production. I'd also like to thank Qiang Xue for his exceptional devotion to a well designed and functioning framework, and for his guidance in helping me learn and contribute to the framework. Table of Contents Preface 1 Chapter 1: Meet Yii 7 Yii is easy 8 Yii is efficient 8 Yii is extensible 9 MVC architecture 9 The model 10 The view 10 The controller 10 Stitching these together: Yii request routing 11 Blog posting example 11 Object-relational mapping and Active Record 13 Active Record 14 The view and controller 14 Summary 15 Chapter 2: Getting Started 17 Installing Yii 17 Installing a database 19 Creating a new application 19 Hello, World! 22 Creating the controller 22 One final step 26 Reviewing our request routing 27 Adding dynamic content 28 Adding the date and time 28 Adding the date and time, a better approach 29 Moving the data creation to the controller 29 Have you been paying attention? 30 Table of Contents [ ii ] Linking pages together 31 Linking to a new page 31 Getting a little help from Yii CHtml 32 Summary 34 Chapter 3: The TrackStar Application 35 Introducing TrackStar 35 Creating user stories 36 Users 36 Projects 36 Issues 37 Navigation and page flow 38 Defining a data scheme 39 Defining our development methodology 41 Automated software testing 41 Unit and functional testing 41 Benefits of testing 42 Test-driven development 43 Testing in Yii 43 Unit tests 44 Installing PHPUnit 45 Functional tests 45 Installing Selenium 45 Running a quick example 46 Hello TDD! 47 Summary 52 Chapter 4: Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application 53 Iteration planning 53 Creating the new application 54 Connecting to the database 55 Testing the connection 55 Yii and databases 57 Adding a db connection as an application component 58 Summary 60 Chapter 5: Iteration 2: Project CRUD 61 Iteration planning 61 Running our test suite 62 Creating the project table 62 Naming conventions 63 Creating the AR model class 64 Configuring Gii 65 Using Gii to create our Project AR class 66 Table of Contents [ iii ] Testing out our newly generated code 68 Creating the unit test file 69 Testing create 69 Testing read 71 Testing update and delete 72 Was all that testing really necessary? 73 Enabling CRUD operations for users 73 Creating CRUD scaffolding for projects 74 Creating a new project 77 Adding a required field to our form 78 Reading the project 82 Updating and deleting projects 83 Managing projects in admin mode 83 More on testing—fixtures 85 Configuring the fixture manager 86 Creating a fixture 86 Configuring this fixture for use 88 Specifying a test database 89 Using fixtures 90 Summary 92 Chapter 6: Iteration 3: Adding Tasks 93 Iteration planning 93 Running the test suite 94 Designing the schema 95 Defining some relationships 95 Building the database and the relationships 96 Creating the Active Record model classes 98 Creating the Issue model class 98 Creating the User model class 101 Creating the Issue CRUD operations 101 Using the Issue CRUD operations 102 Creating a new Issue 103 Adding the types drop-down menu 104 Getting the test in the "Red" 105 Moving From "Red" To "Green" 105 Moving Back To "Red" 106 Getting back to "Green" once again 107 Adding the issue type dropdown 107 Adding the status drop-down menu: Do it yourself 111 Fixing the owner and requester fields 112 Enforcing a project context 112 Implementing a filter 113 Download from Wow! eBook Table of Contents [ iv ] Adding a filter 113 Specifying the filtered actions 114 Adding some filter logic 115 Adding the project ID 117 Altering the project details page 117 Removing the project input form field 118 Returning back to the owner and requester dropdowns 119 Generating the data to populate the drop-down menu 122 Adding User and ProjectUserAssignment fixtures 124 Making one last change 127 Finishing the rest of the CRUD 128 Listing the issues 129 Altering the ProjectController 129 Altering the project view file 130 Making some final tweaks 132 Getting the status and type text to display 132 Adding the text display to the form 136 Changing the issue detail view 137 Getting the owner and requester names to display 139 Using relational AR 139 Making some final navigation tweaks 141 Summary 145 Chapter 7: Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication 147 Iteration planning 147 Running the test suite 148 Creating our User CRUD 149 Updating our common audit history columns 150 Adding a password confirmation field 157 Adding password encryption 159 Authenticating users using the database 160 Introducing the Yii authentication model 160 Changing the authenticate implementation 165 Updating the user last login time 168 Displaying the last login time on the home page 169 Summary 170 Chapter 8: Iteration 5: User Access Control 171 Iteration planning 172 Running our existing test suite 173 accessControl filter 173 Table of Contents [ v ] Role-based access control 178 Configuring the authorization manager 179 Creating the RBAC database tables 180 Creating the RBAC authorization hierarchy 181 Writing a console application command 182 Assigning users to roles 188 Adding RBAC roles to projects 189 Adding RBAC business rules 190 Implementing the new Project AR methods 191 Adding Users To Projects 202 Altering the Project model class 203 Adding the new form model class 205 Adding the new action method to the project controller 207 Adding the new view file to display the form 208 Putting it all together 210 Checking authorization level 211 Summary 213 Chapter 9: Iteration 6: Adding User Comments 215 Iteration planning 215 Creating the model 216 Creating the Comment CRUD 218 Altering the scaffolding to meet requirements 218 Adding a comment 220 Displaying the form 221 Creating a recent comments widget 224 Introducing CWidget 225 More on relational AR queries in Yii 227 Completing the test 229 Creating the widget 232 Summary 237 Chapter 10: Iteration 7: Adding an RSS Web Feed 239 Iteration planning 239 A little background: Content Syndication, RSS, and Zend Framework 240 Installing Zend Framework 241 Using Zend_Feed 241 Creating user friendly URLs 244 Using the URL manager 245 Configuring routing rules 246 Removing the entry script from the URL 247 Adding the feed links 249 Summary 251 Table of Contents [ vi ] Chapter 11: Iteration 8: Making it Pretty - Design, Layout, Themes, and Internationalization(i18n) 253 Iteration planning 253 Designing with layouts 254 Specifying a layout 255 Applying and using a layout 255 Deconstructing the main.php layout file 257 Introducing the Blueprint CSS framework 259 Understanding the Blueprint installation 260 Setting the page title 260 Defining a page header 261 Displaying menu navigation items 262 Creating a breadcrumb navigation 265 Specifying the content being decorated by the layout 266 Defining the footer 267 Nesting the layouts 267 Creating themes 270 Building themes in Yii 270 Creating a Yii theme 270 Configuring the application to use a theme 277 Translating the site to other languages 278 Defining locale and language 279 Performing language translation 280 Performing message translation 280 Performing file translation 283 Summary 285 Chapter 12: Iteration 9: Modules - Adding Administration 287 Iteration planning 288 Modules 288 Creating a module 288 Using a module 291 Theming a module 292 Applying a theme 293 Restricting admin access 295 Adding a system-wide message 298 Creating the database table 298 Creating our model and CRUD scaffolding 299 Adding a link to our new functionality 301 Table of Contents [ vii ] Displaying the message to users 303 Importing the new model class for application-wide access 303 Selecting the most recently updated message 304 Adding a little design tweak 305 Summary 307 Chapter 13: Iteration 10: Production Readiness 309 Iteration planning 309 Logging 309 Message logging 310 Categories and levels 311 Adding a login message log 312 Message routing 313 Handling errors 316 Displaying errors 318 Caching 322 Configuring for cache 323 Using a file-based cache 324 Cache dependencies 329 Fragment caching 331 Declaring fragment caching options 331 Using fragment cache 332 Page caching 333 General performance tuning tips 335 Using APC 335 Disabling debug mode 335 Using yiilite.php 336 Using caching techniques 336 Enabling schema caching 336 Summary 337 Index 339 Table of Contents [ iii ] Testing out our newly generated code 68 Creating the unit test file 69 Testing create 69 Testing read 71 Testing update and delete 72 Was all that testing really necessary? 73 Enabling CRUD operations for users 73 Creating CRUD scaffolding for projects 74 Creating a new project 77 Adding a required field to our form 78 Reading the project 82 Updating and deleting projects 83 Managing projects in admin mode 83 More on testing—fixtures 85 Configuring the fixture manager 86 Creating a fixture 86 Configuring this fixture for use 88 Specifying a test database 89 Using fixtures 90 Summary 92 Chapter 6: Iteration 3: Adding Tasks 93 Iteration planning 93 Running the test suite 94 Designing the schema 95 Defining some relationships 95 Building the database and the relationships 96 Creating the Active Record model classes 98 Creating the Issue model class 98 Creating the User model class 101 Creating the Issue CRUD operations 101 Using the Issue CRUD operations 102 Creating a new Issue 103 Adding the types drop-down menu 104 Getting the test in the "Red" 105 Moving From "Red" To "Green" 105 Moving Back To "Red" 106 Getting back to "Green" once again 107 Adding the issue type dropdown 107 Adding the status drop-down menu: Do it yourself 111 Fixing the owner and requester fields 112 Enforcing a project context 112 Implementing a filter 113 Preface Yii is a high-performance, component-based application development framework written in PHP. It helps ease the complexity of building large-scale applications. It enables maximum reusability in web programming, and can significantly accelerate the development process. It does so by allowing the developer to build on top of already well-written, well-tested, and production-ready code. It prevents you from having to rewrite core functionality that is common across many of today's web-based applications, allowing you to concentrate on the business rules and logic specific to the unique application being built. This book takes a very pragmatic approach to learning the Yii Framework. Throughout the chapters we introduce the reader to many of the core features of Yii by taking a test-first approach to building a real-world task tracking and issue management application called TrackStar. All of the code is provided. The reader should be able to borrow from all of the examples provided to get up and running quickly, but will also be exposed to deeper discussion and explanation to fully understand what is happening behind the scenes. What this book cover Chapter 1—Meet Yii introduces Yii at a high level. We learn the importance and utility of using application development frameworks, and the characteristics of Yii that make it incredibly powerful and useful. Chapter 2—Getting Started walks through a simple Hello, World! style application using the Yii Framework. Chapter 3—The TrackStar Application provides an introduction to the task management and issue tracking application, TrackStar, that will be built throughout the remainder of the chapters. It also introduces the Test Driven Development (TDD) approach. Preface [ 2 ] Chapter 4—Iteration 1:Creating The Initial TrackStar Application demonstrates the creation of a new database-driven, Yii web application. Chapter 5—Iteration 2: Project CRUD introduces the automated code generation features of Yii, as we work to build out the "C"reate, "R"ead, "U"pdate and "D"elete functionality for the project entity in our TrackStar application. Chapter 6—Iteration 3: Adding Tasks introduces us to relational active record and controller class filters in Yii, as we add in the management issues into TrackStar. Chapter 7—Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication covers the first part of Yii's user authentication and authorization framework, Authentication. Chapter 8—Iteration 5: User Access Control covers the second part of the user authentication and authentication framework, Authorization. Both Yii's simple access control and role-based access control are covered. Chapter 9—Iteration 6: Adding User Comments takes a deeper dive into writing relational Active Record queries in Yii as well as introduce a basic portlet architecture for reusing content across multiple pages. Chapter 10—Iteration 7: Adding an RSS Web Feed demonstrates how easy it is to integrate other third-party frameworks into a Yii application by integrating the Zend Framework's Web Feed library to create simple RSS feed within our application. Chapter 11—Iteration 8: Making It Pretty: Design, Layout, Themes and Iternationalization (i18n) delves deeper into the presentation tier of Yii, introducing layout views, themes as well as internationalization and localization in Yii. Chapter 12—Iteration 9: Modules – Adding Administration introduces the concept of a module in Yii by using one to add administrative functionality to the application. Chapter 13—Iteration 10: Production Readiness covers error handling, logging, caching and, security as we prepare our TrackStar application for production. What you need for this book To follow along in building the TrackStar application, you will need PHP 5, a web server capable of servicing PHP 5 pages, and a database server. The code has been tested using the Apache 2 web server and a MySQL 5 database. It is certainly possible to use a different PHP5-compatible web server and /or different database server product. While we have attempted to make the examples work independent of the specific web server or database server, we cannot guarantee 100% accuracy if you are using something different. Slight adjustments may be required. Preface [ 3 ] Who this book is for If you are a PHP programmer with knowledge of object-oriented programming and want to rapidly develop modern, sophisticated web applications, then this book is for you. No prior knowledge of Yii is required to follow this book Conventions In this book, you will find a number of styles of text that distinguish between different kinds of information. Here are some examples of these styles, and an explanation of their meaning. Code words in text are shown as follows: "You can type in help to see a list of commands available to you within his shell." A block of code is set as follows:

Hello, World!

When we wish to draw your attention to a particular part of a code block, the relevant lines or items are set in bold:

Hello, World!

Any command-line input or output is written as follows: %cd /WebRoot/demo/protected/tests %phpunit unit/MessageTest.php New terms and important words are shown in bold. Words that you see on the screen, in menus or dialog boxes for example, appear in the text like this: "Clicking on the About link provides a simple example of a static page." Warnings or important notes appear in a box like this. Tips and tricks appear like this. Preface [ 4 ] Reader feedback Feedback from our readers is always welcome. Let us know what you think about this book—what you liked or may have disliked. Reader feedback is important for us to develop titles that you really get the most out of. To send us general feedback, simply send an email to feedback@packtpub.com, and mention the book title via the subject of your message. If there is a book that you need and would like to see us publish, please send us a note in the SUGGEST A TITLE form on www.packtpub.com or email suggest@packtpub.com. 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Questions You can contact us at questions@packtpub.com if you are having a problem with any aspect of the book, and we will do our best to address it. Meet Yii The past several years have marked a significant 'framework boom', and almost everyone involved in web application development these days is a part of a new generation of 'framework boomers'. Web development frameworks help jumpstart your application by immediately delivering the core foundation and plumbing needed to quickly turn your ideas scribbled on the whiteboard into a functional and production-ready code. With all of the common features expected from web applications today and available framework options that meet these expectations, there is little reason to code your next web application from scratch. A modern, flexible, and extensible framework is almost as essential a tool as the programming language itself to today's web developer. Moreover, when the two are particularly complementary, the results are an extremely powerful toolkit: Java and Spring, Ruby and Rails, C# and .NET, and PHP and Yii. Yii is the brainchild of its founder Qiang Xue who started the development of this open source framework on January 1st, 2008. Prior to this, Qiang had previously developed and maintained the PRADO framework for many years. The years of experience and user feedback cultivated from the PRADO project solidified the need for a much easier, more extensible and more efficient PHP5-based framework to meet the ever-growing needs of application developers. The initial alpha version of Yii was officially released to meet these needs in October of 2008. Its extremely impressive performance metrics when compared to other PHP-based frameworks immediately drew very positive attention. On December 3rd, 2008, Yii 1.0 was officially released and as of March 14th, 2010, the latest production-ready version is 1.1.2. It has a growing development team and continues to gain popularity among PHP developers everyday. We feel that with just a little help from the information contained in this book, you will soon understand why. Meet Yii [ 8 ] The name Yii (an acronym for Yes, it is, pronounced as Yee or [ji:]) stands for easy, efficient, and extensible. Yii is a high-performance, component-based, web application framework written in PHP 5. Yii makes it easier to create and maintain large-scale web applications. It also makes them more efficient and extensible. Let's take a quick look at each of these characteristics of Yii in turn. Yii is easy To run a Yii-powered web application, all you need is the core framework files and a web server supporting PHP 5.1.0 or higher. To develop with Yii, you only need to know PHP and object-oriented programming(OOP). You are not required to learn any new configuration or templating language. Building a Yii application mainly involves writing and maintaining your own custom PHP classes, some of which will extend from the core Yii Framework component classes. Yii incorporates many of the great ideas and work from other well-known web programming frameworks and applications. So, if you are coming to Yii after using other web development frameworks, it is likely you will find it familiar and easy to navigate. Yii also embraces a convention over configuration philosophy, which contributes to its ease of use. This means that Yii has sensible defaults for almost all aspects of wiring your application. If you follow the prescribed conventions, you will write less code and spend less time developing your application. If desired, Yii allows you to customize and easily override all of these conventions. We will be covering some of these defaults and conventions later in this chapter and throughout the book. Yii is efficient Yii is a high-performance component-based framework for developing web applications on any scale. It encourages maximum code reuse in web programming, and can significantly accelerate the development process. As mentioned previously, if you stick with Yii's built-in conventions, you can get your application up and running with little to no manual configuration. Yii is also designed to help you with DRY development. DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) is a key concept of agile application development. All Yii applications are built using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. Yii enforces this development pattern by providing a place to keep each piece of your MVC code. This minimizes duplication and helps promote code reuse and ease of maintainability. The less code you need to write, the less time it takes to get your application to market. Similarly, the easier it is to maintain your application, the longer it will stay on the market. Chapter 1 [ 9 ] Of course, the framework is not just efficient to use, it is also remarkably fast and performance is optimized. Yii has been developed with performance optimization in mind from the very beginning, and the result is that it is one of the most efficient PHP frameworks around. The Yii development team has performed performance comparison tests with many other PHP frameworks, and Yii outperformed them all. This means that the additional overhead Yii adds to applications written on top of it is negligible. Yii is extensible Yii has been carefully designed to allow nearly every piece of its code to be extended and customized to meet almost any need or requirement. In fact, it is difficult not to take advantage of Yii's ease of extensibility as a primary activity when developing a Yii-driven application, which is extending the core framework classes. If you want to turn your extended code into useful tools for other developers to use, Yii provides easy-to-follow steps and guidelines to help you create such third-party extensions. This allows you to contribute to Yii's ever-growing list of features and actively participate in extending Yii itself. What is also remarkable about Yii is its ease of use, superior performance, and its depth of extensibility which does not come at the cost of sacrificing features. Yii is packed with features to help you meet those high demands placed on today's web applications. AJAX-enabled widgets, web service integration, enforcement of an MVC architecture, DAO and relational Active Record database layer, sophisticated caching, hierarchical role-based access control, theming, internationalization (I18N), and localization (L10N), are just the tip of the Yii iceberg. As of version 1.1, the core framework is now packaged with an official extension library called Zii. These extensions are developed and maintained by the core framework team members who continue to extend Yii's core feature set. With a deep community of users who are also contributing by writing Yii extensions, the overall feature set available to a Yii powered application is growing daily. For a complete list of all available user contributed extensions, see http://www.yiiframework.com/extensions/. MVC architecture As mentioned previously, Yii is an MVC framework and it provides an explicit folder structure for each piece of model, view, and controller code. Before we start building our first Yii application, we need to define a few key terms, and look at how Yii implements and enforces this MVC architecture. Meet Yii [ 10 ] The model Typically in an MVC architecture, the model is responsible for maintaining state. Thus, it should encapsulate the business rules that apply to the data that defines this state. A model in Yii is any instance of the framework class CModel or its child class. A model class typically comprises data attributes that can have separate labels (something user-friendly for the purpose of display), and can be validated against a set of rules defined in the model. The data that makes up the attributes in the model class could come from a row of a database table or from the fields in a user input form. Yii implements two kinds of models: The form model (CFormModel class) and the active record model (CActiveRecord class). They both extend from the same base class CModel. CFormModel represents a data model that collects inputs in HTML form. It encapsulates all the logic for form field validation and any other business logic that may need to be applied to the form field data. It can then store this data in memory, or with the help of an active record model, store data in a database. Active Record (AR) is a design pattern used to abstract database access in an object-oriented fashion. Each AR object in Yii is an instance of CActiveRecord or its child class that wraps a single row in a database table or view, encapsulates all the logic and details around database access, and houses much of the business logic that is required to be applied to that data. The data field values for each column in the table row are represented as properties of the AR object. AR is described in more detail a little later. The view Typically, the view is responsible for rendering the user interface, based on the data in the model. A view in Yii is a PHP script that contains user interface related elements, often built using HTML, but can also contain PHP statements. Usually any PHP statements within the view are very simple conditional or looping statements, or refer to other Yii UI-related elements such as HTML helper class methods or prebuilt widgets. More sophisticated logic should be separated from the view and placed appropriately in either the model (if dealing directly with the data), or in the controller for a more general business logic. The controller The controller is our main director of a routed request and is responsible for taking user input, interacting with the model, and instructing the view to update and display appropriately. A controller in Yii is an instance of CController or its child. When a controller runs, it performs the requested action, which then interacts with needed models and renders an appropriate view. An action, in its simplest form, is a controller class method whose name starts with the word action. Chapter 1 [ 11 ] Stitching these together: Yii request routing In most MVC implementations, a web request typically has the following lifecycle: 1. The browser sends the request to the server hosting the MVC application. 2. A controller is invoked to handle the request. 3. The controller interacts with the model. 4. The controller invokes the view. 5. The view renders the data (often as HTML) and returns it to the browser for display. Yii's MVC implementation is no exception. In a Yii application, incoming requests from the browser are first received by a router. The router analyzes the request to decide where in the application it should be sent for further processing. In most cases, the router identifies a specific action method within a controller class to which the request is passed. This action method will look at the incoming request data, possibly interact with the model, and perform other needed business logic. Eventually, this action class will prepare the response data and send it to the view class. The view will then massage this data to conform to the desired layout and design, and return it for the browser to display. Blog posting example To help all of this make more sense, let's look at a fictitious example. Pretend we have used Yii to build ourselves a new blog site, yourblog.com. This site is similar to most typical blog sites out there. The home page displays a list of recently posted blog posts. The names of each of these blog postings are hyperlinks that take the user to the page that displays the full article. The next diagram illustrates how Yii handles an incoming request sent from clicking on one of these hypothetical blog post links. Meet Yii [ 12 ] The figure traces the request made from a user clicking on the following link: http://yourblog.com/post/show/id/99 First, the request is sent to the router. The router parses the request to decide where to send it. The structure of the URL is key to the decision the router will make. By default, Yii recognizes URLs with the following format: http://hostname/index.php?r=ControllerID/ActionID The r querystring variable refers to the route that is analyzed by the Yii router. It will parse this route to determine the appropriate controller and action method to further handle the request. Now, you may have immediately noticed that the URL mentioned in the previous example does not follow this default format. It is a simple matter to configure the application to recognize the more search engine friendly format: http://hostname/ControllerID/ActionID We will continue to use this simplified format for the purposes of this example. The ControllerID in the URL refers to the name of the controller. By default this is the first part of the controller class name, up to the word Controller. For example, if your controller class name is TestController, the ControllerID would be Test. Similarly, ActionID refers to the name of the action that is defined by the controller. If the action is a simple method defined within the controller, this will be whatever follows the word Action in the method name. For example, if your action method is named actionCreate(), the ActionID is Create. If the ActionID is omitted, the controller will take the default action, which is a method in the controller called actionIndex(). If the ControllerID is also omitted, the application will use the default controller. The Yii default controller is called SiteController. Turning back to the example, the router will analyze the following URL, http://yourblog.com/post/show/id/99, and will take the first part of the URL path, post to be the ControllerID and the second part, show to be the ActionID. This will translate to routing the request to the actionShow() method within the PostController class. The last part of the URL (id/99) is a name/value querystring parameter that will be available to the method during processing. In this example, 99 represents the unique internal id for the selected blog post. The actionShow() method handles requests for specific blog post entries. In this case, it uses the querystring variable, id to determine which specific post is being requested. It asks the model to retrieve information about blog post entry number 99. Chapter 1 [ 13 ] The model AR class interacts with the database to retrieve the requested data. After retrieving the data from the model, the controller class further prepares it for display by making it available to the view. The view then renders the needed HTML in a response back to the user's browser. This MVC architecture allows us to separate the presentation from the model, and the controller from the view. This makes it easy for developers to change aspects of the application without affecting the User Interface (UI) and for UI designers to freely make changes without affecting the model or business logic. This separation also makes it very easy to provide multiple presentations of the same model code. For example, you could use the same model code that drives the HTML layout of yourblog.com to drive a Flash/Flex RIA presentation or a mobile application or web services, or a command-line interface. In the end, following this set conventions and separating the functionality will result in an application that is much easier to extend and maintain. Yii does a lot more to help you enforce this separation than simply providing some naming conventions and suggestions for where your code should be placed in a folder structure. It helps to take care of all the lower-level glue code needed to stitch all the pieces together. This allows you to reap the benefits of a strict MVC designed application without having to spend all the time coding the details yourself. Let's take a look at some of these lower-level details. Object-relational mapping and Active Record For the most part, the web applications we build house their data in a relational database. The blog posting application we used in the previous example holds blog post content in database tables. However, web applications need the data that is held in the persistent database storage mapped to in-memory class properties that define the domain objects. Object-relational mapping (ORM) libraries provide this mapping of database tables to domain object classes. Much of the code that deals with ORM is about describing how fields in the database correspond to fields in our objects, which is tedious and repetitive to write. Luckily, Yii comes to our rescue to save us from this repetition and tedium by providing the ORM layer in the form of the AR pattern. Meet Yii [ 14 ] Active Record As was previously mentioned, AR is a design pattern used to abstract database access in an object-oriented fashion. It maps tables to classes, rows to objects and columns to object attributes. In other words, each instance of an active record class represents a single row in a database table. However an AR class is more than just a set of attributes that map to columns in a database table; it also houses the needed business logic behavior to be applied to that data. The end result is a class that defines everything about how it should be written to and read from the database. By relying on convention and sticking with reasonable defaults, Yii's implementation of AR will save the developer a ton of time normally spent in configuration or in writing tedious and repetitive SQL statements required to create, read, update and delete data. It also allows the developer to access data stored in the database in a much more object-oriented way. To illustrate this, here is some example code that uses AR to operate on a specific blog posting whose internal id, which is also used as the table's Primary Key, is 99. It first retrieves the posting by Primary Key, it then changes the title, and then updates the database to save the changes: $post=Post::model()->findByPk(99); $post->title='Some new title'; $post->save(); Active Record completely relieves us of the tedium of having to write any SQL or otherwise deal with the underlying database. Active Record does even more than this. It integrates seamlessly with many other aspects of the Yii Framework. There are myriad active html helper input form fields that tie directly to their respective AR class attributes. This way, Active Record extracts the input form field values directly into the model. It also supports sophisticated, automated data validation, and if the validation fails, the Yii view classes easily display the validation errors to the end user. We will be revisiting AR and providing many concrete examples throughout this book. The view and controller The view and the controller are very close cousins. The controller makes the data available for display to the view and the view generates the pages that trigger events, which sends data to the controller. Chapter 1 [ 15 ] In Yii, a view file belongs to the controller class that rendered it. This way, inside a view script, we can access the controller instance by simply referring to $this. This implementation makes the view and controller very intimate. Thankfully, all of these details are handled for us by Yii, so we can focus on coding the specific application. There is also a lot more to Yii controllers than just calling the model and rendering views. Controllers can manage services to provide sophisticated pre- and post-processing on requests, implement basic access control rules to limit access to certain actions, manage application-wide layout and nested layout file rendering, manage pagination of data, and many other behind-the-scenes services. Again, we have Yii to thank for not needing to get our hands dirty with these messy details. There is a lot to Yii. The best way to explore all its beauty is to start using it. Now that we have some of the basic ideas and terminology under our belt, we are in a great position to do just that. In the next chapter, we will go through the simple Yii installation process, and then build a working application to better illustrate these ideas. Summary In this chapter, we were introduced at a very high level to the Yii PHP web application framework. We also covered a number of software design concepts embraced by Yii. Don't worry if the abstract nature of this initial discussion was a tad lost on you. It will all make sense once we dive into specific examples. But, to recap, we specifically covered: 1. The importance and utility of application development frameworks. 2. What Yii is and the characteristics of Yii that make it incredibly powerful and useful. 3. The MVC application architecture and the implementation of this architecture in Yii. 4. A typical Yii web request lifecycle and URL structures. 5. Object-relational mapping and Active Record in Yii. Getting Started The real pleasures and benefits of Yii are quickly revealed by simply using it. In this chapter, we will see how the concepts introduced in the previous chapter, Meet Yii, are manifested in an example Yii application. In the spirit of Yii's philosophy to follow conventions, we will write a Hello, World! program to try out this new framework. In this chapter, we will cover: • Yii Framework installation • Creating a new application • Creating controllers and views • Adding dynamic content to view files • Yii request routing and linking pages together Before we can use it we need to first install the framework. Let's do that now. Installing Yii Prior to installing Yii, you must configure your application development environment as a web server capable of supporting PHP 5.1.0 or higher. Yii has been thoroughly tested with Apache HTTP server on Windows and Linux operating systems. It may also run on other web servers and platforms, provided PHP 5 is supported. There are myriad free resources available on the Internet to assist you in getting your environment configured with a PHP 5 compatible web server. We assume the reader has previously engaged in PHP development and has access to such an environment. We will leave the installation of a web server and PHP itself as an exercise to the reader. Getting Started [ 18 ] The basic Yii installation is almost trivial. There are really only two necessary steps: 1. Download the Yii Framework from http://www.yiiframework.com/ download/. 2. Unpack the downloaded file to a web-accessible folder. There are several versions of Yii from which to choose when downloading the framework. We will be using version 1.1.2 for the purposes of this book, which is the latest stable version as of the time of writing. Though most of the sample code should work with any 1.1.x version of Yii, there may be some subtle differences if you are using a different version. Please use 1.1.2 if you are following along with the examples. After installation, it is advised that you verify that your server satisfies all of the requirements for using Yii and to ensure the installation was a success. Luckily, doing so is easy. Yii comes with a simple requirement checking tool. To invoke the tool and have it verify the requirements for your installation, simply point your browser to: http://yourhostname/path/to/yii/requirements/index.php The following screenshot shows the results we see for our configuration: Chapter 2 [ 19 ] Using the Requirement Checker is not itself a requirement for installation, but it is certainly recommended to ensure proper installation. As you can see, not all of our results under the Details section received a Passed status, as some display a Warning. Of course, your configuration will most likely be slightly different from ours and consequently, your results may slightly differ as well. That is okay. It is not necessary that all of the checks under the Details section pass, but it is necessary to receive the following message under the Conclusion section: Your server configuration satisfies the minimum requirements by Yii. Installing a database Throughout this book, we will be using a database to support many of our examples and the applications that we will be writing. In order to properly follow along with this book, it is recommended you install a database server. Though you can use any database that is supported by PHP with Yii, if you want to use some of built-in database abstraction layers and tools within Yii, you will need to use one that is supported by the framework. As of version 1.1, those are: • MySQL 4.1 or later • PostgresSQL 7.3 or later • SQLite 2 and 3 • Microsoft SQL Server 2000 or later • Oracle Now that we have installed the framework, and we have verified that we have met the minimum requirements, let's create a brand new Yii web application. Creating a new application To create a new application, we are going to use a little powerhouse of a tool known as yiic that comes packaged with the framework. This is a command-line tool that one can use to quickly jumpstart a brand new Yii application. It is not mandatory to use this tool, but it saves a lot of time and guarantees that the proper folder and file structure is in place. Getting Started [ 20 ] To use this tool to create your first Yii application, open up a shell window, and navigate to a place in your filesystem where you will want to create your application's folder structure. For the purpose of this demo application, we will assume the following: • YiiRoot is the folder where you have installed Yii • WebRoot is configured as the document root of your web server • From your command line, change to your WebRoot folder and execute the following: % cd WebRoot % YiiRoot/framework/yiic webapp demo Create a Web application under '/Webroot/demo'? [Yes|No] Yes mkdir /WebRoot/demo mkdir /WebRoot/demo/assets mkdir /WebRoot/demo/css generate css/bg.gif generate css/form.css generate css/main.css Your application has been created successfully under /Webroot/demo. The webapp command is used to create a brand new Yii web application. It takes just a single argument to specify either the absolute or relative path to the folder in which the application should be created. The result is the generation of all the needed folders and files to provide a default Yii web application skeleton. Now we can change into the newly created demo folder and look at what was created for us: % cd demo % ls –p assets/ images/ index.php themes/ css/ index-test.php protected/ A description of the high-level items that were automatically created is shown as follows: demo/ index.php Web application entry script file index-test.php entry script file for the functional tests assets/ containing published resource files Chapter 2 [ 21 ] css/ containing CSS files images/ containing image files themes/ containing application themes protected/ containing protected application files With the execution of one simple command from the command line, we have created all the folder structure and files needed to immediately take advantage of Yii's sensible default configuration. All of these folders and the files, along with the subfolders and files they contain, can look a little daunting at first glance. However, we can ignore most of them as we are getting started. All these folders and files are actually a working web application. The yiic command has populated the application with enough code to establish a simple home page, a typical Contact Us page to provide an example of a web form, and a login page with enough autogenerated code to demonstrate basic authorization and authentication in Yii. If your web server supports the GD2 graphics library extension, you will also see a CAPTCHA widget on the Contact Us form, and the application will have the corresponding validation for this form item. As long as your web server is running, you should be able to open up your browser and navigate to http://localhost/demo/index.php. Here you will be presented with a My Web Application home page along with the friendly greeting Welcome to My Web Application, followed by some helpful information on the steps to be taken next. The next screenshot shows this example home page: Getting Started [ 22 ] You'll notice that there is a working application navigation bar along the top of the page. From left to right there is: Home, About, Contact, and Login. Let's explore by clicking around. Clicking on the About link provides a simple example of a static page. The Contact link will take you to the Contact Us form that was mentioned before, along with the CAPTCHA input field in the form (again, you will only see the CAPTCHA field if you have the GD graphics extension as part of your PHP configuration). The Login link will take you to a page displaying a login form. This is actually working code with form validations, as well as username and password credential validation and authentication. Using either demo/demo or admin/admin as the username/password combination will get you logged into the site. Try it out. You can try a login that will fail (any combination other than demo/demo or admin/ admin), and see the error validation messages display. After successfully logging in, the Login link in the header changes to a Logout(username) where username is either demo or admin, depending on which username you used to login. It is amazing that so much has been accomplished without having to do any coding. Hello, World! All of this autogenerated code will start to make more sense once we walk through a simple example. To try out this new system, let's build that Hello, World! program we promised at the start of this chapter. A Hello, World! program in Yii will be a simple web page application that sends this very important message to our browser. We have already discussed about Yii being a Model-View-Controller framework in Chapter 1, Meet Yii,. A typical Yii web application takes in an incoming request from a browser, parses information in that request to find a controller, and then calls an action within that controller. The controller can then invoke a particular view to render and return content to the user. If dealing with data, the controller may also interact with a model to handle all the Create, Read, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations on that data. In our simple Hello, World! application, all we will require is the code for a controller and a view. We are not dealing with any data, so a model will not be needed. Let's begin our example by creating our controller. Creating the controller As we did when we created the initial application, we will again call on the yiic command to help us create our controller. In this case, we are going to use the yiic shell command to start the application within an interactive shell in which we can invoke other commands. To start the shell, navigate to the root of your demo application by running the following command: Chapter 2 [ 23 ] %cd /Webroot/demo Then execute yiic with the following shell command: %YiiRoot/framework/yiic shell Yii Interactive Tool v1.1 Please type 'help' for help. Type 'exit' to quit. >> If you have navigated into your web application folder, you can also envoke the yiic command-line tool by referencing the relative path protected/yiic rather than the fully qualified path to where Yii is installed. So, the equivalent way to start the shell from within the folder would be: % protected/yiic shell You are now at the prompt within the interactive shell. You can type help to see a list of commands available to you within this shell: >> help At the prompt, you may enter a PHP statement or one of the following commands: - controller - crud - form - help - model - module Type 'help ' for details about a command. We see there are several command options available. The controller command looks like the one we want, as we want to create a controller for our application. We can find out more about this command by typing help controller from the shell prompt. Go ahead and type that in. It provides usage, a general description, parameter descriptions, and some examples. >> help controller USAGE controller [action-ID] ... DESCRIPTION This command generates a controller and views associated with the specified actions. Getting Started [ 24 ] PARAMETERS * controller-ID: required, controller ID, e.g., 'post'. If the controller should be located under a subdirectory, please specify the controller ID as 'path/to/ControllerID', e.g., 'admin/user'. If the controller belongs to a module, please specify the controller ID as 'ModuleID/ControllerID' or 'ModuleID/path/to/Controller' (assuming the controller is under a subdirectory of that module). * action-ID: optional, action ID. You may supply one or several action IDs. A default 'index' action will always be generated. EXAMPLES * Generates the 'post' controller: controller post * Generates the 'post' controller with additional actions 'contact' and 'about': controller post contact about * Generates the 'post' controller which should be located under the 'admin' subdirectory of the base controller path: controller admin/post * Generates the 'post' controller which should belong to the 'admin' module: controller admin/post NOTE: In the last two examples, the commands are the same, but the generated controller file is located under different folders. Yii is able to detect whether admin refers to a module or a subfolder. Chapter 2 [ 25 ] So, from reading the help, it is clear that the controller command will generate the controller, actions, and the views associated with the specified actions. As our application's primary function is to display a message, let's call our controller, message, and let's name our action method after the simple message we want to display: >> controller message helloWorld generate MessageController.php mkdir /Webroot/demo/protected/views/message generate helloworld.php generate index.php Controller 'message' has been created in the following file: /Webroot/demo/protected/controllers/MessageController.php You may access it in the browser using the following URL: http://hostname/path/to/index.php?r=message >> It should respond by indicating the successful creation of the MessageController in the default protected/controllers/ folder. This is great. With one simple command, we have generated a new controller PHP file, called MessageController.php, and it was placed properly under the default controllers folder, protected/controllers/. The generated MessageController class extends an application base class, Controller, located at protected/ components/Controller.php. This class in turn extends the base framework class, CController, so it automatically gets all of the default controller behavior. Since we specified an actionID parameter, helloWorld, a simple action was also created within MessageController called actionHelloWorld(). The yiic tool also assumed that this action, like most actions defined by a controller, will need to render a view. So, it added the code to this method to render a view file by the same name, helloworld.php, and placed it in the default folder for view files associated with this controller, protected/views/message/. Here is the code that was generated for the MessageController class: render('helloWorld'); } public function actionIndex() { $this->render('index'); } } We see that it also added an actionIndex() method that simply renders a view file that was also auto-created for us at protected/views/message/index.php. As was discussed in Chapter 1, Meet Yii by convention, a request that specifies message as the controllerID, but does not specify an action, will be routed to the actionIndex() method for further processing. The yiic tool was smart to know to create a default action for us. Try it out by navigating to http://localhost/demo/index.php?r=message/ helloWorld. You should see something similar to the following screenshot: One final step To turn this into a Hello, World! application, all we need to do is customize our helloWorld.php view to display Hello, World!. It is easy to do this. Edit the file protected/views/message/helloWorld.php so that it contains just the following code: breadcrumbs=array( Chapter 2 [ 27 ] 'Message'=>array('message/index'), 'HelloWorld', );?>

Hello, World!

Save your code, and view the page again in your browser: http://yourhostname/ index.php?r=message/helloWorld It now displays our introductory greeting in place of the autogenerated copy, as displayed in the following screenshot: We have our simple application working with stunningly minimal code. All we have added is one line of HTML to our helloWorld view file. Reviewing our request routing Let's review how Yii is analyzing our request in the context of this example application: 1. You navigate to the Hello, World! page by pointing your browser at the following URL: http://yourhostname/demo/index.php?r=message/ helloWorld. 2. Yii analyzes the URL. The route querystring variable indicates that the controllerID is message. This tells Yii to route the request to the MessageController class, which it finds in protected/controllers/ MessageController.php. 3. Yii also discovers that the actionID specified is helloWorld. So, the action method actionHelloWorld() is invoked within the MessageController. Getting Started [ 28 ] 4. The actionHelloWorld() method renders the helloWorld.php view file located at protected/views/message/helloWorld.php. And we altered this view file to simply display our introductory greeting, which is then returned to the browser. 5. This all came together without having to make any configuration changes. By following Yii's default conventions, the entire application request routing has been seamlessly stitched together for us. Of course, Yii gives us every opportunity to override this default workflow if needed, but the more you stick with the conventions, the less time you will spend in tweaking configuration code. Adding dynamic content The simplest way to add dynamic content to our view template is to embed PHP code into the template itself. View files are rendered by our simple application to result in HTML, and any basic text in these files is passed through without being changed. However, any content between the tags is interpreted and executed as PHP code. This is a typical way PHP code is embedded within HTML files and is probably familiar to you. Adding the date and time To spice up our page with dynamic content, let's display the date and time. Open up the helloWorld view again and add the following line below the greeting text:

Save, and view it at the following URL: http://yourhostname/demo/index. php?r=message/helloWorld Presto! We have added dynamic content to our application. With each page refresh, we see the displayed content changing. Admittedly, this is not terribly exciting, but it does show how to embed simple PHP code into our view templates. Chapter 2 [ 29 ] Adding the date and time, a better approach Although this approach of embedding PHP code directly into the view file does allow for any PHP code of any amount or complexity, it is strongly recommended that these statements do not alter data models and that they remain simple, display-oriented statements. This will help keep our business logic separate from our presentation code, which is part of the agenda of an MVC architecture. Moving the data creation to the controller Let's move the logic that creates the time back to the controller and have the view do nothing more than display the time. We'll move the determination of the time into our actionHelloWorld() method within the controller and set the value in an instance variable called $time. 1. First, let's alter the controller action. Currently our action in our MessageController, actionHelloworld(), simply makes a call to render our helloWorld view by executing the following code: $this->render('helloWorld'); Before we render the view, let's add the call to determine the time, and then store it in a local variable called $theTime. Let's then alter our call to render() by adding a second parameter which includes this variable: $theTime = date("D M j G:i:s T Y"); $this->render('helloWorld',array('time'=>$theTime)); When calling render() with a second parameter containing array data, it will extract the values of the array into PHP variables and make those variables available to the view script. The keys in the array will be the names of the variables made available to our view file. In this example, our array key time whose value is $theTime, will be extracted into a variable named $time, which will be made available in the view. This is one way to pass data from the controller to the view. 2. Now let's alter the view to use this instance variable, rather than calling the date function itself. Open up the helloWorld view file again, and replace the line we previously added to echo the time with the following:

3. Save and view the results again at: http://yourhostname/demo/index. php?r=message/helloWorld Getting Started [ 30 ] The next screenshot shows the end result of our Hello, World! application thus far (of course, your date and time will differ). We have demonstrated two approaches to adding PHP generated content to the view template files. The first approach puts the data creation logic directly into the view file itself. The second approach housed this logic in the controller class, and fed the information to the view file by using variables. The end result is the same, the time is displayed in our rendered HTML file, but the second approach takes a small step forward in keeping the data acquisition and manipulation, that is business logic, separate from our presentation code. This separation is exactly what a Model-View-Controller architecture strives to provide, and Yii's explicit folder structure and sensible defaults make this a snap to implement. Have you been paying attention? It was mentioned in Chapter 1, Meet Yii that the view and controller are close cousins. So much so that $this within a view file refers to the controller class that rendered the view. In the preceding example, we explicitly fed the time to the view file from the controller by using the second argument in the render method. This second argument explicitly sets variables that are immediately available to the view file, but there is another approach we encourage you to try out for yourself. Alter the previous example by defining a public class property on MessageController, rather than a locally scoped variable, whose value is the current date and time. Then display the time in the view file by accessing this class property through $this. Chapter 2 [ 31 ] Linking pages together Typical web applications have more than one page within them for users to experience, and our simple application should be no exception. Let's add another page that displays a response from the World, 'Goodbye, Yii developer!', and link to this page from our Hello, World! page, and vice-versa. Normally, each rendered HTML page within a Yii web application will correspond to a separate view (though this does not always have to be the case). So, we will create a new view and will use a separate action method to render this view. When adding a new page like this, we also need to consider whether or not to use a separate controller. As our Hello and Goodbye pages are related and very similar, there is no compelling reason to delegate the application logic to a separate controller class at the moment. Linking to a new page Let's have the URL for our new page be of the following form: http://yourhostname/demo/index.php?r=message/goodbye 1. Sticking with Yii conventions, this decision defines the name of our action method we need in the controller as well as the name of our view. So, open up MessageController and add an actionGoodbye() method just below our actionHelloworld() action: class MessageController extends CController { ... public function actionGoodbye() { $this->render('goodbye'); } ... } 2. Next we have to create our view file in the /protected/views/message/ folder. This should be called goodbye.php as it should be the same as the actionID we chose. Please do keep in mind that this is just a recommended convention. The view does not have to have the same name as the action by any means. The view filename just has to match the first argument of render(). Getting Started [ 32 ] 3. Create an empty file in that folder, and add the single line:

Goodbye, Yii developer!

4. Saving and viewing again: http://yourhostname/demo/index. php?r=message/goodbye should display the goodbye message. 5. Now we need to add the links to connect the two pages. To add a link on the Hello screen to the Goodbye page, we could add an tag directly to the helloWorld view template, and hardcode the URL structure like: Goodbye! This does work, but it tightly couples the view code implementation to a specific URL structure, which might change at some point. If the URL structure were to change, these links would become invalid. Remember in Chapter 1, Meet Yii when we went through the blog posting application example? We used URLs that were of a different, more SEO friendly format than the Yii default format, namely: http://yourhostname/ControllerID/ActionID It is a simple matter to configure a Yii web application to use this path format as opposed to the querystring format we are using in this example. Being able to easily change the URL format can be important to web applications. As long as we avoid hardcoding them throughout our application, changing them will remain a simple matter of altering the application configuration file. Getting a little help from Yii CHtml Luckily, Yii comes to the rescue here. It comes with myriad helper methods that can be used in view templates. These methods exist in the static HTML helper framework class, CHtml. In this case, we want to employ the helper method link which takes in a controllerID/actionID pair, and creates the appropriate hyperlink for you based on how the URL structure is configured for the application. As all these helper methods are static, we can call them directly without the need to create an explicit instance of the CHtml class. 1. Using this link helper, our helloWorld view becomes:

Hello, World!

Chapter 2 [ 33 ] 2. Save your changes, and view the Hello, World! page at: http://yourhostname/demo/index.php?r=message/helloWorld You should see the hyperlink, and clicking it should take you to the Goodbye page. The first parameter in the call to the link method is the text that will be displayed in the hyperlink. The second parameter is an array that holds the value for our controllerID/actionID pair. The results are displayed in the following figure: 3. We can follow the same approach to place a reciprocal link in our goodbye view:

Goodbye, Yii developer!

4. Save and view the Goodbye page at the following link: http://yourhostname/demo/index.php?r=message/goodbye You should now see an active link back to the Hello, World! page from the Goodbye page, as shown in the following screenshot: Getting Started [ 34 ] Summary In this chapter, we constructed an extremely simple application to demonstrate: • How to install the Yii Framework • How to use the yiic command to bootstrap the creation of a new Yii application • How to use the yiic command to create a new controller within the application • How Yii turns incoming requests into calls to your code • How to create dynamic content within a controller and have it accessible to the view files for display to the browser • How to link internal application pages together We have demonstrated ways to link web pages together in our simple application. One approach added an HTML tag directly to the view file and hardcoded the URL structure. The other (preferred approach) made use of Yii's CHtml helper class to help construct the URLs based on controllerID/actionID pairs, so that the resulting format will always conform to the application configuration. This way, we can easily alter the URL format throughout the application without having to go back and change every view file that happens to have internal links. Our simple Hello, World! application really reaps the benefits of Yii's convention over configuration philosophy. By applying certain default behavior and following the recommended conventions, the building of this simple application, (and our entire request routing process) just fell together in an easy and convenient way. While this incredibly simple application has provided concrete examples to help us better understand using the Yii Framework, it is far too simplistic to demonstrate Yii's ability to ease the building of our real-world applications. In order to demonstrate this, we need to build a real-world web application (and we will do just that). In the next chapter, we will introduce you to the project task and issue tracking application that we will be building throughout the remainder of this book. The TrackStar Application We could continue to keep adding to our simple demo application to provide examples of Yii's features, but that won't really help us to understand the framework in the context of a real-world application. In order to do that, we need to build something that will more closely resemble the types of applications web developers actually have to build. That is exactly what we are going to be doing throughout the rest of this book. In this chapter, we introduce the project task tracking application called TrackStar. There are many other project management and issue tracking applications out there in the world, and the basic functionality of ours will not be any different from many of these. So why build it, you ask? It turns out that this type of user-based application has many features that are common to a great many web applications out there. This will allow us to achieve two primary goals: • Showcase Yii's incredible utility and feature set as we build useful functionality and conquer real-world web application challenges • Provide real-world examples and approaches that will be immediately applicable to your next web application project Introducing TrackStar TrackStar is a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) issue management application. Its main goal is to help keep track of all the many issues that arise throughout the course of building software applications. It is a user-based application that allows the creation of user accounts and grants access to the application features, once a user has been authenticated and authorized. It allows a user to add and manage projects. The TrackStar Application [ 36 ] Projects can have users associated with them (typically the team members working on the project) as well as issues. The project issues will be things such as development tasks and application bugs. The issues can be assigned to members of the project and will have a status such as not yet started, started, and finished. This way, the tracking tool can give an accurate depiction of projects with regard to what has been accomplished, what is currently in progress, and what is yet to be started. Creating user stories Simple user stories are a great way to identify the required features of your application. User stories, in their simplest form, state what a user can do with a piece of software. They should start simple, and grow in complexity as you dive into more and more of the details around each feature. Our goal here is to begin with just enough complexity to allow us to get stared. If needed, we'll add more detail and complexity later. We briefly touched on the three main entities that play a large role in this application: users, projects, and issues. These are our primary domain objects, and are extremely important items in this application. So, let's start with them. Users TrackStar is a user-based web application. There will be two high-level user types: • Anonymous • Authenticated An anonymous user is any user of the application that has not been authenticated through the login process. Anonymous users will only have access to register for a new account or to log in. All other functionality will be restricted to authenticated users. An authenticated user is any user that has provided valid authentication credentials through the login process. In other words, authenticated users are logged-in users. They will have access to the main features of the application such as creating and managing projects, and project issues. Projects Managing the project is the primary purpose of the TrackStar application. A project represents a general, high-level goal to be achieved by one or more users of the application. The project is typically broken down into more granular tasks (or issues) that represent the smaller steps that need to be taken to achieve the overall goal. Chapter 3 [ 37 ] As an example, let's take what we are going to be doing throughout this book, that is, building a project and issue tracking management application. Unfortunately, we can't use our yet-to-be-created application as a tool to help us track its own development. However, if we were using a similar tool to help track what we are building, we might create a project called Build The TrackStar Project/Issue Management Tool. This project would be broken down into more granular project issues such as 'Create the login screen' or 'Design database schema for issues', and so on. Authenticated users can create new projects. The creator of the project within an account has a special role within that project, called the project owner. Project owners have the ability to edit and delete these projects as well as add new members to the project. Other users associated with the project—besides the project owner—are referred to simply as project members. They have the ability to add new issues, as well as edit existing ones. Issues Project issues can be classified into one of the following three categories: • Features: Items that represent real features to be added to the application. For example, 'Implement the login functionality' • Tasks: Items that represent work that needs to be done, but is not an actual feature of the software. For example, 'Set up the build and integration server' • Bugs: Items that represent application behaviors that are not working as expected. For example, 'The account registration form does not validate the format of input e-mail addresses' Issues can have one of the following three statuses: • Not yet started • Started • Finished Project members can add new issues to a project, as well as edit and delete them. They can assign issues to themselves or other project members. For now, this is enough information on these three main entities. We could go into a lot more detail about what exactly account registration entails' and how exactly one adds a new task to a project', but we have outlined enough specifications to begin on these basic features. We'll nail down the more granular details as we proceed with the implementation. The TrackStar Application [ 38 ] However, before we start, we should jot down some basic navigation and application workflow. This will help everyone to better understand the general layout and flow of the application we are building. Navigation and page flow It is always good to outline the main pages within an application, and how they fit together. This will help us quickly identify some needed Yii controllers, actions and views as well as help to set everyone's expectations as to what we'll be building towards at the onset of our development. The figure below shows the basic idea of the application flow from logging in, through the project details listing: When users first come to the application, they must log in to authenticate themselves before accessing any functionality. Once successfully logged-in, they will be presented with a list of his current projects along with the option to create a new project. Choosing a specific project will take them to the project details page. The project details page will present a list of the issues by type. There will also be the option to add a new issue as well as edit any of the listed issues. Chapter 3 [ 39 ] This is all pretty basic functionality, but the figure gives us a little more information on how the application is stitched together and allows us to better identify our needed models, views, and controllers. It also allows something visual to be shared with others so that everyone involved has the same 'picture' of what we are working towards. In my experience, almost everyone prefers pictures over written specifications when first thinking through a new application. Defining a data scheme We still need to think a little more about the data we will be working with as we begin to build toward these specifications. If we pick out all the main nouns from our system, we may end up with a pretty good list of domain objects and, by extension of using Active Record, the data we want to model. Our previously outlined user stories seem to dictate the following: • A User • A Project • An Issue Based on this and the other details provided in the user stories and application workflow diagram, a first attempt at the needed data is shown in the following figure. The TrackStar Application [ 40 ] This is a basic object model that outlines our primary data entities, their respective attributes, and some of the relationships between them. The 1..* on either side of the line between the Project and User objects represents a many-to-many relationship between them. A user can be associated with one or more projects, and a project has one or more users. Similarly we have represented the fact that a project can have zero or more issues associated with it, whereas an issue belongs to just one specific project. Also, a user can be the owner of (or requester of) many issues, but an issue has just one owner (and also just one requester). We have kept the attributes as simple as possible at this state. A User is going to need a username and a password in order to get past the login screen. The Project has only a name Issues have the most associated information based on what we currently know about them. As discussed briefly in the user stories above, they will have a type attribute to distinguish the general category (bug, feature, or task). They will also have a status attribute to indicate the progress of the issue being worked on. A user in the system will initially create the issue, this is the requester. Once a user in the system has been assigned to work on the issue, they will be the owner of the issue. We have also defined the description attribute to allow for some descriptive text of the issue to be entered. Notice that we have not explicitly talked about schemas or databases yet. The fact is, until we think through what is really needed from a data perspective, we won't know the right tool to use to house this data. Would flat files on the filesystem work just as well as a relational database? Do we need a persistent data at all? The answers to these questions are not needed in this early planning state. It is better to focus more on the features that we want and the type of data needed to support these features. We can turn to the explicit technology implementation details after we have had a chance to discuss these ideas with other project stakeholders to ensure we are on the right track. Other project stakeholders include anyone and everyone involved in this development project. This can include the client, if building an application for someone else, as well as other development team members, product/ project managers, and so on. It is always a good idea to get some feedback from "the team" to help validate the approach and any assumptions being made. In our case, there is really no one else involved in this development effort. We would certainly consult with you, the reader, if we could, before moving forward. Unfortunately, this book format does not allow for real-time, bi-directional communication. So, as there is no one else to consult, we'll move forward with the outlined approach. Chapter 3 [ 41 ] However, before we dive right into building our application, we need to cover our development approach. We will be employing some specific development methodologies and principles, and it makes sense to go over these prior to getting started with coding. Defining our development methodology We will be employing an agile inspired process of iterative and incremental development as we build this application. 'Agile' is certainly a loaded term in modern software development and can have varied meanings among developers. Our process will focus on the aspects of an agile methodology that embrace transparent and open collaboration, constant feedback loops, and a strong ability to respond quickly to changing requirements. We will work incrementally in that we won't wait until every detail of the application has been specified before we start coding. Once the details of a particular feature have been finalized, we can begin work on implementing that feature, even though other features or application details are still in the design/planning stage. The process surrounding this feature implementation will follow an iterative model. We will do some initial iteration planning, engage in analysis and design, write the code to try out these ideas, test the code, and gather feedback. We then repeat this cycle of design->code->test->evaluation, until everyone is happy. Once everyone is happy, we can deploy the application with the new feature, and then start gathering the specifications on the next feature(s) to be implemented in the next iteration. Automated software testing Gathering feedback is of fundamental importance to agile development. Feedback from the users of the application and other project stakeholders, feedback from the development team members, and feedback directly from the software itself. Developing software in a manner that will allow it to tell you when something is broken can turn the fear associated with integrating and deploying applications into boredom. The method by which you empower your software with this feedback mechanism is writing unit and functional tests, and then executing them repeatedly and often. Unit and functional testing Unit tests are written to provide the developer with verification that the code is doing the right things. Functional tests are written to provide the developer, as well as other project stakeholders, that the application, as a whole, is doing things the right way. The TrackStar Application [ 42 ] Unit tests Unit tests are tests that focus on the smallest units within a software application. In an object-oriented application, (such as a Yii web application) the smallest units are the public methods that make up the interfaces to classes. Unit tests should focus on one single class, and not require other classes or objects to run. Their purpose is to validate that a single unit of code is working as expected. Functional tests Functional tests focus on testing the end-to-end feature functionality of the application. These tests exist at a higher level than the unit tests and typically do require multiple classes or objects to run. Their purpose is to validate that a given feature of the application is working as expected. Benefits of testing There are many benefits to writing unit and functional tests. For one, they are a great way to provide documentation. Unit tests can quickly tell the exact story of why a block of code exists. Similarly, functional tests document what features are implemented within an application. If you stay diligent in writing these tests, then the documentation continues to evolve naturally as the application evolves. They are also invaluable as a feedback mechanism to constantly reassure the developer and other project stakeholders that the code and application is working as expected. You run your tests every time you make changes to the code and get immediate feedback on whether or not something you altered inadvertently changed the behavior of the system. You then address these issues immediately. This really increases the confidence that developers have in the application's behavior and translates to fewer bugs and more successful projects. This immediate feedback also helps to facilitate change and improving the design of the code base. A developer is more likely to make improvements to existing code if a suite of tests are in place to immediately provide feedback as to whether the changes made altered the application behavior. The confidence provided by a suite of unit and functional tests allows developers to write better software, release a more stable application, and ship quality products. Chapter 3 [ 43 ] Test-driven development Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development methodology that helps to create an environment of comfort and confidence by ensuring your test suite grows organically with your application, and is always up-to-date. It does this by stipulating that you begin your coding by first writing a test for the code you are about to write. The following steps sum up the process: 1. Begin by writing a test that will quickly fail. 2. Run the test to ensure it does, indeed, fail. 3. Quickly add just enough code to the class you are testing to get the test to pass. 4. Run the test again to ensure it does, indeed, pass. 5. Refactor the code to remove any repetitive logic or improve any corners cut while you were just trying to get the test to pass. These steps are then repeated throughout the entire development process. Even with the best intentions, if you wait to write your tests until after the code is completed, you probably won't. Writing your tests first and injecting the test writing process directly into the coding process will ensure the best test coverage. This depth of coverage will help minimize the stress and fear that can accompany complex software applications and build confidence by constantly providing positive feedback as additions and changes are made. In order to embrace a TDD process, we need to understand how to test within a Yii application. Testing in Yii As of version 1.1, Yii is tightly integrated with the PHPUnit (http://www.phpunit. de/) and Selenium Remote Control (http://seleniumhq.org/projects/remote- control/) testing frameworks. There is nothing about TDD that presupposes a particular testing framework (or any testing framework at all, for that matter), but using one is strongly recommended. You may certainly test Yii PHP code with any of the testing frameworks available. However, the tight integration of Yii with the two frameworks mentioned previously makes things even easier. And making things easy is one of our primary goals here. We will be using the testing features of Yii as we proceed. The TrackStar Application [ 44 ] When we used the yiic webapp console command to create our new Hello World demo application in Chapter 2, we noticed that many files and folders were automatically created for us. The ones among these relevant to writing and performing automated tests are the following: Name of folder Use/contents demo/ protected This contains protected application files tests/ This contains tests for the application fixtures/ This contains database fixtures functional/ This contains functional tests unit/ This contains unit tests report/ This contains coverage reports bootstrap.php The script executed at the very beginning of the tests phpunit.xml The PHPUnit configuration file WebTestCase.php The base class for Web-based functional tests We will be placing our tests into three main folders: fixtures, functional, and unit. The report folder is used to store the generated code coverage reports. Note: The PHP extension, XDebug, must be installed in order to generate reports. It is recommended to use PECL to install XDebug. For details on this installation, see http://xdebug.org/docs/install. This is not a requirement if you wish to simply follow along with our examples. Unit tests A unit test in Yii is written as a PHP class that extends from the framework class, CTestCase. The conventions prescribe it be named AbcTest where Abc is replaced by the name of the class being tested. For example, if we were to test the Message class in our demo application from Chapter 2, we would name the test class MessageTest. This class is saved in a file called MessageTest.php under the folder protected/tests/unit/. The test class primarily has a set of test methods named testXyz where Xyz is often the same as the method name the test is built for in the class being tested. Continuing with the MessageController example, if we were testing our actionHelloworld() method, we would name the corresponding test method in our MessageTest class, testActionHelloworld(). Chapter 3 [ 45 ] Installing PHPUnit In order to follow along with our unit-testing approach, you will need to install PHPUnit. This should be done using the Pear Installer (for more information on Pear, see http://pear.php.net/) For Mac OS users, this is a simple as issuing two commands from the command line: % sudo pear channel-discover pear.phpunit.de % sudo pear install phpunit/PHPUnit However, your configuration may differ slightly. For more information on this installation process see: http://www.phpunit.de/manual/3.0/en/installation. html It is certainly beyond the scope of this book to specifically cover PHPUnit testing features. It is recommended that you take some time to go through the documentation (http://www.phpunit.de/ wiki/Documentation) to get a feel for the jargon and learn how to write basic unit tests. Functional tests Much like units tests, functional tests are written as PHP classes. However, they extend from CWebTestCase rather than CTestCase. The conventions are the same in that we name our functional test class AbcTest where Abc is the class being tested, and save the class in a file named AbcTest.php. However, we store these under the folder protected/tests/functional. In order to run functional tests, you need to install Selenium. Installing Selenium In addition to PHPUnit, the Selenium Remote Control Server (Selenium RC) is needed in order to run the functional tests. Installing Selenium RC is very simple. 1. Download Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC) zip file from http://seleniumhq.org/download/. 2. Unpack the zip file to a preferred location on your system. The contents of the unzipped folder will have several specific client-based folders and one that contains the actual RC server. It will be named something similar to selenium-server-1.0.x/ The TrackStar Application [ 46 ] Where x will be specific to the version downloaded. Starting the server is also simple. Just navigate to this server folder on your system and issue: % java -jar selenium-server.jar This will start the server in that console. Running a quick example The TDD approach we will be taking throughout building the TrackStar application will primarily focus on the writing and executing of unit tests. However it would be a shame not to run though at least one functional test example. The site we created for our demo Hello World application has an example functional test located at protected/tests/functional/SiteTest.php. This file has three test methods created within it. One for testing the main home page, one for testing the contact page, and a third for testing the login and logout functionality. Before we can run this functional test, we need to make a couple of configuration changes to our application. First we need to alter protected/tests/WebTestCase. php to properly define our test URL that Selenium will attempt to open when it runs the tests. Open up that file and make sure the TEST_BASE_URL definition matches the URL to your demo application we created in the previous chapter, that is, change the following line: define('TEST_BASE_URL','http://localhost/testdrive/index- test.php/'); To: define('TEST_BASE_URL','http://localhost/demo/index-test.php/'); The next change may only apply to Mac OS users. Although, if you are using Windows but prefer not to use Internet Explorer as the testing browser, then you may also want to make this change. The file protected/tests/phpunit.xml houses some configuration settings for Selenium Server. It is configured to use IE as the primary browser. We can remove the following highlighted line of code to ensure only Firefox will be used when running Selenium: Chapter 3 [ 47 ] Now, as long as you have installed PHPUnit (see earlier Unit test section) and have ensured that Selenium Server is running (mentioned previously), and then we can navigate to our tests folder at the command prompt and run this functional test: % cd protected/tests/ % phpunit functional/SiteTest.php What should happen is that you will see your browser being automatically invoked, as the Selenium Server platform is using the browser to access the end-user functionality of the site that we configured in the WebTestCase.php file. As it runs through the test methods, it actually automates the behavior of a real user of the site. Pretty cool! If everything worked, the end results should display back in the command line window where we executed the test. Something similar to the following will be displayed:: Time: 19 seconds, Memory: 10.25Mb OK (3 tests, 10 assertions) Being able to automate these end-user functional tests is a fantastic way to begin to automate your quality assurance testing (QA testing). If you have a separate QA team on the project, it would be very beneficial to show them how to use this tool to test the application. As mentioned, we will be focused more on writing unit tests than these end-user browser executed functional tests, as we employ a test-driven approach. However, having a test suite that covers both unit and functional tests is the best approach to ensuing the best quality in the application development. It might be the case that one of your functional tests failed when running the SiteTest.php tests. If the results of your test indicated a failure at line 44 of the SiteTest.php file, you may need to slightly alter this line to get your tests to pass. This depends on the way the logout link in the main menu displays. The autogenerated test might expect the link read just Logout rather than Logout (demo). If your functional test fails for this reason, simply change that line to read just as the logout link would read if you had logged in as demo/demo, like this: $this->clickAndWait('link=Logout (demo)'); Hello TDD! Let's briefly revisit Hello World! demo application that we built in the previous chapter to provide an example of testing in Yii following a TDD approach. As a reminder, we have a working application that displays Hello World! and Goodbye, Yii Developer. The two action methods handling the requests to display these messages are in our MessageController class. The TrackStar Application [ 48 ] Let's add some new behavior to MessageController.php. Let's enhance it be able to take in any message string, and simply return that exact message string back to the caller. That sounds simple enough. We should just open up MessageController. php and add a new public method, maybe called repeat() and have it do what we just described, right? Well, not quite. As we are taking a TDD approach, we should start by writing a test for this new behavior. As we are testing the behavior of a class method, we need to write a unit test. Following the Yii defaults, this unit test should reside in the protected/tests/ unit/ folder and be called MessageTest.php. Taking small steps, let's just add a new class by this name and have it extend the base Yii Framework class for unit tests, CTestCase. Create the new file, protected/tests/unit/MessageTest.php and add to it the following code: repeat($yell); $this->assertEquals($returnedMessage, $yell); } We have created a new MessageController class by providing a required controllerId to its constructor. We then built a string called $yell that we want repeated back. We call the repeat() method with this input string and capture the returned output in the variable $returnedMessage. The TrackStar Application [ 50 ] As we expect the returned message to contain the exact same string as was sent, we use the phpUnit API method assertEquals() that will compare the first string to the second and result in true or false depending on whether or not they are indeed equal. Now that we have a test written, let's try running it: %phpunit unit/MessageTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. E Time: 0 seconds, Memory: 10.00Mb There was 1 error: 1) MessageTest::testRepeat include(MessageController.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory … FAILURES! Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Errors: 1. I realize this may feel like we have taken a step backward. But, this is really within the nature of TDD. Small steps, testing all the time, and working to quickly get the test to first fail, and then pass. The error is telling us it is trying to create a new instance of MessageController, but it can't find the class in the classpath. We need to include the class as part of the unit test file. As we are running this within the context of the application, we can use the Yii::import syntax to include the class we want to test. The Yii::import method allows us to quickly include the definition of a class. It differs from include and require in that it is more efficient. The class definition being imported is actually not included, until it is referenced for the first time. Importing the same namespace multiple times is also much faster than include_once and require_once. Also, it is good to note that when referring to a class defined by the Yii Framework, we do not need to import or include it. All core Yii classes are pre-imported. Alter the MessageTest.php file to include the following line at the top: assertEquals($message->repeat("Any One Out There?"), "Any One Out There?"); } You should run the test one last time to ensure it still passes, as expected. If TDD is new to you, all of this may seem a little strange, especially given all of the small, at times excruciatingly small, steps we took to achieve such a trivial method implementation. This was mostly to help underscore the rhythm of TDD. The size of the steps you take when using TDD is more of an art than a science. Start out super small and then take bigger steps as you become more confident and comfortable. In several of the testing frameworks available to developers, the test results are displayed as color-coded. Tests that pass are displayed in green, and tests that fail are displayed in red. This also follows the familiar stoplight metaphor. For this reason, TDD is often summed up as: Red, Green, Refactor, Repeat. This refers to the basic rhythm that the previous example underscored: 1. Red: Quickly add a new test and then run all the tests and see the new one fail. 2. Green: Make a little change, just enough to get the failed test to pass. The TrackStar Application [ 52 ] 3. Refactor: If necessary, remove any duplication in the code or things you did just to make the test pass quickly, but otherwise makes you feel icky. 4. Repeat: Start over with #1. Summary This chapter introduced the task tracking application, TrackStar, which we will be developing throughout the rest of this book. We talked about what the application is and what it does and provided some high-level requirements for the application in the form of informal user stories. We then identified some of the main domain objects we will need to create as well as worked through some of the data we will need to be able to house and manage. Not only did we discuss what we are going to be building, but we also outlined how we are going to be building it. We covered a basic agile-inspired development methodology and how we will be applying it to our process. We also introduced Test Driven Development (TDD) as one of the agile methodologies we will be embracing. We covered what TDD is in the abstract, but also how to implement it within the testing framework provided by Yii. In the next chapter, we will finally leave our world of fake demo applications and begin coding something we can really sink our programming teeth into. Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application In the previous chapter, we introduced our development methodology, which embraces an incremental and iterative approach. Within this methodology there is the concept of an iteration. For our purposes, an iteration can be thought of as an opportunity for a development team to create working, tested, and production-ready features of an application within a specified time constraint. The development team and other project stakeholders decide which features will be worked on within this fixed amount of time. Creating such a timebox around our desired features cannot really be done in a book. So, we will let the scope of each chapter define our iteration. From now on, we'll treat each of our chapters as a new iteration, and begin each chapter with the iteration planning section. In this section we will: • Identify the features and functionality that we want to focus on within the iteration • Provide a little upfront design and analysis if necessary, and then quickly break the items into more granular tasks for implementation Iteration planning From what we learned in the previous chapter about our task tracking application, we know that we are going to be building a web-based application. We also learned in Chapter 2, Getting Started, just how easy it is to create a new working Yii web application using the yiic command-line tool. Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application [ 54 ] We also talked about data in Chapter 3, The Trackstar Application, but did not talk specifically about how we want to handle that data. Now is the time to provide some explicit implementation answers to the questions posed in Chapter 3. Do we need persistent data at all? Would flat files on the filesystem work just as well as a relational database? Based on this being a web-based application and the nature of the information that we need to store, retrieve, and manipulate, we can safely say that we need to persist the data in this application. Also, based on the relationships that exist between the types of data we want to capture and manage, we feel that the best approach to storing this data would be in a relational database. Because of its ease of use, excellent price point, general popularity among PHP application developers and its compatibility with the Yii Framework, we will be using MySQL as the specific database server. Getting a basic, working skeleton application in place and successfully connected to a database is all we want to attempt in this first iteration. So in this first iteration, we will focus only on the following basic tasks: • Creating a new Yii web application to be the foundation to the TrackStar application • Creating a new MySQL database • Configuring the new web application to connect to the newly created database In Chapter 2, Getting Started, we saw how easy it is to create a new application. Even though this first iteration will be a short one, at the end, we will have a working, tested, and deployable web application. Creating the new application First things first, let's create the initial Yii web application. We have already seen how easy this is to accomplish in Chapter 2. As we did there, we will assume the following: • YiiRoot is the folder where you have installed Yii • WebRoot is configured to be the document root of your web server (that is, to where http://localhost/ resolves) Chapter 4 [ 55 ] So, from the command line, change to your WebRoot folder, and execute the following: % cd WebRoot % YiiRoot/framework/yiic webapp trackstar Create a Web application under '/Webroot/trackstar'? [Yes|No] Yes This provides us with our skeleton folder structure and our out of the box working application. You should be able to view the homepage of this new application by navigating to: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=site/index Connecting to the database Now that we have our skeleton application up and running, let's work on getting it properly connected to a database. Although this is more a matter of configuration than writing code, we will maintain a test-first approach, so that basic database connectivity becomes a part of our routine test suite. Testing the connection Chapter 3, introduced us to the testing framework provided by Yii. So, we know we add our unit tests under protected/tests/unit/. Let's create a simple database connectivity test file under this folder called DbTest.php. Create this new file with the following contents: assertTrue(true); } } Here we have added a fairly trivial test. The assertTrue() method, which is part of phpUnit, is an assertion that will pass if the argument passed to it is true, and it will fail if it is false. So, in this case, it will pass if true is true. Of course it is, so this test will pass. We are doing this to make sure our new application is working as expected for testing. Navigate to the tests folder and execute this new test: %cd /WebRoot/trackstar/protected/tests %phpunit unit/DbTest.php … Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application [ 56 ] Time: 0 seconds, Memory: 10.00Mb OK (1 test, 1 assertion) … Configuring the test suite If for some reason this test failed on your system, you many need to change protected/tests/bootstrap.php so that the variable $yiit properly points to your /YiiRoot/yiit.php file. Confident that our testing framework is working as expected within our newly created TrackStar application, we can actually test for a db connection. Change the trivial assertEquals(true) statement in the testConnection() test method to: $this->assertNotEquals(NULL, Yii::app()->db); And rerun the test: %phpunit unit/DbTest.php There was 1 error: 1) DbTest::testConnection CDbException: CDbConnection failed to open the DB connection: could not find driver … FAILURES! Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Errors: 1. Now we have a failing test. The test is assuming the application has been configured with a database connection application component called db. (We'll talk a little more about application components later). The test is written to assert that when the application is asked for a db connection, the result is not a null value. In fact, the skeleton application was auto-configured to use a database. A by-product of using the yiic tool is that our new application is configured to use an SQLite database. If you take a peek into the main application configuration file, located at protected/ config/main.php, you will see the following declaration about halfway down: Chapter 4 [ 57 ] 'db'=>array('connectionString' => 'sqlite:'.dirname(__FILE__).'/../ data/testdrive.db', ), And you can also verify the existence of protected/data/testdrive.db, which is the SQLite database it is configured to use. In our case, this test fails because we don't have an SQLite driver configured in our development environment. This test may not have failed for you if you happen to have the correct driver available. Before we change the configuration to use a MySQL database server, let's briefly talk about Yii and databases more generally. Yii and databases Yii provides great support for database programming. Yii Data Access Objects (DAO) is built on top of the PHP Data Objects (PDO) extension (http://php.net/ pdo). This is a database abstraction layer that enables the application to interact with the database independent of the specific choice of database server. All supported database management systems (DBMS) are encapsulated behind a single uniform interface. This way, the code can remain database independent, and applications developed using Yii DAO can be easily switched to use a different DBMS without the need for modification. To establish a connection with a supported DBMS, one can simply create a new CDbConnection class and instantiate it: $connection=new CDbConnection($dsn,$username,$password); Here the format of the $dsn variable depends on the specific PDO database driver being used. Some common formats include: • SQLite: sqlite:/path/to/dbfile • MySQL: mysql:host=localhost;dbname=testdb • PostgreSQL: pgsql:host=localhost;port=5432;dbname=testdb • SQL Server: mssql:host=localhost;dbname=testdb • Oracle: oci:dbname=//localhost:1521/testdb CDbConnection also extends from CApplicationComponent, which allows it to be configured as an application component. This means that we can add it to the components property of the application, and customize the class and property values that are there in the configuration file. This is our preferred approach. Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application [ 58 ] Adding a db connection as an application component To take a quick step back. When we created the initial application, we specified the application type to be a web application. Doing so actually specified that the application singleton class that is created upon each request should be of type CWebApplication. This Yii application singleton is the execution context within which all request processing is run. Its main task is to resolve the user request and route it to an appropriate controller for further processing. This was represented as the Yii Application Router back in our Chapter 1, Meet Yii diagrams, when we covered the request routing. It also serves as the central place for keeping application-level configuration values. To customize our application configuration, we normally provide a configuration file to initialize its property values when the application instance is being created. The main application configuration file is located in /protected/config/main.php. This is actually a PHP file containing an array of key-value pairs. Each key represents the name of a property of the application instance, and each value is the corresponding property's initial value. If you open up this file, you will see that a few settings have already been configured for us by the yiic tool. Adding an application component to the configuration is easy. Open up the main config file and locate the components property. We see that there are already entries specifying a log and a user application component. These will be covered in subsequent chapters. We also see ( as we noted previously) that there is a db component there as well, configured to use an SQLite connection to an SQLite database located at protected/data/testdrive.db. We are going to replace that connection with one for a MySQL database. It can be defined as follows: // application components 'components'=>array( … 'db'=>array( 'connectionString' => 'mysql:host=127.0.0.1;dbname=trackstar_dev', 'emulatePrepare' => true, 'username' => 'your_db_user_name', 'password' => 'your_db_password', 'charset' => 'utf8', ), ), Chapter 4 [ 59 ] This assumes that a MySQL database has been created called trackstar_dev and is available to connect to the localhost IP of 127.0.0.1. One of the great benefits of making this an application component is that from now on, we can reference the database connection simply as a property of the main Yii application: Yii::app()->db anywhere throughout our application. Similarly, we can do this for any of the components defined in the config file. All of our examples will be using the MySQL database. However, we will be providing the low-level DDL statements for the table structures, and we will try to keep things generic from a database implementation perspective. It is entirely possible to follow along using any Yii-compatible database of your choice. At the time of writing, Yii has Active Record support for MySQL, PostgresSQL, SQLite, SQL Server, and Oracle. The charset property set to utf8 sets the character set used for database connection. This property is only used for MySQL and PostgreSQL databases. We are setting it here to ensure proper utf8 unicode character support for our PHP application. The emulatePrepare => true configuration sets a PDO attribute (PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES) to true which is recommended if you are using PHP 5.1.3 or higher. So, we have specified a MySQL database called trackstar_dev as well as the username and password needed to connect to this database. We did not show you how to create such a database in MySQL. We assume you have a favorite database you are going to use as you follow along and know how to create a new database. Please refer to your specific database documentation if you are unsure of how to create a new database called trackstar_dev, and define a username and password for connectivity. Once the database is in place, we can test it again by running our unit test again: %phpunit unit/DbTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. Time: 0 seconds OK (1 test, 1 assertion) Our test now passes Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application [ 60 ] Summary We have completed our first iteration, and we have a working and tested application that is ready to be deployed if necessary. However, our application certainly does not do much of anything. All we have is the functionality that comes out of the box from the autogenerated code when we created the application, and a valid connection to a database. This is certainly far from what we have described when we introduced the TrackStar application. But we are taking small, incremental steps towards achieving our desired functionality, and this first iteration was a great milestone towards that end. In the next chapter, we will finally get to sink our teeth into more meaningful features. We will begin to do some actual coding as we implement the needed functionality to manage our project entities within the application. Iteration 2: Project CRUD Now that we have a basic application in place and configured to communicate with our database, we can begin to work on some real features of our application. We know that the project is one of the most fundamental components in our application. A user cannot do anything useful with the TrackStar application without first either creating or choosing an existing project within which to add tasks and other issues. For this reason, we want to use our second iteration to focus on getting the project entity wired into the application. Iteration planning This iteration is fairly straightforward. At the end of this iteration, our application should allow users to create new projects, select from a list of existing projects, update/edit existing projects, and delete existing projects. In order to achieve this goal, we need to identify all the more granular tasks on which to focus. The following list identifies a more granular list of tasks we aim to accomplish within this iteration: • Design the database schema to support projects • Build the needed tables and all other database objects indentified in the schema • Create the Yii AR model classes needed to allow the application to easily interact with the created database table(s) • Create the Yii controller class(es) that will house the functionality to: °° Create new projects °° Fetch a list of existing projects for display °° Update metadata on existing projects °° Delete existing projects Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 62 ] • Create the Yii view files and present their logic in a way that will: °° Display the form to allow for new project creation °° Display a list of all the existing projects °° Display the form to allow a user to edit an existing project °° Add a delete button to the project listing to allow for project deletion This is certainly enough to get us started. We will soon be able to put these tasks into our TrackStar application, and manage them from there. For now, I guess we will just have to jot them down in a notebook. Running our test suite Before we jump right into development, we should run our existing test suite and make sure all of our tests pass. We only have one test thus far. The test we added in Chapter 4, Iteration 1: Creating the Initial TrackStar Application tests for a valid database connection. So, it certainly won't take too long to quickly run our test suite. Open up your command prompt and from the /protected/tests folder, run all of the following unit tests at once: %phpunit unit/ PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. Time: ::0 seconds OK (1 test, 1 assertion) With all of our tests passing, our confidence is boosted. Now we can begin to make changes Creating the project table Back in Chapter 3, The TrackStar Application we talked about the basic data that represents a project, and in Chapter 4 we decided that we would use a MySQL relational database to build out the persistence layer of this application. Now we need to turn the idea of project content into a real database table. We know projects need to have a name and a description. We are also going to keep some basic table auditing information on each table by tracking the time a record was created and updated as well as who created and updated the record. This is enough to get us started and meet the goals of this first iteration. Chapter 5 [ 63 ] Based on these desired properties, here is how the project table looks: CREATE TABLE tbl_project ( id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, name VARCHAR(128), description TEXT, create_time DATETIME, create_user_id INTEGER, update_time DATETIME, update_user_id INTEGER ); Covering third-party database administration tools is outside of the scope of this book. We also want to allow you to follow along while potentially using something other than MySQL. For these reasons, we are going to simply provide the low-level Data Definition Language (DDL) statements for the structures that we create. So, go ahead and open up your favorite database editor within your preferred Yii- supported database server and create this table in the trackstar_dev database that you created in Chapter 4. Depending on the particular database you choose to use, there are many available tools that help with the maintenance of a database schema and assist in database administration We recommend using a tool that will make things easier when it comes to database administration. We are actually using MySQLWorkbench (http://dev.mysql.com/ downloads/workbench/5.1.html) to design, document, and manage our database schema. We are also using phpMyAdmin (http:// www.phpmyadmin.net/home_page/downloads.php) to help with general administration. There are many similar tools available. The small amount of time it takes to become familiar with how to use them can save you a lot of time in the long run. Naming conventions You may have have noticed that we defined our database table as well as all of the column names in lowercase. Throughout our development, we will use lowercase for all table names and column names. This is primarily because different DBMS handle case-sensitivity differently. As one example, PostgreSQL treats column names as case-insensitive by default, and we must quote a column in a query condition if the column contains mixed-case letters. Using lowercase would help eliminate this problem. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 64 ] You may have also noticed that we used a tbl_ prefix in naming our projects table. As of version 1.1.0, Yii provides integrated support for using table prefix. Table prefix is a string that is pre-pended to the names of the tables. It is often used in shared hosting environments where multiple applications share a single database and use different table prefixes to differentiate from each other. For example, one application could use tbl_ as a prefix while another could use yii_. Also, some database administrators use this as a naming convention to prefix database objects with an identifier as to what type of entity they are, or otherwise to use a prefix to help organize objects into similar groups. In order to take full advantage of the integrated table prefix support in Yii, one must appropriately set the CDbConnection::tablePrefix property to be the desired table prefix. Then, in SQL statements used throughout the application, one can use {{TableName}} to refer to table names, where TableName is the name of the table, but without the prefix. For example, if we were to make this configuration change we could use the following code to query about all projects: $sql='SELECT * FROM {{project}}'; $projects=Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql)->queryAll(); But this is getting a little ahead of ourselves. Let's leave our configuration as it is for now, and revisit this topic when we get into database querying a little later in our application development. Creating the AR model class Now that we have the tbl_project table created, we need to create the Yii model class to allow us to easily manage the data in that table. We introduced Yii's Object -relational Mapping (ORM) layer and Active Record (AR), back in Chapter 1, Meet Yii. Now we will see a concrete example of that in the context of this application. Previously, we used the yiic shell command to help with some autogeneration of code. As we saw in Chapter 2, Getting Started when we were using the shell command to create our first controller, there are many other shell commands you can execute to help auto create application code. However, as of version 1.1.2 of Yii, there is a new and more sophisticated interface available called Gii. Gii is a highly customizable and extensible web-based code generation platform that takes the yiic shell command to new heights. We will be using this new platform to create our new model class. Chapter 5 [ 65 ] Configuring Gii Before we can start using Gii, we have to configure it for use within our application. At this point you probably know enough to guess we would do that in our main application configuration file, protected/config/main.php. This is correct. To configure Gii for use, open this file and add the following highlighted code to the returned array: return array( 'basePath'=>dirname(__FILE__).DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR.'..', 'name'=>'My Web Application', // preloading 'log' component 'preload'=>array('log'), // autoloading model and component classes 'import'=>array( 'application.models.*', 'application.components.*', ), 'modules'=>array( 'gii'=>array( 'class'=>'system.gii.GiiModule', 'password'=>'[add_your_password_here]', ), ), This configures Gii as an application module. We will cover Yii modules in detail later in the book. The important thing at this point is to make sure this is added to the configuration file and that you provide your password. Now, navigate to the tool at: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=gii. The following screenshot shows the authentication form you will be presented with: Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 66 ] Using Gii to create our Project AR class Go ahead and enter the password you provided during the configuration. A successful entry will take you to the following main menu page of Gii: As you may recall, these choices are similar to the options we received back in Chapter 2 when typing help within the yiic shell command-line tool. As we want to create a new model class for our tbl_project table, the Model Generator option seems like the right choice. Clicking that link takes us to the following page: The Table Prefix field is primarily used to help Gii determine how to name the AR class we are generating. If you are using a prefix, you can add this here. This way, it won't use that prefix when naming the new class. In our case, we are using the tbl_ prefix, which also just happens to be what this form field defaults to. So, specifying this value will mean that our newly generated AR class will be named Project, rather than tbl_project. Chapter 5 [ 67 ] The next two fields are asking for our Table Name and the name of the class file we want it to generate. Type in the name of our table, tbl_project, and watch as the model class name auto-populates. The convention for the Model Class name is the name of the table, minus the prefix, and starting with an uppercase letter. So, it will assume a name of Project for our Model Class name, but of course you can customize this. The next few fields allow for further customization. The Base Class field is used to specify the class from which our Model Class will extend. This will have to be CActiveRecord or a child class thereof. The Model Path field allows you to specify where in the application folder structure to output the new file. The default is protected/models/ (also known as application.models). The last field allows us to specify a template on which the generated code is based. We can customize the default one to meet any specific needs we have that might be common to all such class files. For now, the default values for these fields meet our needs just fine. Proceed by clicking on the Preview button. This will result in the following table that is displayed at the bottom of the page: This link allows you to preview the code that will be generated. Before you hit Generate, click on the models/Project.php link. The following screenshot displays what this preview looks like: Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 68 ] It provides a nice scrollable popup, so that we can preview the whole file that will be generated. Okay, close this popup and go ahead and click on the Generate button. Assuming all went well, you should see the following screenshot displayed at the bottom of the page: Ensure that /protected/models (or whatever folder you specified in the Model Path form field) is writable by your web server process prior to attempting to generate your new model class. Otherwise, you will receive a permissions error. Gii has created for us a new Yii AR model class, named (as we instructed it to) as Project.php, and placed it (as we instructed it to) in the default Yii location for model classes, protected/models/. This class is a wrapper class for our tbl_project database table. All of the columns in the tbl_project table are accessible as properties of the Project AR class. Let's get familiar with our newly created AR class by writing some tests. Testing out our newly generated code A great way to get familiar with new code or functionality is to write tests against it. Starting with some unit tests is a great way to get a general feel of how AR classes work in Yii. As this iteration is focused on Creating, Reading, Updating, and Deleting (CRUD) projects, we'll write some tests for these operations on the Project AR class. The public methods for each of these CRUD functionalities are already present in our new Project.php AR class, so we won't need to code for those. We can just focus on writing the tests. Chapter 5 [ 69 ] Creating the unit test file First we need to create a new unit test file. Let's create that file here: protected/ tests/unit/ProjectTest.php, and have it contain the following code: setAttributes( array( 'name' => $newProjectName, 'description' => 'Test project number one', 'create_time' => '2010-01-01 00:00:00', Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 70 ] 'create_user_id' => 1, 'update_time' => '2010-01-01 00:00:00', 'update_user_id' => 1, ) ); $this->assertTrue($newProject->save(false)); } This code first creates a new Project AR instance by invoking new. We then use the setAttributes() method of the AR class to set the AR class attributes in a bulk way based on an input array. We see that the class properties are the keys to this input array, and they will be set to the values specified in this array. After setting the attributes, we save the new Project by invoking its save() method. We pass the optional false parameter into the save() method to tell it to bypass any data validation of the attributes (we'll cover model data validation in the section, Adding a required field to our form). We then test to make sure the returned value from saving the new record is true, which indicates a successful save. Now toggle to the command line to execute this new test to ensure success: % cd Webroot/protected/tests % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. . Time: ::0 seconds OK (1 test, 1 assertion) Great, it passed. So we have successfully added a new project. You can verify this by querying your database directly. Using your preferred database maintenance tool, select back everything from the Project table. You will see that you have a new row with the details that match the attributes we set for the Project AR class. In the following example we used MySQL command line as follows: mysql> select * from tbl_project\G *************************** 1. row *************************** id: 1 name: Test Project 1 description: Test project number one create_time: 2010-01-01 00:00:00 create_user_id: 1 update_time: 2010-01-01 00:00:00 update_user_id: 1 1 row in set (0.00 sec) Chapter 5 [ 71 ] You may have noticed that we did not specify the id column when setting the attributes of the Project AR class. This is because the column is defined to be an auto-increment Primary Key. The database automatically assigns this value when inserting new rows. Once the insert is successful, this attribute is properly set in the AR class itself. You could easily access the newly auto-assigned id attribute in the following manner: $newProject->id We'll use this in our next test. Testing read Now that we have verified the create functionality by testing the save() method of our new Project AR class, let's move on to the read. Add the following highlighted code to the same testCRUD() method, just below where we saved the new record: public function testCRUD() { //Create a new project //READ back the newly created project $retrievedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($newProject->id); $this->assertTrue($retrievedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals($newProjectName,$retrievedProject->name); } Here we use the static method model() that must be defined in every AR class. This method returns an instance of the Project AR class that is further used to call other class-level methods. We are calling the findByPk() method to retrieve a specific instance of Project. This method (as you might expect) takes in the Primary Key value and returns the specific row that matches the unique identifier. We feed it the newly created auto increment id attribute of the Project instance we created previously. This way, we are attempting to read back the exact row we inserted when we saved $newProject. We then have two assertions. We first verify that the entity we read back is an instance of the Project AR class. We then verify that the project name of the record read back is the same as the name we gave the project when we initially saved it. Once again, let's toggle to the command line and run the following test: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php ... OK (1 test, 3 assertions))) ) Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 72 ] Very nice! We have verified that the "R" in CRUD is working as we expect. Let's move a little more quickly now and test Update and Delete at the same time. Testing update and delete Now add the following code at the bottom of the same testCRUD() method we have been using, just after the tests we added for create and read previously: //Create a new project ... //READ back the newly created project ... //UPDATE the newly created project $updatedProjectName = 'Updated Test Project 1'; $newProject->name = $updatedProjectName; $this- >assertTrue($newProject->save(false)); //read back the record again to ensure the update worked $updatedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($newProject->id); $this->assertTrue($updatedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals($updatedProjectName,$updatedProject->name); //DELETE the project $newProjectId = $newProject->id; $this->assertTrue($newProject->delete()); $deletedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($newProjectId); $this->assertEquals(NULL,$deletedProject); Here we have added the tests for updating and deleting a Project. First we gave the $newProject instance a new and updated name and then saved the project again. As we are dealing with an existing AR instance this time, our AR class knows to do an Update, rather than inserting a new record, whenever we invoke ->save(). We then read back the row to ensure the name was updated. To test the Delete, we saved the project id into a local variable $newProjectId. We then called the ->delete() method on our AR instance which (as you probably guessed) deletes the record from the database and destroys the AR instance. We then used our local variable holding the project id to attempt to read back the row by this Primary Key. As the record should have been deleted, we expect this result to be NULL. The test asserts that we do get a NULL value returned. Chapter 5 [ 73 ] Let's make sure these tests pass. Run the test once again to ensure success: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php ... OK (1 test, 8 assertions) Thus we have verified that all of our Project AR class CRUD operations are working as expected. Was all that testing really necessary? When taking a TDD approach to software development, one is constantly faced with making a decision of what to test and, sometimes more importantly, what parts not to test. These are questions you have to answer for yourself. You want to test enough to provide maximum confidence in the code, but obviously testing every single line of code in an application can be overkill. One general rule of thumb is not to worry about testing code in external libraries you did not write (unless you have a specific reason to distrust it). The CRUD operations we just wrote tests for, against the Project AR class, fall into this category. The code behind them is part of the Yii Framework, and not code that we wrote. We did not write these tests because we distrust the framework code, but rather to get a feel for using Active Record in Yii. A great by-product of this exercise is that we now have this as part of our test suite. However, it is unnecessary to go through this testing exercise for every AR model class we create, and thus we won't be doing so for other AR classes we create. Enabling CRUD operations for users The previously mentioned tests introduced us to using AR class instances. It showed us how to use them to create new records, retrieve back existing records, update existing records, and delete existing records. We spent a lot of time testing these lower-level operations on the AR class instance for the Project table, but our TrackStar application does not yet expose this functionality to users. What we really need is a way for users to Create, Read, Update, and Delete projects within the application. Now that we know our way around AR a little, we could start coding this functionality in some controller class. Luckily, we don't have to. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 74 ] Creating CRUD scaffolding for projects Once again, the Gii code generation tool is going to rescue us from having to write common, tedious and often time-consuming code. CRUD operations are such a common need of database tables created for applications that the developers of Yii decided to provide this for us. If you are familiar with other frameworks, you may know this by the term scaffolding. Let's see how to take advantage of this in Yii. Navigate back to the main Gii menu located at http://localhost/trackstar/ index.php?r=gii, and choose the Crud Generator link. You will be presented with the following screen: Here we are presented with two input form fields. The first one is asking for us to specify the Model Class against which we would like all of the CRUD operations generated. In our case, this is our Project.php AR class we created earlier. So enter Project in this field. As we do this, we notice that the Controller ID field is auto-populated with the name project, based on convention. We'll stick with this default for now. With these two fields filled in, clicking the Preview button will result in the following table being added to the bottom of the page: Chapter 5 [ 75 ] We can see that quite a few files are going to be generated, which include a new ProjectContrller.php controller class that will house all of the CRUD action methods and many separate view files. There is a separate view file for each of the operations as well as one that will provide the ability to search project records. You can, of course, choose not to generate some of these by changing the checkboxes in the corresponding Generate column in the table. However, for our purposes, we would like Gii to create all of these for us. Go ahead and click the Generate button. You should see the following success message at the bottom of the page: Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 76 ] You may need to ensure that both /protected/controllers, as well as, /protected/views under the root application folder are both writable by the web server process. Otherwise, you will receive permission errors, rather than this success result. We can now click on the try it now link to take our new functionality for a test drive. Doing so takes you to the project listing page. This is the page that displays all of the projects currently in the system. You might not expect any to be in there yet, as we have not explicitly created any using our new Create functionality. However, our project listing page does have a few projects displayed as shown in the following screenshot. (For reference, the page can be found here: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=project) So, where did these projects come from? You might even have more or less than these three that are listed in the preceding screenshot depending on the number of times you reran the unit tests mentioned previously. The unit tests we wrote to test the CRUD operations of our new Project AR class were actually creating new records in the database every time we ran them. These are all of the records that were created before Chapter 5 [ 77 ] we finished writing our test for deletion, as that test eventually deleted the same record created in the test for creation. In this particular case, it is nice to have a few projects in the system so we can see how they are displayed. However, in general it is a bad idea to run the unit and functional tests against the development database. Soon, we'll cover how to change these tests to run against a separate dedicated test database. For now, let's just keep playing with our newly generated code. Creating a new project You'll notice on this project listings page (displayed in the previous screenshot) a little navigation column in the right column block. Go ahead and click on on the Create Project link. You'll discover this actually takes us to the Login page, rather than a form to create a new project. The reason for this is that the code Gii has generated applies a rule that stipulates that only properly authenticated users (that is, logged-in users) can create new projects. Any anonymous user that attempts to access the functionality to create a new project will be redirected to the Login page. Go ahead and log in using the credentials username as demo and password as demo. A successful login should redirect you to the following URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=project/create This page displays a nice input form for adding a new project, as shown in the following figure: Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 78 ] Let's quickly fill out this form to create a new project. Even though none of the fields are marked as required, let's fill in the Name field as Test Project and the Description field as Test project description. Hitting the Create button will post the form data back to the server, and attempt to add a new project record. If there are any errors, a simple error message will display that highlights each field in error. A successful save will redirect to the specific listing for the newly created project. Ours was successful, and we were redirected to the page with the URL http://localhost/trackstar/index. php?r=project/view&id=4, as shown in the following screenshot: As was mentioned previously, one thing we notice about our new project creation form is that none of the fields are currently marked as being required. We can successfully submit the form without any data at all. However, we know that every project needs to have at least a name. Let's make this a required field. Adding a required field to our form When working with AR model classes within forms in Yii, setting validation rules around form fields is a snap. This is done by specifying values in an array set in the rules() method within the Project AR model class. Opening up the /protected/models/Project.php class reveals that this public method has already been defined, and that there are already a few rules in there: /** * @return array validation rules for model attributes. */ public function rules() { Chapter 5 [ 79 ] // NOTE: you should only define rules for those attributes that // will receive user inputs. return array( array('create_user_id, update_user_id', 'numerical', 'integerOnly'=>true), array('name', 'length', 'max'=>128), array('create_time, update_time', 'safe'), // The following rule is used by search(). // Please remove those attributes that should not be searched. array('id, name, description, create_time, create_user_id, update_time, update_user_id', 'safe', 'on'=>'search'), ); The rules() method returns an array of rules. Each rule is of the following general format: Array('Attribute List', 'Validator', 'on'=>'Scenario List', …additional options); The Attribute List is a string of comma separated class property names to be validated according to the Validator. The Validator specifies what kind of rule should be enforced. The on parameter specifies a list of scenarios in which the rule should be applied. Scenarios allow you to restrict the application of a validation to special contexts. A typical example for an active record would be insert or update. For example, if 'on'=>'insert' is specified, this would indicate that the validation rule should only be applied when the model's scenario attribute is insert. The same holds true for 'update' or any other scenario you wish to define. You can set a model's scenario attribute either directly, or by passing it to the constructor when creating a new instance." If this is not set, the rule is applied in all scenarios when save() is called. Finally, the additional options are name/value pairs, which are used to initialize the Validator's properties. The Validator can be either a method in the model class, or a separate Validator class. If defined as a model class method, it must have the following signature: /**  * @param string the name of the attribute to be validated  * @param array options specified in the validation rule  */ public function ValidatorName($attribute,$params) { ... } Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 80 ] If we use a separate class to define the Validator, that class must extend from CValidator. There are actually three ways to specify the Validator in the previously mentioned general format: 1. One is to specify a method name in the model class itself. 2. A second is to specify a separate class that is of a Validator type (that is, a class that extends CValidator). 3. The third manner in which you can define the Validator is by specifying a predefined alias to an existing Validator class in the Yii Framework. Yii provides many predefined Validator classes for you and also provides aliases with which to reference these when defining rules. The complete list of predefined Validator class aliases as of Yii version 1.1 is as follows: • boolean: Alias of CBooleanValidator, ensuring the attribute has a value that is either true or false • captcha: Alias of CCaptchaValidator, ensuring the attribute is equal to the verification code displayed in a CAPTCHA • compare: Alias of CCompareValidator, ensuring the attribute is equal to another attribute or constant • email: Alias of CEmailValidator, ensuring the attribute is a valid e-mail address • default: Alias of CDefaultVAlidator, assigning a default value to the specified attributes • exist: Alias of CExistValidator, ensuring the attribute value can be found in the specified table column • file: Alias of CFileValidator, ensuring the attribute contains the name of an uploaded file • filter: Alias of CFilterValidator, transforming the attribute with a filter • in: Alias of CRangeValidator, ensuring the data is among a pre-specified list of values • length: Alias of CStringValidator, ensuring the length of the data is within certain range • match: Alias of CRegularExpressionValidator, ensuring the data matches a regular expression • numerical: Alias of CNumberValidator, ensuring the data is a valid number • required: Alias of CRequiredValidator, ensuring the attribute is not empty • type: Alias of CTypeValidator, ensuring the attribute is of a specific data type Chapter 5 [ 81 ] • unique: Alias of CUniqueValidator, ensuring the data is unique in a database table column • url: Alias of CUrlValidator, ensuring the data is a valid URL As we want to make the project name attribute a required field, it looks like the required alias will meet our needs. Let's add a new rule specifying this alias as the Validator to validate our project name attribute. We'll append it to the existing rules: public function rules() { // NOTE: you should only define rules for those attributes that // will receive user inputs. return array( array('create_user_id, update_user_id', 'numerical','integerO nly'=>true), array('name', 'length', 'max'=>128), array('create_time, update_time', 'safe'), // The following rule is used by search(). // Please remove those attributes that should not be searched. array('id, name, description, create_time, create_user_id, update_time, update_user_id', 'safe', 'on'=>'search'), array('name', 'required'), ); } By saving this file and viewing the new Project form again at: http://localhost/ trackstar/index.php?r=project/create, we see a little red asterisk next to the Name field. This indicates that this field is now required. Try submitting the form without this field filled in. You should see an error message indicating that the Name field cannot be blank, as shown in the following screenshot: Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 82 ] While we are making these changes, let's go ahead and make the Description field required as well. All we have to do is add the Description field to the list of fields specified in the new rule we just added, as such: array('name, description', 'required'), So, we see we can specify multiple fields in the attribute list by comma separating them. With this in place, you will see that our form now indicates that both the name and the description are required. Attempting to submit either one without a value will result in a form validation error. If we had stipulated the name and description columns as NOT NULL as part of the SQL when initially creating the table, then this rule would have been autogenerated for us when we created the model class using the Gii code generation tool. It will automatically add rules based on the definitions of the columns in the table. For example, columns with NOT NULL constraints will be added as required. As another example, columns that have length restrictions, like our name column being defined as varchar(128), will have character limit rules automatically applied. We notice by taking another look at our rules() method in the Project AR class that Gii auto created the rule array('name', 'length', 'max'=>128) for us based on its column definition. Reading the project Viewing the detail listing of our new project: http://localhost/trackstar/ index.php?r=project/view&id=4, does, basically, demonstrate the "R" in CRUD. However, to view the entire listing, we can click on the List Project link in the right column. This takes us back to where we started, except now we have our newly created project in the project list. So, we have the ability to retrieve a listing of all of the projects in the application, as well as view the details of each project individually. Chapter 5 [ 83 ] Updating and deleting projects Navigating back to a project details page can be done by clicking the little project ID link on any of the projects in the listing. Let's do this for our newly created project, which is ID: 4 in our case. Clicking this link takes us to the project details page for this project. This page has a number of action operations in the right-hand column, as the next screenshot shows: We see both of the Update Project and Delete Project links which provide us with the "U" and "D" in our CRUD operations respectively. We'll leave it up to you to verify that these links do work as expected. Managing projects in admin mode The last link we have not covered in the previous screenshot depicting our project operations is the Manage Project link. Go ahead and click on this link. It will most likely result in an authorization error, as shown in the following screenshot: The reason for this error is that when we had to log into the application in order to create a new project, we used demo/demo as our username/password combination. The code generated by Gii restricts the access to this functionality to administrators. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 84 ] An administrator in this context is simply someone who has logged in with the username/password combination of admin/admin. Go ahead and log out of the application by clicking Logout (demo) from the main, top, navigation. Then log in again, but this time, use these administrator credentials. Once successfully logged in as admin (you can verify this by ensuring the logout link reads Logout (admin). Navigate back to a specific project listing page, for example: http://localhost/ trackstar/index.php?r=project/view&id=4, and try the Manage Projects link again .We should now see what is shown in the following screenshot: What we now see is a highly interactive version of our project listing page. It displays all the projects in an interactive data table. Each row has inline links, to view, update and delete each project. Clicking on any of the column header links sorts the project list by that column value. The little input boxes in the second row allow you to search this project list by keywords within those individual column values. The Advanced Search link exposes an entire search form providing the ability to specify multiple search criteria, to submit against one search. The next screenshot displays this Advanced Search form: Chapter 5 [ 85 ] Wow! We have basically implemented all of the functionality we set out to achieve in this iteration, and haven't really had to code much of anything. In fact, with the help of Gii, we have implemented basic project searching functionality that we were not expecting to achieve. Though basic, we have a fully functional application with features specific to a project task tracking application, and have done very little coding to achieve it. But don't hit the beach just yet. All of this scaffolding code is not really intended to fully replace application development. Rather, it is there to help support us as we work to build the real application. As we work through all the details and nuances of how the project functionality should work, we can rely on this autogenerated code to keep things moving forward. We'll keep as much of it as we can, depending on project requirements as we move forward, but this type of autogenerated code scaffolding is not intended to be a complete solution for all the functionality we will need to manage the projects in our application. More on testing—fixtures Before we move on to adding more functionality into our TrackStar application, we need to briefly revisit our testing configuration. As we previously discussed, our unit tests actually added new projects to our application in our development environment. Also, even after we completed our tests by deleting the row we created, the database will reuse that same project identifier on subsequent inserts. So, as we continue to run our tests, we will notice gaps in our project ID sequence (which could be confusing during normal development). The problem is that the unit tests are run against the same database that the web form uses when creating new projects. As a result, there is potential for some issues to arise. What we need to do is to configure our tests to run against a separate, mirrored database, that is dedicated just to testing. What we also need is a way to ensure that our tests are always run in the same manner, against the same data. The former is an easy change in a configuration file, which we will make shortly. The latter is achieved through the use of fixtures. A test fixture is a system state or context in which tests are run. We want to run our tests a multiple number of times, and each time they run, we want to be able to have them return repeatable results. A fixture is intended to provide a well-known and fixed environment in which to run our tests. Typically, a fixture's job is to ensure that all of the objects involved in the testing are consistently initialized to a particular state. One typical example of a fixture is the loading of a database table with a fixed and known set of data. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 86 ] Fixtures in yii are PHP files that return an array specifying the initial data configuration. They are typically named the same as the database table they represent, and are located under the protected/tests/fixtures/ folder. So, to specify project fixture data, we will need to create a new file in this directory called tbl_project.php. This file holds the fixed and known set of data that will initialize our Project database table before any tests in the /tests/unit/ProjectTest.php file are run. This fixture file is specified at the top of the ProjectTest.php test file: class ProjectTest extends CDbTestCase { public $fixtures=array ( 'projects'=>'Project', ); } Configuring the fixture manager Setting up these types of database fixtures can be an extremely time consuming part of the testing process. Yii comes, once again, to rescue us from this tedium by the providing CdbFixtureManager class. When configured as an application component, it will provide the following functionality: • Before all tests are run, it resets all the relevant tables to a known data state • Before a single test is run, it can reset specified tables to a known data state • During the execution of a test, it provides access to the rows of data that are part of the fixed data state To use the fixture manager, we configure it in the application configuration files. This was actually already done for us when we created the initial application. If you open up the application configuration file specific to testing, protected/config/test. php, you will see the following application component defined: 'fixture'=>array( 'class'=>'system.test.CDbFixtureManager', ), So the application has already been configured to use this fixture manager. Now we need to create a new fixture. Creating a fixture A fixture in Yii is implemented as a PHP file that returns an array representing the initial rows of data for a particular table. The filename is the same as the table name. By default, these fixture files are expected to be placed in the folder protected/ Chapter 5 [ 87 ] tests/fixtures. You can use the CDbFixtureManager::basePath property in the application configuration to customize this location if desired. Let's provide an example by creating a new fixture for our tbl_project database table. Create a new file, protected/tests/fixtures/tbl_project.php, with the following contents: array( 'name' => 'Test Project 1', 'description' => 'This is test project 1', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'project2'=>array( 'name' => 'Test Project 2', 'description' => 'This is test project 2', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'project3'=>array( 'name' => 'Test Project 3', 'description' => 'This is test project 3', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), ); As we can see, our fixture array has keys that represent entries in our table. The value of these keys are themselves arrays with a key=>value pair for each column in the table. We have added three rows, but you can add as many as you like. For simplicity, we have only filled out the values we have previously stipulated cannot be NULL, that is, the name and description fields. This will be enough data for us to demonstrate the use of fixtures. You may have also noticed that the id column was not specified in the previous fixture data. This column is defined to be an auto-increment field. The value for this column will be handled by the database itself when we insert new rows. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 88 ] Configuring this fixture for use We still need to tell our unit tests to actually use this fixture we just created. We do this in the unit test file. In this case, we will need to add our fixture declaration to the top of our test file protected/tests/unit/ProjectTest.php as such: 'Project', ); } So, what we have done is specified the $fixtures member variable to be an array that specifies which fixtures will be used by this test. The array represents a mapping from fixture names that will be used in the tests to model class names or fixture table names (for example, from fixture name projects to model class Project). When using a model class name, as in this case, the underlying tables that correspond to the model class will be considered as fixture tables. As we described earlier, it is the fixture manager that will manage these underlying tables and reset the data to some known state each time a test method is executed. If you need to use a fixture for a table that is not represented by an AR class, you need to prefix table name with a colon (for example, :tbl_project) to differentiate it from the model class name. Fixture names allow us to access the fixture data in test methods in a convenient way. So, for example, now that we have defined this in our ProjectTest class, we can access our fixture data in the following ways: // return all rows in the 'Project' fixture table $projects = $this->projects; // return the row whose alias is 'project1' in the `Project` fixture table $projectOne = $this->projects['project1']; // If our fixture is associated with an active record, return the AR instance representing // the 'project1' fixture data row $project = $this->projects('project1'); We'll provide more concrete examples when we change some of our actual unit tests to take advantage of this fixture data. First we need to make another change to our testing environment. Chapter 5 [ 89 ] Specifying a test database As we previously mentioned, we need to separate our development database from our testing database so that our testing will not continue to interfere with our development. The test specific application configuration file provides a place for us to do just that. We need to create another new database, call it trackstar_test. We also need to replicate the schema we have in our current trackstar_dev database. This is easy as we just have the one tbl_project table at the moment. Please proceed as you did in Chapter 4 to create this new database with the tbl_project table. Once created, we can add the database connection information as an application component to our test specific configuration file located at protected/config/test.php. You can copy the db component from your main.php config file that we added back in Chapter 4. For MySQL users, like us, we add the following highlighted code to our test config file: return CMap::mergeArray( require(dirname(__FILE__).'/main.php'), array( 'components'=>array( 'fixture'=>array( 'class'=>'system.test.CDbFixtureManager', ), 'db'=>array( 'connectionString' => 'mysql:host=localhost;dbname=trackstar_test', 'emulatePrepare' => true, 'username' => '[your db username]', 'password' => '[your db password]', 'charset' => 'utf8', ), ), ) ); When we run our tests, this test config is loaded, rather than the main config file. This file actually merges the array from the main config file with the array defined in this test config file. If the same components or config values are defined in both, the values in the test file will take precedence. Now when we run our unit tests, we will be manipulating this test database rather than our development one, and won't run the risk of having our test suite negatively impact our development progress. Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 90 ] Using fixtures Now that we have adjusted our test environment to use a separate database, we should take advantage of what fixtures have to offer. When we initially wrote the unit tests for the CRUD operations against the Project AR class, we put all of the Create, Read, Update and Delete tests all into one test method we called testCRUD(). This has the disadvantage of lumping all these discrete tests into one big test. If the first create fails, then the execution of that entire test method stops, and the tests for Read, Update and Delete are never even run. Ideally, we should separate these so that one test does not have to depend on the others. The main reason we wrote the test this way was to avoid the need to ensure the order in which the test methods must run. If we separated the create test from the read test, there is a potential for the read method to be executed prior to the create method, which would result in a failed test, as no rows would have been created to read back. However, we can avoid this issue if we use the fixture data. Now that our new test environment configured to use a new dedicated database, and our fixture data defined, we can decouple our CRUD unit tests. This will give us some concrete examples of how to use our fixture data. Let's start with Read. Open up the ProjectTest.php unit test file and add the following test method: public function testRead() { $retrievedProject = $this->projects('project1'); $this->assertTrue($retrievedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals('Test Project 1',$retrievedProject->name); } We know that before this test is run, the fixture manger will reset the tbl_project table, in the trackstar_test database, to the known state defined by the fixture data. Here, we are simply reading back the first row of data, referencing the row alias, project1, which returns a Project AR instance based on that first row of data defined in our protected/tests/fixtures/tbl_project.php fixture file. We then test that the returned entity is an instance of Project and test to make sure its name is what we established in the fixture data. We can similarly add separate testCreate(), testUpdate(), and testDelete() methods. The entire test file after making the needed change to decouple all of these CRUD tests into separate methods is shown below: 'Project', ); public function testCreate() { //CREATE a new Project $newProject=new Project; $newProjectName = 'Test Project Creation'; $newProject->setAttributes(array( 'name' => $newProjectName, 'description' => 'This is a test for new project creation', 'createTime' => '2009-09-09 00:00:00', 'createUser' => '1', 'updateTime' => '2009-09-09 00:00:00', 'updateUser' => '1', ) ); $this->assertTrue($newProject->save(false)); //READ back the newly created Project to ensure the creation worked $retrievedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($newProject->id); $this->assertTrue($retrievedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals($newProjectName,$retrievedProject->name); } public function testRead() { $retrievedProject = $this->projects('project1'); $this->assertTrue($retrievedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals('Test Project 1',$retrievedProject->name); } public function testUpdate() { $project = $this->projects('project2'); $updatedProjectName = 'Updated Test Project 2'; $project->name = $updatedProjectName; $this->assertTrue($project->save(false));  //read back the record again to ensure the update worked $updatedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($project->id); $this->assertTrue($updatedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals($updatedProjectName,$updatedProject->name); } public function testDelete() { $project = $this->projects('project2'); $savedProjectId = $project->id; $this->assertTrue($project->delete()); $deletedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($savedProjectId); $this->assertEquals(NULL,$deletedProject); } } Iteration 2: Project CRUD [ 92 ] Now, if any one of these fails when we run the tests, the rest will still execute providing us more granular feedback on each distinct operation. Summary Even though we did not do a ton of actual coding in this chapter, we accomplished quite a lot. We created a new database table, which allowed us to see Yii AR in action. We used the Gii code generation tool to first create an AR class to wrap our tbl_project database table. We then wrote tests to try out this new class and got a lot of exposure to using these AR class types. We then demonstrated how to use the Gii code generation tool to generate actual CRUD functionality in the Web application. With this amazing tool, we achieved most of application functionality that we outlined for this iteration. We made one small change to enforce the project name and description on form submission, which showcased the form validation functionality. Finally, we introduced testing fixtures in Yii, and made some adjustments to our testing environment to take advantage of this feature. In the next iteration, we will build on what we have learned here and dive more deeply into Active Record in Yii as we introduce related entities in our data model. Iteration 3: Adding Tasks In the previous iteration, we delivered the basic functionality around the project entity. The project is the foundation of the TrackStar application. However, projects by themselves are not very useful. Projects are the basic containers of the issues we want this application to manage. As managing project issues is the main purpose of this application, we want to spend the next iteration adding some basic issue management functionality. Iteration planning We already have the ability to create and list projects, but these projects are not yet able to contain anything. At the end of this iteration, we want the application to expose all CRUD operations on the project issues or tasks (we tend to use the terms issue and task interchangeably, but in our data model, a task will actually be just one type of issue). We also want to restrict all CRUD operations on issues to be within the context of a specific Project. That is, issues belong to projects. The user must have selected an existing project to work within prior to being able to perform any CRUD operations on the project issues. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 94 ] In order to achieve the preceding outlined goals, we need to identify all the granular items that we will work on within this iteration. The following list outlines these items: • Design the database schema, and build the objects to support project issues • Create the Yii model classes that allow the application to easily interact with the database table(s) that we created • Create the controller class that will house the functionality to allow us to: °° Create new issues °° Fetch a list of existing issues within a project from the database °° Update/edit existing issues °° Delete existing issues • Create views to render user interfaces for these (preceding) actions This is enough information to allow us to get started. After we run our tests, we'll get started on making the necessary database changes. Running the test suite It is always a good idea to run our existing test suite prior to diving into development. Our test suite grew a little with the previous iteration's work. We now have tests for our db connection as well as all CRUD operations for projects. Once again, we'll run them all at once. Navigate to the test folder, /protected/tests/ unit, and run all unit tests: %phpunit unit/ PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. ..... Time: 0 seconds OK (5 tests, 11 assertions) Everything passes. Let's start making some changes. Chapter 6 [ 95 ] Designing the schema Back in Chapter 3,The TrackStar Application we proposed some initial ideas about the issue entity. We proposed it have a type, an owner, a requester, a status, and a description. We also mentioned when we created the tbl_project table that we would be adding basic audit history information to each table we create to track the dates, times and users who update tables. Nothing has changed in the requirements that would alter this approach, so we can move ahead with that initial proposal. However, types, owners, requesters, and statuses are themselves, their own entities. To keep our model flexible and extensible, we'll model some of these separately. Owners and requesters are both users of the system, and will be referenced to the rows in a table called tbl_user. We have already introduced the idea of a user in the tbl_project table, as we added the columns create_user_id and update_user_id to track the identification of the user who initially created the project, as well as, the user who was responsible for last updating the project details. Even though we have not formally introduced that table yet, these fields were modeled to be foreign keys to another table in the database for storing the user data table. The owner_id and requestor_id in the our tbl_issue table will also be foreign keys that relate back to the tbl_user table. We could similarly model the type and status attributes in the same manner. However, until our requirements demand this extra complexity in the model, we can keep things simple. The type and status columns in the tbl_issue table will remain integer values that map to named types and statuses. Instead of complicating our model by using separate tables, we will model these as basic class constant (const) values within the AR model class we create for the issue entity. Don't worry if all of this is a little fuzzy, it will make more sense in the coming sections. Defining some relationships As we are going to be introduced to the tbl_user table, we need to go back and define the relationship between users and projects. Back when we introduced the TrackStar application in Chapter 3, we specified that users (we called them project members) would be associated with one or more projects. We also mentioned that projects can also have many (zero or more) users. As projects can have many users, and users can be associated with many projects, we call this a many-to-many relationship between projects and users. The easiest way to model a many-to-many relationship in a relational database is to use an association or assignment table. So, we need to add this table to our model as well. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 96 ] The following figure outlines a basic entity relationship we need to model among users, projects, and issues. Projects can have zero to many users. A user needs to be associated with at least one project, but can also be associated with many. Issues belong to one and only one project, while projects can have zero to many issues. Finally, an issue is assigned to (or requested by) a single user. Building the database and the relationships So, we need to create three new tables: tbl_issue, tbl_user, and our association table, tbl_project_user_assignment. For your convenience we have provided the basic Data Definition Language (DDL) statements for the tables as well as their relationships. We also provided a little seed data for the users table, so we have a couple of rows populated for immediate use because basic user management is not a part of this iteration. Please proceed as you have done in previous iterations to create the following tables and relationships. The exact syntax of the following statements assumes a MySQL database: CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS 'tbl_issue' ( 'id' INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, 'name' varchar(256) NOT NULL, 'description' varchar(2000), 'project_id' INTEGER, 'type_id' INTEGER, 'status_id' INTEGER, 'owner_id' INTEGER, 'requester_id' INTEGER, 'create_time' DATETIME, 'create_user_id' INTEGER, 'update_time' DATETIME, 'update_user_id' INTEGER ) ENGINE = InnoDB ; Chapter 6 [ 97 ] CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS 'tbl_user' ( 'id' INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, 'email' Varchar(256) NOT NULL, 'username' Varchar(256), 'password' Varchar(256), 'last_login_time' Datetime, 'create_time' DATETIME, 'create_user_id' INTEGER, 'update_time' DATETIME, 'update_user_id' INTEGER ) ENGINE = InnoDB ; CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS 'tbl_project_user_assignment' ( 'project_id' Int(11) NOT NULL, 'user_id' Int(11) NOT NULL, 'create_time' DATETIME, 'create_user_id' INTEGER, 'update_time' DATETIME, 'update_user_id' INTEGER, PRIMARY KEY ('project_id','user_id') ) ENGINE = InnoDB ; -- The Relationships ALTER TABLE 'tbl_issue' ADD CONSTRAINT 'FK_issue_project' FOREIGN KEY ('project_id') REFERENCES 'tbl_project' ('id') ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT; ALTER TABLE 'tbl_issue' ADD CONSTRAINT 'FK_issue_owner' FOREIGN KEY ('owner_id') REFERENCES 'tbl_user' ('id') ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT; ALTER TABLE 'tbl_issue' ADD CONSTRAINT 'FK_issue_requester' FOREIGN KEY ('requester_id') REFERENCES 'tbl_user' ('id') ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT; ALTER TABLE 'tbl_project_user_assignment' ADD CONSTRAINT 'FK_project_ user' FOREIGN KEY ('project_id') REFERENCES 'tbl_project' ('id') ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT; ALTER TABLE 'tbl_project_user_assignment' ADD CONSTRAINT 'FK_user_ project' FOREIGN KEY ('user_id') REFERENCES 'tbl_user' ('id') ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT; -- Insert some seed data so we can just begin using the database INSERT INTO 'tbl_user' ('email', 'username', 'password') VALUES ('test1@notanaddress.com','Test_User_One', MD5('test1')), ('test2@notanaddress.com','Test_User_Two', MD5('test2')) ; Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 98 ] Creating the Active Record model classes Now that we have these tables created, we need to create the Yii AR model classes to allow us to easily interact with these tables within the application. We did this when creating the Project.php model class in Chapter 5, Iteration 2: Project CRUD using the Gii code generation tool. We'll remind you of the steps again here, but spare you of all the screenshots. Please refer back to Chapter 5 for a more detailed walkthrough of using the Gii tool. Creating the Issue model class Navigate to the Gii tool via http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=gii, and choose the Model Generator link. Leave the table prefix as tbl_. Fill in the Table Name field as tbl_issue, which will auto-populate the Model Class field as Issue. Once the form is filled out, click the Preview button to get a link to a popup that will show you all of the code about to be generated. Then click the Generate button to actually create the new Issue.php model class in the /protected/models/ folder. The full listing of the generated code is as follows: true), array('name', 'length', 'max'=>256), array('description', 'length', 'max'=>2000), array('create_time, update_time', 'safe'), // The following rule is used by search(). // Please remove those attributes that should not be searched. array('id, name, description, project_id, type_id, status_id, owner_id, requester_id, create_time, create_user_id, update_time, update_user_id', 'safe', 'on'=>'search'), ); } /** * @return array relational rules. */ public function relations() { // NOTE: you may need to adjust the relation name and the related // class name for the relations automatically generated below. return array( 'owner' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'owner_id'), 'project' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'Project', 'project_id'), 'requester' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'requester_id'), ); } /** * @return array customized attribute labels (name=>label) Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 100 ] */ public function attributeLabels() { return array( 'id' => 'ID', 'name' => 'Name', 'description' => 'Description', 'project_id' => 'Project', 'type_id' => 'Type', 'status_id' => 'Status', 'owner_id' => 'Owner', 'requester_id' => 'Requester', 'create_time' => 'Create Time', 'create_user_id' => 'Create User', 'update_time' => 'Update Time', 'update_user_id' => 'Update User', ); } /** * Retrieves a list of models based on the current search/filter conditions. * @return CActiveDataProvider the data provider that can return the models based on the search/filter conditions. */ public function search() { // Warning: Please modify the following code to remove attributes that // should not be searched. $criteria=new CDbCriteria; $criteria->compare('id',$this->id); $criteria->compare('name',$this->name,true); $criteria->compare('description',$this->description,true); $criteria->compare('project_id',$this->project_id); $criteria->compare('type_id',$this->type_id); $criteria->compare('status_id',$this->status_id); $criteria->compare('owner_id',$this->owner_id); $criteria->compare('requester_id',$this->requester_id); $criteria->compare('create_time',$this->create_time,true); $criteria->compare('create_user_id',$this->create_user_id); $criteria->compare('update_time',$this->update_time,true); $criteria->compare('update_user_id',$this->update_user_id); Chapter 6 [ 101 ] return new CActiveDataProvider(get_class($this), array( 'criteria'=>$criteria, )); } } Creating the User model class This is probably getting to be old-hat for you at this point, so we are going to leave the creation of the User AR class as an exercise for you. This particular class becomes much more important in the next chapter, when we dive into user authentication and authorization. What about the AR class for the tbl_project_user_assignment table? Although one could create an AR class for this table, it is not necessary. The AR model provides an Object Relational Mapping (ORM) layer to our application to help us work easily with our domain objects. However, ProjectUserAssignment is not a domain object of our application. It is simply a construct in a relational database to help us model and manage the many-to-many relationship between projects and users. Maintaining a separate AR class to handle the management of this table is extra complexity, and we can avoid this for the time being. We will avoid the additional maintenance and slight performance overhead by managing the inserts, updates, and deletes on this table using Yii's DAO directly. Creating the Issue CRUD operations Now that we have our AR classes in place, we can turn to building the functionality required to manage our project issues. As the CRUD operations on project issues are the main goal of this iteration, we'll again lean on the Gii code generation tool to help create the basics of this functionality. We did this in detail for the projects in Chapter 5. We'll remind you of the basic steps for issues again here. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 102 ] Navigate to the Gii generator menu at http://localhost/trackstar/index. php?r=gii, and choose the Crud Generator link. Fill out the form using Issue as the value for the Model Class field. This will auto-populate the Controller ID to also be Issue. The Base Controller Class and Code Template fields can remain their predefined default values. Click the Preview button to get a list of all of the files that the Gii tool is proposing to create. The following screenshot shows this list of files: You can click each individual link to preview the code to be generated. Once satisfied, click the Generate button to have all of these files created. You should receive the following success message: Using the Issue CRUD operations Let's try this out. Either click the try it now link shown in the previous screenshot or simply navigate to http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue. You should be presented with something similar to what is shown in the following screenshot: Chapter 6 [ 103 ] Creating a new Issue As we have not added any new issues as yet, there are none to list. So, let's create a new one. Click on the Create Issue link (if this takes you to the login page, then log in using either demo/demo or admin/admin), you should now see a new issue input form similar to what is shown in the following screenshot: Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 104 ] When looking at this input form, we notice that it has an input field for every column in the database table, just as it is defined in the database table. However, as we know from when we designed our schema and built our tables, some of these fields are not direct input fields, but rather represent relationships to other entities. For example, rather than having a Type free-form input text field on this form, we should use a drop-down input form field that is populated with choices of allowed issue types. A similar argument could be made for the Status field. The Owner and Requester fields should also be drop-downs exposing choices of the names of users who have been assigned to work on the project under which the issue resides. Also all issue management should be taking place within the context of a specific project. Therefore, the Project field should not even be a part of this form at all. Lastly, the Create Time, Create User, Update Time, and Update User fields are all values that should be calculated and determined once the form is submitted, and should not be available to the user to directly manipulate. Okay, so we have identified a number of corrections we would like to make on this initial input form. As we mentioned in Chapter 5, the auto-created CRUD scaffolding code that is generated by the Gii tool is just the starting point. Rarely is it enough on its own to meet all the specific functionality needs of an application. We have certainly identified many changes we need to make to this issue creation process. We'll take them on, one at a time. Adding the types drop-down menu We'll start with adding a dropdown menu for the issue types. Issues have just the following three types: • Bugs • Features • Tasks What we would like to see when creating a new issue is a drop-down menu input type form field with these three choices. We will achieve this by having the Issue model class itself provide a list of its available types. As you might have guessed, we'll add this new functionality to the Issue model AR class by first writing a test. As you remember, back in Chapter 5, we added a new database to run our tests against called trackstar_test. We did this to ensure our testing environment would not have an adverse impact on our development environment. So please make sure that you have updated your test database with the new tables, tbl_issue and tbl_user, which we created earlier. Chapter 6 [ 105 ] Getting the test in the "Red" As we know, the first step in our TDD process is to quickly write a test that fails. Create a new unit test file protected/tests/unit/IssueTest.php and add to it the following: public function testGetTypes() { $options = Issue::model()->typeOptions; $this->assertTrue(is_array($options)); } Now toggle to the command line and run the test from with the /protected/tests folder phpunit unit/IssueTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. .E Time: 0 seconds There was 1 error: 1) testGetTypes(IssueTest) CException: Property "Issue.typeOptions" is not defined. /YiiRoot/framework/base/CComponent.php:131 /YiiRoot/yii-read-only/framework/db/ar/CActiveRecord.php:107 /Webroot/tasctrak/protected/tests/unit/IssueTest.php:6 FAILURES! Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Errors: 1. Okay, so we have accomplished the first step in TDD ( that is, quickly writing a test that fails). The test fails for obvious reasons. There is no method Issue::typeOptions() in the model class. We need to add one. Moving From "Red" To "Green" Now open the AR model class, in the protected/models/Issue.php folder, and add the following method to the class: /** * @return array issue type names indexed by type IDs */ public function getTypeOptions() { return array(); } Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 106 ] We have added a simple method, named appropriately, that returns an array type (albeit still empty at the moment). Now if we run our test again: phpunit unit/IssueTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. .. Time: 0 seconds OK (1 tests, 1 assertion) It should be noted that Yii Framework base classes make use of the PHP __get magic function. This allows us in our child classes to write methods such as getTypeOptions(), and yet reference those methods like class properties using >typeOptions syntax. So now our test will pass, and we are in the "green". This is great, but we don't actually have any values returned yet. We certainly can't add our drop-down menu based on this empty array. For our basic three issue types, we are going to use class constants to map these to integer values, and then we will use our getTypeOptions() method to return user friendly descriptions to be used in the drop-down menu. Moving Back To "Red" Before adding this to the Issue class, let's get our test to fail again. Let's add one more assertion that interrogates the returned array and verifies that its contents are as expected. We'll test to ensure that the returned array has three elements, and that these values correspond to our issue types: Bug, Feature, and Task. Alter the test to be: public function testGetTypes() { $options = Issue::model()->typeOptions; $this->assertTrue(is_array($options)); $this->assertTrue(3 == count($options)); $this->assertTrue(in_array('Bug', $options)); $this->assertTrue(in_array('Feature', $options)); $this->assertTrue(in_array('Task', $options)); } As the getTypeOptions() method still returns a blank array, our assertions are sure to fail. So, we are back in the red. Let's add the code to the Issue.php class to get these new assertions to pass. Chapter 6 [ 107 ] Getting back to "Green" once again At the top of the Issue class, add the following three constant definitions: const TYPE_BUG=0; const TYPE_FEATURE=1; const TYPE_TASK=2; Then, alter the Issue::getTypeOptions() method to return an array based on these defined constants: public function getTypeOptions() { return array( self::TYPE_BUG=>'Bug', self::TYPE_FEATURE=>'Feature', self::TYPE_TASK=>'Task', ); } Now if we run our tests again, all five of our assertions pass, and we are back in the green. phpunit unit/IssueTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. .. Time: 0 seconds OK (1 tests, 5 assertions) We now have our model class returning our issue types as needed, but we don't yet have a drop-down field in the input form that takes advantage of these values. Let's add that now. Adding the issue type dropdown Open up the file containing the new issue creation form, protected/views/issue/_ form.php, and find the lines that correspond to the Type field on the form:
labelEx($model,'type_id'); ?> textField($model,'type_id'); ?> error($model,'type_id'); ?>
Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 108 ] These lines need a little clarification. In order to understand this, we need to refer to some code at the top of the _form.php file which is as follows: beginWidget('CActiveForm', array( 'id'=>'issue-form', 'enableAjaxValidation'=>false, )); ?> This is defining the $form variable using the CActiveForm widget in Yii. Widgets are going to be covered in much more detail in Chapter 9. For now, we can comprehend this code by better understanding CActiveForm. It can be thought of as a helper class that provides a set of methods to help us to create a data entry form that is associated with a data model class. In this case, it is represented by the Issue model class. To fully understand the variables in our view file, let's also review our controller code that is rendering the view file(s). As you recall, one way to pass data from the controller to the view is by explicitly declaring an array, the keys of which will be the names of available variables in the view files. As this is the create action for a new issue, the controller method rendering the form is IssueController::actionCre ate(). This method is listed as follows: public function actionCreate() { $model=new Issue; // Uncomment the following line if AJAX validation is needed // $this->performAjaxValidation($model); if(isset($_POST['Issue'])) { $model->attributes=$_POST['Issue']; if($model->save()) $this->redirect(array('view','id'=>$model->id)); } $this->render('create',array( 'model'=>$model, )); } Here, we see that when the view is being rendered, it is being passed an instance of the Issue model class, that will be available in a variable called $model. Chapter 6 [ 109 ] Okay, so now let's go back to the code that is responsible for rendering the Type field on the create new issue entry form. The first line is: $form->labelEx($model,'type_id'); This line is using the CActiveForm::labelEx() method to render an HTML label for a the Issue model attribute, type_id. It takes in an instance of the model class, and the corresponding model attribute for which we want a label generated. The model class' Issue::attributeLabels() method will be used to determine the label. If we take a look at this method, we see that the attribute type_id is mapped to a label of Type, which is exactly what we see rendered as the label to this form field public function attributeLabels() { return array( 'id' => 'ID', 'name' => 'Name', 'description' => 'Description', 'project_id' => 'Project', 'type_id' => 'Type', 'status_id' => 'Status', 'owner_id' => 'Owner', 'requester_id' => 'Requester', 'create_time' => 'Create Time', 'create_user_id' => 'Create User', 'update_time' => 'Update Time', 'update_user_id' => 'Update User', ); } The next line of code is as follows: textField($model,'type_id'); ?> It uses the CActiveForm::textField() method to render a text input field for our Issue model attribute, type_id. Any of the validation rules defined for type_id in the model class Issue::rules() method will be applied as form validation rules to this input form. The final line of code is as follows: error($model,'type_id'); ?> It uses the CActiveForm::error() method to render any validation errors associated with the specific type_id attribute of the Issue model class on submission. Used in this way, the error message will display directly below the field. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 110 ] You can try out this validation with the Type field. As the type_id column is defined as an integer type in our MySQL schema definition, the Gii generated Issue model class has a validation rule in the Issue::rules() method to enforce this constraint: public function rules() { // NOTE: you should only define rules for those attributes that // will receive user inputs. return array( array('name', 'required'), array('project_id, type_id, status_id, owner_id, requester_id, create_user_id, update_user_id', 'numerical', 'integerOnly'=>true), So, if we attempt to submit a string value in our Type form field, we will receive an inline error, right under the field, as depicted in the following screenshot: Now that we understand exactly what we have , we are in a better position to change it. What we need to do is change this field from a free-form text input field to a drop-down entry type. It probably comes as little surprise that the CActiveForm class has a dropDownList() method that will generate a drop-down list for a model attribute. So, let's replace the line that calls $form->textField, with the following: dropDownList($model,'type_id', $model- >getTypeOptions()); ?> This still takes in the same model as the first argument and the model attribute as the second. The third argument specifies the list of drop-down choices. This should be an array of value=>display pairs. We already created our getTypeOptions() method in the Issue model class to return an array of this format, so we can use it directly. Save your work and look again at our issue input form. You should see a nice drop- down menu of issue type choices in place of the free-form text field, as displayed in the following screenshot: Chapter 6 [ 111 ] Adding the status drop-down menu: Do it yourself We are going to take the same approach for the issue status. As mentioned back in Chapter 3 when we introduced the application, issues can be in one of three statuses: • Not yet started • Started • Finished We are going to leave the implementation of the status dropdown to the reader. After following the same approach we took for the types (and we hope you take a test-first approach), and both the Type and Status form field should be dropdown lists. The form should look similar to what is shown in the following screenshot: Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 112 ] Fixing the owner and requester fields Another problem that we previously noticed with the issue creation form is that the Owner and Requester fields were also free-form input text fields. However, we know these are integer values in the issue table that hold foreign key identifiers to the tbl_user table. So, we also need to add drop-down fields for these fields. We won't take the exact same approach we took for the Type and Status attributes, as issue owners and requesters need to be taken from the tbl_user table. To complicate things a bit further, because not every user in the system will be associated with the project under which the issue resides, these cannot be dropdowns populated with data taken from the entire tbl_user table. We need to restrict the list to just those users associated with this project. This brings up another thing we need to address. As mentioned in the Iteration planning section, we need to manage our issues within the context of a specific project. That is, a specific project should be chosen before you are even able to view the form for creating a new issue. Currently, our application functionality does not enforce this workflow. Let's address these issues in turn. First we will alter the application to enforce a valid project that should be identified first, prior to using any functionality to manage the issues associated with that project. Once a project is chosen, we'll make sure both our Owner and Requester dropdown choices are restricted to only users that are associated with that project. Enforcing a project context We want to ensure a valid project context is present before we allow any issue-related functionality. To do this, we are going to implement what is called a filter. A filter in Yii is bit of code that is configured to be executed either before or after a controller action is executed. One common example is if we want to ensure a user is logged in prior to executing a controller action method, then we could write a simple access filter that would check this requirement before the action is executed. Another example is if we want to perform some extra logging or other auditing logic after an action has executed. We could write a simple audit filter to provide this post-action processing. In this case, we want to ensure a valid project has been chosen prior to creating a new issue. So, we'll add a project filter to our IssueController class to accomplish this. Chapter 6 [ 113 ] Implementing a filter A filter can be defined as a controller class method or it can be a separate class. When using the simple method approach, the method name must begin with word filter and have a specific signature. For example, if we were going to create a filter method called SomeMethodName, our full filter method would look like: public function filterSomeMethodName($filterChain) { ... } The other approach is to write a separate class to perform the filter logic. When using the separate class approach, the class must extend CFilter and then override at least one of the preFilter() or postFilter() methods depending on whether the logic should be executed before the action is invoked, or after. Adding a filter So, let's add a filter to our IssueController class to handle the valid project. We'll take the simplest approach for now, and add a method that begins with the word filter directly to the class. As the invocation of this method is done by the Yii Framework itself, it is hard for us to take a test-first approach with this implementation. We'll break from our preferred approach a little bit in this case, and add this method to the IssueCcontroller without first writing a test. Open up protected/controllers/IssueController.php and add the following method to the bottom of the class: public function filterProjectContext($filterChain) { $filterChain->run(); } Okay, we now have a filter defined, but it does not do much yet. It simply executes $filterChain->run(), which continues the filtering process and allows execution of the action methods that are being filtered by this method. This brings up another point. How do we define for which action methods we should use this filter? Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 114 ] Specifying the filtered actions CController, the Yii Framework base class for our controller classes has a filters() method that needs to be overridden in order to specify the actions on which to apply filters. In fact, this method has already been overridden in our IssueController class. This was done for us when we used the Gii tool to autogenerate this class. It already added a simple accessControl filter, which is defined in the CController base class, to handle some basic authorization to ensure that the user has sufficient permission to perform certain actions. We'll be covering user authentication and authorization in the next chapter. For now, we just need to add to this filter configuration array. To specify that our new filter should apply to the create action, alter the IssueController::filters() method by adding the following highlighted code : /** * @return array action filters */ public function filters() { return array( 'accessControl', // perform access control for CRUD operations 'projectContext + create', //check to ensure valid project context ); } The filters() method should return an array of filter configurations. The previous method returns a configuration that specifies that the projectContext filter, which is defined as a method within the class, should apply to the actionCreate() method. The configuration syntax allows for '+' and '-' symbols to be used to specify whether or not a filter should or apply. For example, if we decided that we wanted this filter to apply to all the actions except the actionUpdate() and actionView() action methods, we could specify: return array( 'projectContext - update, view' , ); You should not specify both the plus and the minus operator at the same time. Only one should be used for any given filter configuration. The plus operator means 'Only apply the filter to the following actions'. The minus operators means 'Apply the filter to all actions except the following'. If neither the '+' nor the '-' is in the configuration, the filter will be applied to all actions. Chapter 6 [ 115 ] At the moment, we'll keep this restricted to just the create action. So, as defined previously with the + create configuration, our filter method will be called when any user attempts to create a new issue. Adding some filter logic Okay, so now we have a filter defined and we have configured it to be called upon every attempted actionCreate() method call within the Issuecontroller class. However, it still does not perform the needed logic. As we want to ensure the project context before the action is attempted, we need to put the logic in the filter method before the call to $filterChain->run(). We'll add a project property to the controller class itself. We'll then use a querystring parameter in our URLs to indicate the project identifier. Our pre-action filter will check to see if the existing project attribute is null. If so, it will use the querystring parameter to attempt to select the project based on the Primary Key identifier. If successful, the action will execute, and if it fails an exception will be thrown. Here is the code that is required in the IssueController class to perform all of this: class IssueController extends CController { .... /** * @var private property containing the associated Project model instance. */ private $_project = null; /** * Protected method to load the associated Project model class * @project_id the primary identifier of the associated Project * @return object the Project data model based on the primary key */ protected function loadProject($project_id) { //if the project property is null, create it based on input id if($this->_project===null) { $this->_project=Project::model()->findbyPk($project_id); if($this->_project===null) { throw new CHttpException(404,'The requested project does not exist.'); } Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 116 ] } return $this->_project; } /** * In-class defined filter method, configured for use in the above filters() method * It is called before the actionCreate() action method is run in order to ensure a proper project context */ public function filterProjectContext($filterChain) { //set the project identifier based on either the GET or POST input //request variables, since we allow both types for our actions $projectId = null; if(isset($_GET['pid'])) $projectId = $_GET['pid']; else if(isset($_POST['pid'])) $projectId = $_POST['pid']; $this->loadProject($projectId); //complete the running of other filters and execute the requested action $filterChain->run(); } ... } With this in place, now attempt to create a new issue by clicking the Create Issue link from the issue listing page at this URL, http://hostname/tasctrak/index. php?r=issue/list You should be met with an Error 404 error message which also displays the error text we specified previously, The requested project does not exist. This is good. It shows we have properly implemented the code to prevent a new issue from being created when no project has been identified. The quickest way to get past this error is to simply add a pid querystring parameter to the URL used for creating new issues. Let's do that so we can supply the filter with a valid project identifier, and proceed to the form to create a new issue. Chapter 6 [ 117 ] Adding the project ID Back in Chapter 5, we added several new projects to the application as we were testing and implementing the CRUD operations on Projects. So, it is likely that you still have a valid project in your development database. If not, simply use the application to create a new project again. Once complete, take note of the project ID created, as we need to add this ID to the new issue URL. The link we need to alter is in the view file for the issue listing page: /protected/ views/issue/index.php. At the top of that file you will see the create new link specified in the menu as shown in the following highlighted code: $this->menu=array( array('label'=>'Create Issue', 'url'=>array('create')), array('label'=>'Manage Issue', 'url'=>array('admin')), ); To add a querystring parameter to this link, we simply append a name=>value pair in the array defined for the url. The code we added for the filter is expecting the querystring parameter to be pid (for project ID). Also, as we are using the first (project ID = 1) project for this example, we alter the Create Issue link as follows: array('label'=>'Create Issue', 'url'=>array('create', 'pid'=>1)), Now when you view the issue listing page, you will see that the Create Issue hyperlink opens a URL with a querystring parameter appended to the end: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/create&pid=1 This querystring parameter allows the filter to properly set the project context. So, this time when you click the link, rather than getting the 404 error, the create new issue form will be displayed. Altering the project details page Adding the project ID to the URL for the create new issue link was a good first step to ensure our filter was working as expected. However, now we have hard-coded the link to always associate a new issue with the project ID '=' 1. Of course, this is not what we want. What we want to do is to have the menu option for creating a new issue be a part of the project details page. This way, once you have chosen a project from the project listing page, the specific project context will be known, and we can dynamically append that project ID to the create new issue link. Let's make that change. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 118 ] Open up the project details view, /protected/views/project/view.php. At the top of this file, you will notice the menu items contained within the $this->menu array. We need to add another create a new issue link to the end of this list of defined menu links: $this->menu=array( array('label'=>'List Project', 'url'=>array('index')), array('label'=>'Create Project', 'url'=>array('create')), array('label'=>'Update Project', 'url'=>array('update', 'id'=>$model->id)), array('label'=>'Delete Project', 'url'=>'#', 'linkOptions'=>array('s ubmit'=>array('delete','id'=>$model->id),'confirm'=>'Are you sure you want to delete this item?')), array('label'=>'Manage Project', 'url'=>array('admin')), array('label'=>'Create Issue', 'url'=>array('issue/create', 'pid'=>$model->id)), ); What we have done is moved the menu option to create a new issue to the page that lists the details for a specific project. We used a link similar to the one before, but this time we had to specify the full controllerId/actionId pair (issue/create). Also, rather than hardcode the project ID to be 1, we have used the $model variable within the view file, which is the AR class for the specific project. This way, regardless of the project we choose, this variable will always reflect the correct project id attribute for that project. Removing the project input form field Now that we have the project context properly set when creating a new issue, we can remove the Project field as a user input form field. However, we do still need the project ID to be submitted with the form. As we know the project ID before we render this input form, we can set the project model attribute in the create action. This way, the $model instance that is passed to the view file will already have the proper project ID set. First, let's alter the IssueController::actionCreate() method to set the project_id property of the Issue model instance just after it is created: public function actionCreate() { $model=new Issue; $model->project_id = $this->_project->id; ... } Chapter 6 [ 119 ] Now the project_id property is set and will be available in the form file. Open up the view file for the new issue form, /protected/views/issue/_form. php. Remove the following lines that are associated with the Project input field:
labelEx($model,'project_id'); ?> textField($model,'project_id'); ?> error($model,'project_id'); ?>
Replace them with a hidden field:
hiddenField($model,'project_id'); ?>
Now when we submit the form, the project_id attribute will be correctly set. Even though we don't have our Owner and Requester drop-down menu set yet, we can submit the form and a new issue will be created with the proper project ID set. Returning back to the owner and requester dropdowns Finally, we can turn back to what we set out to do, which is to change the Owner and Requester fields to be dropdown choices of valid members of that project. In order to do this properly, we need to associate some users with a project. As user management is the focus of Chapter 7 and Chapter 8, we will do this quickly by adding the association directly to the database via SQL. We already added two new test users as part of our seed data in our earlier DDL statements. As a reminder, that insert statement was as follows: INSERT INTO 'tbl_user' ('email', 'username', 'password') VALUES ('test1@notanaddress.com','Test_User_One', MD5('test1')), ('test2@notanaddress.com','Test_User_Two', MD5('test2')) ; This created two new users in our system with ID's 1 and 2. Let's manually assign these two users to Project #1. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 120 ] To do so, run the following insert statement against your trackstar_dev and trackstar_test databases: INSERT INTO 'tbl_project_user_assignment' ('project_id', 'user_id') VALUES (1,1), (1,2); After running the preceding SQL, we have two valid members assigned to Project #1. One of the wonderful features of relational Active Record within Yii, is the ability to access valid members of a project to which an issue belongs directly from the issue $model instance itself. When we used the Gii tool to initially create our issue model class, it was smart enough to look at the underlying database and build in the relevant relationships. This can be seen in the relations() method within /protected/models/Issue.php. As we created this class after adding the appropriate relationships to the database, the method should look similar to this: /** * @return array relational rules. */ public function relations() { // NOTE: you may need to adjust the relation name and the related // class name for the relations automatically generated below. return array( 'owner' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'owner_id'), 'project' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'Project', 'project_id'), 'requester' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'requester_id'), ); } As the NOTE suggests, you may have slightly different attributed names and may want to adjust them as needed. This array configuration defines properties on the model instance that are themselves other AR instances. With these relations in place, we can access the related AR instances incredibly easily. For example, say we want to access the Project model class to which an issue is associated. We can do so by using the following syntax: //create the model instance by primary key: $model = Issue::model()->findbyPk(1); //access the associated Project AR instance $project = $model->project; Chapter 6 [ 121 ] Now, because we created our Project model class prior to having other tables and relationships defined in our database, there are no relations defined yet. However, now that we have some relationships defined, we need to add these to the Project::relations() method. Open the Project AR class in /protected/models/ Project.php, and replace the entire relations() method with the following: /** * @return array relational rules. */ public function relations() { // NOTE: you may need to adjust the relation name and the related // class name for the relations automatically generated below. return array( 'issues' => array(self::HAS_MANY, 'Issue', 'project_id'), 'users' => array(self::MANY_MANY, 'User', 'tbl_project_ user_assignment(project_id, user_id)'), ); } With these in place, we can easily access all of the issues and/or users associated with a project with incredibly easy syntax as follows: //create the Project model instance by primary key: $model = Project::model()->findbyPk(1); //get an array of all associated Issue AR instances $allIssues = $model->issues; //get an array of all associated User AR instance $allUsers = $model->users; //get the User AR instance representing the owner of //the first issue associated with this project $ownerOfFirstIssue = $model->issues[0]->owner; Normally we would have to write complicated SQL join statements to access such related data. Using relational AR in Yii saves us from this complexity and tedium. We can now access these relationships in a very elegant and concise object oriented manner. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 122 ] Generating the data to populate the drop-down menu Now, there are a couple of ways by which we could use this data to populate our needed dropdowns for the Requester and Owner fields. We'll follow a similar approach as we did for the Status and Type drop-down data, and place the logic inside a model class. In this case, the Project AR class makes the most sense, as valid users are associated with a project, and not with an issue. As we are going to add a new public method to the Project AR class, we can once again use our TDD approach. So, let's quickly write a test that fails. Once again, remember that we have now setup a trackstar_test database against which to test. If you are following along, please ensure this database schema is in sync with the trackstar_dev database. Open the /protected/tests/unit/ProjectTest.php file and add the following test: public function testGetUserOptions() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $options = $project->userOptions; $this->assertTrue(is_array($options)); } Now run the test. >>phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.3.17 by Sebastian Bergmann. ....E Time: 0 seconds There was 1 error: 1) ProjectTest::testGetUserOptions CException: Property "Project.userOptions" is not defined.... FAILURES! Tests: 5, Assertions: 10, Errors: 1. Chapter 6 [ 123 ] Okay, we have a test that fails. It is failing for obvious reasons, as we are testing a method in the Project AR class that does not yet exist. So let's add it. Open up the file /protected/models/Project.php, and add the following method to the bottom of the class: /** * @return array of valid users for this project, indexed by user IDs */ public function getUserOptions() { $usersArray = array(); return $usersArray; } If we run our tests again, we see we are back in the "green". However, we only have a method that returns an empty array. What we need is a valid user array that can be used to populate the form dropdowns. Let's get our test back in the "red" by testing to ensure the count of the returned array is > 0. Alter the test method to be: public function testGetUserOptions() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $options = $project->userOptions; $this->assertTrue(is_array($options)); $this->assertTrue(count($options) > 0); } Running the test again should now result in the following error: There was 1 failure: 1) ProjectTest::testGetUserOptions Failed asserting that is true. So, let's toggle back to the Project::getUserOptions() method and return some actual users. Alter that method to be: public function getUserOptions() { $usersArray = CHtml::listData($this->users, 'id', 'username'); return $usersArray; }} Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 124 ] Here we are using Yii's CHtml helper class to help us create an array of id=>username pairs from each user associated with the project. Remember that the users property in the Project class maps to an array of User AR instances. The CHtml::listData() method can take in this list and product a valid array suitable for CActiveForm::dropDownList(). Now, as long as we remember to populate our test database with our two users and associate them with Project #1, our tests will pass. Adding User and ProjectUserAssignment fixtures Our tests are now passing, but only because we explicitly added users, and we also explicitly added the related entries to the project association table. What happens if someone comes along and removes these entries? We need to fix this fragile relationship. We already know that test fixtures are exactly what we need to ensure that our tests involving database data can be repeatedly run in a consistent manner. We did this before for our project data. We need to do it again for data related to both the tbl_user and tbl_project_user_assignment tables. Create a new file, /protected/tests/fixtures/tbl_user.php, and add to it the following: array( 'email' => 'test1@notanaddress.com', 'username' => 'Test_User_One', 'password' => MD5('test1'), 'last_login_time' => '', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'user2'=>array( 'email' => 'test2@notanaddress.com', 'username' => 'Test_User_Two', 'password' => MD5('test2'), 'last_login_time' => '', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), ); Chapter 6 [ 125 ] This is the same data we added manually via explicit SQL earlier, but here it is represented as fixture data. We need to do the same for our association table. Create another new file, /protected/tests/fixtures/tbl_project_user_assignment.php and add the following content: array( 'project_id' => 1, 'user_id' => 1, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'user2ToProject1'=>array( 'project_id' => 1, 'user_id' => 2, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), ); This is also the same data as we added to the tbl_project_user_assignment table manually, but represented as fixture data. Now we need to add the fixture to the unit test. Open up the ProjectTest file, /protected/tests/unit/ProjectTest.php, and add it to the fixtures definition at the top of that file with the following highlighted code: public $fixtures=array( 'projects'=>'Project', 'users'=>'User', 'projUsrAssign'=>':tbl_project_user_assignment', ); Notice that we had to add the : when mapping to the tbl_project_user_ assignment table. This is needed to indicate that this is a database table, and not an AR model class. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 126 ] Now that this has been added, each time we run the ProjectTest.php unit test, our tbl_user and tbl_project_user_assignment tables will be reset to a consistent state using the data defined in the corresponding fixture data files. Now let us run our project-related tests again: >> unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ..... Time: 0 seconds OK (5 tests, 12 assertions) We still have passing tests, but now they are using this new fixture data. Now that we have our getUserOptions() method working as expected, we need to implement the dropdown to display that returned data. We already added a private $_project attribute to our IssueController class. This attribute contains the valid project context. We need to access this same project attribute in our view file that displays the input form. So, we need to add a simple getter method to expose this private attribute. Add the following method to the bottom of the IssueController class: /** * Returns the project model instance to which this issue belongs */ public function getProject() { return $this->_project; } Now, open up the view file containing the input form elements, /protected/views/ issue/_form.php, and find where the two text field input forms element definitions for owner_id and requester_id. Replace textField($model,'owner_id'); ?> with this: dropDownList($model,'owner_id', $this->getProject()- >getUserOptions()); ?> Chapter 6 [ 127 ] Also replace this line: textField($model,'requester_id'); ?> with this: dropDownList($model,'requester_id', $this- >getProject()->getUserOptions()); ?> Now if we view our issue creation form again, we see two nicely populated dropdown fields for the Owner and Requester. Making one last change As we already have the Create Issue form view file open, let's quickly make one last change. The creation time and user as well as the last updated time and user fields that we have on every table for basic history and auditing purposes should not be exposed to the user. Later, we will alter the application logic to automatically populate these fields upon inserts and updates. For now, let's just remove them as inputs on the form. Just completely remove the following lines from /protected/views/issue /_form.php:
labelEx($model,'create_time'); ?> textField($model,'create_time'); ?> error($model,'create_time'); ?>
labelEx($model,'create_user_id'); ?> textField($model,'create_user_id'); ?> error($model,'create_user_id'); ?>
labelEx($model,'update_time'); ?> textField($model,'update_time'); ?> error($model,'update_time'); ?>
labelEx($model,'update_user_id'); ?> textField($model,'update_user_id'); ?> error($model,'update_user_id'); ?>
Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 128 ] The following screenshot shows what our new issue creation form now looks like with all of these changes: Finishing the rest of the CRUD The goal of this iteration is to implement all the CRUD operations for issues. We have finalized the create functionality, but we still need to complete the read, update and delete of issues. Luckily, most of the foundation has already been laid by using the Gii CRUD generation functionality. However, as we want to manage issues all within the context of a project, we need to make some adjustments to how you access this functionality. Chapter 6 [ 129 ] Listing the issues Even though there is the actionIndex() method in the IssueController class that displays a list of all issues in the database, we don't have a need for this functionality as it is currently coded. Rather than a separate standalone page that lists all the issues in the database, we want to only list the issues that are associated with a specific project. So, we'll alter the application to display the listing of issues as part of the project details page. As we are taking advantage of the relational AR model in Yii, it will be a snap to make this change. Altering the ProjectController First, let's alter the actionView() method in the ProjectController class. As we want to display a list of the issues associated with a specific project, we can do this on the same page as the project details page. The method actionView() is the method that displays the project details. Alter that method to be: /** * Displays a particular model. */ public function actionView() { $issueDataProvider=new CActiveDataProvider('Issue', array( 'criteria'=>array( 'condition'=>'project_id=:projectId', 'params'=>array(':projectId'=>$this->loadModel()->id), ), 'pagination'=>array( 'pageSize'=>1, ), )); $this->render('view',array( 'model'=>$this->loadModel(), 'issueDataProvider'=>$issueDataProvider, )); } Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 130 ] Here we are using the CActiveDataProvider framework class to provide data in terms of ActiveRecord objects. It will use the associated AR model class to retrieve data from the database in a manner that can be used very easily with the Zii widget CListView to display items in a list rendered in a manner specified in a view file. We have used the criteria property to specify the condition that it should only retrieve issues associated with the project being displayed. We also used the pagination property to limit the issue list to just one issue per page. We set this very low so we can quickly demonstrate the paging features by just adding two issues. We'll demonstrate this soon. The last thing we did was add this data provider to the array defined in the render() to make it available to the view file in a $issueDataProvider variable. Altering the project view file We'll use the Zii widget CListView to display our list of issues on the project details page. Open up /protected/views/project/view.php, and add this to the bottom of that file:

Project Issues

widget('zii.widgets.CListView', array( 'dataProvider'=>$issueDataProvider, 'itemView'=>'/issue/_view', )); ?> Here we are setting the dataProvider property of CListView to be our issue data provider we created above. And then we are configuring it to use the protected/ views/issue/_view.php file as a template for rendering each item in the data provider. This file was already created for us by the Gii tool when we generated our CRUD for issues. We are just using it here to display issues on the project details page. We need to also make a couple of changes to the /protected/views/issue/_view. php file that we specified as a layout template for each issue. Alter the entire contents of that file to be the following:
getAttributeLabel('name')); ?>: name), array('issue/ view', 'id'=>$data->id)); ?>
Chapter 6 [ 131 ] getAttributeLabel('descripti on')); ?>: description); ?>
getAttributeLabel('type_ id')); ?>: type_id); ?>
getAttributeLabel('status_ id')); ?: status_id); ?>
Now if we save and view our results by looking at the project details page for Project # 1 (http://localhost/tasctrak/index.php?r=project/view&id=1), and assuming you have created a couple of test issues under that project, you should see a page like the one in the following screen: Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 132 ] As we set the pagination property of our data provider very low (remember we set it to just 1), we can add one more issue to demonstrate the built-in paging functionality. Adding one more issue changes the display of issues to have links that allow us to go from page to page within our Project Issues listing, as depicted in the following screenshot: Making some final tweaks We now have a list of our issues associated with a project that are displayed from within the project details page. We also have the ability to view the details of an issue "R"ead, as well as links to "U"pdate and "D"elete issues. So, for the most part our CRUD operations are in place. However, there are still a few items that need to be addressed before we can close out this iteration. One thing we notice is that the issues display list is showing numeric ID numbers for the Type, Status, Owner and Requester fields. We should change this so that the text values for those are displayed instead. Also, as issues are under a specific project already, it is a bit redundant to have the project ID displayed as part of the issue list data. So, we can remove that. Finally, we need to address some of the navigational links that are displayed on the various other issue related forms to ensure we are always returning to this project details page as the starting place for all of our issue management. We'll tackle these one at a time. Getting the status and type text to display Previously we added public methods to the Issue AR class to retrieve the Status and Type options to populate our dropdowns on the issue creation form. We need to add similar methods on this AR class to return the text for the specific identifier for display on our issues listing. Chapter 6 [ 133 ] As these will be public methods on the issue AR class, we should implement it using our TDD approach. To speed things up a bit, we'll do both of these at the same time. Also, as we get a hang of TDD a little bit, we'll start to take bigger steps. We can always return to a more granular approach. First we need to add some fixture data to ensure we have a couple of issues associated with a project. We also need to make sure our issue tests are using the project fixture data as well as issues belong to projects. First, add a new fixtures data file for issues, /protected/tests/fixtures/tbl_ issue.php and add to it the following content: array( 'name' => 'Test Bug 1', 'description' => 'This is test bug for project 1', 'project_id' => 1, 'type_id' => 0, 'status_id' => 1, 'owner_id' => 1, 'requester_id' => 2, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'issueFeature'=>array( 'name' => 'Test Bug 2', 'description' => 'This is test bug for project 2', 'project_id' => 2, 'type_id' => 1, 'status_id' => 0, 'owner_id' => 2, 'requester_id' => 1, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), ); Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 134 ] Now we need to configure our IssueTest class to use some fixture data. Add the following fixtures array at the top of the issue test class: public $fixtures=array( 'projects'=>'Project', 'issues'=>'Issue', ); With our fixture data in place, we can add two new tests to the IssueTest unit test class for testing the status and type text: public function testGetStatusText() { $this->assertTrue('Started' == $this->issues('issueBug')- >getStatusText()); } And also this test: public function testGetTypeText() { $this->assertTrue('Bug' == $this->issues('issueBug')- >getTypeText()); } Now if we run the test, we should get a failure due to the fact that we have not yet added these public methods to our AR class: >>phpunit unit/IssueTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ..EE Time: 2 seconds, Memory: 12.25Mb There were 2 errors: 1) IssueTest::testGetStatusText Exception: Unknown method 'issues' for class 'IssueTest'. … 2) IssueTest::testGetTypeText Exception: Unknown method 'issues' for class 'IssueTest'. … FAILURES! Tests: 4, Assertions: 10, Errors: 2. Chapter 6 [ 135 ] So, we've got our failing test, let's add the necessary code to our /protected/ models/Issue.php file to get them to pass. Add the following two new public methods to the Issue class to retrieve the status and type text for the current issue: /** * @return string the status text display for the current issue */ public function getStatusText() { $statusOptions=$this->statusOptions; return isset($statusOptions[$this->status_id]) ? $statusOptions[$this->status_id] : "unknown status ({$this->status_ id})"; } /** * @return string the type text display for the current issue */ public function getTypeText() { $typeOptions=$this->typeOptions; return isset($typeOptions[$this->type_id]) ? $typeOptions[$this- >type_id] : "unknown type ({$this->type_id})"; } Now let's run our tests again: >>phpunit unit/IssueTest.php .... Time: 1 second, Memory: 12.25Mb OK (4 tests, 12 assertions) We have both tests passing and back in the 'green'. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 136 ] Adding the text display to the form Now we have our two new public methods that will return the valid status and type text for our listing to display, we need to make use of them. Alter the following lines of code in /protected/views/issue/_view.php: Change the following command: type_id); ?> to: getTypeText()); ?> and change this command: status_id); ?> to this: getStatusText()); ?> After these changes, our Issues listing page, http://localhost/trackstar/index. php?r=issue no longer displays integer values for our issue Type and Status fields. It now looks like what is displayed in the following screenshot: As we are using the same view file to display our Issues listing on our project detail pages, these changes are reflected there as well. Chapter 6 [ 137 ] Changing the issue detail view We also need to make these and a few other changes to the detailed view of the Issue. Currently, if we view the Issue details, it should look like the following screenshot: This is using a view file we have not altered at all as of yet. It is still displaying the project ID, which we don't need to display, as well as the type and status as integer values, rather than their associated text values. Opening the view file used to render this display, /protected/views/issue/view.php, we notice that it is using the Zii extension widget, CDetailView, which we have not seen before. This is similar to the CListView widget used to display the listing, but is used to display the details of a single data model instance (or associative array), rather than for displaying a list view of many. The relevant code from this file showing the use of this widget is as follows: widget('zii.widgets.CDetailView', array( 'data'=>$model, 'attributes'=>array( 'id', 'name', 'description', 'project_id', 'type_id', 'status_id', 'owner_id', 'requester_id', Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 138 ] 'create_time', 'create_user_id', 'update_time', 'update_user_id', ), )); ?> Here we are setting the data model of the CDetailView widget to be the Issue model class and then setting a list of attributes of the model to be displayed in the rendered detail view. An attribute can be specified as a string in the format of Name:Type:Label, of which both Type and Label are optional, or as an array itself. Here, just the name of the attributes are specified. If we specify an attribute as an array, we can customize the display further by declaring a value element. We will take this approach in order to specify the model class methods getTypeText() and getStatusText() be used as the values for the Type and Status fields respectively. Let's change this use of CDetailView to use the following configuration: widget('zii.widgets.CDetailView', array( 'data'=>$model, 'attributes'=>array( 'id', 'name', 'description', array( 'name'=>'type_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->getTypeText()) ), array( 'name'=>'status_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->getStatusText()) ), 'owner_id', 'requester_id', ), )); ?> Here we have removed a few attributes from displaying at all. The project_id, create_time, update_time, create_user_id, and update_user_id. We will handle the population and display of some of these later, but for now we can just remove them from the detail display. Chapter 6 [ 139 ] We also changed the declaration of the type_id and status_id attributes to use an array specification so that we could use the value element. We have specified that the corresponding Issue::getTypeText() and Issue::getStatusText() methods be used for getting the values of these attributes. With these changes in place, the Issue details page looks like the following: Okay, we are getting much closer to what we want, but there are still a couple of changes we need to make. Getting the owner and requester names to display Things are looking better, but we still see integer identifiers displaying for the owner and requester, rather than the actual user names. We'll take a similar approach to what we did for the type and status text displays. We'll add two new public methods on the Issue model class to return the names of these two properties. Using relational AR As the issues and users are represented as separate database tables and related through a foreign key relationship, we an actually access the owner and requester username directly from $model in the view file. Utilizing the power of Yii's relational AR model features, displaying the username attribute of the related User model class instance is a snap. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 140 ] As we have mentioned, the model class Issue::relations() method is where the relationships are defined. If we take a peek at this method, we see the following: /** * @return array relational rules. */ public function relations() { // NOTE: you may need to adjust the relation name and the related // class name for the relations automatically generated below. return array( 'owner' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'owner_id'), 'project' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'Project', 'project_ id'), 'requester' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'requester_ id'), ); } The highlighted code is what is most relevant for our needs. There are both owner and requester attributes defined as relations to the User model class. These definitions specify that the values of these attributes are User model class instances. The owner_id and the requester_id specify the unique Primary key of their respective User class instances. So, we can access these just as we do for other attributes of the Issue model class. So, to display the username of the owner and requester User class instances, we once again change our CDetailView configuration to be: widget('zii.widgets.CDetailView', array( 'data'=>$model, 'attributes'=>array( 'id', 'name', 'description', array( 'name'=>'type_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->getTypeText()) ), array( 'name'=>'status_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->getStatusText()) ), array( Chapter 6 [ 141 ] 'name'=>'owner_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->owner->username) ), array( 'name'=>'requester_id', 'value'=>CHtml::encode($model->requester->username) ), ), )); ?> After making these changes, our Issues detail listing is starting to look pretty good. The following figure shows the progress thus far: Making some final navigation tweaks We are very close to completing the functionality we set out to implement within this iteration. The only thing left is to clean up our navigation just a little. You may have noticed that there are still some options available that allow the user to navigate to an entire listing of issues, or to create a new issue, outside of a project context. For the purposes of the TrackStar application, everything we do with issues should be within the context of a specific project. Earlier, we enforced this project context for creating a new issue (which is a good start), but we still need to make a few changes. One thing that we notice is that the application still allows the user to navigate to a listing of all issues, across all projects. For example, on an Issue detail page, like http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view&id=1, we see in the right column menu navigation there are the links List Issue and Manage Issue, corresponding to http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/ index and http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/admin respectively (remember that to access the admin page, you have to be logged in as admin/ admin). These still display all issues, across all projects. So, we need to limit this list to a specific project. Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 142 ] As these links originate from the Issue details page, and that specific issue has an associated project, we can first alter the links to pass in a specific project ID, and thehe uof that project ID as both the IssueController::actionIndex, and IssueController::actionAdmin() methods. First let's alter the links. Open up /protected/views/issue/view.php file and locate the array of menu items at the top of the file. Change the menu configuration to be: $this->menu=array( array('label'=>'List Issue', 'url'=>array('index', 'pid'=>$model- >project->id)), array('label'=>'Create Issue', 'url'=>array('create', 'pid'=>$model->project->id)), array('label'=>'Update Issue', 'url'=>array('update', 'id'=>$model- >id)), array('label'=>'Delete Issue', 'url'=>'#', 'linkOptions'=>array('s ubmit'=>array('delete','id'=>$model->id),'confirm'=>'Are you sure you want to delete this item?')), array('label'=>'Manage Issue', 'url'=>array('admin', 'pid'=>$model- >project->id)), ); The changes made are highlighted. We have added a new querystring parameter to the new Create Issue link, as well as to the Issue listing page and the issue admin listing page. We already knew we had to make this change for the Create link, as we have previously implemented a filter to enforce a valid project conssue. We won't have to make any further changes relative to this link. But for the index and admin links, we will need to alter their corresponding action methods to make use of this new querystring variable. As we have already configured a filter to load the associated project using the querysting variable, let's take advantage of this. We'll need to change the filter configuration so that our filter method is called prior to execution of both the IssueController::actionIndex() and IssueController::actionAdmin() methods. Change the filters method as shown: public function filters() { return array( 'accessControl', // perform access control for CRUD operations 'projectContext + create index admin', //perform a check to ensure valid project context ); } Chapter 6 [ 143 ] With this in place, the associated project will be loaded and available for use. Let's use it in our IssueController::actionIndex() method. Alter that method to be: public function actionIndex() { $dataProvider=new CActiveDataProvider('Issue', array( 'criteria'=>array( 'condition'=>'project_id=:projectId', 'params'=>array(':projectId'=>$this->_project->id), ), )); $this->render('index',array( 'dataProvider'=>$dataProvider, )); } Here, as we have done before, we are simply adding a condition to the creation of the model data provider to only retrieve issues associated with the project. This will limit the list of issues to just the ones under the project. We need to make the same change to the admin listing page. However, this view file, /protected/views/issue/admin.php is using the results of the model class Issue::search() method to provide the listing of issues. So, we actually need to make two changes to enforce the project context with this listing. First, we need to alter the IssueController::actionAdmin() method to set the correct project_id attribute on the model instance it is sending to the view. The following highlighted code shows this change: public function actionAdmin() { $model=new Issue('search'); if(isset($_GET['Issue'])) $model->attributes=$_GET['Issue']; $model->project_id = $this->_project->id; $this->render('admin',array( 'model'=>$model, )); } Iteration 3: Adding tasks [ 144 ] Then we need to add to our criteria in the Issue::search() model class method. The following highlighted code identifies the change we need to make to this method: public function search() { // Warning: Please modify the following code to remove attributes that // should not be searched. $criteria=new CDbCriteria; $criteria->compare('id',$this->id); $criteria->compare('name',$this->name,true); $criteria->compare('description',$this->description,true); $criteria->compare('type_id',$this->type_id); $criteria->compare('status_id',$this->status_id); $criteria->compare('owner_id',$this->owner_id); $criteria->compare('requester_id',$this->requester_id); $criteria->compare('create_time',$this->create_time,true); $criteria->compare('create_user_id',$this->create_user_id); $criteria->compare('update_time',$this->update_time,true); $criteria->compare('update_user_id',$this->update_user_id); $criteria->condition='project_id=:projectID'; $criteria->params=array(':projectID'=>$this->project_id); return new CActiveDataProvider(get_class($this), array( 'criteria'=>$criteria, )); } With these changes in place, the issues listed on the admin page are now restricted to be only those associated with the specific project. Chapter 6 [ 145 ] There are several places throughout the view files under /protected/ views/issues/ that contain links that require a pid querystring to be added in order to work properly. We leave it as an exercise to the reader to make the appropriate changes following the same approach as provided in these examples. As we proceed with our application's development, we'll assume all links to create a new issue or to display a list of issues are properly formatted to contain the appropriate pid querystring parameter. Summary We were able to cover a lot of different topics in this iteration. Based on the relationship between issues, projects, and users within our application, the implementation of our issue management functionality was significantly more complicated than our project entity management we worked on in the previous iteration. Fortunately, Yii was able to come to our rescue many times to alleviate the pain of having to write all of the code needed to address this complexity. Specifically, we covered: • Using the Gii code generator tool for Active Record model creation as well as for the initial implementation of all basic CRUD operations against the Issue entity • Designing and building database tables with explicit relationships • Using relational Active Record • Adding drop-down menu input type form elements • Controller filters We have made a lot of progress on our basic application thus far, and have done so without having to write a lot of code. The Yii Framework itself has done most of the heavy lifting. We now have a working application that allows us to manage projects and also manage issues within those projects. This is the heart of what our application is trying to achieve. We should feel proud of the accomplishments thus far. However, we still have a long way to go before this application is truly ready for production use. A major missing piece is all of the needed functionality around user management. This is going to be the focus of the next two iterations. Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication We have made a lot of progress in a short amount of time. The basic functionality foundations for our TrackStar application have been laid. We now have the ability to manage projects and issues within projects, and this is the primary purpose of this application. Of course, there is still much left to do. Back in Chapter 3, when we were introducing this application, we described it as a user-based application that allows for the creation of user accounts, and grants access to the application features once a user has been authenticated and authorized. In order for this application to be useful to more than one person we need to add the ability to manage users within projects. This is going to be the focus of the next two iterations. Iteration planning When we used the yiic command line tool to initially create our TrackStar application, we noticed that basic login functionality was automatically created for us. The login page allows for two username/password credential combinations, demo/demo and admin/admin. You may recall that we had to log in to the application in order to perform some of our CRUD operations on our project and issue entities. This basic authentication skeleton code does provide a good start, but we need to make a few changes in order to support any number of users. We also need to add user CRUD functionality to the application to allow us to manage these multiple users. This iteration is going to focus on extending the authentication model to use the User table and add the needed functionality to allow for basic user data management. Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 148 ] In order to achieve the above outlined goals, we should identify all the more granular items we will work on within this iteration. The following list identifies these items: • Create the controller classes that will house the functionality to allow us to: °° Create new users °° Fetch a list of existing users from the database °° Update/edit existing users °° Delete existing users • Create the view files and presentation tier logic that will: °° Display the form to allow for new project creation °° Display a listing of all the existing projects °° Display the form to allow for a user to edit an existing project °° Add a delete button to the project listing to allow for project deletion • Make adjustments to the create new user form so that it can be used by external users as a self-registration process • Alter the authentication process to use the database to validate the login credentials Running the test suite It's always best to run our test suite before we start adding new functionality. With each iteration, as we add to our application functionality, we add to our test suite. As our test suite grows, so does our application's ability to provide us feedback on its general health. Making sure everything is still working as expected will boost our confidence as we begin making changes. From the tests folder, /protected/tests/, run all unit tests as once: % phpunit unit/ PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. .......... Time: 0 seconds OK (10 tests, 26 assertions) Everything looks good, so let's dive in to this iteration. Chapter 7 [ 149 ] Creating our User CRUD As we are building a user-based web application, we must have the means to add and manage users. We added a tbl_user table to our database model in Chapter 6. You may recall that we left it as an exercise for the reader to create the associated AR model class. If you are following along and did not create the needed user model class, you will need to do so now. As a brief reminder on using the Gii code creation tool to create the model class. Navigate to the Gii tool via http://localhost/trackstar/ index.php?r=gii and choose the Model Generator link. Leave the table prefix as tbl. Fill in the Table Name field as tbl_user, which will auto-populate the Model Class name field as User. Once the form is filled out, click the Preview button to get a link to a popup that will show you all of the code about to be generated. Then click the Generate button to actually create the new User.php model class file in the /protected/models/ directory With the User AR class in place, creating the CRUD scaffolding is a snap. As we have done previously, we will once again we lean on the Gii code generation tool for this. As a reminder, here are the necessary steps: 1. Navigate to the tool via http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=gii. 2. Choose the Crud Generator link from the list of available generators. 3. Type in User for the Model Class name field. The corresponding Controller ID will auto-populate with user. 4. You will then be presented with options to preview each file prior to generating. When satisfied, click the Generate button, which will generate all of the associated CRUD files in their proper locations. With this in place, we can view our user listing page at http://localhost/ trackstar/index.php?r=user. In the previous iteration, we manually created a couple of users in our system, so that we could properly handle the relationships between projects, issues and users. So, we should see a couple of users listed on this page. Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 150 ] The following screenshot shows how this page is displaying for us: We can also view the new Create User form by visiting http://localhost/ tasctrak/index.php?r=user/create. If you are not currently logged in, you will be routed to the login page before being able to view the form. So you might have to log in using demo/demo or admin/admin to view this form. Having created and used our CRUD operation functionality first on our project entity, and then again with Issues, we are very familiar at this point with how these features are initially implemented by the Gii code generation tool. The input forms provided for creating and updating are a great start, but often need some adjusting to meet the specific application requirements. The form generated for creating a new user is no exception. It has an input form field for every single column that has been defined in the tbl_user table. We don't want to expose all of these fields for user input. The columns for last login time, creation time and user, and update time and user should all be set programmatically after the form is submitted. Updating our common audit history columns Back in Chapters 5 and 6, when we introduced our Project and Issue CRUD functionality, we also noticed that our forms had more input fields than they should. As we have defined all of our database tables to have the same creation and update time and user columns, every one of our auto-created input forms has these fields exposed. We completely ignored these fields when dealing with the project creation form back in Chapter 5. Then, with the new issue creation form in Chapter 6, we removed the fields from in the form, but we never added the logic to properly set these values when a new row is added. Chapter 7 [ 151 ] Let's take a minute to add this logic. As all of our entity tables—tbl_project, tbl_issue, and tbl_user—have the same columns defined, we will add the required logic to a common base class and then have each of the individual AR classes extend from this new base class. As you might have guessed, we'll write a test first before we start adding in the needed application code. We already have a test in place ProjectTest::testCreate(), in tests/unit/ProjectTest.php, for testing the creation of a new project. We'll alter this existing test method to test our new process of updating our common audit history columns. The first thing we need to change in our ProjectTest::testCreate() method is to remove the explicit setting of these columns when we call the setAttributes() method for the newly created project: $newProject->setAttributes(array( 'name' => $newProjectName, 'description' => 'This is a test for new project creation', // - remove - 'createTime' => '2009-09-09 00:00:00', // - remove - 'createUser' => '1', // - remove - 'updateTime' => '2009-09-09 00:00:00', // - remove - 'updateUser' => '1', )); Now we need to add in the explicit setting of the user ID and remove the false parameter sent when saving the Active Record, as we now want the validation to be triggered. The reason we want to trigger the AR validation is because we are going to tap into the validation workflow in order to update these fields. The code below shows the entire method with the new changes highlighted: public function testCreate() { //CREATE a new Project $newProject=new Project; $newProjectName = 'Test Project Creation'; $newProject->setAttributes(array( 'name' => $newProjectName, 'description' => 'This is a test for new project creation', )); //set the application user id to the first user in our users fixture data Yii::app()->user->setId($this->users('user1')->id); //save the new project, triggering attribute validation $this->assertTrue($newProject->save()); Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 152 ] //READ back the newly created Project to ensure the creation worked $retrievedProject=Project::model()->findByPk($newProject->id); $this->assertTrue($retrievedProject instanceof Project); $this->assertEquals($newProjectName,$retrievedProject->name); //ensure the user associated with creating the new project is the same as the applicaiton user we set //when saving the project $this->assertEquals(Yii::app()->user->id, $retrievedProject- >create_user_id); } The new assertion added is testing that the create_user_id column of the Project was properly updated with the current application's user ID. This should be enough to confirm that our approach is working. If you now run this test from the command line, you should see the test fail, which is what we expect. The test fails because we have yet to add in the logic required to set this field. Now let's get this test to pass. We are going to create a new class to house the logic needed to update our common audit history fields. This class is going to be a base class from which all our application AR classes can extend. The reason we are creating this new class, rather than just adding the logic directly to our Project model class, is because our other model classes, Issue and User, also need this logic. Rather than duplicate the code in every AR model class, this approach will allow us to properly set these fields for every AR model class in just one place. We will also make this new class abstract, as it should not be instantiated directly. We need to manually create a new file, protected/models/ TrackStarActiveRecord.php, and add the following code:: isNewRecord) { // set the create date, last updated date and the user doing the creating $this->create_time=$this->update_time=new CDbExpression('NOW()'); Chapter 7 [ 153 ] $this->create_user_id=$this->update_user_id=Yii::app()- >user->id; } else { //not a new record, so just set the last updated time and last updated user id $this->update_time=new CDbExpression('NOW()'); $this->update_user_id=Yii::app()->user->id; } return parent::beforeValidate(); } } Here we are overriding the CActiveRecord::beforeValidate() method. This is one of the many events that CActiveRecord exposes to allow customization of its process workflow. As a quick reminder, if you do not explicitly send false as a parameter when calling the save() method on an AR class, the validation process will be triggered. This process performs the validations as specified in the rules() method within the AR class. There are two methods exposed that allow us to tap in to the validation workflow and perform any necessary logic either right before or right after the validation is performed: beforeValidate() and afterValidate(). In this case, we have decided to explicitly set our audit history fields just prior to performing the validation. You probably noticed the use of CDbExpression in the previous code to set the timestamp for both the creation and update time. Starting from version 1.0.2 of Yii, an attribute can be assigned a value of CDbExpression type before the record is saved. That database expression will then be executed to provide the value for the attribute during the saving process. Using NOW() in the previous code is specific to MySQL. This may not work if you are following along using a different database. You can always take a different approach for setting this value. For example, using the PHP time function and formatting it appropriately for the column's data type: $this->createTime=$this- >updateTime=date( 'Y-m-d H:i:s', time() ); We determine whether or not we are dealing with a new record (that is, an insert) or an existing record (that is, an update) and set our fields appropriately. We then make sure to invoke the parent implementation by returning parent::beforeValidate() to ensure it has a chance to do everything it needs to do. Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 154 ] To try this out, we now need to alter each of the three existing AR classes—Project. php, User.php, and Issue.php—to extend from this new abstract class rather than directly from CActiveRecord. So, for example, rather than the following: class Project extends CActiveRecord { We need to change it to: class Project extends TrackStarActiveRecord { And similarly for our other model classes. Once you have done this for the Project model AR class, rerun the tests to ensure they pass. With this now in place, we can remove these fields from each of the forms for creating new projects, issues, and users (we already removed them from the issues form in the previous iteration). The HTML for these form fields are defined in protected/views/project/_form.php, protected/views/issue/_form.php, and protected/views/user/_form.php respectively. The lines we need to remove from each of these files are the following:
labelEx($model,'create_time'); ?> textField($model,'create_time'); ?> error($model,'create_time'); ?>
labelEx($model,'create_user_id'); ?> textField($model,'create_user_id'); ?> error($model,'create_user_id'); ?>
labelEx($model,'update_time'); ?> textField($model,'update_time'); ?> error($model,'update_time'); ?>
labelEx($model,'update_user_id'); ?> textField($model,'update_user_id'); ?> error($model,'update_user_id'); ?>
Chapter 7 [ 155 ] And from the user creation form, protected/views/user/_form.php, we can also remove the last login time field:
labelEx($model,'last_login_time'); ?> textField($model,'last_login_time'); ?> error($model,'last_login_time'); ?>
As we are removing these from being form inputs, we should also remove the validation rules defined for these fields in the associated rules method. These validation rules are defined to ensure the data submitted by the user is correctly formatted. As these fields are not going to be filled in by the user, we can remove the rules. In the User::rules() method, the two rules we should remove are: array('create_user_id, update_user_id', 'numerical', 'integerOnly'=>true), array('last_login_time, create_time, update_time', 'safe'), The Project and Issue AR classes have similar rules defined, but not identical. When removing those rules, be sure to leave in the rules that do still apply to the user input fields. The removal of the rule for the last_login_time attribute above was intentional. We should prevent this from being shown as a user input field as well. This field needs to be updated automatically upon a successful login. As we had the view file open and were removing the other fields, we decided to remove this one now as well. However, we will wait to add the necessary application logic until after we make a few other changes and cover a few other topics. Actually, while we still have our hands in this validation rules method for the User class, we should make another change. We want to ensure that the e-mail, as well as the username, for every user is unique. We should validate this requirement when the form is submitted. We can add these two rules by adding the following line of code to this rules() method: array('email, username', 'unique'), Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 156 ] The entire User::rules() method should now look like the following: public function rules() { // NOTE: you should only define rules for those attributes that // will receive user inputs. return array( array('email', 'required'), array('email, username, password', 'length', 'max'=>256), array('email, username', 'unique'), // The following rule is used by search(). // Please remove those attributes that should not be searched. array('id, email, username, password, last_login_time, create_time, create_user_id, update_time, update_user_id', 'safe', 'on'=>'search'), ); } The unique declaration in the previous rule is an alias that refers to the Yii's built- in validator, CUniqueValidator. This validates the uniqueness of the model class attribute against the underlying database table. With the addition of this validation rule, we will receive an error when attempting to enter either an e-mail and/or username that has already been entered. When we first created our tbl_user table in Chapter 6, we added two test users, so we would have some data to play with. The first of these two users has an e-mail address of test1@notanaddress.com. Try to add another user using the same e-mail address. The following screenshot shows the error message received and the highlighting of the field in error after such an attempt: Chapter 7 [ 157 ] Adding a password confirmation field We should add a new field to force the user to confirm the password they entered. This is a standard practice on new user registration forms and helps the user avoid making a mistake when entering this important piece of information. Fortunately, Yii comes with another built-in validator, CCompareValidator, which does exactly what you think it might do. It compares the values of two attributes, and returns an error if they are not equal. In order to take advantage of this built-in validation, we need to add a new attribute to our model class. Add the following attribute to the top of the User model AR class: public $password_repeat; We named this attribute by appending _repeat to the name of the attribute we want to compare against. The compare validator will allow you to specify any two attributes to compare, or compare an attribute to a constant value. If no comparison attribute or value is specified when declaring the compare rule, it will default to looking for an attribute beginning with the same name as the one being compared with the addition of _repeat appended to the end. This is why we named the attribute in this manner. Now we can add a simple validation rule to the User::rules() method as follows: array('password', 'compare'), We want to mark all of the fields on the form as being required. Currently, our required rule is being applied to the e-mail field only. While we are making changes to this User::rules() method, let's add username and password to this list as well: array('email, username, password', 'required'), As we have explicitly added the $password_repeat attribute to the User AR class, and it is not a column in the underlying database table, we need to also tell the model class to allow this field to be set in a bulk manner when the setAttributes() method is called. We do this by explicitly adding our new attribute to the safe attributes list for our User model class. To do this, add the following to the User::rules() array: array('password_repeat', 'safe'), To explain this in a little more detail. When our form is submitted back to the UserController::actionCreate() method, it uses the following code to set the User model class attributes in a bulk manner: $model->attributes=$_POST['User']; Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 158 ] What happens here is that for every key in the $_POST['User'] array that matches the name of a safe attribute in the $model class, that class attribute's value is set to the corresponding value in the array. By default, for a CActiveRecord model class, all underlying database columns, except the Primary Key, are considered safe. As our new $password_repeat is not a column of tbl_user, we need to explicitly add it to this list of safe attributes. We still need to add this password confirmation field to the form, so let's do that now. To add this new field to the HTML form, open up protected/views/user/_form. php, and add the following code block below the password field:
label($model,'password_repeat'); ?> passwordField($model,'password_repeat',array('si ze'=>60,'maxlength'=>256)); ?> error($model,'password_repeat'); ?>
With all of these form changes in place, the create new user form should look as depicted in the following screen: Now, if we attempt to submit the form with different values in the Password and Password Repeat fields, we will be met with an error as shown in the following screenshot: Chapter 7 [ 159 ] Adding password encryption One last change we should make before we leave the new user creation process is to encrypt the password before we store it. It is the least we can do, from a security standpoint, to perform a one-way encryption algorithm on sensitive user information before we add it to persistent storage. We will add this logic to the User.php AR class by taking advantage of another one of CActiveRecord's methods that allow us to customize the default active record workflow. This time we'll override the afterValidate() method and apply a simple MD5 encryption to the password before we save the record. Open the User AR class and add the following to the bottom of the class: /** * perform one-way encryption on the password before we store it in the database */ protected function afterValidate() { parent::afterValidate(); $this->password = $this->encrypt($this->password); } public function encrypt($value) { return md5($value); } Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 160 ] With this in place, it will encrypt the password using a simple one-way MD5 encryption just after all of the other attribute validations are performed. This approach works fine for brand new records, but for updates, it runs the risk of encrypting an already encrypted value. We could handle this a number of ways, but to keep things simple for now, we will need to ensure we ask the user to supply a valid password every time they desire to update their user data. We now have the ability to add new users to our application. As we initially created this form using the Gii tool's Crud Generator command, we also have read, update, and delete functionality for users. Try it out by adding some new users, viewing a list of those users, updating their information, and then deleting a few of the entries to ensure everything is working as expected. Remember that you will need to be logged in as admin, as opposed to demo, in order to perform the deletes. Authenticating users using the database As we know, a basic login form and user authentication process was created for us simply by using the yiic command to create our new application. This authentication scheme is very simple. It interrogates the input form username/password values, and if they are either demo/demo or admin/admin, the authentication passes, otherwise it fails. This is obviously not intended to be the long term solution, but rather a foundation on which to build. We are going to build upon this by altering the authentication process to use our user database table that we already have as part of our model. But before we start changing the default implementation, let's take a closer look at how Yii implements an authentication model. Introducing the Yii authentication model Central to the Yii authentication framework is an application component, called user, which, in the most general case, is an object implementing the IWebUser interface. The specific class used by our default implementation is the framework class, CWebUser. This user component encapsulates all the identity information for the current user of the application. This component was configured for us as part of the auto-generated application code when we initially created our application using the yiic tool. The configuration can be seen in the protected/config/main.php file, under the components array element: 'user'=>array( // enable cookie-based authentication 'allowAutoLogin'=>true, ), Chapter 7 [ 161 ] As it is configured as an application component, with the key 'user', we can access it at any place throughout our application using Yii::app()->user. We also notice that the class property, allowAutoLogin, is being set here as well. This property is false by default, but setting it to true enables user information to be stored in persistent browser cookies. This data is then used to automatically authenticate the user upon subsequent visits. This is what will allow us to have a Remember Me checkbox on the login form so that, if the user chooses, they can be automatically logged in to the application upon subsequent visits to the site. The Yii authentication framework defines a separate entity to house the actual authentication logic. This is called an identity class, and in its most general form is a class that implements the IUserIdentity interface. One of the primary roles of this class is to encapsulate the authentication logic to easily allow for different implementations. Depending on the application requirements, we may need to validate a username and password against values stored in a database, or allow users to log in with their OpenID credentials, or integrate with an existing LDAP approach. Separating the logic that is specific to the authentication approach from the rest of the application login process allows us to easily switch between such implementations. The identity class provides this separation. When we initially created our application, the identity class file protected/ components/UserIdentity.php was generated for us. It extends the Yii Framework class, CUserIdentity, which is a base class for authentication implementations that use a username and password. Let's take a closer look at the code that was generated for this class: password 'demo'=>'demo', 'admin'=>'admin', ); if(!isset($users[$this->username])) $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_USERNAME_INVALID; else if($users[$this->username]!==$this->password) $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_PASSWORD_INVALID; else $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_NONE; return !$this->errorCode; } } The bulk of the work in defining an identity class is the implementation of the authenticate() method. This is where we place the code that is specific to the authentication approach. This implementation simply uses the hard-coded username/password values of demo/demo and admin/admin. It checks these values against the username and password class properties (properties defined in the parent class, CUserIdentity) and if they don't match, it will set and return an appropriate error code. In order to better understand how these pieces fit into the entire end-to-end authentication process, let's walk through the logic starting with the login form. If we navigate to the login page: http://localhost/trackstar/index. php?r=site/login, we see a simple form allowing the input of a username, a password and an optional checkbox for the Remember Me Next Time functionality that we discussed before. Submitting this form invokes the logic contained in the SiteController::actionLogin() method. The following sequence diagram depicts the class interaction that occurs during a successful login from the moment the form is submitted. Chapter 7 [ 163 ] The process starts with setting the class attributes on the form model class, LoginForm, to the form values submitted. The LoginForm->validate() method is then called, which validates these attribute values based on the rules defined in the rules() method. This method is defined as follows: public function rules() { return array( // username and password are required array('username, password', 'required'), // rememberMe needs to be a boolean array('rememberMe', 'boolean'), // password needs to be authenticated array('password', 'authenticate'), ); } The last of these rules stipulates that the password attribute be validated using the custom method authenticate(), which is also defined in the LoginForm class as follows: /** * Authenticates the password. * This is the 'authenticate' validator as declared in rules(). */ public function authenticate($attribute,$params) { $this->_identity=new UserIdentity($this->username,$this- >password); if(!$this->_identity->authenticate()) $this->addError('password','Incorrect username or password.'); } Continuing to follow the sequence diagram, the password validation within LoginForm calls the authenticate() method within the same class. This method creates a new instance of the authentication identity class being used, in this case it is /protected/components/UserIdentity.php, and then calls its authenticate() method. This method, UserIdentity::authenticate() is as follows: /** * Authenticates the password. * This is the 'authenticate' validator as declared in rules(). */ public function authenticate($attribute,$params) { if(!$this->hasErrors()) // we only want to authenticate when no Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 164 ] input errors { $identity=new UserIdentity($this->username,$this->password); $identity->authenticate(); switch($identity->errorCode) { case UserIdentity::ERROR_NONE: $duration=$this->rememberMe ? 3600*24*30 : 0; // 30 days Yii::app()->user->login($identity,$duration); break; case UserIdentity::ERROR_USERNAME_INVALID: $this->addError('username','Username is incorrect.'); break; default: // UserIdentity::ERROR_PASSWORD_INVALID $this->addError('password','Password is incorrect.'); break; } } } This is implemented to use the username and password to perform its authentication. In this implementation, as long as the username/password combination is either demo/demo or admin/admin, this method will return true. As we are walking through a successful login, the authentication succeeds and the login() method on the user application component is called. As mentioned, by default the web application is configured to use the Yii Framework class, CWebuser as the user application component. Its login() method takes in an identity class and an optional duration parameter used to set the time to live on the browser cookie. In the above code, we see that this is set to 30 days if the Remember Me checkbox was checked when the form was submitted. If you do not pass it a duration, it is set to 0. A value of zero will result in no cookie being created. The login method takes the information contained in the identity class and saves it in persistent storage for the duration of the user session. By default, this storage is the PHP session storage. After all of this completes, the validate() method on LoginForm that was initially called by our controller class returns true, which indicates a successful login. The controller class then redirects to the URL value in Yii::app()->user->returnUrl. You can set this on certain pages throughout the application if you want to ensure the user be redirected back to their previous page, that is, wherever they were in the application before they decided (or were forced) to log in. This value defaults to the application entry URL. Chapter 7 [ 165 ] Changing the authenticate implementation Now that we understand the entire authentication process, we can easily see where we need to make the change to use our tbl_user table to validate the username and password credentials supplied in the login form. We can simply alter the authenticate() method in the user identity class to verify the existence of a matching row with the supplied username and password values. Since, at the moment, there is nothing else in our UserIdentity.php class except the authenticate method, let's completely replace the contents of this file with the following code: findByAttributes(array('username'=>$this- >username)); if($user===null) { $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_USERNAME_INVALID; } else { if($user->password!==$user->encrypt($this->password)) { $this->errorCode=self::ERROR_PASSWORD_INVALID; } else { $this->_id = $user->id; if(null===$user->last_login_time) { $lastLogin = time(); } Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 166 ] else { $lastLogin = strtotime($user->last_login_time); } $this->setState('lastLoginTime', $lastLogin); $this- >errorCode=self::ERROR_NONE; } } return !$this->errorCode; } public function getId() { return $this->_id; } } There are a few things going on with this new code that should be pointed out. First, it is now attempting to retrieve a row from the tbl_user table, by way of creating a new User model AR class instance, where the username is the same as the UserIdentity class attribute value (remember that this is set to be the value from the login form). As we enforced the uniqueness of the username when creating a new user, this should find at most one matching row. If it does not find a matching row, an error message is sent to indicate that the username is incorrect. If a matching row is found, it compares the passwords. As we are encrypting our passwords, it has to use the encryption method, User::encrypt(), that we added to the User class previously. If these do not match, it sets an error message to indicate an incorrect password. If the authentication is successful, a couple other things happen before the method returns. First, we have set a new attribute on the UserIdentity class for the user ID. The default implementation in the parent class is to return the username for the ID. As we are using a database, and have numeric Primary Keys as our unique user identifier, we want to make sure this numeric ID is what is set and returned throughout the application when the user ID is requested. That is, when the code: Yii::app()->user->id is executed, we want to make sure that the unique ID from the database is returned, not the username. Extending application user attributes The second thing happening here is the setting of an attribute on the user identity to be the last login time returned from the database. The user application component, CWebUser, derives its user attributes from the explicit ID and name attributes defined in the identity class, and then from name=>value pairs set in array called the identity Chapter 7 [ 167 ] states. These are the extra user values that should be persisted throughout a user's session. As an example of this, we are setting the attribute named lastLoginTime to be the value of the last_login_time field in the database. This way, at any place in the application, this attribute can be accessed via: Yii::app()->user->lastLoginTime; As the initial user rows go into the table with null values for the last login time, there is a quick check for null so that we can store an appropriate time when the user logs in for the very first time. We have also taken the time to format the date for better readability. The reason we take a different approach when storing the last login time versus the ID is that id just happens to be an explicitly defined property on the CUserIdentity class. So, other than name and id, all other user attributes that need to be persisted throughout the session can be set in a similar manner. When cookie-based authentication is enabled (by setting CWebUser::allowAutoLogin to be true), these user identity states will be stored in cookie. Therefore, you should not store sensitive information (for example, password) in the same manner as we have stored the user's last login time. With these changes in place, you will now need to provide a correct username and password combination for a user defined in the tbl_user table in the database. Using demo/demo or admin/admin will, of course, no longer work. Give it a try. You should be able to log in as any one of the users you created earlier in this chapter. If you followed along and have the same user data as we do, the following credentials should work: Username: Test_User_One Password: test1 Now that we have altered the login process to authenticate against the database, we won't be able to access the delete functionality for any of our project, issue or user entities. The reason for this is that there are authorization checks in place to ensure that the user is an admin prior to allowing access. Currently, none of our database users have been configured to be admins. Don't worry, authorization is the focus of the next iteration, so we will be able to access that functionality again soon. Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 168 ] Updating the user last login time As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, we removed the last login time as an input field on the user creation form, but we still need to add the logic to properly update this field. As we are tracking the last login time in the tbl_user database table, we need to update this field accordingly after a successful login. As the actual login happens in the LoginForm::login() method in the form model class, let's update this value there. Add the following highlighted line to the LoginForm::login() method: /** * Logs in the user using the given username and password in the model. * @return boolean whether login is successful */ public function login() { if($this->_identity===null) { $this->_identity=new UserIdentity($this->username,$this- >password); $this->_identity->authenticate(); } if($this->_identity->errorCode===UserIdentity::ERROR_NONE) { $duration=$this->rememberMe ? 3600*24*30 : 0; // 30 days Yii::app()->user->login($this->_identity,$duration); User::model()->updateByPk($this->_identity->id, array('last_ login_time'=>new CDbExpression('NOW()'))); return true; } else return false; } Here we are calling its updateByPk() method as an efficient approach to simply update the User record, specifying the Primary Key as well as an array of name=>value pairs for the columns we want to update. Chapter 7 [ 169 ] Displaying the last login time on the home page Now that we are updating the last login time in the db, and saving it to persistent session storage when logging in, let's go ahead and display this time on our welcome screen that a user sees after a successful login. This will also help make us feel better because we know that all of this is working as expected. Open up the default view file that is responsible for displaying our homepage: protected/views/site/index.php. Add the following highlighted lines of code just below the welcome statement:

Welcome to name); ?> user->isGuest):?>

You last logged in on user->lastLoginTime ); ?>.

And as we are in there, let's go ahead and remove all of the other autogenerated help text, which is everything below these lines we just added. Once you save your changes and log in again, you should see something similar to the screenshot below, which displays the welcome message following by a formatted time indicating your last successful login: Iteration 4: User Management and Authentication [ 170 ] Summary This iteration was the first of two iterations focused on user management, authentication and authorization. We created the ability to manage CRUD operations for application users, making many adjustments to the new user creation process along the way. We added a new base class for all of our Active Record classes, so that we can easily manage our audit history table columns that are present on all of our tables. We also updated our code to properly manage the user's last login time, which we are storing in the database. In doing so, we learned about tapping into the CActiveRecord validation workflow to allow for pre and post-validation processing. We then focused on understanding the Yii authentication model in order to enhance it to meet our application's requirements: that the user credentials be validated against the values stored in the database. Now that we have covered authentication, we can turn focus to second part of Yii's auth-and-auth framework, authorization. This will be the focus of the next iteration. Iteration 5: User Access Control User based web applications, like our TrackStar application, typically need to control access to certain functionality based on who is making the request. When we speak of user access control, we are referring, at a high-level, to some questions the application needs to ask when requests are being made such as: • Who is making the request? • Does that user have the appropriate permission to access the requested functionality? The answers to these questions help the application respond appropriately. The work completed in the last iteration provides the application with the ability to answer the first question. Our implementation of basic user management extended the application user authentication process to use the database. The application now allows users to establish their own authentication credentials and validates the username and password against the database stored values upon user login. After a successful login, the application now knows exactly who is making subsequent requests. This iteration is going to focus on helping the application answer the second question. Once the user has provided appropriate identification, the application needs a way to determine if they also have the permission to perform the requested action. We'll extend our basic authorization model by taking advantage of Yii's user access control features. Yii provides both a simple access control filter as well as a more sophisticated role-based access control (RBAC) implementation as means to help us address our user authorization requirements. We'll be taking a closer look at both of these as we work to implement the user access requirements for the TrackStar application. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 172 ] Iteration planning When we first introduced our TrackStar application back in Chapter 3, The TrackStar Application, we mentioned that the application has two high-level user types: anonymous and authenticated. This is simply making a distinction between a user that has successfully logged in, and one who has not. We have also introduced the idea of authenticated users having different roles within a project. We established that, within a project, a user can be in one of three roles: • A project owner (is granted all administrative access to the project) • A project member (is granted more limited access to project features and functionality) • A project reader (only has access to read the content associated with a project, not change it in any way) The focus of this iteration is to implement an approach to managing the access control granted to application users. We need a way to create and manage our roles and permissions, assign them to users, and enforce the access control rules we want for each user role. In order to achieve this goal, we need to identify all the more granular items we will work on within this iteration. The following is a list of these items: • Implement a strategy to force the user to log in before gaining access to any project or issue related functionality • Create user roles and associate those roles with a specific functionality permission structure • Implement the ability to assign users to roles (and their associated permissions) • Ensure our role and permission structure exists on a per project basis (that is, allow users to have different permissions within different projects) • Implement the ability to associate users to projects and, at the same time, to roles within that project • Implement the necessary authorization access checking throughout the application to appropriately grant or deny access to the application user based on their permissions Luckily, Yii comes with a lot of built-in functionality to help us implement these requirements. So, let's get started. Chapter 8 [ 173 ] Running our existing test suite As always, we should kick things off by running all of our existing unit tests to ensure that the tests pass: % cd WebRoot/protected/tests/ % phpunit unit/ PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ................ Time: 3 seconds OK (10 tests, 27 assertions) Everything looks good, so we can start making changes. accessControl filter We introduced filters back in Chapter 6, Iteration 3: Adding Tasks when we added one to help us verify the project context when dealing with our Issue related CRUD operations. The Yii Framework provides a filter called accessControl. This filter can be directly used in controller classes to provide an authorization scheme to verify whether or not a user can access a specific controller action. In fact, the astute reader will remember that when we were implementing our filterProjectContext filter back in Chapter 6, we noticed that access control filter was already included in the filters list for both our IssueController and ProjectController classes, as follows: /** * @return array action filters */ public function filters() { return array( 'accessControl', // perform access control for CRUD operations ); } This was included in the autogenerated code produced by using the Gii code generator to create our skeleton CRUD operations on the Issue and Project AR classes. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 174 ] The default implementation is set up to allow anyone to view a list of existing issues and projects. However, it restricts access of creating and updating to authenticated users, and further restricts the Delete action to a special admin user. You might remember that when we first implemented CRUD operations on projects, we had to log in before we were able to create new ones. The same was true when dealing with issues and again with users. The mechanism controlling this authorization and access is exactly this accessControl filter. Let's take a closer look at this implementation within the ProjectController.php class file. There are two methods relevant to access control in this file, ProjectController::filters() and ProjectController::accessRules(). The code for the first method is listed as follows: /** * @return array action filters */ public function filters() { return array( 'accessControl', // perform access control for CRUD operations ); } The following code is used for the second method: /** * Specifies the access control rules. * This method is used by the 'accessControl' filter. * @return array access control rules */ public function accessRules() { return array( array('allow', // allow all users to perform 'index' and 'view' actions 'actions'=>array('index','view'), 'users'=>array('*'), ), array('allow', // allow authenticated user to perform 'create' and 'update' actions 'actions'=>array('create','update'), 'users'=>array('@'), ), array('allow', // allow admin user to perform 'admin' and 'delete' actions Chapter 8 [ 175 ] 'actions'=>array('admin','delete'), 'users'=>array('admin'), ), array('deny', // deny all users 'users'=>array('*'), ), ); } The filters() method is already familiar to us. It is where we specify all the filters to be used in the controller class. In this case, we have only one, accessControl, which refers to a filter provided by the Yii Framework. This filter uses the other method, accessRules(), which defines the rules that drive the access restrictions. In the accessRules() method mentioned previously, there are four rules specified. Each rule is represented as an array. The first element of the array is either allow or deny. These indicate the granting or denying of access respectively. The rest of the array consists of name=>value pairs specifying the remaining parameters of the rule. Let's look at the first rule defined previously: array('allow', // allow all users to perform 'index' and 'view' actions 'actions'=>array('index','view'), 'users'=>array('*'), ), This rule allows the index and view controller actions to be executed by any user. The asterisk '*' special character is a way to specify any user (anonymous, authenticated, or otherwise). The second rule is as follows: array('allow', // allow authenticated user to perform 'create' and 'update' actions 'actions'=>array('create','update'), 'users'=>array('@'), ), It allows for any authenticated user to access the create and update controller actions. The '@' special character is a way to specify any authenticated user. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 176 ] The third rule is as follows: array('allow', // allow admin user to perform 'admin' and 'delete' actions 'actions'=>array('admin','delete'), 'users'=>array('admin'), ), This specifies that a specific user, named admin, is allowed to access the actionAdmin() and actionDelete() controller actions. The fourth rule is as follows: array('deny', // deny all users 'users'=>array('*'), ), It denies access to all controller actions to all users. Access rules can be defined using a number of context parameters. The previously mentioned rules define actions and users to create the rule context, but there are several others listed as follows: • Controllers: This rule specifies an array of controller IDs to which the rule should apply. • Roles: This rule specifies a list of authorization items (roles, operation, permissions) to which the rule applies. This makes used of the RBAC feature we will be discussing in the next section. • Ips: This rule specifies a list of client IP addresses to which this rule applies. • Verbs: This rule specifies which HTTP request types (GET, POST, and so on) apply to this rule. • Expression: This rule specifies a PHP expression whose value indicates whether or not the rule should be applied. • Actions: This rule specifies the action method, by use of the corresponding action ID, to which the rule should match. • Users: This rule specifies the users to which the rule should apply. The current application user's name attribute is used for matching. Three special characters can also be used here: °° *: any user °° ?: anonymous users °° @: authenticated users Chapter 8 [ 177 ] The access rules are evaluated one by one in the order by which they are specified. The first rule that matches the current pattern determines the authorization result. If this rule is an allow rule, the action can be executed; if it is a deny rule, the action cannot be executed; if none of the rules matches the context, the action can still be executed. It is for this reason that the fourth rule is stipulated. If we did not stipulate a rule that denied all actions to all users at the end of our rules list, then we would not achieve our desired access restrictions. As an example, take the second rule. It specifies that authenticated users are allowed access to the create and update actions. However, it does not stipulate that anonymous users be denied access. It says nothing about anonymous users. The fourth rule ensures that all other requests that do not match one of the first three specific rules be denied access. With this already in place, altering our application to deny anonymous users access to all project, issue, and user related functionality is a snap. All we have to do is change the special character '*' of the users array value to the '@' special character. This will only allow authenticated users to access the actionIndex() and actionView() controller actions. All other actions are already restricted to authenticated users. Let's make this change in all of our controllers. Open up all three of the following files: ProjectController.php, IssueController.php, and UserController.php files and alter the first rule in the access control rules to be: array('allow', // allow only authenticated users to perform 'index' and 'view' actions 'actions'=>array('index','view'), 'users'=>array('@'), ), After making these changes, the application will require a login prior to accessing any of our project, issue, or user functionality. We still allow anonymous user access to the SiteController class action methods, which we kept because this is where our login actions are located. We have to be able to access the login page if we are not already logged in. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 178 ] Role-based access control Now that we have used the simple accessControl filter as a broad stroke to limiting access to authenticated users, we need to turn focus to meeting some more granular access control needs of our application. As we mentioned, users will play certain roles within a project. The project will have users of type owner, who can be thought of as project administrators. They will be granted all access to manipulate the project. The project will also have users of type member, who will be granted some access to project functionality, but a subset of what owners are able to perform. Finally, the project can have users of type reader, who are only able to view project related content and not alter it in any way. To achieve this type of access model based on the role of a user, we turn to the RBAC feature of Yii. RBAC is an established approach in computer systems security to managing the access permissions of authenticated users. In short, the RBAC approach defines roles within an application. Permissions to perform certain operations are also defined and then associated with roles. Users are then assigned to a role and through the role association, acquire the permissions defined for that role. There is plenty of documentation available for curious readers about the general RBAC concept and approach. One good source of information is Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Role-based_access_control. We'll focus on the specifics of Yii's implementation of RBAC. Yii's implementation of RBAC is simple, elegant, and powerful. At the foundation of RBAC in Yii is the idea of the authorization item. The authorization item is simply a permission to do things in the application. These permissions can be categorized as roles, tasks, or operations, and, as such, form a permission hierarchy. Roles can consist of tasks (or other roles), tasks can consist of operations (or other tasks) and operations are the most granular permission level. For example, in our TrackStar application, we need a role of type owner. So, we would create an authorization item of type role with the name owner. This role could then consist of tasks such as a "user management" and "issue management". These tasks could then further consist of the atomic operations that make up these tasks. For example, the user management task could consist of the operations create new user, edit user, and delete user. This hierarchy allows for inheritance of these permissions so that, given this example, if a user is assigned to the owner role, they inherit the permission to perform create, edit, and delete user operations. Chapter 8 [ 179 ] Typically in RBAC, you assign a user to one or more roles and the user inherits the permissions that have been assigned to those roles. This holds true for RBAC in Yii as well. However, in this model, we can associate users to any authorization item, not just ones of type role. This allows us the flexibility to associate a permission to a user at any level of granularity. If we only want to grant the delete user operation to a specific user, and not give them all the access that an owner role would have, we can simply associate the user to this atomic operation. This makes RBAC in Yii very flexible. Configuring the authorization manager Before we can establish an authorization hierarchy, assign users to roles, and perform access permission checking, we need to configure the authorization manager application component, authManager. This component is responsible for storing the permission data and managing the relationships between permissions as well as providing the methods to check whether or not a user does have access to perform a particular operation. Yii provides two types of authorization managers: CPhpAuthManager and CDbAuthManager. CPhpAuthManager uses a PHP script file to store the authorization data. CDbAuthManager, as you might have guessed, stores the authorization data in a database. The authManager is configured as an application component. Configuring the authorization manager consists simply of specifying which of these two types to use and then setting its initial class property values. As we are already using a database in the TrackStar application, it makes sense for us to make use of the CDbAuthManager implementation. To make this configuration, open up the main config file, protected/config/main.php, and add the following to the application components array: 'authManager'=>array( 'class'=>'CDbAuthManager', 'connectionID'=>'db', ), This establishes a new application component named authManager, specifies the class type to be CDbAuthManager, and sets the connectionID class property to be our database connection component. Now we can access this anywhere in our application using Yii::app()->authManager. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 180 ] Creating the RBAC database tables As mentioned, the CDbAuthManager class uses database tables to store the permission data. It expects a specific schema. That schema is identified in the framework file YiiRoot/framework/web/auth/schema.sql. It is a simple, yet elegant, schema consisting of three tables, AuthItem, AuthItemChild, and AuthAssignment. The AuthItem table holds the information defining the authorization item, that is the role, task or operation. The AuthItemChild table houses the parent/child relationships that form our hierarchy of authorization items. Finally, the AuthAssignment table is an association table that holds the association between a user and an authorization item. The basic DDL statements for the tables are the following: create table AuthItem ( name varchar(64) not null, type integer not null, description text, bizrule text, data text, primary key (name) ); create table AuthItemChild ( parent varchar(64) not null, child varchar(64) not null, primary key (parent,child), foreign key (parent) references AuthItem (name) on delete cascade on update cascade, foreign key (child) references AuthItem (name) on delete cascade on update cascade ); create table AuthAssignment ( itemname varchar(64) not null, userid varchar(64) not null, bizrule text, data text, primary key (itemname,userid), foreign key (itemname) references AuthItem (name) on delete cascade on update cascade ); Chapter 8 [ 181 ] This schema is taken directly from the Yii Framework file /framework/ web/auth/schema.sql and does not exactly adhere to our table naming conventions that we use for our other tables. These are the default table names expected by CDbAuthManager class. However, you can configure this class to use different table names. For simplicity, we use the schema exactly as defined in the framework. Creating the RBAC authorization hierarchy After adding the previously mentioned tables to our _dev and _test databases, we need to populate them with our roles and permissions. We will do this using the API provided by the authManager. To keep things simple, we are going to only define roles and basic operations. We will not set up any formal RBAC tasks for now. The following figure displays the basic hierarchy we wish to define: Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 182 ] The diagram shows inheritance from the top down. So, Owners have all the permissions listed, plus they inherit all the permissions from both the Member and Reader roles. Likewise, member inherits permissions from the Reader. What we now need to do is establish this permission hierarchy in the application. As previously mentioned, the best way to do this is to write code to utilize the authManager API. As an example, the following code creates a new role and a new operation and then adds the relationship between the role and the permission: $auth=Yii::app()->authManager; $role=$auth->createRole('owner'); $auth->createOperation('createProject','create a new project'); $role->addChild('createProject'); In the preceding code, we first get an instance of the authManager. We then use its createRole(), createOperation(), and addChild() API methods to create a new owner role, and a new operation named createProject. We then add the permission to the owner role. This only demonstrates the creation of a small part of our needed hierarchy, all of the remaining relationships we outlined in the previous figure need to be created in a similar manner. To accomplish the building of our needed permission hierarchy, we are going to write a simple shell command, which is to be executed at the command line. This will extend the command options of the yiic command-line tool we used to create our initial application. Writing a console application command We introduced the yiic command-line tool back in Chapter 2, when we created a new HelloWorld! application, and again in Chapter 4 when we used it to initially create the structure of our TrackStar Web application. The yiic tool is a console application in Yii that executes tasks in the form of commands. We have used the webapp command to create a new applications, and back in Chapter 2, we also used the yiic shell command to create a new controller class. We have been using the newer Gii code generator tool when initially creating our model classes and our CRUD scaffolding code. However, there are commands available with the yiic tool for creating these as well. As a reminder, the yiic shell command allows you to interact with a web application on the command line. You can execute it from the folder that contains the entry script for the application. Then, within the context of the specific application, it provides tools to automatically generate new controllers, views and data models. Chapter 8 [ 183 ] Console applications in Yii are easily extended by writing custom commands, and this is exactly what we are going to do. We are going to extend the yiic shell command tool set by writing a new command-line tool to allow us to build our RBAC authorization hierarchy in a consistent and repeatable manner. Writing a new command for a console application is quite simple. It is simply a class that extends from CConsoleCommand which, at a minimum, implements the needed run() method that will be executed when the command is called. The name of the class should be exactly the same as the desired command name, followed by Command. In our case, our command will simply be rbac, so we'll name our class RbacCommand. Lastly, in order to make this command available to the yiic console application, we need to save our class into the /protected/commands/shell/ folder. So, create a new file called RbacCommand.php, and add the following PHP code: _authManager=Yii::app()->authManager)===null) { Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 184 ] echo "Error: an authorization manager, named 'authManager' must be configured to use this command.\n"; echo "If you already added 'authManager' component in application configuration,\n"; echo "please quit and re-enter the yiic shell.\n"; return; } //provide the oportunity for the use to abort the request echo "This command will create three roles: Owner, Member, and Reader and the following premissions:\n"; echo "create, read, update and delete user\n"; echo "create, read, update and delete project\n"; echo "create, read, update and delete issue\n"; echo "Would you like to continue? [Yes|No] "; //check the input from the user and continue if they indicated yes to the above question if(!strncasecmp(trim(fgets(STDIN)),'y',1)) { //first we need to remove all operations, roles, child relationship and assignments $this->_authManager->clearAll(); //create the lowest level operations for users $this->_authManager->createOperation("createUser","create a new user"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("readUser","read user profile information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("updateUser","update a users information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("deleteUser","remove a user from a project"); //create the lowest level operations for projects $this->_authManager->createOperation("createProject","cre ate a new project"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("readProject","read project information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("updateProject","up date project information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("deleteProject","del ete a project"); //create the lowest level operations for issues Chapter 8 [ 185 ] $this->_authManager->createOperation("createIssue","crea te a new issue"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("readIssue","read issue information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("updateIssue","upda te issue information"); $this->_authManager->createOperation("deleteIssue","dele te an issue from a project"); //create the reader role and add the appropriate permissions as children to this role $role=$this->_authManager->createRole("reader"); $role->addChild("readUser"); $role->addChild("readProject"); $role->addChild("readIssue"); //create the member role, and add the appropriate permissions, as well as the reader role itself, as children $role=$this->_authManager->createRole("member"); $role->addChild("reader"); $role->addChild("createIssue"); $role->addChild("updateIssue"); $role->addChild("deleteIssue"); //create the owner role, and add the appropriate permissions, as well as both the reader and member roles as children $role=$this->_authManager->createRole("owner"); $role->addChild("reader"); $role->addChild("member"); $role->addChild("createUser"); $role->addChild("updateUser"); $role->addChild("deleteUser"); $role->addChild("createProject"); $role->addChild("updateProject"); $role->addChild("deleteProject"); //provide a message indicating success echo "Authorization hierarchy successfully generated."; } } } Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 186 ] The comments in the previous code should help tell the story of what is happening here. We provide a simple getHelp() method so that our new command can be quickly understood by other users. This is also consistent with the other commands offered by yiic. All of the real action happens in the run() method. It ensures the application has a vaild authManager application component defined. It then allows the user to have a last chance to cancel the request before proceeding. If the user of this command indicates they want to continue, it will proceed to clear all previously entered data in the RBAC tables and then create a new authorization hierarchy. The hierarchy that is created here is exactly the one we discussed previously. We can see that, even based on our fairly simple hierarchy, there is still a significant amount of code needed. Typically, one would need to develop a more intuitive UI wrapped around these authorization manager APIs to provide an easy interface to manage roles, tasks, and operations. For the purposes of our TrackStar application, we can simply set up the needed database tables, execute this logic once to establish the initial relationships, and then hope we don't have to make too many changes to it. This is a great solution for establishing a quick RBAC permission structure, but not ideal for the long-term maintenance of a permission structure that might change significantly. In a real-world application, you will most likely need a different, more interactive tool to help maintain the RBAC relationships. The Yii extension library (http://www.yiiframework.com/ extensions/) provides some packaged solutions for this. Let's try out this new command. Navigate to the root of your application and execute the shell command (Remember YiiRoot stands for where you have installed the Yii Framework): % YiiRoot/framework/yiic shell Yii Interactive Tool v1.1 (based on Yii v1.1.2) Please type 'help' for help. Type 'exit' to quit. >> Now type help to see a list of available commands: >> help At the prompt, you may enter a PHP statement or one of the following commands: - controller - crud - form - help Chapter 8 [ 187 ] - model - module - rbac Type 'help ' for details about a command. We see that our rbac command has now been added to the list. Let's attempt to learn more by typing help rbac: >> help rbac USAGE rbac DESCRIPTION This command generates an initial RBAC authorization hierarchy. This is exactly what we wrote in the getHelp() method of our command class. You can certainly be more verbose, and add more detail as desired. Now let's run the command to establish the required hierarchy: >> rbac This command will create three roles: Owner, Member, and Reader and the following premissions: create, read, update and delete user create, read, update and delete project create, read, update and delete issue Would you like to continue? [Yes|No] Yes Authorization hierarchy successfully generated. Then go ahead and exit the shell: >> exit Assuming you typed Yes when prompted to continue, all of the authorization hierarchy was created. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 188 ] As you may recall, we have setup a separate database to run our tests against, namely trackstar_test. As we will need this authorization hierarchy in our test database as well, we need to run the yiic shell command under the context of the TrackStar application pointed to the test database. As our test database connection string is defined in our test config file, /protected/config/test.php, we need to bootstrap the yiic shell with this config file rather than main.php. This is easy to do, as the yiic shell command allows you to explicitly specify a config file to load. So, let's once again start the yiic shell, but let's specify our test configuration when starting up so that the interactive web application shell is configured to use our test database: % YiiRoot/framework/yiic shell protected/config/test.php Yii Interactive Tool v1.1 (based on Yii v1.1.2) Please type 'help' for help. Type 'exit' to quit. >> rbac This command will create three roles: Owner, Member, and Reader and the following premissions: create, read, update and delete user create, read, update and delete project create, read, update and delete issue Would you like to continue? [Yes|No] Yes Authorization hierarchy successfully generated. >> exit Now we have our RBAC authorization hierarchy available in our test database as well. Assigning users to roles Everything we have done thus far does establish an authorization hierarchy, but it does not yet assign permissions to users. We accomplish this by assigning users to one of the three roles we created: owner, member, or reader. For example, if we wanted to associate the user whose unique user ID is 1 with the member role, we would execute the following: $auth=Yii::app()->authManager; $auth->assign('member',1); Chapter 8 [ 189 ] Once these relationships are established, checking a user's access permission is a simple matter. We simply ask the application user component whether or not the current user has the permission. For example, if we wanted to check whether or not the current user is allowed to create a new issue, we could do so with the following syntax: If( Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('createIssue')) { //perform needed logic } In this example, we assigned user ID 1 to the role of member, and as in our authorization hierarchy the member role inherits the createIssue permission, the previously mentioned if statement would evaluate to true, assuming we were logged in to the application as user 1. We will be adding this authorization assignment logic as part of the business logic executed when adding a new member to a project. We'll be adding a new form that allows us to add users to projects, and the ability to choose a role as part of the process. But first we need to address one other aspect of how user roles need to be implemented within this application, namely that they need to apply on a per project basis. Adding RBAC roles to projects We now have a basic RBAC authorization model in place, but these relationships apply to the application as a whole. Our needs for the TrackStar application are slightly more complex. We need to define roles within the context of projects, not just globally across the application. We need to allow users to be in different roles, depending on the project. For example, a user may be in the reader role of one project, a member of a second project, and an owner of some third project. Users can be associated with many projects, and the role they are assigned needs to be specific to the project. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 190 ] The RBAC framework in Yii does not have anything built-in that we can take advantage of to meet this requirement. The RBAC model is only intended to establish relationships between roles and permissions. It does not know (nor should it) anything about our TrackStar projects. In order to achieve this extra dimension to our authorization hierarchy, we will create a separate database table to maintain the relationship between a user, a role and a project. The DDL statement for this table is as follows: create table tbl_project_user_role ( project_id INTEGER NOT NULL, user_id INTEGER NOT NULL, role VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL, primary key (projectId,userId,role), foreign key (project_id) references tbl_project (id), foreign key (user_id) references tbl_user (id), foreign key (role) references AuthItem (name) ); So, open your favorite database editor and ensure this table is part of both the main and test database models. Adding RBAC business rules Although the previous database table will hold the basic information to answer the question as to whether a user is assigned to a role within the context of a particular project, we still need our RBAC authorization hierarchy to answer questions concerning whether or not a user has permission to perform certain functionality. Although the RBAC model in Yii does not know about our TrackStar projects, it does have a very powerful feature that we can take advantage of. When you create authorization items or assign an item to a user, you can associate a snippet of PHP code that will be executed during the Yii::app()->user->checkAccess() call. When defined, this bit of code must return true before the user would be granted that permission. One example of the usefulness of this feature is in the context of applications that allow users to maintain personal profile information. Often in this case, the application would like to ensure that a user have the permission to update only their own profile information and no one else's. In this case we could create an authorization item called updateProfile, and then associate a business rule that checks if the current user's ID is the same as the user ID associated with the profile information. Chapter 8 [ 191 ] In our case, we are going to associate a business rule with the role assignment. When we assign a user to a specific role, we will also associate a business rule that will check the relationship within the context of the project. The checkAccess() method also allows us to pass in an array of additional parameters for the business rule to use to perform its logic. We'll use this to pass in the current project context so that the business rule can call a method on the Project AR class to determine whether or not the user is assigned to that role within that project. The business rule we'll create will be slightly different for each role assignment. For example, the one we'll use when assigning a user to the owner role will look like the following: $bizRule='return isset($params["project"]) && $params["project"]- >isUserInRole('owner');'; The ones for member and reader will be the similar. We will also have to pass in the project context when we call the checkAccess() method. So now when checking if a user has access to, for example, the createIssue operation, the code would look like: $params=array('project'=>$project); if(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('createIssue',$params)) { //proceed with issue creation logic } Here, the $project variable is the Project AR class instance associated with the current project context (remember that almost all functionality in our application occurs within the context of a project). Implementing the new Project AR methods Now that we have added a new database table to house the relationship between user, role and project, we need to implement the required logic to manage and verify the data in this table. We will be adding public methods to the Project AR class to handle adding and removing data from this table, as well as verifying the existence of rows. As you may have guessed, we will start by writing a test. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 192 ] First, let's add the ability to create a new association between a user, project and role. Open up the unit test file protected/tests/unit/ProjectTest.php, and add the following test: public function testUserRoleAssignment() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $this->assertEquals(1,$project->associateUserToRole()); } and then run the following test: % cd /Webroot/protected/tests/ % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. .....E Time: 0 seconds There was 1 error: 1) ProjectTest::testUserRoleAssignment CException: Project does not have a method named "associateUserToRole". … FAILURES! Tests: 6, Assertions: 13, Errors: 1. We have our test failing, and for obvious reasons. We need to add the public method to the Project AR class that will take in a role name and a user ID and create the association between role, user and project. Open up the protected/models/ Project.php file and add the following method with just enough logic to get the test to pass: /** * creates an association between the project, the user and the user's role within the project */ public function associateUserToRole() { return 1; } Chapter 8 [ 193 ] Running the test again will result in success, as we have simply returned exactly what test is looking to compare: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ...... Time: 0 seconds OK (6 tests, 14 assertions) Now let's alter the test to pass in the role name and the user ID to the method on the project class: public function testUserRoleAssignment() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $user = $this->users('user1'); $this->assertEquals(1,$project->associateUserToRole('owner', $user->id)); } Then alter the Project::associateUserToRole() method to take in these parameters, and actually insert a row into our tbl_project_user_role table: public function associateUserToRole($role, $userId) { $sql = "INSERT INTO tbl_project_user_role (project_id, user_id, role) VALUES (:projectId, :userId, :role)"; $command = Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql); $command->bindValue(":projectId", $this->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":userId", $userId, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":role", $role, PDO::PARAM_STR); return $command->execute; } Here we are using the Yii Framework CDbCommand class to execute an SQL statement against the database. An instance of CDbCommand is what is returned from calling the createCommand() method on our database connection. We are also using binding our parameter values using the bindValue() method on the CDbCommand. This is a good practice which can reduce the risk of SQL injection attacks as well as help improve the performance of SQL statements that are executed multiple times. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 194 ] The CDbCommand::execute() method used previously returns the number of rows affected by the executed SQL insert statement. A successful insert will affect one row, so the integer value 1, will be returned. The test compares the return value of this execution to the integer 1. If you are following along, you should verify that the test does pass. However, if you run it a second time, it will fail with a database integrity constraint violation, as it will be trying to insert the same Primary key again. We should take a moment to address this issue. As we are dealing with a database table in our tests, we should really add a fixture for this table to be able to run our tests in a repeatable and consistent manner. Add a new file called tbl_project_user_role.php to the fixtures folder, protected/tests/fixtures/, and have it simply return a blank array: 'Project', 'users'=>'User', 'projUsrAssign'=>':tbl_project_user_assignment', 'projUserRole'=>':tbl_project_user_role', ); Even though we did not add any explicit fixture data to our fixture, the fixture manager will truncate our tbl_project_user_role table, thereby removing all previously inserted rows before each test. We can now run our tests multiple times without incurring any database constraint errors. When we change a user's role within a project, or remove a user from a project, we will need to remove this association. So, let's also add a method to do that. We can keep working with the same test method. Let's alter our test and add a call to remove the association, just after we add it: public function testUserRoleAssignment() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $user = $this->users('user1'); $this->assertEquals(1,$project->associateUserToRole('owner', $user->id)); $this->assertEquals(1,$project->removeUserFromRole('owner', $user->id)); } Chapter 8 [ 195 ] Run the test again and, of course, it will fail. We need to implement this new method on the Project AR class. Add the following method at the bottom of that class: /** * removes an association between the project, the user and the user's role within the project */ public function removeUserFromRole($role, $userId) { $sql = "DELETE FROM tbl_project_user_role WHERE project_ id=:projectId AND user_id=:userId AND role=:role"; $command = Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql); $command->bindValue(":projectId", $this->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":userId", $userId, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":role", $role, PDO::PARAM_STR); return $command->execute(); } This simply deletes the row from the table that houses the association between the role, user and the project. It will return the number of rows affected, which, if it successfully deleted a row, should be 1. So far, our test adds a new association and then removes it. We should run it again to make sure everything passes: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ...... Time: 1 second OK (6 tests, 15 assertions) We now have implemented the methods for adding and removing our associations. We now need to add functionality to determine whether or not a given user is associated with a role within the project. We will also add this as a public method to our Project AR class. So, starting with a test, add the following test method to ProjectTest.php: public function testIsInRole() { $project = $this->projects('project1'); $this->assertTrue($project->isUserInRole('member')); } Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 196 ] This is designed to test the implementation of the Project::isUserInRole() method. As we have not implemented this method yet, our test will certainly fail. Let's ensure it does: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. ......E Time: 0 seconds There was 1 error: 1) ProjectTest::testIsInRole CException: Project does not have a method named "isUserInRole". … FAILURES! Tests: 7, Assertions: 15, Errors: 1. To get it to pass, add the following method to the bottom of the Project AR model class: /** * @return boolean whether or not the current user is in the specified role within the context of this project */ public function isUserInRole($role) { return true; } This should be enough to get our test to pass: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php … OK (7 tests, 16 assertions) Chapter 8 [ 197 ] Now we need to implement the appropriate logic to see if an association exists. Alter the method in the Project AR class to be: public function isUserInRole($role) { $sql = "SELECT role FROM tbl_project_user_role WHERE project_ id=:projectId AND user_id=:userId AND role=:role"; $command = Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql); $command->bindValue(":projectId", $this->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":userId", Yii::app()->user->getId(), PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":role", $role, PDO::PARAM_STR); return $command->execute()==1 ? true : false; } This again executes the SQL directly to select from our table. It expects an input role name and uses the current application user, defined by Yii::app()->user, to make up the primary key it is searching for. Run the test again: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php … Time: 1 second, Memory: 14.25Mb There was 1 failure: 1) ProjectTest::testIsInRole Failed asserting that is true. … FAILURES! Tests: 7, Assertions: 16, Failures: 1. Our test is failing again. The test is failing because the isUserInRole() method is using Yii::app()->user->getId() to get the current user ID, and this is returning nothing. Our test did not explicitly set the current user prior to making this call. Let's add the needed logic to properly set the current user's user ID. Alter the test method to be: public function testIsInRole() { $user = $this->users('user1'); Yii::app()->user->setId($user->id); $project = $this->projects('project1'); $this->assertTrue($project->isUserInRole('member')); } Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 198 ] This sets the current user ID to that of user1 from our users fixture data. Now run the test again: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php … Time: 1 second, Memory: 14.25Mb There was 1 failure: 1) ProjectTest::testIsInRole Failed asserting that is true. … FAILURES! Tests: 7, Assertions: 16, Failures: 1. Our test is still failing, but now it is failing because the row does not exist in the table, the user ID of user1 is not associated with the owner role for this project. So, let's create that association before we call the isUserInRole() method. We could use the other methods we added and tested earlier to create and remove these associations in order to establish the relationship. However, in an attempt to keep this test as isolated as possible from other tests or Project AR methods, we'll lean on fixture data to provide the initial conditions. When we first added the fixture file tests/fixtures/tbl_project_user_role. php, we had it simply return an empty array. Let's change that to have it populate a row with a project ID of 2, a user ID of 2, and a role name of member: return array( 'row1'=>array( 'project_id' => 2, 'user_id' => 2, 'role' => 'member', ), ); As our previous tests for the adding and removing of associations are using user1 and project1 fixture data, we've played it safe to avoid any conflicts by using different IDs to seed this data. Chapter 8 [ 199 ] Now we'll use this fixture data to set our application user ID as well as to create the Project AR class. Alter the test method to be: public function testIsInRole() { $row1 = $this->projUserRole['row1']; Yii::app()->user->setId($row1['user_id']); $project=Project::model()->findByPk($row1['project_id']); $this->assertTrue($project->isUserInRole('member')); } Here we are using the fixture data defined at the top of the class, called projUserRole, to retrieve our seeded row data. We then use this data to set the user ID, and create the Project AR instance by calling Project::model()->findByPk. We then test to ensure the user has, indeed, been associated with the member role. Now if we run our test: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php … OK (7 tests, 16 assertions) Our test is passing once again. We have written and tested the methods to add and remove our role associations within a project, and the method to determine whether or not a given user is associated with a project role. We are going to write one final test. We are going to write a test for our end-to-end implementation of how we plan to add this extra project dimension to Yii's RBAC structure. We talked about achieving this by adding a business rule to the Yii RBAC auth assignment whenever we associate a user to a role. Let's write one final method in to test this approach. Open back up the ProjectTest.php unit test file, and add the following test method: public function testUserAccessBasedOnProjectRole() { $row1 = $this->projUserRole['row1']; Yii::app()->user->setId($row1['user_id']); $project=Project::model()->findByPk($row1['project_id']); $auth = Yii::app()->authManager; $bizRule='return isset($params["project"]) && $params["project"]->isUserInRole("member");'; $auth->assign('member',$row1['user_id'], $bizRule); $params=array('project'=>$project); $this->assertTrue(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('updateIssue' ,$params)); Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 200 ] $this->assertTrue(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('readIssue',$ params)); $this->assertFalse(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('updateProje ct',$params)); } This final test method uses other existing, and already tested, API methods to achieve the test, so there is no need to go through our normal TDD steps. In some ways it could be argued that this is more of a functional test than a unit test, but we think it still belongs in this unit test class. We will take the same approach (as we did with the previous test) to setup our user ID, and establish the project AR instance by using the data from the tbl_project_ user_role.php fixture file. We then create an instance of the auth manager class that we use to establish the assignment of the user to the role owner. However, before we make that assignment, we create the business rule. The business rule uses the $params array by first checking the existence of a project element in the array, and then calls the isUserInRole() method on the Project AR class, which it assumes is the value of that array element. We explicitly pass in the name, owner, to this method, as that is the role we are going to be assigning. Finally, we make the call to the Yii RBAC related method Yii::app()->user->checkAccess() to see if the current user, who has now been assigned to the role owner in our RBAC auth hierarchy as well as is associated with this role within the project. We are checking whether or not the user has the permission to update an issue, which we know anyone in the member role should have. We expect this to return true. We are also making a couple of other assertions to test (and demonstrate) the permission inheritance. We expect a user in the member role to inherit permissions from reader. So we also test that the user has access to the readIssue permission, which we know is a child of the reader role in our auth hierarchy. Finally, we should expect to be denied access to operations exclusive to the owner role. So we test to ensure false is returned when we check access to the updateProject operation. Running the tests again: % phpunit unit/ProjectTest.php … OK (8 tests, 19 assertions) All the project tests are passing. It seems as if this approach will do the trick. Chapter 8 [ 201 ] As we are explicitly using the code: $auth->assign('member',$row1['user_id'], $bizRule); to insert a row in the AuthAssignment table, we will get a database integrity violation if we attempt to run this test again. Basically, it will be try to re-insert the same row, and this will violate a data integrity constraint we have defined on this table. To avoid this, we need to allow the fixture manager to also manage this table. We have seen this before. Simply add a new file to the fixtures folder protected/ tests/fixtures/AuthAssignment.php, and have it return an empty array. Then, alter the fixtures array defined at the top of the ProjectTest.php file to include this in the fixtures definition: public $fixtures=array( 'projects'=>'Project', 'users'=>'User', 'projUsrAssign'=>':tbl_project_user_assignment', 'projUserRole'=>':tbl_project_user_role', 'authAssign'=>':AuthAssignment', ); Now our AuthAssignment table will be reset to a consistent state before each test is run. Before we leave this test, let's add a little more to ensure that if we pass in a project to which the user is not assigned, they have no access. As we explicitly set up the association to be with project id #2, let's just check the user's access using project id #1. Add the following at the end of the testUserAccessBasedOnProjectRole() method: //now ensure the user does not have any access to a project they are not associated with $project=Project::model()->findByPk(1); $params=array('project'=>$project); $this->assertFalse(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('updateIssue',$p arams)); $this->assertFalse(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('readIssue',$par ams)); $this->assertFalse(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('updateProject', $params)); Here we are creating a new project instance based on project_id = 1. We know the user is not associated with this project at all, so all of the checkAccess() calls should return false. Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 202 ] Adding Users To Projects In the previous iteration, we added the ability to create new users of the application. However, we do not yet have a way to assign users to specific projects, and further, assign them to roles within these projects. Now that we have our RBAC approach in place, we need to build out this new functionality. The implementation of this needed functionality involves several coding changes. However, we have provided similar examples of the types of changes needed, and have covered all of the related concepts when implementing functionality from previous iterations. Consequently, we will move pretty quickly through this, and pause only briefly to highlight just a few things we have not yet seen. At this point, the reader should be able to make all of these changes without much help, and is encouraged to do so as a hands-on exercise. To further encourage this exercise, we'll first list everything we are going to do fulfill this new feature requirement. You can then close the book and try some of these out yourself before looking further down at our implementation. To achieve this goal we will perform the following: • Using a test-first approach, add a public static method called getUserRoleOptions() to the Project model class that returns a valid list of role options using the auth manager's getRoles() method. We will use this to populate a roles selection drop-down field in the form for adding a new user to a project. • Using a test-first approach, add a new public method called associateUserToProject($user) to the Project model class to associate a user to a project. This can insert directly into the tbl_project_use_ assignment table to make an association between the user and the project. • Using a test-first approach, add a new public method called isUserInProject($user) to the Project model class to determine if a user is already associated with a project. We will use this in our validation rules upon form submission so that we don't attempt to add a duplicate user to a project. • Add a new form model class called ProjectUserForm, extending from CFormModel for a new input form model. Add to this form model class three attributes: $username, $role, and $project. Also add validation rules to ensure that both the username and the role are required input fields and that the username should further be validated through a custom verify() class method. This verify() method should: °° Attempt to create a new User AR class instance by finding a user by matching the input username. Chapter 8 [ 203 ] °° If the attempt was successful, it should continue to associate the user to a project using the new method, associateUserToProject($user), added previously as well as associate the user to the role in the RBAC approach discussed earlier in this chapter. If no user was found matching the username, it needs to set and return an error. (If needed, review the LoginForm::authenticate() method as an example of a custom validation rule method.) • Add a new view file under views/project called adduser.php to display our new form for adding users to projects. This form only needs two input fields: username and role, which is a dropdown choice listing. • Add a new controller action method called actionAdduser() to the ProjectController class, and alter its accessRules() method to ensure it is accessible by authenticated members. This new action method is responsible for rendering the new view to display the form and handling the post back when the form is submitted. Again, we encourage the reader to attempt these changes on their own first. We list our code changes in the following sections. Altering the Project model class To the Project class, we added three new public methods, one of them static so it can be called without the need for a specific instance: /** * Returns an array of available roles in which a user can be placed when being added to a project */ public static function getUserRoleOptions() { return CHtml::listData(Yii::app()->authManager->getRoles(), 'name', 'name'); } /** * Makes an association between a user and a the project */ public function associateUserToProject($user) { $sql = "INSERT INTO tbl_project_user_assignment (project_id, user_id) VALUES (:projectId, :userId)"; $command = Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql); Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 204 ] $command->bindValue(":projectId", $this->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":userId", $user->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); return $command->execute(); } /* * Determines whether or not a user is already part of a project */ public function isUserInProject($user) { $sql = "SELECT user_id FROM tbl_project_user_assignment WHERE project_id=:projectId AND user_id=:userId"; $command = Yii::app()->db->createCommand($sql); $command->bindValue(":projectId", $this->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); $command->bindValue(":userId", $user->id, PDO::PARAM_INT); return $command->execute()==1 ? true : false; } There is nothing special to further describe in the preceding code. As these were all public methods on the Project model class, we ended up with the following two test methods within the ProjectTest unit test class: public function testGetUserRoleOptions() { $options = Project::getUserRoleOptions(); $this->assertEquals(count($options),3); $this->assertTrue(isset($options['reader'])); $this->assertTrue(isset($options['member'])); $this->assertTrue(isset($options['owner'])); } public function testUserProjectAssignment() { //since our fixture data already has the two users assigned to project 1, we'll assign user 1 to project 2 $this->projects('project2')->associateUserToProject($this- >users('user1')); $this->assertTrue($this->projects('project1')- >isUserInProject($this->users('user1'))); } Chapter 8 [ 205 ] Adding the new form model class Just as was used in the approach for the login form, we are going to create a new form model class as a central place to house our form input parameters and to centralize the validation. This is a fairly simple class that extends from the Yii class CFormModel and has attributes that map to our form input fields, as well as one to hold the valid project context. We need the project context to be able to add users to projects. The entire class is listed as follows: 'User'), array('username', 'verify'), ); } /** * Authenticates the existence of the user in the system. * If valid, it will also make the association between the user, role and project * This is the 'verify' validator as declared in rules(). */ public function verify($attribute,$params) { if(!$this->hasErrors()) // we only want to authenticate when no other input errors are present { $user = User::model()->findByAttributes(array('username'=> $this->username)); if($this->project->isUserInProject($user)) { $this->addError('username','This user has already been added to the project.'); } else { $this->project->associateUserToProject($user); $this->project->associateUserToRole($this->role, $user->id); $auth = Yii::app()->authManager; $bizRule='return isset($params["project"]) && $params["project"]->isUserInRole("'.$this->role.'");'; $auth->assign($this->role,$user->id, $bizRule); } } } } Chapter 8 [ 207 ] Adding the new action method to the project controller We need a controller action to handle the initial request to display the form for adding a new user to a project. We placed this in the ProjectController class and named it actionAdduser(). The code for this is as follows: public function actionAdduser() { $form=new ProjectUserForm; $project = $this->loadModel(); // collect user input data if(isset($_POST['ProjectUserForm'])) { $form->attributes=$_POST['ProjectUserForm']; $form->project = $project; // validate user input and set a sucessfull flassh message if valid if($form->validate()) { Yii::app()->user->setFlash('success',$form->username . " has been added to the project." ); $form=new ProjectUserForm; } } // display the add user form $users = User::model()->findAll(); $usernames=array(); foreach($users as $user) { $usernames[]=$user->username; } $form->project = $project; $this->render('adduser',array('model'=>$form, 'usernames'=>$usernames)); } Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 208 ] This is all pretty familiar to us at this point. It handles both the initial GET request to display the form as well as the POST request after the form is submitted. It follows very much the same approach as our actionLogin() method in our site controller. The preceding highlighted code is, however, something we have not seen before. If the submitted form request is successful, it sets what is called a flash message. A flash message is a temporary message stored briefly in the session. It is only available in the current and the next requests. Here we are using the setFlash() method of our CWebUser application user component to store a temporary message that the request was successful. When we talk about the view next, we will see how to access this message, and display it to the user. Also, in the previous code, we created an array of available usernames from the system. We will use this array to populate the data of one of Yii's UI widgets, CAutoComplete, which we will use for the username input form element. As its name suggests, as we type in the input form field, it will provide choice suggestions based on the elements in this array. One other change we had to make to the ProjectController class, was to add in this new action method to the basic access rules list so that a logged in user is allowed to access this action: public function accessRules() { return array( array('allow', // allow all users to perform 'index' and 'view' actions 'actions'=>array('index','view', 'adduser'), 'users'=>array('@'), ), … Adding the new view file to display the form Our new action method is calling ->render('adduser') to render a view file, so we need to get that created. A full listing of our implementation for protected/views/ project/adduser.php is as follows: pageTitle=Yii::app()->name . ' - Add User To Project'; $this->breadcrumbs=array( $model->project->name=>array('view','id'=>$model->project->id), 'Add User', ); Chapter 8 [ 209 ] $this->menu=array( array('label'=>'Back To Project', 'url'=>array('view','id'=>$model->project->id)), ); ?>

Add User To project->name; ?>

user->hasFlash('success')):?>
user->getFlash('success'); ?>
beginWidget('CActiveForm'); ?>

Fields with * are required.

labelEx($model,'username'); ?> widget('CAutoComplete', array( 'model'=>$model, 'attribute'=>'username', 'data'=>$usernames, 'multiple'=>false, 'htmlOptions'=>array('size'=>25), )); ?> error($model,'username'); ?>
labelEx($model,'role'); ?> dropDownList($model,'role', Project::getUserRoleOptions()); ?> error($model,'role'); ?>
endWidget(); ?>
Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 210 ] Most of this we have seen before. We are defining active labels and active form elements that tie directly to our ProjectUserForm form model class. We populate our dropdown using the static method we implemented earlier on the project model class. We also added a simple link to the menu op to take us back to the project details page. The highlighted code above is new to us. This is an example of using the flash message that we introduced and used in the actionAdduser() method. We access the message we set using setFlash() by asking the same user component if it has a flash message, using hasFlash('succcess'). We feed the hasFlash() method the exact name we gave it when we set the message. This is a nice way to present the user with some simple feedback about their previous request. One other small change we made as to add a simple link from the project details page so we could access this form form the application. The following line was added to the project show.php view file's list of link options: [$m odel->projectId)); ?>] This gives us access to the new form. Putting it all together With all of these changes in place, we can navigate to our new form by viewing one of the project details pages. For example, viewing project id #1 through the URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=project/view&id=1. In the right column menu of operations is a hyperlink Add User To Project and clicking on that link should display the following page: Chapter 8 [ 211 ] You can use the forms we have previously built to create new projects and users to ensure you have a few added to the application. Then you can play around with adding users to projects. As you type in the Username field, you will see suggestions for auto-completion. If you attempt to add a user that is not in the user database table, you should see an error telling you so. If you attempt to enter a user that has already been added to the project, you will see an error message. On successful additions, you will see a short flash message indicating success. Checking authorization level The last thing we need to do in this iteration is to add the authorization checks for the different functionality that we have implemented. Earlier in this chapter we outlined and then implemented the RBAC authorization hierarchy for the different roles we have. Everything is in place to allow or deny access to functionality based on the permissions that have been granted to users within projects, with one exception. We have not yet implemented the necessary access checking when attempting to request functionality. The application is still using the simple access filter that is defined on each of our project, issue and user controllers. We'll do this for one of our permissions and then leave the remaining implementation as an exercise for the reader. We can notice from looking back at our authorization hierarchy that only project owners should be able to add new users to a project. So, let's start with that. What we will do is not even display the link on the project details page unless the current user is in the owner role for that project (you might want to make sure you have added at least one owner and one member or reader to a project so you can test it when complete). Open up the protected/views/project/view.php view file where we placed the link on the menu items for adding a new user. Remove that array element from the menu array items, and then push it on the end of the array only if the checkAccess() method returns true. The following code shows how the menu items should be defined: $this->menu=array( array('label'=>'List Project', 'url'=>array('index')), array('label'=>'Create Project', 'url'=>array('create')), array('label'=>'Update Project', 'url'=>array('update', 'id'=>$model->id)), array('label'=>'Delete Project', 'url'=>'#', 'linkOptions'=>array ('submit'=>array('delete','id'=>$model->id),'confirm'=>'Are you sure you want to delete this item?')), array('label'=>'Manage Project', 'url'=>array('admin')), array('label'=>'Create Issue', 'url'=>array('issue/create', 'pid'=>$model->id)), Iteration 5: User Access Control [ 212 ] ); if(Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('createUser',array('project'=>$mod el))) { $this->menu[] = array('label'=>'Add User To Project', 'url'=>array('adduser', 'id'=>$model->id)); } This implements the same approach we had discussed earlier in the chapter. We call checkAccess() on the current user, and send in the name of the permission we want to check. Also, as our roles are within the context of projects, we send in the project model instance as an array input. This will allow the business rule to execute what has been defined in the authorization assignment. Now if we log in as a project owner for a particular project and navigate to that project details page, we'll see the menu option for adding a new user to the project. Conversely, if you log in in as a user in the member or reader role of that same project, and again navigate to the details page, this link will not display. This, of course, will not prevent a savvy user from gaining access to this functionality by navigating using the URL directly. For example, even while logged in to the application as a user in the reader role for, say, project id #2, if I navigate directly to the URL: http://hostname/tasctrak/index.php?r=project/adduser&id=2 I can still access the form. To prevent this, we need to add our access check directly to the action method itself. So, in the actionAdduser() method in the project controller class, we can add the check: public function actionAdduser() { $project = $this->loadModel(); if(!Yii::app()->user->checkAccess('createUser', array('project'=>$project))) { throw new CHttpException(403,'You are not authorized to per-form this action.'); } $form=new ProjectUserForm; // collect user input data … Now when we attempt to access this URL directly, we will be denied access unless we in the project owner role for the project. We won't go through implementing the access checks for all of the other functionality. Each would be implemented in a similar manner. Chapter 8 [ 213 ] Summary We have covered a lot in this iteration. First we were introduced to the basic access control filter that Yii provides as one method to allow and deny access to specific controller action methods. We used this approach to ensure that users be logged into that application before gaining access to any of the main functionality. We then took a detailed walk through Yii's RBAC model which allows for much more sophisticated approach to access control. We built an entire user authorization hierarchy based on application roles. In the process, we were introduced to writing console applications in Yii, and to some of the benefits of this wonderful feature. We then built in new functionality to allow the addition of users to projects and being able to assign them to appropriate roles within those projects. Finally, we discovered how to implement the needed access checks throughout the application to utilize the RBAC hierarchy to appropriately grant/deny access to feature functionality. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments With the implementation of user management in the past two iterations, our Trackstar application is really starting to take shape. The bulk of our primary application feature functionality is now behind us. We can now start to focus on some of the nice-to-have features. The first of these features that we will tackle is the ability for users to leave comments on project issues. The ability for users to engage in a dialogue about project issues is an important part of what any issue tracking tool should provide. One way to achieve this is to allow users to leave comments directly on the issues. The comments will form a conversation about the issue and provide an immediate, as well as historical context to help track the full lifespan of any issue. We will also use comments to demonstrate using Yii widgets and establishing a portlet model for delivering content to the user (for more information on Portlets, visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portlet). Iteration planning The goal of this iteration is to implement feature functionality in the Trackstar application to allow users to leave and read comments on issues. When a user is viewing the details of any project issue, they should be able to read all comments previously added as well as create a new comment on the issue. We also want to add a small fragment of content, or portlet, to the project-listing page that displays a list of recent comments left on all of the issues. This will be a nice way to provide a window into recent user activity and allow easy access to the latest issues that have active conversations. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 216 ] The following is a list of high-level tasks that we will need to complete in order to achieve these goals: • Design and create a new database table to support comments • Create the Yii AR class associated with our new comments table • Add a form directly to the issue details page to allow users to submit comments • Display a list of all comments associated with an issue directly on the issues details page • Take advantage of Yii widgets to display a list of the most recent comments on the projects listing page Creating the model As always, we should run our existing test suite at the start of our iteration to ensure all of our previously written tests are still passing as expected. By this time, you should be familiar with how to do that, so we will leave it to the reader to ensure that all the unit tests are passing before proceeding. We first need to create a new table to house our comments. Below is the basic DDL definition for the table that we will be using: CREATE TABLE tbl_comment ( `id` INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY AUTO_INCREMENT, `content` TEXT NOT NULL, `issue_id` INTEGER, `create_time` DATETIME, `create_user_id` INTEGER, `update_time` DATETIME, `update_user_id` INTEGER ) As each comment belongs to a specific issue, identified by the issue_id, and is written by a specific user, indicated by the create_user_id identifier, we also need to define the following foreign key relationships: ALTER TABLE `tbl_comment` ADD CONSTRAINT `FK_comment_issue` FOREIGN KEY (`issue_id`) REFERENCES `tbl_issue` (`id`); ALTER TABLE `tbl_comment` ADD CONSTRAINT `FK_comment_author` FOREIGN KEY (`create_user_id`) REFERENCES `tbl_user` (`id`); Chapter 9 [ 217 ] If you are following along, please ensure this table is created in both the trackstar_dev and trackstar_test databases. Once a database table is in place, creating the associated AR class is a snap. We have seen this many times in previous iterations. We know exactly how to do this. We simply use the Gii code creation tool's Model Generator command and create an AR class called Comment. If needed, refer back to Chapters 5 and 6 for all the details on using this tool to create model classes. Since we have already created the model class for issues, we will need to explicitly add the relations to to the Issue model class for comments. We will also add a relationship as a statistical query to easily retrieve the number of comments associated with a given issue (just as we did in the Project AR class for issues). Alter the Issue::relations() method as such: public function relations() { return array( 'requester' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'requester_id'), 'owner' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'owner_id'), 'project' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'Project', 'project_id'), 'comments' => array(self::HAS_MANY, 'Comment', 'issue_id'), 'commentCount' => array(self::STAT, 'Comment', 'issue_id'), ); } Also, we need to change our newly created Comment AR class to extend our custom TrackStarActiveRecord base class, so that it benefits from the logic we placed in the beforeValidate() method. Simply alter the beginning of the class definition as such: array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'User', 'create_user_id'), 'issue' => array(self::BELONGS_TO, 'Issue', 'issue_id'), ); } Creating the Comment CRUD Once we have an AR class in place, creating the CRUD scaffolding for managing the related entity is equally as easy. Again, use the Gii code generation tool's Crud Generator command with the AR class name, Comment, as the argument. Again, we have seen this many times in previous iterations, so we will leave this as an exercise for the reader. Again, if needed, refer back to Chapters 5 and 6 for all the details on using this tool to create CRUD scaffolding code. Although we will not immediately implement full CRUD operations for our comments, it is nice to have the scaffolding for the other operations in place. As long as we are logged in, we should now be able to view the autogenerated comment submission form via the following URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=comment/create Altering the scaffolding to meet requirements As we have seen many times before, we often have to make adjustments to the autogenerated scaffolding code in order to meet the specific requirements of the application. For one, our autogenerated form for creating a new comment has an input field for every single column defined in the tbl_comment database table. Chapter 9 [ 219 ] We don't actually want all of these fields to be part of the form. In fact, we want to greatly simplify this form to have only a single input field for the comment content. What's more, we don't want the user to access the form via the above URL, but rather only by visiting an issue details page. The user will add comments on the same page where they are viewing the details of the issue. We want to build towards something similar to what is depicted in the following screenshot: In order to achieve this, we are going to alter our Issue controller class to handle the post of the comment form as well as alter the issue details view to display the existing comments and new comment creation form. Also, as comments should only be created within the context of an issue, we'll add a new method to the Issue model class to create new comments. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 220 ] Adding a comment Let's start by writing a test for this new public method on the Issue model class. Open up the IssueTest.php file and add the following test method: public function testAddComment() { $comment = new Comment; $comment->content = "this is a test comment"; $this->assertTrue($this->issues('issueBug')->addComment($comment)); } This, of course, will fail until we add the method to our Issue AR class. Add the following method to the Issue AR class: /** * Adds a comment to this issue */ public function addComment($comment) { $comment->issue_id=$this->id; return $comment->save(); } This method ensures the proper setting of the comment issue ID before saving the new comment. Run the test again to ensure it now passes. With this method in place, we can now turn focus to the issue controller class. As we want the comment creation form to display from and post its data back to the IssueController::actionView() method, we will need to alter that method. We will also add a new protected method to handle the form POST request. First, alter the actionView() method to be the following: public function actionView() { $issue=$this->loadModel(); $comment=$this->createComment($issue); $this->render('view',array( 'model'=>$issue, 'comment'=>$comment, )); } Chapter 9 [ 221 ] Then add the following protected method to create a new comment and handle the form post request for creating a new comment for this issue: protected function createComment($issue) { $comment=new Comment; if(isset($_POST['Comment'])) { $comment->attributes=$_POST['Comment']; if($issue->addComment($comment)) { Yii::app()->user->setFlash('commentSubmitted',"Your comment has been added." ); $this->refresh(); } } return $comment; } Our new protected method, createComment() is responsible for handling the POST request for creating a new comment based on the user input. If the comment is successfully created, the page will be refreshed displaying the newly created comment. The changes made to IssueController::actionView() are responsible for calling this new method and also feeding the new comment instance to the view. Displaying the form Now we need to alter our view. First we are going to create a new view file to render the display of our comments and the comment input form. As we'll render this as a partial view, we'll stick with the naming conventions and begin the filename with a leading underscore. Create a new file called _comments.php under the protected/ views/issue/ folder and add the following code to that file:
author->username; ?>:
on create_ time)); ?>
Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 222 ] content)); ?>

This file expects as an input parameter an array of comment instances and displays them one by one. We now need to alter the view file for the issue detail to use this new file. We do this by opening protected/views/issue/view.php and adding the following to the end of the file:
commentCount>=1): ?>

commentCount>1 ? $model->commentCount . ' comments' : 'One comment'; ?>

renderPartial('_comments',array( 'comments'=>$model->comments, )); ?>

Leave a Comment

user->hasFlash('commentSubmitted')): ?>
user->getFlash('commentSubmitted'); ?>
renderPartial('/comment/_form',array( 'model'=>$comment, )); ?>
Here we are taking advantage of the statistical query property, commentCount, we added earlier to our Issue AR model class. This allows us to quickly determine if there are any comments available for the specific issue. If there are comments, it proceeds to render them using our _comments.php display view file. It then displays the input form that was created for us when we used the Gii Crud Generator functionality. It will also display the simple flash message set upon a successfully saved comment. Chapter 9 [ 223 ] One last change we need to make is to the comment input form itself. As we have seen many times in the past, the form created for us has an input field for every column defined in the underlying tbl_comment table. This is not what we want to display to the user. We want to make this a simple input form where the user only needs to submit the comment content. So, open up the view file that houses the input form, that is, protected/views/comment/_form.php and edit it to be simply:
beginWidget('CActiveForm', array( 'id'=>'comment-form', 'enableAjaxValidation'=>false, )); ?>

Fields with * are required.

errorSummary($model); ?>
labelEx($model,'content'); ?> textArea($model,'content',array('rows'=>6, 'cols'=>50)); ?> error($model,'content'); ?>
isNewRecord ? 'Create' : 'Save'); ?>
endWidget(); ?>
With all of this in place, we can visit an issue listing page, for example http://hostname/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view&id=1 And we see the following comment input form at the bottom of the page: Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 224 ] If we attempt to submit the comment without specifying any content, we see an error as depicted in the following screenshot: And then, if we are logged in as Test User One and we submit the comment My first test comment, we are presented with the following display: Creating a recent comments widget Now that we have the ability to leave comments on issues, we are going to turn our focus to the second primary goal of this iteration. We want to display to the user a list of all of the recent comments that have been left on various issues across all of the projects. This will provide a nice snapshot of user communication activity within the application. We also want to build this small block of content in a manner that will allow it to be re-used in various different locations throughout the site. This is very much in the style of web portal applications such as news forums, weather reporting applications and sites such as Yahoo and iGoogle. These small snippets of content are often referred to as portlets, and this is why we referred to building a portlet architecture at the beginning of this iteration. Again, you can refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portlet for more information on this topic. Chapter 9 [ 225 ] Introducing CWidget Lucky for us, Yii is readymade to help us achieve this architecture. Yii provides a component class, called CWidget, which is intended for exactly this purpose. A Yii widget is an instance of this class (or its child class), and is a presentational component typically embedded in a view file to display self-contained, reusable user interface features. We are going to use a Yii widget to build a recent comments portlet and display it on the main project details page so we can see comment activity across all issues related to the project. To demonstrate the ease of re-use, we'll take it one step further and also display a list of project-specific comments on the project details page. To begin creating our widget, we are going to first add a new public method on our Comment AR model class to return the most recently added comments. As expected, we will begin by writing a test. But before we write the test method, let's update our comment fixtures data so that we have a couple of comments to use throughout our testing. Create a new file called tbl_comment.php within the protected/tests/fixtures folder. Open that file and add the following content: array( 'content' => 'Test comment 1 on issue bug number 1', 'issue_id' => 1, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => 1, 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), 'comment2'=>array( 'content' => 'Test comment 2 on issue bug number 1', 'issue_id' => 1, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => 1, 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), ); Now we have consistent, predictable, and repeatable comment data to work with. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 226 ] Create a new unit test file, protected/tests/unit/CommentTest.php and add the following content: 'Comment', ); public function testRecentComments() { $recentComments=Comment::findRecentComments(); $this->assertTrue(is_array($recentComments)); } } This test will of course fail, as we have not yet added the Comment::findRecentComments() method to the Comment model class. So, let's add that now. We'll go ahead and add the full method we need, rather than adding just enough to get the test to pass. But if you are following along, feel free to move at your own TDD pace. Open Comment.php and add the following public static method: public static function findRecentComments($limit=10, $projectId=null) { if($projectId != null) { return self::model()->with(array( 'issue'=>array('condition'=>'project_id='.$projectId)))- >findAll(array( 'order'=>'t.create_time DESC', 'limit'=>$limit, )); } else { //get all comments across all projects return self::model()->with('issue')->findAll(array( 'order'=>'t.create_time DESC', 'limit'=>$limit, )); } } Chapter 9 [ 227 ] Our new method takes in two optional parameters, one to limit the number of returned comments, the other to specify a specific project ID to which all of the comments should belong. The second parameter will allow us to use our new widget to display all comments for a project on the project details page. So, if the input project id was specified, it restricts the returned results to only those comments associated with the project, otherwise, all comments across all projects are returned. More on relational AR queries in Yii The above two relational AR queries are a little new to us. We have not been using many of these options in our previous queries. Previously we have been using the simplest approach to executing relational queries: 1. Load the AR instance. 2. Access the relational properties defined in the relations() method. For example if we wanted to query for all of the issues associated with, say, project id #1, we would execute the following two lines of code: // retrieve the project whose ID is 1 $project=Project::model()->findByPk(1); // retrieve the project's issues: a relational query is actually being performed behind the scenes here $issues=$project->issues; This familiar approach uses what is referred to as a Lazy Loading. When we first create the project instance, the query does not return all of the associated issues. It only retrieves the associated issues upon an initial, explicit request for them, that is, when $project->issues is executed. This is referred to as lazy because it waits to load the issues. This approach is convenient and can also be very efficient, especially in those cases where the associated issues may not be required. However, in other circumstances, this approach can be somewhat inefficient. For example, if we wanted to retrieve the issue information across N projects, then using this lazy approach would involve executing N join queries. Depending on how large N is, this could be very inefficient. In these situations, we have another option. We can use what is called Eager Loading. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 228 ] The Eager Loading approach retrieves the related AR instances at the same time as the main AR instances are requested. This is accomplished by using the with() method in concert with either the find() or findAll() methods for AR query. Sticking with our project example, we could use Eager Loading to retrieve all issues for all projects by executing the following single line of code: //retrieve all project AR instances along with their associated issue AR instances $projects = Project::model()->with('issues')->findAll(); Now, in this case, every project AR instance in the $projects array already has its associated issues property populated with an array of issues AR instances. This result has been achieved by using just a single join query. We are using this approach in both of the relational queries executed in our findRecentComments() method. The one we are using to restrict the comments to a specific project is slightly more complex. As you can see, we are specifying a query condition on the eagerly loaded issue property for the comments. Let's look at the following line: Comment::model()->with(array('issue'=>array('condition'=>'project_ id='.$projectId)))->findAll(); This query specifies a single join between the tbl_comment and the tbl_issue tables. Sticking with project id #1 for this example, the previous relational AR query would basically execute something similar to the following SQL statement: SELECT tbl_comment.*, tbl_issue.* FROM tbl_comment LEFT OUTER JOIN tbl_issue ON (tbl_comment.issue_id=tbl_issue.id) WHERE (tbl_issue. project_id=1) The added array we specify in the findAll() method simply sets an order by clause and a limit clause to the executed SQL statement. One last thing to note about the two queries we are using is how the column names that are common to both tables are disambiguated. Obviously when the two tables that are being joined have columns with the same name, we have to make a distinction between the two in our query. In our case, both tables have the create_time column defined. We are trying to order by this column in the tbl_comment table and not the one defined in the issue table. In a relational AR query in Yii, the alias name for the primary table is fixed as t, while the alias name for a relational table, by default, is the same as the corresponding relation name. So, in our two queries, we specify t.create_time to indicate we want to use the primary table's column. If we wanted to instead order by the issue create_time column, we would alter, the second query for example, as such: Chapter 9 [ 229 ] return Comment::model()->with('issue')->findAll(array( 'order'=>'issue.create_time DESC', 'limit'=>$limit, )); Completing the test Okay, now that we fully understand what our new method is doing, we need to complete testing of it. In order to fully test our new method, we need to make a few changes to our fixture data. Open each of the fixture data files: tbl_project.php, tbl_issue.php, and tbl_comment.php and ensure each of these entries is in place: Add the following code in tbl_project: 'project3'=>array( 'name' => 'Test Project 3', 'description' => 'This is test project 3', 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), In tbl_issue, add the following code: 'issueFeature2'=>array( 'name' => 'Test Feature For Project 3', 'description' => 'This is a test feature issue associated with project # 3 that is completed', 'project_id' => 3, 'type_id' => 1, 'status_id' => 2, 'owner_id' => 1, 'requester_id' => 1, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 230 ] Finally, add the following code in tbl_comment: 'comment3'=>array( 'content' => 'The first test comment on the first feature issue associated with Project #3', 'issue_id' => 3, 'create_time' => '', 'create_user_id' => '', 'update_time' => '', 'update_user_id' => '', ), We now have a total of three comments in our test database. Two of them associated with project #1 and one associated with project #3. Now we can alter our test method to test: • Requesting all comments • Limiting the number of returned comments to just two • Restricting the returned comments to only those associated with project #3 The following method tests all three scenarios: public function testRecentComments() { //retrieve all the comments for all projects $recentComments = Comment::findRecentComments(); $this->assertTrue(is_array($recentComments)); $this->assertEquals(count($recentComments),3); //make sure the limit is working $recentComments = Comment::findRecentComments(2); $this->assertTrue(is_array($recentComments)); $this->assertEquals(count($recentComments),2); //test retrieving comments only for a specific project $recentComments = Comment::findRecentComments(5, 3); $this->assertTrue(is_array($recentComments)); $this->assertEquals(count($recentComments),1); } Chapter 9 [ 231 ] We also need to ensure that our CommentTest class is using the fixture data for comments, issues, and projects. Make sure the following fixtures are defined at the top of our CommentTest class: 'Comment', 'projects'=>'Project', 'issues'=>'Issue', ); Now, if we run this test again, we should have all six assertions passing: >>phpunit unit/CommentTest.php PHPUnit 3.4.12 by Sebastian Bergmann. . Time: 0 seconds OK (1 test, 6 assertions) Armed with the knowledge of the benefits of Lazy Loading versus Eager Loading in Yii, we should make an adjustment to how the Issue model is loaded within the IssueController::actionView() method. Since we have altered the issues detail view to display our comments, including the author of the comment, we know it will be more efficient to use the Eager Loading approach to load our comments along with their respective authors when we make the call to loadModel() in this method. To do this, we can add a simple input flag to this loadModel() method to indicate whether or not we want to load the comments as well. Alter the IssueController::loadModel() method as shown below: public function loadModel($withComments=false) { if($this->_model===null) { if(isset($_GET['id'])) { if($withComments) { $this->_model=Issue::model()->with(array( 'comments'=>array('with'=>'author'))) ->findbyPk($_GET['id']); } else Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 232 ] { $this->_model=Issue::model()->findbyPk($_GET['id']); } } if($this->_model===null) throw new CHttpException(404,'The requested page does not exist.'); } return $this->_model; } Now we can change the call to this method in IssueController::actionView(), as such: public function actionView() { $issue=$this->loadModel(true); With this in place, we will load all of our comments, along with their respective author information, with just one database call. Creating the widget Now we are ready to create our new widget to use our new method to display our recent comments. As we previously mentioned a widget in Yii is a class that extend from the framework class CWidget or one of its child classes. We'll add our new widget to the protected/components/ directly, as the contents of this folder are already specified in the main configuration file to be auto-loaded within the application. This way we won't have to explicitly import the class every time we wish to use it. We'll name our widget RecentComments, so we need to add a php file of the same name to this directly. Add the following class definition to this newly created RecentComment. php file: _comments = Comment::model() ->findRecentComments($this->displayLimit, $this->projectId); } public function getRecentComments() { return $this->_comments; } public function run() { // this method is called by CController::endWidget() $this->render('recentComments'); } } The primary work involved when creating a new widget is to override the init() and run() methods of the base class. The init() method initializes the widget and is called after its properties have been initialized. The run() method executes the widget. In this case, we simply initialize the widget by requesting recent comments based on the $displayLimit and $projectId properties. The execution of the widget itself simply renders its associated view file, which we have yet to create. view files, by convention, are placed in views/ directly within the same folder where the widget resides, and have the same name as the widget, but start with a lowercase letter. Sticking with convention, create a new file whose fully qualified path is protected/ components/views/renderComments.php. Once created, add the following markup to that file:
    getRecentComments() as $comment): ?>
    author->username; ?> added a comment.
    issue->name), array('issue/view', 'id'=>$comment->issue->id)); ?>
This calls the RenderComments widget's getRecentComments() method, which returns an array of comments. It then iterates over each of them displaying who added the comment and the associated issue on which the comment was left. Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 234 ] In order to see the results, we need to embed this widget into an existing controller view file. As previously mentioned, we want to use this widget on the projects listing page, to display all recent comments across all projects, and also on a specific project details page, to display the recent comments for just that specific project. Let's start with the project listing page. The view file responsible for displaying that content is protected/views/project/index.php. Open up that file and add the following at the bottom: widget('RecentComments'); ?> Now if we view the projects listing page http://localhost/trackstar/index. php?r=project, we see something similar to the following screenshot: We have now embedded our new recent comments data within the page simply by calling the widget. This is nice, but we can take our little widget one step further to have it display in a consistent manner with all other potential portlets in the application. We can do this by taking advantage of another class provided to us by Yii, CPortlet. Chapter 9 [ 235 ] Introducing CPortlet CPortlet is part of zii, the official extension class library that comes packaged with Yii. It provides a nice base class for all portlet-style widgets. It will allow us to render a nice title as well as consistent HTML markup, so that all portlets across the application can be easily styled in a similar manner. Once we have a widget that renders content (like our RecentComments widget), we can simply use the rendered content of our widget as the content for CPortlet, which itself is a widget, as it also extends from CWidget. We can do this by placing our call to the RecentComments widget between a beginWidget() and an endWiget() call for CPortlet, as such: beginWidget('zii.widgets.CPortlet', array( 'title'=>'Recent Comments', )); $this->widget('RecentComments'); $this->endWidget(); ?> Since CPortlet provides a title property, we set it to be something meaningful for our portlet. We then use the rendered content of the RecentComments widget to drive the content for the porlet widget. The end result of this is depicted in the following screenshot: Iteration 6: Adding User Comments [ 236 ] This is not a huge change from what we had previously, but we have now placed our content into a consistent container that is already being used throughout the site. Notice the similarity between the right column menu content block and our newly created recent comments content block. I am sure it will come as no surprise to you that this right column menu block is also displayed within a CPortlet container. Taking a peek in protected/views/layouts/column2.php, which is a file that the yiic webapp command autogenerated for us when we initially created the application, reveals the following code: beginWidget('zii.widgets.CPortlet', array( 'title'=>'Operations', )); $this->widget('zii.widgets.CMenu', array( 'items'=>$this->menu, 'htmlOptions'=>array('class'=>'operations'), )); $this->endWidget(); ?> So it seems that the application has been taking advantage of portlets all along. Adding our widget to another page Let's also add our portlet to the project details page, and restrict the comments to just those associated with the specific project. Add the following to the bottom of the protected/views/project/view.php file: beginWidget('zii.widgets.CPortlet', array( 'title'=>'Recent Project Comments', )); $this->widget('RecentComments', array('projectId'=>$model->id)); $this->endWidget(); ?> This is basically the same thing we added to the project listings page, except we are initializing the RecentComments widget's $projectId property by adding an array of name=>value pairs to the call. Now if we visit a specific project details page, we should see something similar to the following screenshot: Chapter 9 [ 237 ] This screenshot shows the details page for project #3, which has one associated issue with just one comment on that issue, as depicted in the picture. You may need to add a few issues and comments on those issues in order to generate a similar display. We now have a way to display recent comments with a few different configurable parameters anywhere throughout the site in a consistent and easily maintainable manner. Summary With this iteration, we have started to flesh out our Trackstar application with functionality that has come to be expected of most user-based web applications today. The ability for users to communicate with each other within the application is an essential part of a successful issue management system. As we created this essential feature, we were able to deeper look into how to write relational AR queries. We were also introduced to content components called widgets and portlets. This introduced us to an approach to developing small content blocks and being able to use them anywhere throughout the site. This approach greatly increases reuse, consistency, and ease of maintenance. In the next iteration, we'll build upon the recent comments widget created here, and expose the content generated by our widget as an RSS feed to allow users to track application or project activity without having to visit the application. Iteration 7: Adding an RSS Web Feed In the previous iteration, we added the ability for the user to leave comments on issues and to display a list of these comments utilizing a portlet architecture to allow us to easily and consistently display that listing anywhere throughout the application. In this iteration, we are going to build upon this feature and expose this list of comments as an RSS data feed. Furthermore, we are going to use the existing feed functionality available in another open source framework, the Zend Framework, to demonstrate just how easy it is for a Yii application to integrate with other third-party tools. Iteration planning The goal of this iteration is to create an RSS feed using the content created from our user generated comments. We should allow users to subscribe to a comment feed that spans all projects as well as subscribe to individual project feeds. Luckily, the widget functionality we built previously has the capability to return a list of recent comments across all projects, as well as restrict the data to one specific project. So, we have already coded the appropriate methods to access the needed data. The bulk of this iteration will focus on putting that data in the correct format to be published as an RSS feed, and adding links to our application to allow users to subscribe to these feeds. The following is a list of high-level tasks we will need to complete in order to achieve these goals: • Download and install Zend Framework into the Yii application • Create a new action in a controller class to respond to the feed request and return the appropriate data in an RSS format Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 240 ] • Alter our URL structure for ease of use • Add our newly created feed to both the projects listings page, as well as to each individual project details page As always, be sure to run the full suite of unit tests prior to making any changes to ensure everything that is still working as expected. A little background: Content Syndication, RSS, and Zend Framework Web Content Syndication has been around for many years, but has recently gained enormous popularity. The term Web Content Syndication refers to publishing information in a standardized format so that it can easily be used by other websites and easily consumed by reader applications. Many news sites have long been electronically syndicating their content, but the massive explosion of web logs (also known as blogs) across the Internet has turned Content Syndication (also known as known as feeds) into an expected feature of almost every website. Our TrackStar application will be no exception. RSS is an acronym that stands for Really Simple Syndication. It is an XML format specification that provides a standard for Web Content Syndication. There are other formats that could be used, but due to the overwhelming popularity of RSS among most websites, we will focus on delivering our feed in this format. Zend is known as "The PHP Company". Their founders are key contributors to the core PHP language and the company focuses on creating products to help improve the entire PHP application development life-cycle experience. They provide products and services to help with configuration and installation, development, deployment and with production application administration and maintenance. One of the products they offer to assist in application development is the Zend Framework. The framework can be used as a whole to provide an entire application foundation, much in the same way we are using Yii for our TrackStar application, or piece-meal by utilizing single feature components of the framework's library. Yii is flexible enough to allow us to use pieces of other frameworks. We will be using just one component of the Zend framework library, called Zend_Feed, so that we don't have to write all of the underlying "plumbing" code to generate our RSS formatted web feeds. For more on Zend_Feed, visit http://www.zendframework.com/manual/en/zend. feed.html Chapter 10 [ 241 ] Installing Zend Framework As we are using the Zend Framework to help support our RSS needs, we first need to download and install the framework. To get the latest version, visit http://framework.zend.com/download/latest. We will only be utilizing a single component of this framework, Zend_Feed, so the minimal version of the framework will suffice. When you expand the downloaded framework file, you should see the following high-level folder and file structure: INSTALL.txt LICENSE.txt README.txt bin/ library/ In order to use this framework within our Yii application, we need to move some of the files within our application's folder structure. Let's create a new folder under the /protected folder within our application called vendors/. Then, move the Zend Framework folder /library/Zend underneath this newly created folder. After everything is in place, ensure that protected/vendors/Zend/Feed.php exists in the TrackStar application. Using Zend_Feed Zend_Feed is a small component of the Zend Framework that encapsulates all of the complexities of creating web feeds behind a simple, easy-to-use interface. It will help us get a working, tested, RSS compliant data feed in place in very little time. All we will need to do is format our comment data in a manner expected by Zend_Feed, and it does the rest. We need a place to house the code to handle the requests for our feed. We could create a new controller for this, but to keep things simple, we'll just add a new action method to our main CommentController.php file to handle the requests. Rather than add to the method a little at a time, we'll list the entire method here, and then talk through what it is doing. Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 242 ] Open up CommentController.php and add the following public method: public function actionFeed() { if(isset($_GET['pid'])) $projectId = intval($_GET['pid']); else $projectId = null; $comments = Comment::model()->findRecentComments(20, $projectId); //convert from an array of comment AR class instances to an name=>value array for Zend $entries=array(); foreach($comments as $comment) { $entries[]=array( 'title'=>$comment->issue->name, 'link'=>CHtml::encode($this->createAbsoluteUrl('issue/ view',array('id'=>$comment->issue->id))), 'description'=> $comment->author->username . ' says:
' . $comment->content, 'lastUpdate'=>strtotime($comment->create_time), 'author'=>$comment->author->username, ); } //now use the Zend Feed class to generate the Feed // generate and render RSS feed $feed=Zend_Feed::importArray(array( 'title' => 'Trackstar Project Comments Feed', 'link' => $this->createUrl(''), 'charset' => 'UTF-8', 'entries' => $entries, ), 'rss'); $feed->send(); } This is all fairly simple. First we check the input request querystring for the existence of a pid parameter, which we take to indicate a specific project ID. Remember that we want to optionally allow the data feed to restrict the content to comments associated with a single project. Next we use the same method that we used in the previous iteration to populate our widget to retrieve a list of up to 20 recent comments, either across all projects, or if the project ID is specified, specific to that project. Chapter 10 [ 243 ] You may remember that this method returns an array of Comment AR class instances. We iterate over this returned array and convert the data into the format expected by the Zend_Feed component. Zend_Feed expects a simple array containing elements which are themselves arrays containing the data for each comment entry. Each individual entry is a simple associative array of name=>value pairs. To comply with the specific RSS format, each of our individual entries must minimally contain a title, a link, and a description. We have also added two optional fields, one called lastUpdate, which Zend_Feed translates to the RSS field, pubDate, and one to specify the author. There are a few extra helper methods we take advantage of in order to get the data in the correct format. For one, we use the controller's createAbsoluteUrl() method, rather than just the createUrl() method in order to generate a fully qualified URL. Using createAbsoluteUrl() will generate a link like the following http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view &id=5 as opposed to just /index.php?r=issue/view&id=5. Also, to avoid errors such as "unterminated entity reference" being generated from PHP's DOMDocument::createElement(), which is used by Zend_Feed to generate the RSS XML, we need to convert all applicable characters to HTML entities by using our handy helper function, CHTML::encode. So, we encode the link such that a URL that looks like: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view&id=5 will be converted to: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view&id=5 Once all of our entries have been properly populated and formatted, we use Zend_ Feed's importArray() method which expects an array to construct the RSS feed. Finally, once the Zend feed class is built from the input array of entries and returned, we call the send() method on that class. This returns the properly formatted RSS XML and appropriate headers to the client. We need to make a couple of configuration changes to the CommentController.php file and class before this will work. First, we need to import the /vendors/Zend/ Feed.php file as well as the Rss.php file under the Feed/ folder. Add the following statements to the top of CommentController.php: Yii::import('application.vendors.*'); require_once('Zend/Feed.php'); require_once('Zend/Feed/Rss.php'); Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 244 ] Then, alter the CommentController::accessRules() method to allow any user to access our newly added actionFeed() method: public function accessRules() { return array( array('allow', // allow all users to perform 'index' and 'view' actions 'actions'=>array('index','view', 'feed'), 'users'=>array('*'), ), … This is really all there is to it. If we now navigate to http://localhost/trackstar/ index.php?r=comment/feed, we can view the results of our effort. As browsers handle the display of RSS feeds differently, what you see might differ from the following screenshot. The following screenshot is what you should see you are if viewing the feed in the Firefox browser: Creating user friendly URLs So far, throughout the development process, we have been using the default format of our Yii application URL structure. This format, discussed back in Chapter 2, uses a querystring approach. We have the main parameter, 'r', which stands for route, followed by a controllerID/actionID pair, and then optional querystring Chapter 10 [ 245 ] parameters as needed by the specific action methods being called. The URL we created for our new feed is no exception. It is a long, cumbersome and dare we say ugly URL. There has got to be a better way! Well, in fact, there is. We could make the above URL look cleaner and more self-explanatory by using the so-called path format, which eliminates the query string and puts the GET parameters into the path info part of URL: Taking our comment feed URL as an example, instead of: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=comment/feed we would have: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/comment/feed/ What's more, we don't even need to always specify the entry script for each request. We can also take advantage of Yii's request routing configuration options to remove the need to specify the controllerID/actionID pair as well. Our request could then look like: http://localhost/trackstar/commentfeed Also, it is common, especially with feed URL, to have the .xml extension specified at the end. So, it would be nice if we could alter our URL to look like: http://localhost/trackstar/commentfeed.xml This greatly simplifies the URL for users and is also an excellent format for URLs to be properly indexed into major search engines (often referred to as "search engine friendly URLs"). Let's see how we can use Yii's URL management features to alter our URL to match the desired format. Using the URL manager The built-in URL manager in Yii is an application component that can be configured in the protected/config/main.php file. Let's open up that file and add a new URL manager component declaration to the components array: 'urlManager'=>array( 'urlFormat'=>'path', ), As long as we stick with the default and name it urlManager, we do not need to specify the class of the component because it is pre-declared to be CUrlManager.php in the CWebApplication.php framework class. Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 246 ] With this one simple addition, our URL structure has changed to the 'path' format throughout the site. For example, previously if we wanted to view, say, a specific issue whose ID is 1, we would make the request using the following URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php?r=issue/view&id=1 but with these changes in place, our URL now looks like: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/issue/view/id/1 You'll notice the changes we have made have affected all the URLs generated throughout the application. To see this, visit our feed again by going to http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/comment/feed/. We notice that all of our issue links have been reformatted to this new structure for us. This is all thanks to our consistent use of the controller methods and other helper methods to generate our URLs. We can alter the URL format in just one single configuration file, and the changes will automatically propagate throughout the application. Our URLs are looking better, but we still have the entry script, index.php, specified and we are not yet able to append the .xml suffix on the end of our feed URL. So, we'll hide the index.php as part of the URL, and also setup the request routing to understand that a request for commentfeed.xml actually means a request for the actionFeed() method within the CommentController.php class. Let's actually tackle the latter, first. Configuring routing rules Yii's URL manager allows us to specify rules that define how URLs are parsed and created. A rule consists of defining a route and a pattern. The pattern is used to match on the path information part of the URL to determine which rule is used for parsing or creating URLs. The pattern may contain named parameters using the syntax ParamName:RegExp. When parsing a URL, a matching rule will extract these named parameters from the path info and put them into the $_GET variable. When a URL is being created by the application, a matching rule will extract the named parameters from $_GET and put them into the path info part of the created URL. If a pattern ends with '/*', it means additional GET parameters may be appended to the path info part of the URL. To specify URL rules, set the set the CUrlManager's rules property as an array of rules in the format pattern=>route. As an example, let's look at the following two rules: 'urlManager'=>array( 'urlFormat'=>'path', 'rules'=>array( Chapter 10 [ 247 ] 'issues'=>'issue/index', 'issue//*'=>'issue/view', ) There are two rules specified in the above code. The first rule says that if the user requests the URL http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/issues, it should be treated as http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/issue/index and the same applies when constructing such a URL. The second rule contains a named parameter id which is specified using the syntax. It says that, for example, if the user requests the URL http://localhost/trackstar /index.php/issue/1, it should be treated as http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/issue/view?id=1. The same also applies when constructing such a URL. The route can also be specified as an array itself to allow the setting of other attributes such as the URL suffix and whether or not the route should be considered as case sensitive. We'll take advantage of these as we specify the rule for our comment feed. Let's add the following rule to our urlManager application component configuration: 'urlManager'=>array( 'urlFormat'=>'path', 'rules'=>array( 'commentfeed'=>array('comment/feed', 'urlSuffix'=>'.xml', 'caseSensitive'=>false), ), ), Here, we have used the urlSuffix attribute to specify our desired URL .xml suffix. Now we can access our feed by using the following URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/commentFeed.xml Removing the entry script from the URL Now we just need to remove the index.php from the URL. This is done in two steps: 1. Alter the web server configuration to re-route all requests that don't correspond to existing files or directories to index.php. 2. Set the UrlManager's showScriptName property to false. Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 248 ] The first takes care of the how the application routes the requests, the second takes care of how URLs will be created throughout the application. As we are using Apache HTTP Server, we can perform the first step by by creating a .htaccess file in the application root folder and adding the following directives to that file: Options +FollowSymLinks IndexIgnore */* RewriteEngine on # if a directory or a file exists, use it directly RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d # otherwise forward it to index.php RewriteRule . index.php Note: This approach is only for use with the Apache HTTP Server. You will need to consult your web server's re-write rules documentation if you are using a different web server. Also note that this information could be placed in the Apache configuration file as an alternative to using the .htaccess file approach. With the .htaccess file in place, we can now visit our feed by navigating to http://localhost/trackstar/commentfeed.xml (or http://localhost/ trackstar/commentFeed.xml as we set the case-sensitivity to false) However, even with this in place, if we use one of the controller methods or one of our CHTML helper methods in our application to create our URL, say by executing the following in a controller class: $this->createAbsoluteUrl('comment/feed'); it will generate the following URL, with index.php still in the URL: http://localhost/trackstar/index.php/commentfeed.xml In order to instruct it to not use the entry script name when generating URLs, we need to set that property on the urlManager component. We do this again in the main.php config file as such: 'urlManager'=>array( 'urlFormat'=>'path', 'rules'=>array( Chapter 10 [ 249 ] 'commentfeed'=>array('site/commentFeed', 'urlSuffix'=>'.xml', 'caseSensitive'=>false), ), 'showScriptName'=>false, ), In order to handle the addition of the project ID in the URL, which we need to restrict the comment feed data to comments associated with specific projects, we need to add one other rule: 'urlManager'=>array( 'urlFormat'=>'path', 'rules'=>array( '/commentfeed'=>array('site/ commentFeed', 'urlSuffix'=>'.xml', 'caseSensitive'=>false), 'commentfeed'=>array('site/commentFeed', 'urlSuffix'=>'.xml', 'caseSensitive'=>false), ), 'showScriptName'=>false, ), This rule also uses the syntax to specify a pattern to allow for a project ID to be specified before the commentfeed.xml part of the URL. With this rule in place, we can restrict our RSS feed to comments specific to a project. For example, if we just want the comments associated with project # 2, the URL format would be: http://localhost/trackstar/2/commentfeed.xml Adding the feed links Now that we have created our feed and altered the URL structure to make it more user and search engine friendly, we need to add the ability for users to subscribe to the feed. One way to do this is to add the following code before rendering the pages in which we want to add the RSS feed link. Let's do this for both the project listing page as well as a specific project details page. We'll start with the project listings page. This page is rendered by the ProjectController::actionIndex() method. Alter that method as such: public function actionIndex() { $dataProvider=new CActiveDataProvider('Project'); Yii::app()->clientScript->registerLinkTag( Iteration 7: Adding An RSS Web Feed [ 250 ] 'alternate', 'application/rss+xml', $this->createUrl('comment/feed')); $this->render('index',array( 'dataProvider'=>$dataProvider, )); } The above highlighted code adds the following to the tag of the rendered HTML: In many browsers, this will automatically generate a little RSS feed icon in the address bar. The following screenshot depicts what this icon looks like in the Firefox 3.6 address bar: We make a similar change to add this link to a specific project details page. The rendering of these pages is handled by the ProjectController::actionView() method. Alter that method to be the following: public function actionView() { $issueDataProvider=new CActiveDataProvider('Issue', array( 'criteria'=>array( 'condition'=>'project_id=:projectId', 'params'=>array(':projectId'=>$this- >loadModel()->id), ), 'pagination'=>array( 'pageSize'=>1, ), )); Yii::app()->clientScript->registerLinkTag( 'alternate', 'application/rss+xml', $this->createUrl('comment/feed',array('pid'=>$this- >loadModel()->id))); Chapter 10 [ 251 ] $this->render('view',array( 'model'=>$this->loadModel(), 'issueDataProvider'=>$issueDataProvider, )); } This is almost the same as what we added to the index method, except that we are specifying the project ID so that our comment entries are restricted to just those associated with that project. A similar icon will now display in the address bar on our project details page. Clicking on one of these icons allow the user to subscribe to these comment feeds. Summary This iteration demonstrated just how easy it is to integrate Yii with other external frameworks. We specifically used the popular Zend Framework to demonstrate this and were able to quickly add an RSS compliant web feed to our application. Though we specifically used Zend_Feed, we really demonstrated how to integrate any of the Zend Framework components into the application. This further extends the already extensive feature offering of Yii, making Yii applications incredibly feature rich. We also learned about the URL Management features within Yii and altered our URL format throughout the application to be more user and search engine friendly. This is a first step in improving upon the look and feel of our application. Something we have very much neglected up to this point. Turning our focus to styles, themes, and generally making things pretty is the focus of the next iteration. Iteration 8: Making it Pretty - Design, Layout, Themes, and Internationalization(i18n) In the previous iteration, we started to add a little beauty to our application by making our URLs more attractive to both, the user and to search engine bots that crawl the site. In this iteration, we are going to turn more focus to the look and feel of our application by covering the topics of page layouts and themes in Yii. Though we will live up to the title of this chapter by changing the look of our application to something we believe is slightly better looking, we will be focused on the approach one takes and the tools available to help design the front-end of a Yii application rather than design itself. So this iteration will focus more on how you can make your applications pretty, rather than spending a lot of time specifically designing our TrackStar application. Iteration planning This iteration aims to focus on the frontend. We want to create a new look for our site that is reusable and able to be implemented dynamically. We also want to accomplish without overwriting or otherwise removing our current design. Also, we are going to dig into the internationalization features of Yii, so we need to clearly understand how to accommodate application users from different geographic regions. Iteration 8: Making it Pretty- Design, Layout, Themes, and Internationalization(i18n) [ 254 ] The following is a list of high-level tasks that we will need to complete in order to achieve our goals: • Create a new theme for our application by creating new layout, CSS and other asset files for providing the application with a new front-end design • Use the internationalization and localization features of Yii to help translate a portion of our application to a new language Designing with layouts One thing that you may have noticed is that we have added a lot of functionality to our application without adding any explicit navigation to access this functionality. Our home page has not yet changed from the default application we built. We still have the same navigation items as we did when we first created our new application. We need to change our basic navigation to better reflect the underlying functionality present in the application. Thus far, we have not fully covered how our application is using all of the view files responsible for displaying the content. We know that our view files are responsible for our data display and housing the HTML sent back for each page request. When we create new controller actions, we also often create new views to handle the display of the returned content from these action methods. Most of these views are very specific to the action methods they support and not used across multiple pages. However, there are some things, like the main menu navigation, that are used across multiple pages throughout the site. These types of UI components are better suited to reside in what are called layout files. A layout in Yii, is a special view file used to decorate other view files. Layouts typically contain markup or other user interface components that are common across multiple view files. When using a layout to render a view file, Yii embeds the view file into the layout. Chapter 11 [ 255 ] Specifying a layout There are two main places where a layout can be specified. One is the property called $layout of the CWebApplication itself. This defaults to protected/views/ layouts/main.php if not otherwise explicitly specified. As is the case with all application settings, this can be overridden in the main config file, protected/ config/main.php. For example, if we created a new layout file, protected/views/ layouts/newlayout.php, and wanted to use this new file as our application-wide layout file, we could alter our main config file to set the layout property as such: return array( 'layout'=>'newlayout', The filename is specified without the .php extension and is relative to the $layoutPath property of CWebApplication, which defaults to Webroot/ protected/views/layouts (which itself could be overridden in a similar manner if this location does not suit your application's needs). The other place to specify the layout is by setting the $layout property of the controller class. This allows for more granular control of the layout on a controller- by-controller basis. This is the way it was specified when we generated the initial application. Using the yiic tool to create our initial application automatically created a controller base class, Webroot/protected/components/Controller.php, from which all of our other controller classes extend. Opening up this file reveals that the $layout property has been set to "column1". Setting the layout file at the more granular controller level will override the setting in the CWebApplication class. Applying and using a layout The use of a layout file is implicit in the call to the CController::render() method. That is, when you make the call to the render() method to render a view file, Yii will embed the contents of the view file into the layout file specified in either the controller class, or the one specified at the application level. You can avoid applying any layout decoration of the rendered view file by calling the CController::renderPartial() method instead. As previously mentioned, a layout file is typically used to decorate other view files. One example use of a layout is to provide a consistent header and footer layout to each and every page. When the render() method is called, what happens behind the scenes is first a call to renderPartial() on the specified view file. The output of this is stored in a variable called $content, which is then made available to the layout file. So, a simple layout file might look like the following: Iteration 8: Making it Pretty- Design, Layout, Themes, and Internationalization(i18n) [ 256 ] In fact, let's try this out. Create a new file called newlayout.php and place it in the default folder for layout files, /protected/views/layouts/. Add the above HTML content to this file and save it. Now we'll put this to use by altering our site controller to use this new layout. Open up SiteController.php and override the layout property set in the base class by explicitly adding it to this class, as such: class SiteController extends Controller { public $layout='newlayout'; This will set the layout file to newlayout.php, but only for this controller. Now, every time we make the call to the render() method within SiteController, the newlayout.php layout file will be used. One page that SiteController is responsible for rendering is the login page. Let's take a look at that page to verify these changes. If we navigate to http://localhost/trackstar/site/login (assuming we are not already logged in), we will see something similar to the following screenshot: Chapter 11 [ 257 ] If we simply comment out the $layout attribute we just added, and refresh the login page again, we are back to using the original main.php layout and our page is now back to what it looked like before. Deconstructing the main.php layout file So far, all of our application pages have been using the main.php layout file to provide the primary layout markup. Before we go making changes to our page layout and design, it would serve us well to take a closer look at this main layout file. The following is a listing of the entire contents of that file: <?php echo CHtml::encode($this->pageTitle); ?>
Chapter 11 [ 259 ] We'll walk through this starting at the top. The first five lines probably look somewhat familiar to you. These lines define a standard HTML document type declaration, followed by a starting element, then the start of our element. Within the tag, we first have a meta tag to declare the standard, and very important, XHTML- compliant UTF-8 character encoding, followed by another tag that specifies English as the primary language in which the website is written. Introducing the Blueprint CSS framework The next several lines, beginning with the comment may be less familiar to you. Another great thing about Yii is that it utilizes other best-in-breed frameworks, when appropriate, and the Blueprint CSS framework is one such example. The Blueprint CSS framework was included in the application as a by-product of using the yiic tool when we initially created our application. It is included to help standardize the CSS development. Blueprint is a CSS Grid framework. It helps standardize your CSS, provides cross-browser compatibility, and provides consistency in HTML element placement helping reduce CSS errors. It comes with many screen and print-friendly layout definitions and helps jumpstart your design by providing much of the css you need to get something that looks good and in place quickly. For more on the Blueprint framework, visit http://www.blueprintcss.org/. So, the following lines of code are required by and specific to the Blueprint CSS framework: Iteration 8: Making it Pretty- Design, Layout, Themes, and Internationalization(i18n) [ 260 ] Understanding the Blueprint installation Yii by no means requires the use of Blueprint. However, as the default application generated does include the framework, understanding its installation and use will be beneficial. The typical installation of Blueprint involves first downloading the framework files, and then placing three of its .css files into the Yii application's main CSS folder. If we take a peek under the main Webroot/css folder within our TrackStar application, we already see the inclusion of these three files: • ie.css • print.css • screen.css So, luckily for us, the basic installation has already been completed as a consequence of our using the yiic webapp command to generate our application. In order to take advantage of the framework, the above tags needs to be placed under the tag for each web page. This is why these declarations are made in the layout file. The next two tags: define some custom css definitions used to provide some layout declarations in addition to the ones specified in the Blueprint files. You should always place any custom ones below the ones provide by Blueprint, so that your custom declarations take precedence. Setting the page title Setting a specific and meaningful page title on a per page basis is important to properly indexing your website pages in search engines and helpful to users who want to bookmark specific pages of your site. The next line in our main layout file specifies the page title in the browser: <?php echo CHtml::encode($this->pageTitle); ?> Chapter 11 [ 261 ] Remember that $this in a view file refers to the controller class that initially rendered the view. The $pageTitle attribute is defined down in the Yii's CController base class and will default to the action name followed by the controller name. This is easily customized in the specific controller class, or even within each specific view file. Defining a page header It is often the case that websites are designed to have consistent header content repeated across many pages. The next few lines in our main layout file define the area for a page header:

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