WebSphere 应用服务器 v8.5 管理配置指南


ibm.com/redbooks IBM® WebSphere® Front cover WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Fabio Albertoni Tanja Baumann Yogesh Bhatia Eduardo Monich Fronza Marcio da Ros Gomes Sebastian Kapciak Catalin Mierlea Sergio Pinto Anoop Ramachandra Liang Rui Miguel Troncoso Learn about Websphere Application Server V8.5.5 Configure and administer a WebSphere system Deploy applications in a WebSphere environmentInternational Technical Support Organization WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile July 2013 SG24-8056-01© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. Second Edition (July 2013) This edition applies to WebSphere Application Server V8.5, including the features in V8.5.5. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xix.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. iii Contents Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv Part 1. Installation and profile management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 WebSphere Application Server profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 System management overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Directory conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.3 Core concepts of system management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.4 System management tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 New features for administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Java Management Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.1 JMX architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4.2 JMX MBeans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.5 System management in a stand-alone server environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.6 System management in a distributed server environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.6.1 Centralized changes to configuration and application data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6.2 Rules for process startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.6.3 Distributed process discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.6.4 File synchronization in distributed server environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.7 Advanced system management of multiple stand-alone servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.8 Advanced management of distributed and stand-alone servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems . . . . . . 31 2.1 IBM Installation Manager overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.1.2 Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2 Installation Manager installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.1 Using the GUI installer to install Installation Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.2 Using console mode to install Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.2.3 Using the command line to install Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.4 Using the silent installer to install Installation Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.5 Uninstalling Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.3 Using Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.3.1 Wizard mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.3.2 Command-line mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.3.3 Console mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.3.4 Silent mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.4 Customizing Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.4.1 Installation Manager preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.4.2 Repositories overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43iv WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 2.4.3 Repository configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.4.4 Updating Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.4.5 Managing packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.4.6 Examining log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.5 Installing WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.5.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.5.2 Using GUI mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.5.3 Using silent mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.6 Installing additional software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.6.1 WebSphere Customization Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.6.2 Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.1 Types of profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.1.1 Application server profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.1.2 Deployment manager profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.1.3 Custom profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.1.4 Cell profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.1.5 Administrative agent profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.1.6 Job manager profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.2 Planning for profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.3 Building systems with profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.3.1 Starting the WebSphere Customization Toolbox Profile Management Tool. . . . . 64 3.3.2 Common steps for all profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.3.3 Creating an application server profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.3.4 Creating a deployment manager profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.3.5 Creating a cell profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.3.6 Creating a custom profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.3.7 Federating nodes to a cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.3.8 Creating a job manager profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.3.9 Creating an administrative agent profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.3.10 Registering nodes to an administrative agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.3.11 Deregistering a node from the administrative agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.3.12 Registering administrative nodes with a job manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.4 Managing profiles with the command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 3.4.1 Listing profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 3.4.2 Creating profiles from templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 3.4.3 Creating profiles with non-default ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 3.4.4 Deleting profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 3.4.5 Using the manageprofiles interactive utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems. . . . . . . . . . . 101 4.1 IBM Installation Manager overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.2 Installing Installation Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.2.1 Checking prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.2.2 Obtaining an Installation Manager installation kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.2.3 Installing Installation Manager on the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.3 Working with Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.1 Installation Manager preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.2 Repository overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.3 Updating Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.3.4 Installing the WebSphere Application Server initial repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.4 Using Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Contents v 4.4.1 Key features of Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.4.2 Uninstalling Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 4.5 Installing WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 4.5.1 Installing using the command line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 4.5.2 Installing additional packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 4.5.3 Creating response files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.5.4 Installing silently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4.5.5 The post-installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 4.5.6 Service information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 4.5.7 Uninstalling packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.5.8 Preparing the base z/OS operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4.6 WebSphere Customization Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4.7 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4.7.1 Error message overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 4.7.2 Collecting Installation Manager information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Chapter 5. Working with profiles on z/OS systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.1 Creating WebSphere environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.1.1 WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.1.2 WebSphere DMZ secure proxy server for z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.2 Getting started with the Profile Management tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5.3 Creating a sample z/OS Network Deployment cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 5.3.1 Creating a deployment manager definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5.3.2 Creating the base application server definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 5.3.3 Uploading jobs and associated instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 5.3.4 Federating an application server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 5.3.5 Uploading jobs and associated instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5.4 Creating a job manager profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5.4.1 Creating the customization definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 5.4.2 Uploading the jobs and the associated instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 5.5 Creating an administrative agent profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 5.5.1 Creating the customization definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 5.5.2 Uploading jobs and the associated instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Chapter 6. Administration consoles and commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 6.1 Introducing the WebSphere administrative consoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 6.1.1 Starting and accessing the consoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 6.1.2 Logging into an administrative console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6.1.3 Changing the administrative console session timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 6.1.4 The graphical interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 6.1.5 Administrative console resources scopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 6.1.6 Updating existing items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 6.1.7 Adding new items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 6.1.8 Removing items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 6.1.9 Starting and stopping items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 6.1.10 Using variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 6.1.11 Saving work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 6.1.12 Getting help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 6.1.13 New options in version 8.5 deployment manager administrative console. . . . . 208 6.2 Securing the administrative console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 6.2.1 Enabling security after profile creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 6.2.2 Administrative security roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 6.3 Job manager console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216vi WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 6.3.1 Submitting a job with the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 6.3.2 Distributing files using the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 6.4 Using command-line tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 6.4.1 Command location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 6.4.2 Key usage parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 6.4.3 Entering commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Part 2. Administration and configuration techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Chapter 7. Administration of WebSphere processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 7.1 Working with deployment manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 7.1.1 Deployment manager configuration settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 7.1.2 Starting and stopping the deployment manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 7.1.3 The high-availability deployment manager function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 7.2 Working with the administrative agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 7.2.1 Starting and stopping the administrative agent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 7.2.2 Administrative agent configuration settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 7.3 Working with the job manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 7.3.1 Starting and stopping the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 7.3.2 Job manager configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 7.4 Working with application servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 7.4.1 Creating an application server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 7.4.2 Viewing the status of an application server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 7.4.3 Starting an application server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 7.4.4 Stopping an application server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 7.4.5 Viewing runtime attributes of an application server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 7.4.6 Customizing application servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 7.4.7 Repository checkpoints service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 7.5 Working with nodes in a Network Deployment environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 7.5.1 Starting and stopping nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 7.5.2 Node agent synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 7.5.3 Removing a node from a cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 7.5.4 Renaming a node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 7.5.5 Recovering an existing node. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 7.5.6 Node groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 7.6 Working with clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 7.6.1 Creating application server clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 7.6.2 Viewing the cluster topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 7.6.3 Managing clusters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 7.7 Working with virtual hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 7.8 Creating and updating virtual hosts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 7.9 Managing applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 7.9.1 Managing enterprise applications: Administrative console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 7.9.2 Preventing an enterprise application from starting on a server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 7.9.3 Viewing application details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 7.9.4 Finding a URL for a servlet or JSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 7.10 Enabling process restart on failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 7.10.1 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 7.10.2 UNIX and Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 7.10.3 z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Chapter 8. Administration with scripting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 8.1 Overview of WebSphere scripting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 8.2 Launching wsadmin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Contents vii 8.2.1 Scripting environment properties file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 8.2.2 Script profile file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 8.2.3 Connected versus local mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 8.3 Command and script invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 8.3.1 Invoking a single command (-c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 8.3.2 Running script files (-f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 8.3.3 Invoking commands interactively . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 8.4 The wsadmin tool management objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 8.4.1 Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 8.4.2 AdminControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 8.4.3 AdminConfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 8.4.4 AdminApp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 8.4.5 AdminTask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 8.5 Properties file based configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 8.6 Managing WebSphere using script libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 8.6.1 Invoking script libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 8.6.2 Displaying help for script libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 8.6.3 Application script library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 8.6.4 Resource script library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 8.6.5 Security script library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 8.6.6 Server script library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 8.6.7 System management script library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 8.6.8 Applying performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8.7 Assistance with scripting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8.7.1 Enabling command assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8.7.2 Building script files using command assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 8.8 Example: Using scripts with the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 8.8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 8.8.2 Creating the customized script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 8.8.3 Submitting the job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 8.8.4 Verifying the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 8.9 Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Chapter 9. Accessing relational databases from WebSphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 9.1 JDBC resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 9.1.1 JDBC providers and data sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 9.1.2 WebSphere support for data sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 9.2 Steps to define access to a database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 9.3 Creating an authentication alias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 9.4 Connecting to an IBM DB2 database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 9.4.1 Creating the JDBC provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 9.4.2 Creating the data source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 9.5 Connecting to an Oracle database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 9.5.1 Creating the JDBC provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 9.5.2 Creating the data source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 9.6 Connecting to an SQL Server database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 9.6.1 Creating the JDBC provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 9.6.2 Creating the data source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 9.7 Configuring connection pooling properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 9.8 WebSphere Application Server data source properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 9.9 Shared and unshared connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 9.9.1 Factors that determine sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 9.9.2 Configuring Shared and Unshared Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379viii WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 9.10 Troubleshooting database access problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 9.10.1 Enabling JDBC tracing for database problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 9.10.2 Enabling ConnLeakLogic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 9.10.3 Dumping connection pool information using wsadmin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 9.10.4 Tool to debug Database Access problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Chapter 10. Accessing EIS applications from WebSphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 10.1 JCA resource adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 10.2 WebSphere Application ServerJCA support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 10.2.1 Resource adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 10.2.2 Connection factories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 10.3 Installing and configuring resource adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 10.4 Configuring J2C connection factories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 10.5 Resource authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 10.5.1 Container-managed authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 10.5.2 Component-managed authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Chapter 11. Configuring messaging providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 11.1 Messaging providers introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 11.2 Configuring resources for the default messaging provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 11.2.1 Configuring JMS connection factories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 11.2.2 Configuring JMS destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 11.2.3 Configuring JMS queues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 11.2.4 Configuring JMS activation specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 11.3 Configuring resources for the WebSphere MQ messaging provider. . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 11.3.1 Configuring WebSphere MQ messaging provider connection factories . . . . . . 404 11.3.2 Configuring WebSphere MQ messaging provider destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 11.3.3 Configuring WebSphere MQ messaging provider activation specifications . . . 409 11.4 Configuring resources for third-party messaging providers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 11.4.1 Configuring JMS messaging providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 11.4.2 Configuring JMS connection factories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 11.4.3 Configuring JMS destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Chapter 12. Configuring and managing web servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 12.1 Web server overview and basic concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 12.1.1 Request routing using the plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 12.1.2 Web server and plug-in management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 12.2 Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 12.3 Web server configuration using the WebSphere Customization Toolbox . . . . . . . . . 425 12.3.1 Configuration files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 12.3.2 Stand-alone server environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 12.3.3 Distributed server environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 12.3.4 Configuring a remote web server in a distributed environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 12.4 Working with web servers and plug-ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 12.4.1 Manually defining nodes and web servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 12.4.2 Viewing the status of a web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 12.4.3 Starting and stopping a web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 12.4.4 IBM HTTP Server remote administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 12.4.5 Mapping modules to servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 12.5 Working with the plug-in configuration file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 12.5.1 Regenerating the plug-in configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 12.5.2 Propagating the plug-in configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 12.5.3 Modifying the plug-in request routing options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 12.6 IBM HTTP Server and Web Server Plug-ins for IBM WebSphere Application Server for Contents ix z/OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 12.6.1 IBM HTTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 12.6.2 Web Server Plug-ins for IBM WebSphere Application Server for z/OS . . . . . . 461 12.7 Troubleshooting some common errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 12.7.1 Troubleshooting Error 404 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 12.7.2 Troubleshooting Error 500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Chapter 13. Intelligent management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 13.1 Introduction to Intelligent Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 13.2 Configuring dynamic operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 13.2.1 Creating the ODR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 13.2.2 Service policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 13.2.3 Creating service policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 13.2.4 Associating service policies with an application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 13.3 Configuring health management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 13.3.1 Health conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 13.3.2 Enabling and disabling health management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 13.3.3 Health policy actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 13.3.4 Reaction mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 13.3.5 Creating health policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Part 3. Managing distributed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 Chapter 14. Performance tuning on distributed environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 14.1 Performance tuning overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 14.2 Using the queue analogy to tune WebSphere resource pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 14.2.1 Upstream queuing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 14.2.2 Data source tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 14.2.3 EJB container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 14.2.4 Web container tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 14.2.5 Web server tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 14.2.6 Estimating web container and ORB thread pool initial sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 14.2.7 WebSphere Plug-in tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 14.3 JVM tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 14.3.1 Garbage collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 14.3.2 Sizing the JVM heap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 14.3.3 Sizing the nursery and tenured space when using the gencon policy . . . . . . . 510 14.3.4 Using compressed references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 14.4 Other tuning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 14.4.1 Dynamic caching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 14.4.2 The pass by reference parameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 14.4.3 Large page support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 14.4.4 Application tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 14.5 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 14.5.1 Tivoli Performance Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 14.5.2 Collecting Java dumps and core files using the administrative console . . . . . . 514 14.5.3 IBM Pattern Modelling and Analysis Tool for Java Garbage Collector . . . . . . . 514 14.5.4 IBM Monitoring and Diagnostic tools for Java. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 14.5.5 IBM HTTP server status monitoring page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 14.5.6 WebSphere performance advisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 14.6 Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Chapter 15. Clustering, workload management, and high availability. . . . . . . . . . . . 519 15.1 Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520x WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 15.1.1 Clustering for scalability and failover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 15.1.2 Intelligent Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 15.1.3 Dynamic cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 15.1.4 Static cluster versus dynamic cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 15.1.5 Creating a static application server cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 15.1.6 Creating a dynamic application server cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 15.1.7 Setting the operational mode for dynamic clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 15.2 Workload management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 15.2.1 Dynamic workload management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 15.2.2 Components that can be workload managed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 15.2.3 Workload management benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 15.3 High availability and failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 15.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 15.3.2 WebSphere Application Server high availability and failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 15.3.3 How high availability features work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 15.4 ODR server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 15.4.1 Web server plug-in when using the ODR server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 15.4.2 Configuring the ODR proxy plug-in configuration policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Chapter 16. Monitoring distributed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 16.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 16.2 Enabling monitoring infrastructures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 16.2.1 PMI defaults and monitoring settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 16.2.2 Enabling request metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 16.3 Viewing the monitoring data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 16.3.1 Starting TPV monitoring and configuring settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 16.3.2 Exploring Tivoli Performance Viewer data views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 16.4 Monitoring examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 16.4.1 JVM memory and CPU usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 16.4.2 Threading resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 16.4.3 Database interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 16.4.4 Request level details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 16.5 Monitoring operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 16.5.1 Runtime operations overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 16.5.2 Creating and managing reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 16.5.3 Configuring the visualization data service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 16.5.4 Task management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 16.5.5 Managing runtime tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 16.6 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere Application Server . . . . 591 16.6.1 Installing the data collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 16.6.2 Configuring Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere metrics. . . 591 16.6.3 Viewing IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere data . . . . 593 16.7 Additional resources for monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 16.7.1 Java dump and core files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 16.7.2 Basic logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 16.7.3 Advanced logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 16.7.4 Operating system monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 16.7.5 Summary of monitoring tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 Part 4. Managing z/OS systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Chapter 17. Performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 17.1 Introduction to WebSphere Application Server for z/OS V8.5 performance . . . . . . . 602 17.2 External factors and z/OS specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Contents xi 17.2.1 Getting the most benefit from collocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 17.2.2 Addressing hardware configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 17.2.3 z/OS tuning tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 17.3 Performance tuning templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 17.4 64-bit considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 17.4.1 Enabling 64-bit mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 17.4.2 Effects of switching to 64-bit mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 17.5 JVM tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 17.5.1 Default garbage collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 17.5.2 General JVM suggestions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 17.6 Connection pool tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 17.7 Runtime provisioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 17.8 Pass by reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 17.9 Logging and tracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 17.9.1 High Performance Extensible Logging overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 17.9.2 Enabling HPEL mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 17.9.3 z/OS logging and tracing tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620 17.10 Tuning workload management on z/OS systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 17.10.1 The concept of workload management on z/OS systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 17.10.2 Classification rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 17.10.3 Classification XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 17.10.4 Commands and tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 17.11 Fast response cache accelerator and caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 17.11.1 FRCA overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 17.11.2 Enabling FRCA in WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 17.11.3 Cache specification XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 17.11.4 FRCA and RACF integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 17.11.5 Caching enhancements in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 . . . . . . . . . . 637 17.11.6 Using IBM Extended Dynamic Cache Monitor to supervise caching . . . . . . . 637 17.12 Using WebSphere for z/OS Optimized Local Adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 17.12.1 Introduction to Optimized Local Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 17.12.2 Enabling WebSphere for z/OS Optimized Local Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 17.13 IBM HTTP Server Status monitoring page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 17.14 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Chapter 18. Clustering and high availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 18.1 Clustering on z/OS systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 18.1.1 Clustering for scalability and failover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 18.1.2 Creating a cluster on a z/OS system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 18.2 High availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 18.2.1 High availability manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 18.2.2 Core groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 18.2.3 High-availability policies and groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 18.3 Failover and failback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 18.3.1 High availability and failover of singletons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 18.3.2 Data replication domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 18.3.3 Session management replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 18.3.4 EJB stateful session bean replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688 18.3.5 Cache replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 18.3.6 Resource workload routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 18.3.7 High-availability application update rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 18.4 Enabling multiple servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 18.4.1 Balancing workload with WLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702xii WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 18.4.2 Balancing workload without WLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 18.5 Additional resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 Chapter 19. Monitoring z/OS systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 19.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 19.2 Monitoring from the administrative console. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 19.2.1 PMI Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 19.2.2 Monitoring Dynamic Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 19.2.3 Monitoring web services through PMI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 19.3 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere Application Server . . . . 709 19.3.1 Installing the data collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710 19.3.2 Configuring Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere metrics. . . 710 19.3.3 Viewing IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere data . . . . 720 19.4 Additional resources for monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 19.4.1 IBM Support Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 19.4.2 Verbose garbage collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 19.4.3 Java dump and core files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 19.4.4 Basic logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724 19.4.5 Advanced logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 19.4.6 z/OS monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 19.4.7 Summary of monitoring tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735 Part 5. Working with applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Chapter 20. Features for application development and deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 20.1 Java Enterprise Edition 6 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 20.2 Integrated standards-base programming models and extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 20.2.1 Session Initiation Protocol applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 20.2.2 WebSphere Batch programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742 20.2.3 OSGi applications programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 20.2.4 Communications enabled applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745 20.2.5 Service Component Architecture programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 20.2.6 Extensible Markup Language programming model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747 20.2.7 Integrated Web Services support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747 20.2.8 Support for integrated IBM WebSphere Application Server Web 2.0 and Mobile Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747 20.2.9 Simplified development of server-side REST applications using Java API for RESTful Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 20.2.10 IBM WebSphere SDK Java Technology Edition Version 7.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 20.3 Monitored directory support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 20.4 Development and deployment tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 20.4.1 IBM Assembly and Deploy Tools for WebSphere Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 748 20.4.2 WebSphere Application Server Developer Tools for Eclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 20.4.3 Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 Chapter 21. WebSphere Batch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 21.1 Overview of WebSphere Batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 21.1.1 Batch jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 21.1.2 Batch applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 21.1.3 Elements of the batch environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 21.2 Batch programming models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755 21.2.1 Transactional batch programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755 21.2.2 Compute-intensive programming model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 21.2.3 Parallel batch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Contents xiii 21.2.4 COBOL support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763 21.2.5 Batch toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764 21.3 Configuring the batch environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 21.3.1 Configuring the job scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 21.3.2 Securing the job scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 21.3.3 Job scheduler integration with external schedulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 21.3.4 Configuring grid endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 21.3.5 Configuring the job scheduler and job management console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 21.3.6 Command-line interface for batch jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771 21.3.7 Job logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 21.3.8 Job classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773 21.4 Example: Working with batch applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 21.4.1 Enabling the job scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 21.4.2 Verifying the job scheduler installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 21.4.3 Installing the sample batch application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776 21.4.4 Securing the job scheduler using Job groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777 21.4.5 Using the job management console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 21.4.6 Using the command-line interface for batch jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 21.4.7 Checking the batch job logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Chapter 22. Understanding class loaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 22.1 JVM class loaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790 22.2 WebSphere Application Server and Java EE application class loaders . . . . . . . . . . 791 22.2.1 WebSphere extensions class loader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792 22.2.2 Application and web module class loaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 22.2.3 Handling Java Native Interface code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 22.3 Configuring class loaders for Java EE applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 22.3.1 Application server class loader policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 22.3.2 Class loading and delegation mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 22.3.3 Shared libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798 22.3.4 Class loader viewer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 22.4 Learning class loaders for Java EE by example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 22.4.1 Example 1: Simple web module packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 22.4.2 Example 2: Adding an EJB module and utility jar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803 22.4.3 Example 3: Changing the WAR class loader delegation mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 22.4.4 Example 4: Sharing utility JAR files using shared libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805 22.5 OSGi class loaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810 Chapter 23. Packaging and deploying Java EE applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813 23.1 Java EE applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 23.1.1 Java EE 6 EAR files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 23.1.2 Development tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816 23.1.3 Packaging enterprise applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 23.1.4 Packaging EJB 3.1 modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 23.1.5 Packaging JPA persistence units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 23.1.6 JPA access intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 23.1.7 Packaging resource adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 23.1.8 Packaging Web modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 23.1.9 Packaging EJB 3.1 content in Web modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 829 23.2 Preparing to use the sample application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 23.2.1 Downloading the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 23.2.2 Importing the application to the development tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 23.2.3 Customizing the sample application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831xiv WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 23.2.4 Creating the ITSO Bank DB2 database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 23.2.5 Configuring web module extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 23.3 Packaging recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 23.4 Creating WebSphere-enhanced EAR files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 23.4.1 Configuring a WebSphere enhanced EAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 23.4.2 Configuring application options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836 23.4.3 Configuring the JDBC provider and data source for DB2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 23.4.4 Configuring substitution variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843 23.4.5 Configuring a virtual host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843 23.4.6 Setting the default virtual host for web modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844 23.4.7 Examining the WebSphere-enhanced EAR file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844 23.5 Exporting an application project to an EAR file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845 23.6 Preparing the runtime environment for the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 23.6.1 Creating an environment variable for the application file directory . . . . . . . . . . 847 23.6.2 Creating the ITSO Bank application server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847 23.6.3 Defining the ITSO Bank virtual host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 23.6.4 Creating the virtual host for the IBM HTTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 23.6.5 Creating a DB2 JDBC provider and data source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853 23.7 Deploying the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 23.7.1 Deploying using the administrative console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 23.7.2 Deploying using the monitored directory support feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 23.7.3 Deploying applications using the job manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866 23.8 Deploying business-level applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868 23.8.1 Creating a business-level application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 23.9 Deploying application clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 23.9.1 Installing application client environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 23.9.2 Preparing the sample application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 23.9.3 Launching the J2EE client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Chapter 24. Updating Java EE applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879 24.1 Working with applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880 24.2 Replacing an entire application EAR file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880 24.3 Replacing or adding an application module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882 24.3.1 Replacing or adding single files in an application or module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883 24.3.2 Removing application content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883 24.3.3 Performing multiple updates to an application or module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884 24.3.4 Rolling out application updates to a cluster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 24.4 Application edition management and rollout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889 24.4.1 Installing an application edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889 24.4.2 Activating an edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 24.4.3 Creating routing policies for application editions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891 24.4.4 Validating an edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892 24.4.5 Rolling out an edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894 24.4.6 Rolling back an edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898 24.5 Hot deployment and dynamic reloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899 Chapter 25. Working with SCA applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 25.1 SCA application introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 25.1.1 SCA component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903 25.1.2 SCA composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903 25.1.3 SCA contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905 25.2 Preparing to use the sample application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906 25.2.1 Downloading the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906 Contents xv 25.2.2 Importing the application to the development tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907 25.2.3 Completing the service definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907 25.3 Packaging an SCA application for deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908 25.3.1 Creating the contribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909 25.3.2 Exporting the SCA application for deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911 25.4 Deploying an SCA application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 25.4.1 Importing the SCA archive file as an asset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 25.4.2 Creating a new business-level application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 25.4.3 Adding the new asset to the business-level application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 25.4.4 Starting and verifying the business-level application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919 25.5 Additional resources for learning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919 Chapter 26. Working with OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921 26.1 OSGi overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922 26.1.1 OSGi application model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922 26.1.2 OSGi bundle lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 26.1.3 OSGi Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 26.2 Enterprise OSGi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 26.3 Using the sample application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929 26.3.1 Downloading the application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929 26.3.2 Importing the application to the development tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930 26.4 Packaging OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932 26.4.1 Common OSGi patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933 26.4.2 Sample application packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933 26.4.3 Exporting OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935 26.5 Deploying OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 26.5.1 Importing the enterprise bundle archive file as an asset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 26.5.2 Adding the enterprise bundle archive asset to the business-level application . 937 26.6 Administrating OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 26.6.1 Updating OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 26.6.2 Securing OSGi applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944 Chapter 27. Working with Service Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945 27.1 Service mapping overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946 27.1.1 Service maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947 27.2 Local mapping service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950 27.2.1 Creating a local mapping service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950 27.2.2 Starting and stopping a local mapping service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952 27.3 Administration for target service clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952 27.3.1 Policy sets and bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955 27.3.2 Override target service URLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955 27.4 Event emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 957 27.4.1 Schema explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958 27.5 Securing a service map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959 Chapter 28. Session management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961 28.1 Session overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962 28.1.1 Session identifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962 28.1.2 Session invalidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964 28.1.3 Session listeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964 28.1.4 Session security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965 28.2 Session management configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966 28.2.1 Session management properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966 28.2.2 Accessing session management properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967xvi WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 28.2.3 Selecting session tracking options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969 28.2.4 Scheduled invalidation configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969 28.2.5 Cookie setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970 28.3 Storing session information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 972 28.3.1 Local sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 972 28.3.2 Persistent sessions management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973 28.3.3 Enabling database persistence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974 28.3.4 Memory-to-memory replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976 28.4 Session affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983 28.4.1 What is the session affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983 28.4.2 Session affinity and failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984 28.5 Session management tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 28.5.1 Session performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 28.5.2 Session management tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987 28.5.3 Session database tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 28.6 Stateful session bean failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 28.6.1 Enabling stateful session bean failover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 28.6.2 Stateful session bean failover consideration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 Part 6. Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999 Chapter 29. Managing an environment with the centralized installation manager. 1001 29.1 The centralized installation manager prerequisites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 29.1.1 Linux and UNIX target requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 29.1.2 Windows target requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 29.1.3 IBM i targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 29.1.4 Additional requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 29.2 Planning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 29.2.1 WebSphere Application Server V8 releases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004 29.2.2 WebSphere Application Server V6.1 and V7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 29.3 Using centralized installation manager with V8 releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 29.3.1 Installation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005 29.3.2 Accessing the centralized installation manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007 29.4 Using centralized installation manager with prior releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007 29.4.1 IBM Update Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008 29.4.2 The centralized installation manager repository structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008 29.4.3 Package types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 29.4.4 Accessing the central installation manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010 29.5 Managing V8 release environments with the centralized installation manager. . . . 1012 29.5.1 Adding new targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012 29.5.2 Installing Installation Manager on remote targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 29.5.3 Installing a Secure Shell (SSH) public key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021 29.5.4 Installing WebSphere Application Server binaries on remote hosts . . . . . . . . 1022 29.5.5 Creating a WebSphere Application Server profile on a remote target . . . . . . 1024 29.5.6 Registering and unregistering the profile with the Job Manager. . . . . . . . . . . 1027 29.5.7 Working with remote targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029 29.5.8 Installing maintenance to remote targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034 29.5.9 Using the centralized installation manager with a command line . . . . . . . . . . 1035 29.6 Managing V6.1 and V7 with the centralized installation manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036 29.6.1 Installing the IBM Installation Factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037 29.6.2 Creating the centralized installation manager repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037 29.6.3 Adding packages when deployment manager is connected to the Internet . . 1038 29.6.4 Adding packages when the deployment manager does not have access to the Contents xvii Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043 29.6.5 Adding and removing additional installation targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045 29.6.6 Installing a Secure Shell public key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046 29.6.7 Installing packages to the target systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048 29.6.8 Installing a software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049 29.6.9 Installing maintenance to a target system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051 29.6.10 Uninstalling packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053 29.6.11 The centralized installation manager AdminTask commands. . . . . . . . . . . . 1053 Chapter 30. System recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055 30.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056 30.2 Configuring for backup and restore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056 30.2.1 Backing up a profile configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056 30.2.2 Restoring a profile configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057 30.2.3 Exporting and importing a configuration archive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059 30.3 Configuring checkpoints service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061 30.3.1 Creating repository checkpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062 30.3.2 Archiving or deleting checkpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063 30.3.3 Restoring checkpoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064 30.3.4 Configuring change audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064 30.4 Restoring transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1064 30.4.1 Restarting an application server in recovery mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065 30.4.2 Administering the transaction service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065 30.4.3 Transactional high availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066 30.5 Recovery node with addNode -asExistingNode command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 30.5.1 Considerations when using the -asExistingNode command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 30.5.2 Recovering a failed managed node of deployment manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 30.5.3 Moving a node to a different system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069 30.5.4 Recreating a cell from a template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073 Chapter 31. Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075 31.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076 31.2 WebSphere Application Server logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076 31.2.1 Server log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077 31.2.2 JVM log interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079 31.2.3 Logging modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1082 31.2.4 High Performance Extensible Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1083 31.2.5 Cross Component Trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091 31.2.6 Sensitive log and trace guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096 31.2.7 Javacores and Heapdumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096 31.2.8 HTTP Plug-in Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 31.3 Tools for collecting and analyzing diagnostic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 31.3.1 Hang detection policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 31.3.2 Memory leak detection policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 31.3.3 MustGather for troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 31.3.4 IBM Support Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 31.4 Troubleshooting scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 31.4.1 Hung threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103 31.4.2 High CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106 31.4.3 Out of Memory exceptions in WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 Appendix A. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Locating the web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115 Using the web material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115xviii WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Downloading and extracting the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. 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Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Java, and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. xxi Preface This IBM® Redbooks® publication provides system administrators and developers with the knowledge to configure an IBM WebSphere® Application Server Version 8.5 runtime environment, to package and deploy applications, and to perform ongoing management of the WebSphere environment. As one in a series of IBM Redbooks publications and IBM Redpapers™ publications for V8.5, the entire series is designed to give you in-depth information about key WebSphere Application Server features. WebSphere Application Server V8.5 provides two runtime profiles. Every WebSphere Application Server package includes both profile types. The run time traditionally available with the WebSphere Application Server packages is referred to as the full profile. The application serving run time provided with this profile is composed of a wide spectrum of runtime components that are available when the server is started. The full profile provides support for Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6 (Java EE 6) and Enterprise OSGi technologies. The Liberty profile provides a simplified stand-alone run time for web applications, supporting a subset of the programming model available with the full profile. Any application that runs on the Liberty profile will also run on the full profile. In this book, we provide a detailed exploration of the WebSphere Application Server V8.5 runtime administration process for the full profile. This book includes configuration and administration information for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 and WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5 on distributed platforms and WebSphere Application Server for IBM z/OS® V8.5. This book has been updated with information about the new features in WebSphere Application Server V8.5.5. The Liberty profile administration and configuration information has been moved into a separate book. The following publications are prerequisites for this book: WebSphere Application Server: New Features in V8.5.5, REDP-4870 WebSphere Application Server V8.5.5 Technical Overview, REDP-4855 IBM WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Concepts, Planning, and Design Guide, SG24-8022 The following publications are companion books, covering the Liberty profile of WebSphere Application Server: WebSphere Application Server Liberty Profile Guide for Developers, SG24-8076 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration Guide for the Liberty Profile, SG24-8170 Authors This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. Fabio Albertoni is a Senior IT Specialist working in Integrated Technology Delivery SSO in Hortolandia, Brazil. He has sixteen years of experience in the IT and banking industries. He xxii WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile has spent the last twelve years developing and implementing integrated solutions using WebSphere Application Server and MQ Series. He holds a degree in Data Processing from FATEC University of Ourinhos and a Master’s degree in Computer Engineering from Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tanja Baumann is a co-operative student in Germany. She has worked for IBM for two years. She is currently working on a B.Sc. in Computer Science at the University of Corporate Education, Mannheim. Tanja participated in this IBM Redbooks publication residency during an internship. Yogesh Bhatia is a subject matter expert on middleware technologies and handling middleware operations for all IBM India domestic accounts. He has rich experience in all IBM middleware products and leading middleware competency in the Central Data Center of major telecoms in India, which is one of the biggest Data Centers in Asia and the most dynamic and growing environment. He is responsible for managing the entire WebSphere and IBM Tivoli® family of products. He is an IBM certified WebSphere professional with numerous other vendor certifications on EAI, UML, and Object-Oriented Concepts. He has deep production environment experience, which includes expert-level troubleshooting on different products, architecture finalization, deployment, performance tuning, and providing end-to-end support for middleware. Eduardo Monich Fronza is a Level 2 Certified IT Specialist working for IBM Global Technology Services® in Brazil. He has eight years of experience in supporting IBM WebSphere Application Server and IBM WebSphere Portal Server. His main areas of expertise are automation for WebSphere administration, infrastructure design, implementation, and maintenance and problem determination of the WebSphere environment. Eduardo is also an IBM Certified System Administrator for WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Portal Server, and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Solutions. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Marcio da Ros Gomes is an IBM Certified IT Specialist at IBM Brazil. Marcio holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. He has more than 10 years of IT experience in middleware, network security, open source tools, UNIX operating systems, and web hosting environments. He has designed, implemented, and supported various middleware infrastructure and web hosting environments in large public and private organizations. Mr. Gomes is certified for Linux Professional Institute Certified Level 1, Oracle BEA WebLogic Application Server 9, IBM Certified System Administrator for WebSphere Application Server ND 6.1, IBM Certified SOA Associate, and ITIL Foundations Certified. Sebastian Kapciak is an Advisory IT Specialist working for IBM Global Technology Services in Warsaw, Poland. Sebastian joined IBM in 2007 and has over eight years of experience in software architecture and development. His areas of expertise are system integration and JEE technologies. He specializes in the WebSphere Application Server (for which he actively contributes to IBM Redbooks publication projects), IBM DataPower® appliances, and IBM Tivoli Access Manager. Sebastian holds a Master’s degree in Information Technology from the University of Technology of Warsaw. Catalin Mierlea is a Middleware Software Specialist in IBM Romania. Catalin joined IBM in March 2012 and has 10 years of experience in IT. His areas of expertise include WebSphere products, SOA, and software architecture. He specializes in the WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere Portal Server, WebSphere Process Server, and WebSphere Business Process Manager. Catalin has a Bachelor of Science degree in Automation Control and Computers, a Master of Science degree in Integrated Informatics Systems, and certifications in the IBM WebSphere products and in several Microsoft and Oracle complementary Preface xxiii technologies. He has extensive industry knowledge and hands-on project experience in the banking sector. Sergio Pinto is an IT Specialist working for Integrated Technology Delivery, Server Systems Operations, in Brazil. He has worked for IBM for 17 years. His areas of expertise include support in WebSphere Application Server for z/OS and support in WebSphere MQ and WebSphere Message Broker on distributed and z/OS environments. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration and Accounting from Instituto Católico de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anoop Ramachandra is a Senior Staff Software Engineer in the IBM India Software Labs. He has over eight years of experience working with WebSphere Application Server products as a Technical Lead, Developer, and Level 3 Support Engineer. His major areas of expertise in WebSphere Application Server are system management, Java EE Connector Architecture, Virtual Member Manager, Scheduler, and Asynchronous beans. He is an IBM Certified System Administrator for WebSphere Application Server. Liang Rui is a Staff Software Engineer working for the China Development Lab in Beijing, China. Ray has six years of experience as a developer and tester in IT and worked four years with IBM WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus, IBM WebSphere Process Server, and IBM Business Process Management (BPM) product development and support. Ray’s focus areas are configuration, integration capability, and cloud provision for BPM and WebSphere Application Server. Ray is an IBM Certified Administrator for WebSphere Portal Server V6.1 and WebSphere Application Server V6.1. He holds a Master’s degree of Communication and Information Systems from Beijing University of Post and Telecommunication, China. Miguel Troncoso is a WebSphere Solutions Architect in Software Group in IBM Mexico. He has 10 years of experience with WebSphere Application Server. Previously, Miguel worked as a Java EE Developer, mainly for the banking industry. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Engineering from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and completed the studies for the Master’s degree in Computer Engineering in the same university. Miguel is certified in WebSphere Application Server ND administration for V6.1 and V7. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Margaret Ticknor, Carla Sadtler, Deana Coble, Tamikia Lee, Linda Robinson, Shawn Tooley, KaTrina Love International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center Mehrdad Ashrafian, Soloman Barghouthi, Dave Cohen, David Follis, Alex Mulholland, Sajan Sankaran, Keith B. Smith, Erin Schnabel, Hendriz Tavarez IBM US Alasdair Nottingham, James Mullineux IBM UK Felix Wong IBM Canada Thanks to the authors of the previous editions of this book: Authors of the first editions of this book, WebSphere Application Server V6.1: System Management and Configuration, SG24-7304, published in November 2006: Carla Sadtler, Fabio Albertoni, Bernardo Fagalde, Thiago Kleinubing, Henrik Sjostrand, Ken Worland, Lars Bek Laursen, Martin Phillips, Martin Smithson, and Kwan-Ming Wan.xxiv WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Authors of the second edition, WebSphere Application Server V7: Administration and Configuration Guide, SG24-7615, published in March 2010: Fabio Albertoni, Leonard Blunt, Michael Connolly, Stefan Kwiatkowski, Carla Sadtler, Thayaparan Shanmugaratnam, Henrik Sjostrand, Saori Tanikawa, Margaret Ticknor, and Joerg-Ulrich Veser Authors of the third edition, WebSphere application Server V8: Administration and Configuration Guide, SG24-7971, published in November 2011: Martin Bentancour, Libor Cada, Marcio d’Amico, Ural Emekci, Sebastian Kapiak, Jennifer Ricciuti, Margaret Ticknor Now you can become a published author, too! Here’s an opportunity to spotlight your skills, grow your career, and become a published author—all at the same time! Join an ITSO residency project and help write a book in your area of expertise, while honing your experience using leading-edge technologies. Your efforts will help to increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction, as you expand your network of technical contacts and relationships. Residencies run from two to six weeks in length, and you can participate either in person or as a remote resident working from your home base. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.html Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our books to be as helpful as possible. 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HYTD Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400 Stay connected to IBM Redbooks Find us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/IBMRedbooks Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/ibmredbooks Preface xxv Look for us on LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2130806 Explore new Redbooks publications, residencies, and workshops with the IBM Redbooks weekly newsletter: https://www.redbooks.ibm.com/Redbooks.nsf/subscribe?OpenForm Stay current on recent Redbooks publications with RSS Feeds: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/rss.htmlxxvi WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. 1 Part 1 Installation and profile management Part 12 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. 3 Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview This chapter provides a technical overview of the system management functionality of WebSphere Application Server full profile. It explains the many system management capabilities and tools that make WebSphere Application Server so useful, including new features that are available in WebSphere Application Server V8.5 and V8.5.5. In this chapter, we cover the following topics: System management overview New features for administrators Java Management Extensions System management in a stand-alone server environment System management in a distributed server environment Advanced system management of multiple stand-alone servers Advanced management of distributed and stand-alone servers 14 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 1.1 WebSphere Application Server profiles WebSphere Application Server V8.5 provides two runtime profiles. Every WebSphere Application Server package includes both profile types. The run time traditionally available with the WebSphere Application Server packages is referred to as the full profile. The application serving run time (application server) provided with this profile is composed of a wide spectrum of runtime components that are always available when the server is started. The full profile provides support for Java Platform Enterprise Edition 6 (Java EE 6) and Enterprise OSGi technologies. In addition to the application servers, the full profile supports the creation of generic server definitions to configure other servers or processes that are necessary to support the application server environment. Additional capabilities, such as clustering application servers for load balancing and high availability, vary depending on the WebSphere Application Server package. In addition to the full profile, a new Liberty profile is included with each package and (New in V8.5.5) the Liberty profile is also available as a stand-alone offering, called WebSphere Application Server Liberty Core. The Liberty profile provides a simplified stand-alone run time for web applications, supporting a subset of the programming model available with the full profile. It is a good option for developers who are building web applications that do not require the full Java EE environment of traditional enterprise application server profiles. Any application that runs on the Liberty profile will also run on the full profile. The application-serving environment is configured with the correct level of capabilities that are required for the individual applications. You can use the Liberty profile to specify only those features that are required for the applications that are deployed, reducing the memory footprint and increasing performance. The Liberty profile has a simplified installation and uses an easy-to-configure XML configuration file format. The Liberty profile is optimized for use in both development and production environments. Within the development environment, the Liberty profile supports the same platforms as the base application server and Mac OS. Enterprise qualities of service (QoS), such as security and transaction integrity, are enabled as required. Many new enhancements have been made to the Liberty profile with WebSphere Application Server V8.5.5. These enhancements include additional programming model support, new security and troubleshooting features, and new options for managing servers, including the option to cluster servers for availability and scalability. This book focuses on the full profile. For more information about the Liberty profile, see these books: WebSphere Application Server Liberty Profile Guide for Developers, SG24-8076 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration Guide for the Liberty Profile, SG24-8170 1.2 System management overview WebSphere Application Server V8.5 provides easy-to-use administration tools and powerful features to make system management simple to understand and operate. The system management functionality of WebSphere Application Server is based on the use of Java Management Extensions (JMX). Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 5 1.2.1 Terminology There are differences in how WebSphere Application Server handles administration, depending on the environment that you have set up. As you go through this Redbooks publication, you will see the following terms used: Stand-alone server environment refers to a single server that is not managed as part of a cell. (The server was not federated to the cell.) With the Base and Express offerings of WebSphere Application Server, this is your only option. The Network Deployment offering allows you to create either a distributed or a stand-alone server environment. Distributed server environment refers to multiple servers managed from a single deployment manager in the cell. These servers are also called managed servers. Distributed server environments are only possible with the Network Deployment offering. Application server refers to the process that provides the functions that are required to support and host user applications. An application server can be a stand-alone application server, a distributed application server that is managed by a deployment manager, or a stand-alone application server that is managed using an administrative agent. Managed processes refer to the deployment manager, nodes (node agents), and application servers. Flexible management refers to asynchronous job management through a job manager (available in Network Deployment only) and managing multiple unfederated application servers using an administrative agent (available in all offerings). 1.2.2 Directory conventions Throughout this book, we use the following notations when indicating the location of files and commands: install_root is used to denote the installation directory for a product. The default installation directory locations are at the following website: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was -nd-dist&topic=rins_dircon profile_root denotes the home profile for a directory. This is equivalent to: install_root/profiles/profile_name Special instances of profile_root are used to denote the profile home for the following processes: – Deployment manager: dmgr_profile_root – Administrative agent: adminAgnt_profile_root – Job manager: jmgr_profile_root 1.2.3 Core concepts of system management The core concepts of system management are: Profiles To create different types of WebSphere Application Server runtime environments, you must install the WebSphere Application Server 6 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile core product files and then create a set of configuration files called profiles. Application server The application server is the platform on which Java language-based applications run. Node A node is an administrative grouping of application servers for configuration and operational management within one operating system instance. Deployment manager The deployment manager is the central administration point of a cell that consists of multiple nodes and node groups in a distributed server configuration. Node agent In distributed server configurations, each node has a node agent that works with the deployment manager to manage administration processes. Cell A cell is a group of nodes in a single administrative domain. Administrative agent An administrative agent is a component that provides enhanced management capabilities for multiple stand-alone application servers. Job Manager The job manager is a component that provides management capabilities for multiple stand-alone application servers, administrative agents, and deployment managers. For a more detailed look at WebSphere Application Server concepts, refer to WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Concepts, Planning, and Design Guide, SG24-8022. 1.2.4 System management tools WebSphere Application Server provides a variety of administrative tools to configure and manage your runtime environment, including: WebSphere Customization Toolbox (WCT) WebSphere Customization Toolbox includes tools for customizing your WebSphere Application Server environment. Among the tools are: – Web Server Plug-in Configuration Tool – Profile Management Tool – z/OS Migration Tool Integrated Solutions Console, also called the administrative console The administrative console is a browser-based client that uses a web application running in the web container to administer WebSphere Application Server. It can provide remote administration access. WebSphere scripting client (wsadmin) The wsadmin client is a non-graphical scripting interface that administers WebSphere Application Server from a command-line prompt. It uses the Bean Scripting Framework (BSF), which supports a variety of scripting languages and can provide remote administration access. Another Neat Tool (ANT) ANT is used for task automation. You can use it to create build scripts that compile, package, install, and test applications on WebSphere Application Server. Administrative applicationsChapter 1. System management: Technical overview 7 You can develop custom Java applications that use Java Management Extensions based on the WebSphere application programming interface (API). Command-line utilities These administrative utilities help you manage your WebSphere Application Server environment and include the following features: – Called from a command line – Can be used to perform common administrative tasks, such as starting and stopping the application server and backing up the configuration Command-line utilities work on local application servers, nodes, and the deployment manager only. The set of administrative tools that you employ ultimately depends on the size and complexity of your runtime environment. The next sections of this publication address the multiple levels of administration in WebSphere Application Server. 1.3 New features for administrators WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5 and V8.5.5 provide the following enhanced capabilities to extend application development and deployment: Support for Java 7 Java 6 is installed with the product and used by default. WebSphere Application Server V8.5 provides optional support for the IBM WebSphere SDK Java Technology Edition Version 7.0. This IBM software development kit (SDK) provides a full-function SDK for Java that is compliant with Java SE 7 application programming interfaces. To use Java 7, install IBM WebSphere SDK7.0 using IBM Installation Manager and then use the managesdk tool to enable it. Comprehensive programming model support A wide variety of programming models are supported, providing greater flexibility and improving developer productivity. The following programming models are enhanced in WebSphere Application Server V8.5: – Service Component Architecture (SCA): Support for several OASIS specifications – Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGI): Support for Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) assets in reusable bundles, plus a blueprint security update – Web 2.0 and Mobile Toolkit support WebSphere Batch Use the enhanced features of WebSphere Batch to build robust batch applications for performing lengthy bulk transaction processing and computation-intensive work. Monitored directory You can speed the process of installing, debugging, updating, and uninstalling applications by dragging applications into the monitored directory. The following application file types are supported: – Enterprise archive (EAR) – Web archive (WAR) – Java archive (JAR) – Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) archive (SAR)8 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile (New in V8.5.5) Service mapping The new service mapping feature is designed to shield applications from minor changes in the services they use. This feature gives administrators the ability to define a mapping service that can intercept service client invocations bound for a particular service. The mapping service can determine to which service location the message should be routed, which operation on the service provider should be invoked, and how the fields in the client and server messages should be mapped to each other. Administrators can control to which service interactions the service mapping applies. The mapping is created by using a graphical interface, simplifying the task. WebSphere Application Server provides consolidated workload management, operational scaling efficiency, and high resiliency. The latest version adds the following enhanced features to help reduce operational costs and minimize the likelihood of lost business opportunities due to failure: Intelligent management Intelligent management uses the on demand router (ODR) with configurable operation policies to govern the resource, performance, and health of your application server. Key features of intelligent management are: – Application edition management – Application server health management based on policies – Intelligent routing – Dynamic clustering In WebSphere Application Server V8.5.5, a new option exists that allows administrators to implement the ODR functionality in the web server tier by enabling the WebSphere web server plug-in for Intelligent Management. Improved high availability The high-availability manager provides features that allow other product components to keep operating consistently, including the following items: – A framework that allows singleton services to remain highly available – A mechanism that allows servers to easily exchange state data – A specialized framework for high speed, reliable messaging between processes Messaging infrastructure resiliency Message resilience is improved in the following areas: – Recovery of messaging engine errors in high-availability environments – Prevention of long-running database locks – Performance of messaging bus at start-up Enhanced memory leak detection and protection WebSphere Application Server V8.5 provides comprehensive, pattern-based memory leak detection, prevention, and response by watching for suspect patterns in application code at run time. This includes the following improved features: – Ability to mitigate a memory leak when stopping applications – Ability to prevent leaks, receive warnings, and get system dumps – Managed beans (MBeans) to list the applications that have memory leaks (New in V8.5.5) WebSphere Application Server (base edition), WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment, and WebSphere Application Server for z/OS now include WebSphere eXtreme Scale in the package and entitlements to its use. Both the Liberty profile and the full profile can take advantage of the advanced caching abilities of WebSphere eXtreme Scale. Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 9 Enhanced Edge capabilities The Load Balancer for IPV4 and IPV6 provides horizontal scalability. It dispatches HTTP requests among several web server or application server nodes that support various dispatching options and algorithms to assure high availability in high volume environments. Using the Load Balancer for IPV4 and IPV6 can reduce web server congestion, increase content availability, and provide scaling ability for the web server. (New in V8.5.5) The Load Balancer for IPV4 and IPV6 has been enhanced in V8.5.5 to improve flexibility in configuration and to improve workload balancing. The following features are new: – The load balancer can now be run on the same machine as the servers it is balancing. This feature is supported on Linux and IBM AIX® only. – The Content Based Routing (CBR) component has been added to enable load balancing based on the content of client requests, for example, the URI. – The Site Selector component has been added to enable load balancing by using a domain name service (DNS) round-robin or using a user-provided algorithm. – Network Address Translation (NAT) has been added, removing the limitation that back-end servers are on the same locally attached network. The Edge Components also include a Load Balancer for IPV4, which is being deprecated. The primary capabilities of this load balancer are being migrated to the Load Balancer for IPV4 and IPV6. (New in V8.5.5) Serviceability and troubleshooting enhancements to Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) support enable more resilient processing of SIP sessions: – New PMI counters at the SIP container and proxy have been added to monitor and trigger on key performance indicators (KPIs): • New counters for the SIP container allow you to monitor for thread and message congestion issues, the number of replicated and non-replicated SIP sessions, the number of rejected requests, and SIP timers. • New counters for the SIP proxy allow you to monitor queue statistics, the health of the SIP container and load balancer, and invalid SIP messages received. – The following new troubleshooting features have been included: • The SIP context is now added to binary log entries for the SIP container and SIP proxy. The new information allows you to trace the flow of a SIP call through all the SIP components. • A new utility is provided to dump SIP application sessions and their session IDs for improved debugging of SIP container sessions. This utility can be particularly useful in production environments when fine-grained tracing cannot be enabled. • SIP proxy call logging now provides complete message logging, as well as logging of rejected messages. – Application composition performance improvements have been added to allow multiple independent applications installed at a single Java virtual machine (JVM) to independently process either a request or response. The number of composed applications that can be deployed is increased through avoidance of serialization and de-serialization of the request headers. – A new API has been included that provides callback when a message is not matched to an existing dialog. The API receives incoming SIP request or response messages that cannot be processed by the SIP container.10 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile WebSphere Application Server provides numerous features to help administrators work productively so they have more time to focus on critical tasks and problem determination. These features include the following items: Centralized Installation Manager (CIM) CIM can be used to manage version 8.5 and previous versions of WebSphere Application Server. You can use CIM to install or uninstall WebSphere Application Server on remote machines and perform maintenance from the administrative console. Cross Component Trace (XCT) XCT enables administrators to follow the flow of requests from end-to-end. Requests can be tracked as they traverse thread or process boundaries and travel between stack products and WebSphere Application Server. Configuration repository checkpoint and audit report A checkpoint can be configured to back up copies of files from the master configuration repository. You can use a checkpoint to restore the configuration repository back to a prior state. High performance extensible logging (HPEL) HPEL provides a convenient mechanism for storing and accessing logging information produced by the application server or your applications. IBM Support Assistant IBM Support Assistant is a tool provided by IBM at no charge to troubleshoot a WebSphere Application Server environment. It is composed of the following components: – IBM Support Assistant Workbench – IBM Support Assistant Agent Manager – IBM Support Assistant Agent 1.4 Java Management Extensions JMX is a framework that provides a standard way of exposing Java resources. The system management functionality of WebSphere Application Server is based on the use of JMX. All operations on managed resources go through JMX functions. The following WebSphere Application Server administration tools use JMX: WebSphere administrative console wsadmin scripting client Administration client Java API 1.4.1 JMX architecture The JMX architecture is structured in three layers: Instrumentation layer Dictates how resources can be wrapped within special Java beans called managed beans (MBeans). Important: Extensive knowledge of JMX is not required to administer WebSphere Application Server. However, familiarity with some basic concepts, such as MBeans, can be useful when you are writing scripts for wsadmin.Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 11 Agent layer Consists of the MBean server and agents, which provide a management infrastructure. The services that are implemented include monitoring, event notification, and timers. Management layer Defines how external management applications can interact with the underlying layers in terms of protocols, APIs, and so on. The use of JMX opens the door for third parties to provide management tools to administer WebSphere Application Server, for example: Programs written to control the WebSphere Application Server runtime and its resources by programmatically accessing the JMX API Applications that include custom JMX MBeans as part of their deployed code, allowing their components and resources to be managed through the JMX API For more information about JMX, refer to the following websites: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was-nd -dist&topic=cxml_javamanagementx http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was-nd -mp&topic=txml_programming 1.4.2 JMX MBeans Resources are managed by JMX MBeans. Each MBean wraps a certain runtime resource, for example, to expose an application server as a manageable resource, WebSphere Application Server provides an application server MBean. External applications can interact with the MBeans through JMX connectors and protocol adapters. Connectors are used to connect an agent with a remote JMX-enabled management application. This form of communication involves a connector in the JMX agent and a connector client in the management application. Each JMX-enabled Java virtual machine (JVM) contains an MBean server that registers all of the MBeans in the system. It is the MBean server that provides access to all of its registered MBeans. There is only one MBean server per JVM. WebSphere Application Server provides a number of MBeans, each of which can have different functions and operations available, for example: An application server MBean can expose operations, such as start and stop. An application MBean can expose operations, such as install and uninstall. 1.5 System management in a stand-alone server environment There are multiple levels of administration for different WebSphere Application Server environment types. In this section, and the next one, we introduce the common system management types and methods. A stand-alone application server provides the necessary capabilities to run J2EE-compliant applications. A stand-alone application server is a good starting point for development and test teams. It can also be used for proof-of-concept or lightweight applications that do not require intensive system resources.12 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile To create a stand-alone application server, you must create a WebSphere Application Server profile on a single (physical) machine or logical partition (LPAR) with one application server only. The profile defines the application server, node, and cell. You can manage the application server using the administrative console, wsadmin, and command-line utilities. All of the configuration data for the application server, including the installed applications, is stored in a configuration repository created when the profile is created. Figure 1-1 shows the system management components of a stand-alone application server environment. Figure 1-1 Stand-alone application server system management environment 1.6 System management in a distributed server environment A single stand-alone server does not provide load balancing, scaling, or high-availability capability; however, a distributed server environment can help you meet these challenges by creating clusters of application servers. Clustered servers provide work load balancing, session data replication, and failover. At a high level, building a distributed server environment involves these steps: 1. You start by creating a deployment manager profile. The deployment manager is responsible for administering the entire cell. A deployment manager administers one cell only. 2. After the deployment manager is created, the next step is to create a custom profile, which creates a second cell (defaultCell), a node, and a node agent. At this point, you do not have a functioning application server environment, just the beginnings of one. Figure 1-2 on page 13 shows this temporary stage of the environment. Stand-alone Application Server Administrative Console wsadmin Web Container Admin Application Admin Service Admin MBeans Web Services Engine Configuration Repository HTTP or HTTPS SOAP/HTTP Embedded HTTP Server Local (None) Connection IIOP C:\> wsadminChapter 1. System management: Technical overview 13 3. The next step is to federate the node (NodeA in Figure 1-2) to the deployment manager’s cell by using the addNode command. After being federated, NodeA is no longer part of the defaultCell, but rather is part of the deployment manager’s cell (dmgrCell). Figure 1-2 A deployment manager and unfederated custom profile 4. After the federation is complete, all administration of NodeA is delegated to the deployment manager, and new application servers can be created on the node using the administrative tools for the deployment manager. This environment is illustrated in Figure 1-3 on page 14. Additional nodes can be added and servers created to create a distributed server environment. dmgrCell dmgrNode defaultCell NodeA Node Agent Admin Services NodeA config defaultCell config Master Repository Cell config EAR Deployment Manager Admin Services Web Container dmgrNode config C:\> wsadmin Admin Application14 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 1-3 The distributed server environment 1.6.1 Centralized changes to configuration and application data The deployment manager maintains a master repository of all the configuration files for nodes and servers in the cell. When configuration changes are made with the deployment manager, the changes are first stored in the master repository. After that, automatic or manual synchronization pushes the changes down to the affected nodes. Information about synchronization appears in 1.6.4, “File synchronization in distributed server environments” on page 20. The configuration and application data repository is a collection of files that contain all of the information that is necessary to configure and execute servers and their applications. Configuration files are stored in XML format, while application data is stored as EAR files and deployment descriptors. Configuration repository directory structure Each node containing a deployment manager, application server, administrative agent, or job manager has its own profile directory under the install_root/profiles directory. The repository files are arranged in a set of cascading directories within each profile directory structure, with each directory containing a number of files relating to different components of the cell, as shown in Figure 1-4 on page 15. dmgrCell dmgrNode C:\> wsadmin NodeBNodeA Deployment Manager Web Container Admin Application Master EAR Cell config Node A Config server1 config server2 config NodeB config server3 config Server4 config dmgrNode config Node Agent Admin Services server3 server4 Repository EAR cellConfig Server3 config NodeB config Server4 config Node Agent Admin Services server1 Repository EAR Cell config Server1 config Node A config Server2 Config server2 Admin ServicesChapter 1. System management: Technical overview 15 Figure 1-4 Repository directory structure The profile_root/config directory is the root of the repository for each profile. It contains the following directory structure: cells/cell_name/ This is the root level of the configuration for the cell. Depending on the types of resources that are configured, you might see the following subdirectories: – cells/cell_name/applications/ contains one subdirectory for every application that is deployed within the cell. – cells/cell_name/buses/ contains one directory for each service integration bus (SIBus) that is defined. – cells/cell_name/coregroups/ contains one directory for each defined core group. – cells/cell_name/nodegroups/ contains one directory for each defined node group. – cells/cell_name/nodes/ contains one directory per node. Each cells/cell_name/nodes/ directory contains node-specific configuration files and a server directory that contains one directory per server and node agent on that node. – cells/cell_name/clusters/ contains one directory for each of the clusters managed as part of the cell. Each cluster directory contains a single file, cluster.xml, which defines the application servers of one or more nodes that are members of the cluster. temp/ The configuration repository uses copies of configuration files and temporary files while processing repository requests. The default location for the configuration temporary directory is profile_root/config/temp. Node: node.xml resource.xml variables.xml Server: server.xml resource.xml variables.xml pmi-config.xml hamanagerservice.xml Config: Master repository Cell: admin-authz.xml cell.xml resource.xml security.xml variables.xml virtualhosts.xml profile_root dmgr_profile_root16 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile backup/ During administrative processes, such as adding a node to a cell or updating a file, configuration files are temporarily backed up to a backup location. The default location for the backup configuration directory is profile_root/config/backup. The overall structure of the master repository is the same for both a stand-alone server environment and a distributed server environment. But there are some critical differences, including: Stand-alone server environment: – The master repository is held on a single machine. There is no copy of it on any other node. – The repository contains a single cell and node. – Because each application server is stand-alone, there is no nodeagent/ directory. – Clusters are not supported. Therefore, the repository tree does not contain the clusters/ directory or subdirectories. Distributed server environment: – The master repository is held on the node containing the deployment manager. – Each node also has a local copy of the relevant configuration and application data files from the master repository. – When changes are made to the configuration in the master repository, those changes must be synchronized to the configuration files on the nodes. Permanent changes to the configuration requires changes to the file or files in the master repository. – Changes can be made to the configuration files on a node, but the changes are temporary and are overwritten by the next file synchronization from the deployment manager. Configuration changes made to node repositories are not propagated up to the cell. Application data files The profile_root/config directory of the master repository contains the following directory structure that holds application binaries and deployment settings: cells/cell_name/applications/ This directory contains a subdirectory for each application deployed in the cell. Names of the directories match the names of the deployed applications. cells/cell_name/applications/app_name.ear Each application’s directory in the master repository contains the following items: – A copy of the original EAR, called app_name.ear, which does not contain any of the bindings specified during installation of the application. – A deployments directory called deployments/app_name/. Important: The name of the deployed application does not have to match the name of the original EAR file that was used to install it. Any name can be chosen when deploying a new application, as long as the name is unique across all applications in the cell.Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 17 cells/cell_name/applications/app_name.ear/deployments/app_name The deployment descriptors in this directory contain the bindings specified during application deployment. The deployment directory of each application contains these files: – deployment.xml contains configuration data for the application deployment, including the allocation of application modules to application servers and the module startup order. – META-INF/ This directory can contain these files: • application.xml: J2EE standard application deployment descriptor • ibm-application-bnd.xmi: IBM WebSphere-specific application bindings • ibm-application-ext.xmi: IBM WebSphere-specific application extensions • was.policy: Application-specific Java 2 security configuration. The was.policy file is optional. If it is not present, the policy files defined at the node level apply for the application. The subdirectories for all application modules (WARs, RARs, and EJB JARs) contain deployment descriptors and other configuration files for each module. For further information about the individual files in each of these directories, refer to the following websites: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was-nd -mp&topic=rrun_rconfdoc_descriptions http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was-ba se-dist&topic=trun_data Configuration file location during application installation Several things occur upon installation of an application onto WebSphere Application Server: The application binaries and deployment descriptors are stored within the master repository. The application binaries and deployment descriptors are published to each node that will host the application. These files are stored in the local copy of the repository on each node. Each node then installs the applications that are ready for execution by exploding the EARs under profile_root/installedApps/cell_name/, as follows: – profile_root/installedApps/cell_name/ This directory contains a subdirectory for each application deployed to the local node. – profile_root/installedApps/cell_name/app_name.ear/ Each application-specific directory contains the contents of the original EAR used to install the application, including: • The deployment descriptors from the original EAR (which do not contain any of the bindings specified during application deployment) • All application binaries (JARs, classes, and JSPs)18 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Variable scoped files Identically named files that exist at different levels of the configuration hierarchy are called variable scoped files. There are two uses for variable scoped files: Configuration data contained in a document at one level of the configuration hierarchy is logically combined with data from documents at other levels. The most specific value takes precedence to resolve any conflicts. For example, if a variable is defined in the variables.xml file of both the cell and node, the entry at the node level is used. Documents representing data are not merged but rather are scoped to a specific level of the topology. For example, the namestore.xml document at the cell level contains the cell-persistent portion of the namespace, while at the node level the file contains the node-persistent root of the namespace. 1.6.2 Rules for process startup When a managed server is starting up, it sends a discovery request message that allows other processes to discover its existence and establish communication channels with it. This action makes it possible to start the processes in a distributed server environment without following a strict order for startup, for example, a node agent can be running while the deployment manager is not active, and vice versa. When the stopped process is started, discovery occurs automatically: The deployment manager can be running while a managed server is not active and vice versa. For example, if the node agent is not running when the deployment manager starts, the deployment manager tries to determine if the node agent is running but fails to set up the communication channel. When the node agent is started later, it contacts the deployment manager, creates a communication channel, and synchronizes data. The execution of a managed server is not dependent on the presence of a running deployment manager. The deployment manager is only required when permanent configuration changes need to be written to the master repository. The node agent starts but no managed servers are started. The node agent is aware of its managed servers and checks whether they are started. If so, it creates communication channels to these processes. Then, after a managed server starts, it checks whether the node agent is started and then creates a communication channel to it. 1.6.3 Distributed process discovery Each node agent and deployment manager maintains status and configuration information by using discovery addresses or ports. On startup, processes use these discovery addresses to discover other running components and to create communication channels between them. Figure 1-5 on page 19 shows an example of the distributed discovery process for a topology containing two nodes that are located on different machines. Remember: The node agent must be started before any application servers on that node are started. The node agent contains the Location Service Daemon (LSD) in which each application server registers on startup. However, the node agent is purely an administrative agent and is not involved in application serving functions.Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 19 Figure 1-5 Distributed discovery process In this example, both node agents use ports 7272 and 5000, which assumes that they reside on separate physical machines. If nodes are located on the same machine, they must be configured to use non-conflicting ports. The profile wizard automatically selects unique ports for you during profile creation. During discovery, the following actions occur: The master repository located on the deployment manager installation contains the serverindex.xml file for each node. The deployment manager reads this file on startup to determine the host name and IP port of each node agent’s NODE_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS. The default port is 7272. You can display this port from the administrative console by selecting System Administration  Node agents. Then select each node agent and expand Ports under the Additional Properties section. You can also verify this port by looking at the NODE_AGENT section in the serverindex.xml file of each node, which is located here: dmgr_profile_root/config/cells/cell_name/nodes/node_name/serverindex.xml The copy of the configuration repository located on each node contains the serverindex.xml file for the deployment manager. The node agent reads this file on startup to determine the host name and IP port of the deployment manager’s CELL_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS. The default port is 7277. You can display this port from the administrative console by selecting System Administration  Deployment manager. Then expand Ports under the Additional Properties section. Deployment Manager 7277 Managed Process Managed Process Node Agent 7272 5000 Managed Process Managed Process Node Agent 7272 5000 serverindex.xml serverType="Deployment_Manager" ... CELL_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS .. port:7277 serverType="Node_Agent" ... NODE_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS.. port 7272 ... NODE_MULTICAST_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS .. port 500020 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile You can verify this port by looking at the DEPLOYMENT_MANAGER section in the serverindex.xml file for the deployment manager node, which is located here: profile_root/config/cells/cell_name/nodes/dmgr_node_name/serverindex.xml The copy of the configuration repository located on each node also contains the serverindex.xml file for the node. Each managed server reads this file on startup to determine the host name and IP port of the node agent’s NODE_MULTICAST_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS. A multicast address helps you avoid using too many IP ports for managed server-to-node agent discovery requests. Using multicast, a node agent can listen on a single IP port for any number of local servers. The default port is 5000. You can display this port from the administrative console by selecting System Administration  Node agents. Then select the node agent and expand Ports in the Additional Properties section. You can also verify this port by looking at the NODE_AGENT stanza in the serverindex.xml file of the node, which is located here: profile_root/config/cells/cell_name/nodes/node_name/serverindex.xml 1.6.4 File synchronization in distributed server environments The file synchronization service is the administrative service that is responsible for keeping the configuration and application data files that are distributed across the cell up to date. The service runs in the deployment manager and node agents, and ensures that changes made to the master repository are propagated out to the nodes, as necessary. The file transfer system application is used for the synchronization process. File synchronization can be forced from an administration client, or can be scheduled to happen automatically. During the synchronization operation, the node agent checks with the deployment manager to see if any files that apply to the node were updated in the master repository. New or updated files are sent to the node, while any files that were deleted from the master repository are also deleted from the node. Synchronization is a one-way process. The changes are sent from the deployment manager to the node agent. No changes are sent from the node agent back to the deployment manager. Synchronization scheduling You can schedule file synchronization using the administrative console. Click System administration  Node agents  node_agent_name  File synchronization service to choose from the available options, which are shown in Figure 1-6 on page 21. Details of each option are: Enable synchronization at server startup The synchronization occurs before the node agent starts a server. Note that if you start a server using the startServer command, this setting has no effect. Automatic synchronization Synchronization can be made to operate automatically by configuring the file synchronization service of the node agent. The setting allows you to enable periodic synchronization to occur at a specified time interval. By default, this option is enabled with an interval of one minute.Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 21 Startup synchronization This setting specifies whether the node agent attempts to synchronize the node configuration with the latest configurations in the master repository prior to starting an application server. The default is to not synchronize files prior to starting an application server. Exclusions This setting specifies files or patterns that must not be part of the synchronization of configuration data. Files in this list are not copied from the master configuration repository to the node and are not deleted from the repository at the node. Figure 1-6 File synchronization service How files are identified for synchronization As part of synchronization, WebSphere Application Server must be able to identify the files that changed and therefore must be synchronized. To do this, it uses the following scheme: A calculated digest is kept by both the node agent and the deployment manager for each file in the configuration that they manage. These digest values are stored in memory. If the digest for a file is recalculated and it does not match the digest stored in memory, this indicates that the file changed. Tip: In a production environment, the automatic synchronization interval must be increased from the one-minute default setting so that processing and network impact is reduced. Deep dive: This section provides in-depth knowledge that can be useful when debugging or testing, but it is not necessary when trying to understand the overall architecture.22 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile An epoch for each folder in the repository and one for the overall repository are stored in memory. These epochs are used to determine whether any files in the directory changed. When a configuration file is altered through one of the WebSphere Application Server administration interfaces, the overall repository epoch and the epoch for the folder in which that file resides are modified. During configuration synchronization operations, if the repository epoch changed since the previous synchronize operation, individual folder epochs are compared. If the epochs for corresponding node and cell directories do not match, the digests for all files in the directory are recalculated, including the changed file. Manually updating a configuration file does not cause the digest to change. Only files updated with administration tools are marked as changed. Manually updating the files is not recommended, but if you do, a forced synchronization will include any manually updated files. Ensuring that manual changes are synchronized Manually changing configuration files is not recommended. It must only be done as a diagnostic measure or on the rare occasion that you must modify a configuration setting that is not exposed by the administration clients. For a list of the configuration files that have settings not exposed in the administration tools, refer to the product information center at this website: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was-nd -mp&topic=rrun_rconfdoc_descriptions Manual edits of configuration files in the master cell repository can be picked up if the repository is reset so that it re-reads all the files and recalculates all of the digests. You can reset either the master cell repository epoch or the node repository epoch, but be sure to keep these facts in mind: Resetting the master cell repository causes any manual changes made in the master configuration repository to be replicated to the nodes where the file is applicable. Resetting the node repository causes any manual changes to the local node files to be overwritten by whatever is in the master cell repository. Any manual changes in the master repository are picked up and brought down to the node. When you manually change installed applications, they are treated the same as other configuration files in the repository in these respects: If you manually change the EAR file and reset the master cell repository, the changed EAR file is replicated out to the nodes where it is configured to be served and is expanded in the appropriate location on that node for the application server to find it. The application on that node is stopped and restarted automatically so that whatever is changed is picked up and made available in the application server. If you manually edit one of the deployment configuration files for the application and reset the repository, that change is replicated to the applicable nodes and is picked up the next time the application on that node is restarted. Important: Manual editing is not recommended for these reasons: When using wsadmin and the administrative console, you have the benefit of a validation process before the changes are applied. With manual editing, you have no such fail-safe. Updates made manually are not marked for synchronization and are lost at the next synchronization process unless you manually force synchronization. Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 23 Resetting the master cell repository To perform a reset of the master cell repository, complete the following steps: 1. Make sure that the deployment manager is running. 2. Open a command prompt, change to the dmgr_profile_root/bin directory, and start a wsadmin session. cd dmgr_profile_root\bin wsadmin 3. Enter the following statements: wsadmin>set config [$AdminControl queryNames *:*,type=ConfigRepository,process=dmgr] wsadmin>$AdminControl invoke $config refreshRepositoryEpoch 4. If the commands can be executed successfully, you can see a number returned by the refreshRepositoryEpoch operation. Figure 1-7 shows an example of resetting the master cell repository. Figure 1-7 Reset the master cell repository Resetting the master node repository To perform a reset of the master node repository, complete the following steps: 1. Make sure that the deployment manager is running. 2. Open a command prompt, change to the profile_root/bin directory, and start a wsadmin session, as shown in the next example. cd profile_root\bin wsadmin 3. Enter the following statements: wsadmin>set config [$AdminControl queryNames *:*,type=ConfigRepository,process=nodeagent] wsadmin>$AdminControl invoke $config refreshRepositoryEpoch 4. If the commands can be executed successfully, you can see a number returned by the refreshRepositoryEpoch operation. Figure 1-8 on page 24 shows an example of resetting the master node repository. Note: The use of wsadmin is covered in Chapter 8, “Administration with scripting” on page 319.24 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 1-8 Reset the master node repository You can also use the explicit node synchronization process to complete the node repository reset and synchronization. Explicit or forced synchronization Synchronization can be explicitly forced at any time using the administrative console, the syncNode command, or the wsadmin scripting tool. Here are details of each option: Administrative console Click System administration  Nodes, select the check box beside the node whose configuration files you want to synchronize, and click Synchronize or Full Resynchronize. Figure 1-9 shows an example of node synchronization on the administrative console. Figure 1-9 Node synchronization on administrative console The Synchronize button initiates a normal synchronizing operation with no re-reading of the files. The Full Resynchronize button is the reset and recalculate function. syncNode command This command has no cache of epoch values that can be used for an optimized synchronization and therefore performs a complete synchronization. Note that this action requires the node agent to be stopped. The syncNode command resides in the bin directory under the base install or the node profile directory. To begin synchronization using this option, give the following commands: cd profile_root\bin syncNode cell_hostChapter 1. System management: Technical overview 25 Figure 1-10 shows an example of syncNode command. Figure 1-10 syncNode command example wsadmin scripting tool For information about using the wsadmin scripting tool for synchronization, refer to the product information center at this website: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/wsbroker/redirect?version=phil&product=was -nd-dist&topic=txml_sync You can use file synchronization to propagate unique configuration data that needs to be used on all nodes. To synchronize to all nodes, put the file in the config/cells/cell_name folder. If the file applies to just one node, put it only in the folder corresponding to that specific node. The same approach can be applied for any additional documents in a server-level folder. 1.7 Advanced system management of multiple stand-alone servers Based on business requirements, an organization can have multiple stand-alone application servers installed on the same system or on multiple systems. These servers might be used for development, testing, staging, and so on. A multiple stand-alone server environment can offer advantages when compared to a stand-alone server: Isolation for critical applications Critical applications can be deployed on their own server to prevent negative impacts that can be caused by other, faulty applications on the same server. Dedicated resources To help customize tuning, each profile has a unique JVM and unique applications, configuration settings, data, and log files.26 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Enhanced serviceability Profiles share a single set of product core files. When the product is updated, all of the profiles are updated, too. There are two options for administering the application servers in a multiple stand-alone server environment: Independent administration Administrative agent Table 1-1 compares the two methods of administration. Table 1-1 Comparison of administration options for multiple stand-alone servers Figure 1-11 on page 27 shows an environment with independently managed application servers. Independent administration Administrative agent Centralized control point No. An administrator has to juggle multiple consoles. Ye s. An administrator can use an administrative agent as the central control point. System resources used for administrative functions Each application server runs its own administrative service and the administrative console application. After a node containing a stand-alone server is registered with the administrative agent, the administrative console application and administrative service are stopped on that application server. The administrative agent is responsible for managing all of the servers on the registered node. System resources are dedicated to running applications. Management capabilities when server is not running The administrative application and administrative service are not available if the server is not running. An administrator must start the server locally. The administrative agent modifies the stand-alone server’s configuration repository directly using the administrative service. The administrative agent can also start, stop, and create new servers within the managed node. Note: Combining the administrative agent with multiple stand-alone servers is a great starting point for simplifying administration. However, features, such as failover, workload management, session data replication, and many other features, cannot be configured in anything except a distributed server environment.Chapter 1. System management: Technical overview 27 Figure 1-11 Multiple stand-alone servers with independent administration Figure 1-12 on page 28 shows an environment using the administrative agent as the centralized control point for multiple application servers. Cell01 Node Application Server Web Container Admin Service C:\> wsadmin Cell02 Node Application Server Web Container Admin Service C:\> wsadmin Cell03 Node Application Server Web Container Admin Service C:\> wsadmin . . . Repository Repository Repository Admin Application Admin Application Admin Application28 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 1-12 Multiple stand-alone servers managed with the administrative agent 1.8 Advanced management of distributed and stand-alone servers The job manager can be used to administer multiple distributed environments and stand-alone servers. The job manager administers the environment asynchronously using the concept of jobs. Because jobs are submitted asynchronously, a low-latency network is sufficient, which can be useful when the environment is distributed over distant geographical areas. The job manager is available only with the Websphere Application Server Network Deployment offering and with WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. The job manager administers the registered environments by submitting jobs that perform tasks, for example: Start and stop servers Create and delete servers Install and uninstall applications Start and stop applications System Cell01 Node01 Cell02 Node02 Cell03 Node03 Admin Agent Web Container Admin Application Admin Agent Repository server1 server2 server1 server2 Admin Service Repository EAR Repository EAR C:\> wsadminChapter 1. System management: Technical overview 29 Run wsadmin scripts Distribute files To administer a distributed environment, the deployment manager is registered with the job manager. To administer stand-alone servers, the nodes managed by the administrative agent are registered with the job manager. Figure 1-13 shows the relationship between the job manager and the environments with which it can interact. Figure 1-13 Flexible management The job manager has a repository for its own configuration files, which are related to security, administration of the job manager, configurations, and so on. However, unlike a deployment manager, the job manager does not maintain a master repository. Instead, it allows the administrative agents and deployment managers to continue managing their environments as they if they were not registered with the job manager. The job manager can administer multiple administrative agents and deployment managers, and each administrative agent and deployment manager can be registered with multiple job managers. Figure 1-14 on page 30 shows how the job manager provides a control point for administration in a flexible environment. Administrative Agent WebSphere Application Server Administrative Agent Administrative Agent Servers Deployment Manager Servers Deployment Manager Base Application Server • Programming model • QoS • Security • Administration Network Deployment Cell • Administration • Clustering Job Manager • Control multiple endpoints • Remote management • Loose coupling30 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 1-14 A Job manager administration environment dmgrCell dmgrNode System deafaultCell01 NodeC defaultCell02 adminNode Admin Agent defaultCell jobmgrNode Job Manager Admin Service Admin Application Job Manager Repository Repository RepositoryDeployment Manager Admin Services Web Container Admin Application Master server1 server2 C:\> wsadmin Web Container Admin Application NodeA server1 server2 Repository EAR EAR C:\> wsadmin C:\> wsadmin NodeA server1 server2 Repository EAR Node Agent Admin Services Node Agent Admin Services Admin Services© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. 31 Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems This chapter provides an overview of IBM Installation Manager and describes how to install and use Installation Manager to install WebSphere Application Server V8.5 and its components. This chapter contains the following sections: IBM Installation Manager overview Installation Manager installation Using Installation Manager Customizing Installation Manager Installing WebSphere Application Server Installing additional software 232 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 2.1 IBM Installation Manager overview Installation Manager is a tool that installs and maintains Installation Manager-based software packages. It is an Eclipse-based tool that enables you to install and modify packages, search for updates, uninstall, and roll back. Installation Manager makes it easier for you to download and install code for a number of IBM software packages. Starting from WebSphere Application Server V8, Installation Manager replaced the InstallShield MultiPlatform (ISMP) and Update Installer tools, which were used to install, update, and uninstall previous versions of WebSphere Application Server. It also replaced the functionality previously provided by the Installation Factory tool. The new WebSphere Application Server V8.5 is shipped with Installation Manager V1.5.2, but use newer versions of Installation Manager if they are available. For the current version of Installation Manager, refer to the following website: http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Recommended_fix/Software/Rational/IBM_ Installation_Manager Installation Manager was originally introduced to support installation of IBM Rational® products and is currently available for all platforms and supports installation of WebSphere, Rational, and other products. It provides the following benefits: Consistency across all platforms using the same methodology Lifecycle management of any Installation Manager-installed products Several methods for performing lifecycle management activities Common packaging Validation and system checking performed before downloading binaries More efficiency when delivering new fixes and files for rollback In the next sections, key features of Installation Manager are explained. 2.1.1 Terminology The following installation-related concepts and terminology are used in this chapter: A package is a software product that can be installed by Installation Manager. It is a separately installable unit that can operate independently from other packages of that software. A package can include a product, a group of components, or a single component. Each package has a name, version, and an identifier, for example: – Package name: com.ibm.websphere.ND.v85 – Package version: 8.5.0.20120501_1108 – Package identifier: com.ibm.websphere.ND.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1108 Packages are installed to a defined directory location in the file system. Installation Manager allows you to control where products are installed. Package groups are packages that are installed to the same location that share UI elements. They are used when more than one product is installed at the same location. Some packages can be installed to the same package group and other packages must be installed to a new package group. Package group names are set automatically by Installation Manager. A repository is a place where the packages to be installed can be found. It has a list of files organized in a tree structure and includes metadata that describes the software version and how to install it. A repository can reside on a local directory or on a remote, reachable server.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 33 Shared resources are software files and plug-ins that are shared by packages and stored in a central location or shared resources directory. You can only specify the shared resources directory the first time you install a package, and you cannot change the location of the directory while packages are being installed. 2.1.2 Capabilities Installation Manager does more than just install products. It helps update, maintain, and retire (uninstall) them, also. Installing Installing software is the primary task of Installation Manager. Its features allow you to install any product that is designed for use with Installation Manager, including WebSphere Application Server Version 8 or later. Updating Using the update feature, you can locate and install product updates and new features for packages that were installed using Installation Manager. You can find and install updates using automated searches that Installation Manager does for you, or you can download and apply updates manually. Types of updates are: Fix packs: Formal updates to software. Installation Manager indicates when a new version of the software is available. Interim fixes: Updates that apply to a specific version of software. Interim fixes are typically issued to resolve critical issues. You can check for any fix packs or interim fixes for WebSphere Application Server at the following website: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27004980 You can download fix packs and interim fixes from IBM Fix Central at the following website: http://www-933.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/ Modifying Using the modify feature, you can make changes to software packages that were installed using Installation Manager. These changes include adding or removing features for an installed package, such as when you want to add an additional language pack to your current installation of WebSphere Application Server. Rolling back Using the rollback feature, you can remove an update and revert to a previous version of the software. For example, if you applied a fix to your existing environment but now want to remove it, the rollback feature of Installation Manager allows you to return to the previously installed package as it existed before the fix was applied. Installation Manager saves earlier versions of packages in its local file store and uses these files to roll back. If you remove these files, Installation Manager must have access to your installation repository or disk media to roll back.34 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Uninstalling Using the uninstall feature, you can remove packages that were previously installed by Installation Manager. For example, you can uninstall unnecessary language packs from WebSphere Application Server. 2.2 Installation Manager installation Installation Manager comes in the form of an installation kit, which is an archive file containing a set of Installation Manager binaries and a flat-file repository for the Installation Manager product. The installation kit is only used for set up and maintenance of Installation Manager. You must run Installation Manager only on systems on which you install or update product code. Typically, you need only one Installation Manager instance on a computer because one instance can track any number of product installations. To begin an installation, obtain the Installation Manager product packages in one of the following ways: Copy the files from the physical disk media. Download the files from the IBM Passport Advantage® website: http://nasoftware.ibm.com/imts/us.nsf/doc/RHIS-7GUMXE Download the files from an IBM repository site: http://www-947.ibm.com/support/entry/portal/Downloads/Software/Software_support _%28general%29 The physical disk contains the rollup of all Installation Manager versions for each supported operating system, so when you insert the disk, the installation process starts automatically because it recognizes your local operating system. If you download the files, you must start the installation process yourself using the appropriate installation file. Before installing Installation Manager, you must decide the mode in which it will run and where the binaries and runtime data will reside. You can install Installation Manager in administrator, non-administrator, or group mode. On UNIX systems, you can install it in group mode using a predefined user group. All users in the group can then install and run the same instance of Installation Manager to manage packages. Only one administrator instance of Installation Manager can be installed. If using non-administrator mode, there can be one instance of Installation Manager for each user. The following sections guide you through the different methods of installing Installation Manager. 2.2.1 Using the GUI installer to install Installation Manager The following commands are used to install Installation Manager using the graphical interface: install Installs in administrator mode userinst Installs in non-administrator mode groupinst Installs in group modeChapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 35 To begin installation using the GUI, run the appropriate install command from the list just provided. Then perform the following steps as an administrator (these steps are written for a machine running the Windows operating system): 1. Run the install.exe command from your version of the unpacked installation kit. 2. In the pop-up window, the Installation Manager package is selected by default, and the status indicates the package will be installed. Click Next. 3. In the License Agreement window, read the license agreement, and then select the I accept the terms of the license agreement option to proceed with the installation. Click Next. 4. In the next window, provide the Installation Manager directory. You can use the Browse option to select a directory, or leave the default value. Click Next. 5. In the Summary window, review the packages and the installation paths to be installed, and then click Install to begin the installation. 6. During the installation process, you can observe the progress of the installation. At any time, you can select to pause or cancel the installation. At the end, a message appears indicating that the installation is complete. 7. When installation finishes, click Restart Installation Manager to continue to work with the tool. You can also review the installation logs by clicking View Log File. 2.2.2 Using console mode to install Installation Manager Console mode is a non-graphical, text-based, interactive method for installing Installation Manager. To install Installation Manager using console mode, run one of the following commands: installc -c Installs in administrator mode userinstc -c Installs in non-administrator mode groupinstc -c Installs in group mode Example 2-1 shows samples from the installation process using console mode. Note that for each operation, the installer prompts the user for a specific action, such as typing L to change the default installation directory. Example 2-1 Step-by-step installation in console mode C:\installs\IM_1.5.2>installc.exe -c Preprocessing the input. Loading repositories... Preparing and resolving the selected packages... =====> IBM Installation Manager> Install Select packages to install: 1. [X] IBM? Installation Manager 1.5.2 O. Check for Other Versions, Fixes, and Extensions N. Next, C. Cancel -----> [N] N [...] =====> IBM Installation Manager> Install> Licenses> Location Installation Manager installation location: C:\Program Files (x86)\IBM\Installation Manager\eclipse Group mode: Group mode is not available on Windows or IBM i systems.36 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Options: L. Change Installation Manager Installation Location B. Back, N. Next, C. Cancel -----> [N] L =====> IBM Installation Manager> Install> Licenses> Location> Enter the Installation Manager location Enter a new value for the Installation Manager installation location. To skip, p ress Enter: -----> C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse [...] =====> IBM Installation Manager> Install> Licenses> Location> Summary Target Location: Package Group Name : IBM Installation Manager Installation Directory : C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse Packages to be installed: IBM? Installation Manager 1.5.2 Options: G. Generate an Installation Response File B. Back, I. Install, C. Cancel -----> [I] I 25% 50% 75% 100% ------------------|------------------|------------------|------------------| ............................................................................ =====> IBM Installation Manager> Install> Licenses> Location> Summary> Completion The install completed successfully. Options: R. Restart Installation Manager -----> [R] R 2.2.3 Using the command line to install Installation Manager To install Installation Manager using the command line, run the imcl command. This can be done either as an administrator, non-administrator, or a group user. The imcl command can be found in the \eclipse\tools directory. When using the imcl command, you must identify the following installation attributes in the command line: packageId Indicates the package ID or feature ID that is defined in the install.xml file. This ID is required because it specifies the offering to be installed. repositories Indicates the source repository for the installation. installationDirectory Indicates the installation directory for Installation Manager, which must include a path that contains spaces in quotation marks. accessRights Defines the user you are using to install. If this is not defined, admin is used by default. acceptLicense Indicates that you accept the license agreement. You can obtain a full listing of supported attributes by running the imcl -help command.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 37 Example 2-2 shows how to install Installation Manager using the command line in administrator mode. In this example, the software package was downloaded to the local machine under the C:\installs\IM_1.5.2 directory. Example 2-2 Installing IBM Installation Manager using command-line mode C:\installs\IM_1.5.2\tools>imcl.exe install com.ibm.cic.agent -repositories C:\installs\IM_1.5.2\repository.config -installationDirectory C:\IBM\InstallationManager2\eclipe -accessRights admin -acceptLicense 2.2.4 Using the silent installer to install Installation Manager To install Installation Manager silently, run one of the following commands: installc Installs in administrator mode installc Installs in non-administrator mode on Windows and UNIX systems userinstc Installs in non-administrator mode on IBM i systems userinstc Installs as the current user groupinstc Installs in group mode Example 2-3 shows how to install Installation Manager silently as an administrator. Note that in this case, the installer chooses the default directory location. Example 2-3 Installing IBM Installation Manager in silent mode C:\installs\IM_1.5.2\> installc.exe -silent -acceptLicense Installed com.ibm.cic.agent_1.5.2000.20120223_0907 to the C:\Program Files (x86) \IBM\Installation Manager\eclipse directory. 2.2.5 Uninstalling Installation Manager Before you uninstall Installation Manager, you must uninstall all of the packages that were previously installed using it. Be sure to close Installation Manager before starting the uninstall process. You must also log into the machine with the identity you used when installing Installation Manager. To uninstall Installation Manager, use one of the following options: Windows systems: – GUI uninstall: Click Control Panel  Add or Remove Programs. Click IBM Installation Manager and click Uninstall. – Silent uninstall: Navigate to the IBM Installation Manager uninstall directory (by default it is under the ProgramData\IBM\Installation Manager directory). Run uninstallc.exe in admin mode or userinstc.exe in non-admin mode. UNIX systems: – GUI uninstall: Note: Group mode silent installation is not available on Windows systems.38 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Navigate to the /var/ibm/Installation Manager/uninstall directory, and run uninstall. – Silent uninstall: Navigate to the /var/ibm/Installation Manager/uninstall directory, and run uninstallc. 2.3 Using Installation Manager After you install Installation Manager, you can use it to install packages, update or modify them, and so on. Installation Manager tracks the packages that it installs, including selectable features and maintenance updates for products. There are a number of ways you can interact with Installation Manager: Wizard mode: A graphical user interface Command-line mode: The command-line utility (imcl) Console mode: An interactive, text-based user interface Silent mode: Response file-based, run from the command line or a file In this section, we provide information about the various ways to use Installation manger. 2.3.1 Wizard mode Installation Manager includes a number of wizards to help maintain product packages: Installation wizards take you through the installation process for various operating systems and modes. They provide default settings that can be customized for your environment. You can install multiple packages simultaneously. The Update wizard allows you to update currently-installed packages. The Modify wizard helps you change certain elements of installed packages, such as adding or removing features. The Rollback wizard allows you to revert to a previous version of a package. The Uninstall wizard removes installed packages. To use wizard mode, navigate to the Installation Manager install directory, and run the appropriate command for your system: Windows: IBMIM.exe UNIX: IBMIM Figure 2-1 on page 39 illustrates the main Installation Manager window with available wizard mode operations.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 39 Figure 2-1 Main Installation Manager window viewed in wizard or graphical mode 2.3.2 Command-line mode If you cannot use the graphical user interface, or have a preference for a non-GUI environment, you can operate Installation Manager in command-line mode. Using the command line, you can install, update, and uninstall packages, list installed features and packages, list available packages, display version information, or import a response file to be used for a silent installation. Command line operations are invoked using the imcl command, which can be found in the /tools/ directory. For a list of help topics for using this mode, type the following command: imcl.exe help 2.3.3 Console mode Another option for interacting with Installation Manager is through the console mode. Important: Console mode does not support installation of WebSphere Application Server V8.5.40 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile To start console mode, use the command appropriate for your system: Windows: Navigate to \tools\ and run imcl.exe -c UNIX: Navigate to /tools/ and run imcl -d Example 2-4 shows the Installation Manager console-mode command and welcome text. Example 2-4 Installation Manager welcome text in console mode C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse\tools>imcl.exe -c =====> IBM Installation Manager Select: 1. Install - Install software packages 2. Update - Find and install updates and fixes to installed software packag 3. Modify - Change installed software packages 4. Roll Back - Revert to an earlier version of installed software packages 5. Uninstall - Remove installed software packages Other Options: L. View Logs S. View Installation History V. View Installed Packages ------------------------ P. Preferences ------------------------ E. Export Data for Problem Analysis A. About IBM Installation Manager ------------------------ X. Exit Installation Manager 2.3.4 Silent mode Silent mode allows you to install packages in a non-interactive and non-GUI mode. It uses a response file to provide the input for each installation. The key to silent mode installations, then, is to create the response files that guide each effort. Response files can be used to install, update, modify, roll back, and uninstall software packages. Creating response files A response file can be recorded using Installation Manager or created manually using a documented list of commands. To use the Installation Manager GUI to record a response file for the installation of a package, use the skipInstall argument from the command line. This argument makes Installation Manager simulate the package-installation process instead of actually installing anything, after which an XML response file can be recorded containing the steps from the simulation. The response file can then be used to automate the recorded installation process each time it is needed. Based on this approach, start the GUI with the following options: skipInstall (indicates to skip the install) record (specifies the response file to be created)Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 41 Details about available arguments can be obtained using the following command: IBMIM -help Example 2-5 shows the command string to create a response file using the Installation Manager GUI on a Windows platform. Running these commands launches the GUI wizards where you select the appropriate repositories and packages, and then click Install to begin the simulation and recording. To finish generation of the recording, close the Installation Manager. Example 2-5 Creating a response file using Installation Manager GUI mode C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse>IBMIM.exe -skipInstall "c:\temp" -record "c:\ temp\myResponceFile.xml" To manually create a response file, you can use a sample response file and customize it to suit your environment. Sample response files are at this website: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.sil entinstall12.doc/topics/c_sample_response_files.html Using response files After you create a response file, you can use it to silently manage a package with Installation Manager. To use a response file, start the installation from the command line, and use the input parameter to pass your response file, as shown in Example 2-6. Example 2-6 Managing packages with a response file using silent mode C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse\tools>imcl.exe -acceptLicense -input C:\temp\ myResponceFile.xml -log C:\temp\silentInstall.xml 2.4 Customizing Installation Manager Installation Manager operations can be customized by setting preferences, defining the way repositories are configured, and so on. There are also tools to help with troubleshooting and easy methods of keeping the Installation Manager software up to date. 2.4.1 Installation Manager preferences You can influence how Installation Manager operates by configuring preferences for repositories, appearance, files for rollback, help, Internet settings, Passport Advantage settings, and updates. You can keep the default settings or modify the preferences to suit your environment. Important: You must record a response file on the same platform that you plan for the installation. For example, to install on a computer running Microsoft Windows, you must record the response file on a computer that runs Windows. If you plan installations for multiple platforms, you must have a response file for each platform. Important: Silent installation cannot install packages that are contained on multiple media disks. Ensure that you are using a single repository location when you use silent mode.42 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Installation Manager preferences can be modified using the GUI wizard mode console mode, which is considered the easiest method. To verify or modify preferences using the GUI, select File  Preferences. Figure 2-2 shows available preferences that can be configured. Figure 2-2 Installation Manager preferences Here are the details for each preference setting: Repositories This preference identifies any number of repositories to be used by Installation Manager for installing, modifying, and updating packages. Appearance This preference allows you to select whether or not to display the internal version of the package being installed. With this setting, the internal version can be displayed during the installation process, including the release number, year, month, day, and package ID. By default, the internal version is not displayed. Files for Rollback This preference allows use of the rollback feature to revert to a previous installed version of an updated package. It is enabled by default. Help This preference allows you to choose how help information is displayed. For example, help contents can be launched in the help browser, which is the default setting or launched in an external browser. You can also configure access to multiple information centers for products you are installing, with options for including local or remote help and prioritizing which information center is used first. Internet This preference allows you to set options for proxy servers. Passport Advantage This preference is used to establish the settings for a Passport Advantage site. Internet connectivity is required for this option to be selected. By default, this option is not selected. To enable it, select Connect to Passport Advantage, and you are prompted for a user name and password for the service. Select Save password to save the user name and password credentials.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 43 Updates This preference is used to indicate if Installation Manager searches for updates to its own software when it is installing, modifying, or updating packages. Internet connectivity is required for this option to be selected. By default, this option is disabled. 2.4.2 Repositories overview Installation Manager uses repositories to identify the packages or updates to install. A repository is a location that stores data for installing, modifying, rolling back, updating, or uninstalling packages. Each installed package has an embedded location for its default update repository. You can add, edit, or remove repositories. Installation Manager uses the configured repositories to determine and list all of the available packages to install, which can include products, fix packs, interim fixes, and so on. It checks prerequisites and dependencies and then installs the selected packages. An Installation Manager repository contains one or multiple product offerings, each containing both metadata and the actual offering payload. The metadata describes the following aspects of offerings: Name, version, and supported platforms Required and optional features Relationships and dependencies between offerings and features of offerings Typically, a repository contains all of the files needed for installation on various platforms, operating systems, and so on. Repository topologies can be generalized as fitting within the following categories: Public repository: Accessible to the general public at an IBM hosted site, such as IBM Passport Advantage Local repository: Used by a single user and not shared with others Enterprise repository: Located behind the firewall and accessed by multiple machines within the enterprise 2.4.3 Repository configuration In this section, we provide information about the configuration steps for working with repositories. Service repository By default, Installation Manager is configured to use a service repository that is located on an IBM repository website. In this case, Internet access is required. If a machine does not have Internet access, Installation Manager can be configured to look for a local repository. Updates can be downloaded and placed in a temporary directory on the local machine for Installation Manager to find them. You must manually configure local repositories. To verify or modify the service repository setting, click File  Preferences  Repositories in the Installation Manager GUI. The Repositories window contains the area for repository configuration, as illustrated in Figure 2-3 on page 44.44 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 2-3 Installation Manager repositories Adding and selecting repositories You can add any number of repositories for Installation Manager to search when installing, modifying, or updating a product package. To add a repository, select Add Repository, and then choose the repository location and file type. The repository file type can be any of the following items: A repository.config file included in the product repository files A diskTag.inf file that tells the Installation Manager that the files are from a disk A JAR file that contains a repository (an option often used for license kits) A compressed file that contains a diskTag.inf file (must be extracted to the local system prior to use) Installation Manager searches the repositories in the order that they are listed in the repository window. If two repositories use the same package, the repository that is listed higher in the order is used. You can move a repository up and down in the order list by selecting the appropriate repository and clicking either Move Up or Move Down. Tip: If a machine does not have access to an IBM repository site or you do not want the machine to access that site, clear the Search service repositories during installation and updates check box. When this option is enabled, the Install, Modify, and Update wizards try to access the IBM repository site. If a connection is not made, the activity times out and Installation Manager tries again to reconnect before starting the install, update, or modify process.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 45 Installation Manager only searches the repositories that you selected in the repository page. To select a repository, select the check box beside the repository name. If you clear the check box beside a name, Installation Manager will not search that repository. After you add a repository, you can test the connection to it. Select the check box beside the repository name, and click Test Connections. If Installation Manager can access the repository, the repository is connected and the icon in the Connection column reflects this status, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 44. If a connection cannot be made to a repository, a message and icon indicate the failed connection status. You can also edit and remove repositories from the repository listing. 2.4.4 Updating Installation Manager Installation Manager can be configured to automatically search for updates to itself. To verify or modify this setting, click File  Preferences  Updates in the Installation Manager GUI. If this option is selected, network connectivity is required so Installation Manager can look for any updates. If it finds an update, you are prompted to take action. If the updating option is cleared, Installation Manager does not look for updates to itself. For more information about installing or updating Installation Manager, refer to the product information center at this website: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp 2.4.5 Managing packages When using Installation Manager, you can list the installed packages or list all packages that are available to be installed, updated, modified, and rolled back. Example 2-7 shows how to list installed packages using the Installation Manager command-line mode. The only package installed in this case is the one for Installation Manager itself. Example 2-7 Lists Installed packages C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse\tools>imcl.exe listInstalledPackages com.ibm.cic.agent_1.5.2000.20120223_0907 You can also list installed packages using the Installation Manager GUI by clicking File  View Installed Packages. In Windows, you can also click Start  All Programs  IBM Installation Manager  View Installed Packages to open the installed packages’ information in a web browser. 2.4.6 Examining log files Installation Manager creates log files that you can use to troubleshoot any installation problems. Consider verifying the log files after any installation to ensure that everything in that process went successfully. If you use the GUI mode, you can view log files immediately after installation by clicking View Log File on the summary page. This launches the Installation Log window, shown in Figure 2-4 on page 46.46 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 2-4 Installation Manager log viewer You can view the Installation Log window at any time by clicking File  View Log. The window provides an easy and convenient interface where all Installation Manager log files can be examined. In addition, you can perform the following actions: Export an XML log file to a location in the file system Filter search contents to narrow down the results, such as by the severity level of the event (Error, Warning, Information, and Note, all of which are selected by default except Information) Open a selected log file in a web browser To examine the logs manually, locate the Installation Manager logs directory. The default location for this directory varies according to the operating system: Windows: C:\ProgramData\IBM\Installation Manager\logs UNIX: /var/ibm/InstallationManager/logs 2.5 Installing WebSphere Application Server Starting with WebSphere Application Server V8, Installation Manager is required to install the product. You can use the GUI or silent installation modes. This section guides you through the process.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 47 2.5.1 Prerequisites Prior to installation, verify the list of hardware and software requirements and supported platforms for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 at the following website: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27023941 You should also familiarize yourself with the planning considerations for installing WebSphere Application Server. Refer to the planning portion of the product information center website for more information: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.installatio n.base.doc/ae/tins_scenario3.html 2.5.2 Using GUI mode To install WebSphere Application Server using GUI mode: 1. Start Installation Manager using the IBMIM command. 2. Add a repository for your WebSphere Application Server V8.5 package. Refer to “Adding and selecting repositories” on page 44 for details. 3. Click the Install option in the main Installation Manager window to trigger the installation wizard. 4. Installation Manager searches all defined and enabled repositories and lists the available packages in the Installation Packages window. Select the WebSphere Application Server package (see Figure 2-5), and click Next. Figure 2-5 Selecting the WebSphere Application Server package for installation 5. In the License Agreement window, read the license agreement, and then select I accept the terms of the license agreement to proceed with the installation. Click Next. 6. In the Location window (Figure 2-6 on page 48), provide a directory location for shared resources. The shared resources directory is used by multiple packages and is configured only during the first product package installation. You cannot change this directory later. Decide whether to keep the default directory or modify it to suit your environment, and then click Next. Important: If WebSphere Application Server is already installed on the machine, the Status column will indicate Installed. However, you can still install another instance of WebSphere Application Server on the same machine. When you select the package, a message states that it is already installed. In this case, click Continue to install the second instance of the package. The second package must be installed to a new package group and in a different location.48 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 2-6 Defining the shared resources directory location in the IBM Installation Manager 7. In the next window, provide the installation directory, and click Next. The default directory location differs depending upon the operating system. In this example, the directory location is modified to C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer. 8. In the next window, you can select additional language packs to install along with the product. The English language pack is selected by default and cannot be disabled. When finished, click Next. 9. The Features window (Figure 2-7 on page 49) opens next and lists all of the available product features. Select the features you want to install, and click Next. For this example, only default features are used. Note: On a Windows Vista, Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 operating system, WebSphere Application Server V8.5 does not function properly if a non-administrator installs it into the Program Files or Program Files (x86) directory with User Account Control (UAC) enabled.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 49 Figure 2-7 Selecting features of WebSphere Application Server V8.5 for installation The Software Development Kit (SDK) feature only appears on the Features window when installing on a 64-bit operating system. Either the IBM 32-bit SDK for Java Version 6 or IBM 64-bit SDK for Java Version 6 feature must be selected. After this feature is installed, it cannot be modified. If the installation is being performed on a 32-bit operating system, the choice between the two SDKs is not available and the installation automatically defaults to the IBM 32-bit SDK for Java Version 6. Starting with Version 8, there is just one installable package for both 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems. Selecting the IBM 32-bit SDK for Java Version 6 feature in this example is equivalent to installing a 32-bit WebSphere Application Server on a 64-bit operating system. 10.Review the summary information, and click Install to begin the WebSphere Application Server V8.5 installation process. Important: For WebSphere Application Server V8 and later versions, the only sample application shipped with the product is PlantsByWebSphere. You can select to install the sample application now or modify the installation later to add the sample application. You can no longer deploy samples during profile creation. All previous sample applications that were included in Version 7 and are still relevant, and several new samples, were placed online for download from the product information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.sampl es.doc/ae/welcome_samples.html50 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 11.When the installation completes, the results are displayed as shown in Figure 2-8. If problems are evident, you can review the installation log file to troubleshoot any problems by clicking the View Log File link. Note that from the installation complete window, you can start another tool or exit the installation process. You have these options: – Profile Management Tool to create a profile: This option allows you to create a new profile using the Profile Management Tool. – Profile Management Tool to create an application server profile for a development environment: This option allows you to create a new application server profile with settings for a development environment. If the application server will be used primarily for development purposes, select this option to create it from a special, development template. This approach reduces the startup time and allows the server to run using fewer resources. Do not use this option for production servers. – None: This option indicates that you do not want to create a profile at this time. Select an option, and click Finish. Additional information about creating profiles for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 is provided in 3.3, “Building systems with profiles” on page 64. Figure 2-8 Summary window after successful installation of WebSphere Application Server V8.5 2.5.3 Using silent mode To install WebSphere Application Server silently, you must first create a response file and then perform a series of steps in command-line mode.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 51 Creating the response file This procedure was introduced in “Creating response files” on page 40, where it was explained, among other things, that creating a response file involves running a simulated installation process. Follow these steps to create a response file for installation of WebSphere Application Server V8.5 using Installation Manager: 1. Run the IBMIM command, as shown in Example 2-8. Example 2-8 Creating a response file using the Installation Manager GUI mode C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse>IBMIM.exe -skipInstall "c:\temp" -record "c:\temp\was85_install_responce.xml" Note that this time the title of the Installation Manager window is marked with an additional Recording label, as illustrated in Figure 2-9. Figure 2-9 Indication that Installation Manager is running in recording mode 2. When the Installation Manager GUI launches, add the repository for the WebSphere Application Server package, if required. See “Adding and selecting repositories” on page 44 for details about adding a repository. 3. Click the Install wizard to begin the simulated installation. 4. Select the WebSphere Application Server package, and click Next. 5. Accept the license agreement, and click Next. 6. Enter the shared resources directory location, and click Next. 7. Enter the WebSphere installation directory location, and click Next. 8. Select the optional language packs, and click Next. 9. Select WebSphere Application Server features, and click Next. 10.Review the installation configuration, and click Install. The simulated installation process is fast because no binaries are being installed. 11.Click Finish to conclude the simulated installation process. 12.Exit Installation Manager to end the recording of the response file. After it is created, examine the response file (for example was85_install_responce.xml) and modify it as needed. Installing the product With the response file created, perform the following steps to install WebSphere Application Server silently using command-line mode: 1. Run the silent installation command used in Example 2-9, specifying the response file that you just created. Example 2-9 Silent installation of WebSphere Application Server C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse\tools\>imcl.exe -acceptLicence input C:\temp\was85_install_response.xml -log C:\temp\silent_was85_install.xml52 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 2. Run the imcl listInstalledPackages command to verify that the package was installed. See Example 2-10. Example 2-10 Listing the installed package C:\IBM\InstallationManager\eclipse\tools\>imcl.exe listInstalledPackages com.ibm.cic.agent_1.5.2000.20120223_0907 com.ibm.websphere.ND.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1108 3. Examine the installation log file to verify that the installation was successful. You can view the log file using a text editor, a browser, or the Installation Manager GUI. To use the Installation Manager GUI, click File  View Log, and then select the log file to be viewed. 2.6 Installing additional software The WebSphere Application Server V8.5 package comes with additional software that can be used with the product, such as IBM WebSphere HTTP Server V8.5, WebSphere Plug-ins, WebSphere Customization Toolbox V8.5, and the Application Client for WebSphere Application Server 8.5. This section guides you through installing the WebSphere Customization Toolbox and the Application Client. For installation of the HTTP server software, refer to Chapter 12, “Configuring and managing web servers” on page 417. 2.6.1 WebSphere Customization Toolbox The WebSphere Customization Toolbox (WCT) existed in WebSphere Application Server Version 7. It was used only to configure z/OS servers. WebSphere Application Server V8 enhanced the functionality of the tools for managing, configuring, and migrating various parts of the product environment. The toolbox is available as two different offerings, each with various combinations of tools for different platforms: Embedded WCT Stand-alone WCT Each WebSphere Customization Toolbox offering is installed, modified, rolled back, or updated using Installation Manager. It can be installed silently using the command line or interactively using the GUI or console modes. Embedded WebSphere Customization Toolbox The embedded WebSphere Customization Toolbox comes as a part of the WebSphere Application Server V8.5 package. Tools included in the embedded version are: Profile Management Tool (PMT) Configuration Migration Tool (CMT) With the embedded WebSphere Customization Toolbox offering, both of the included tools are automatically installed. They are not listed for selection in Installation Manager. Important: You can also include the showProgress argument to see the progress of the silent installation in the command line.Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 53 Other supported platforms include HPUX 64-bit, Windows 2000 (32-bit and 64-bit), Linux on x86 (32-bit and 64-bit), Linux on Power (32-bit and 64-bit), Linux on s390 (32-bit and 64-bit), Solaris Sparc, and AIX (32-bit and 64-bit). Stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox The stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox comes as its own product offering. It can be found in the WebSphere Application Server V8.5 supplements package and is installed using Installation Manager. Tools included in the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox are the following: Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool z/OS Profile Management Tool (zPMT) z/OS Migration Management Tool (zMMT) Remote Installation Tool for IBM i When installing the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox, you select the tools you want to install. However, zPMT and zMMT must be installed together because they have dependencies that Installation Manager recognizes. Supported platforms include HPUX, Windows, Linux on x86, Linux on Power, Linux on s390, Solaris (Sparc and x86), and AIX. Regardless of whether it is installed on a 32-bit or 64-bit operating system, the stand-alone toolbox operates as a 32-bit component on a 32-bit JDK. Toolbox tools Tools in the two WebSphere Customization Toolbox offerings include: Profile Management Tool (PMT) The Profile Management Tool provides a user interface for profile creation and augmentation. To learn more about the Profile Management Tool, refer to Chapter 3, “Working with profiles on distributed systems” on page 59. Configuration Migration Tool (CMT) The Configuration Migration Tool provides a graphical interface to the migration tools included in WebSphere Application Server. Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool (PCT) The Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool allows you to configure your web server plug-ins on distributed systems for communicating with the application server. If possible, it creates a web server configuration definition in the application server. To learn more about the Web Server Plug-ins Tool, refer to 12.3, “Web server configuration using the WebSphere Customization Toolbox” on page 425. Important: In WebSphere Application Server V8 and later versions, IBM AIX 64-bit systems can use GUI-based tools. However, AIX requires that the GNU Toolkit (GTK) be installed to run the GUI. If you do not have the GTK installed, you receive an Eclipse error when trying to launch the GUI. For details about configuring AIX to support the GUI, refer to the product information center at this website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.installa tion.nd.doc/ae/tins_aixsetup.html54 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Remote Installation Tool for IBM i The Remote Installation Tool for IBM i can be used on an Intel-based operating system only to install Installation Manager or a WebSphere Application Server component from a Windows machine to a target IBM i system. z/OS Profile Management Tool (zPMT) The z/OS Profile Management Tool can be used on an Intel-based or Linux operating system to generate jobs and instructions for creating profiles for WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems. The jobs are then uploaded and run on a target z/OS system. To discover more about the z/OS Profile Management Tool, refer to Chapter 5, “Working with profiles on z/OS systems” on page 121. z/OS Migration Management Tool (zMMT) The z/OS Migration Management Tool can be used on an Intel-based or Linux operating system to create migration definitions that are used to migrate a WebSphere Application Server on z/OS node. Each migration definition is a set of jobs and instructions that can then be uploaded and run on a target z/OS system. Installing the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox Use Installation Manager to install the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox offering. Make sure that the Installation Manager preferences point to a repository containing the WebSphere Customization Toolbox. You can install the toolbox using the GUI, command-line, or silent modes. For silent mode installations, Installation Manager supports the creation of the necessary response file. Installing WebSphere Customization Toolbox is similar to installing other packages using Installation Manager, including the option of selecting the tools you want to install in the stand-alone offering. If you do not install all of the available tools during the initial installation process, you can later modify the installation to add the other tools. To install the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox: 1. Start Installation Manger. 2. Add the repository to the WebSphere supplements package. 3. In the main Installation Manager window, click Install. 4. From the listed offerings, choose WebSphere Customization Toolbox, as illustrated on Figure 2-10. Click Next. Figure 2-10 Installing a WebSphere Customization Toolbox package 5. Accept the license agreement, and click Next. 6. Provide the installation directory for the package, and ensure that you used the Create a new package group option, and then click Next. 7. Choose from among the features shipped with the WCT. Click Next. For this example, only the tools for managing web servers are needed (refer to Figure 2-11 on page 55).Chapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 55 Figure 2-11 Selecting WebSphere Customization Toolbox features to install 8. Review the summary, and click Install. 9. When the installation successfully finishes, you can choose to start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox or close the window. Choose your preferred option, and click Finish. Using the WebSphere Customization Toolbox There are different ways to start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, depending on the offering that was installed and the operating system. On Windows and Linux platforms, a start menu shortcut is created for both the embedded and stand-alone offering. Other options for starting the toolbox are: Embedded offering: Launch wct from \bin\ProfileManagement\WCT\ Stand-alone offering: Launch wct from \WCT\ Figure 2-12 shows the embedded WebSphere Customization Toolbox V8.5. Figure 2-12 Embedded WebSphere Customization Toolbox V8.5 Figure 2-13 on page 56 shows the stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox V8.5. Note that only the Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool is available because it is all that was installed in this example. You can modify this package at any time to add or remove additional features when needed.56 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 2-13 Stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox V8.5 The stand-alone WebSphere Customization Toolbox also includes a command-line utility that launches a command-line version of the Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool (PCT). For further information about using this utility, refer to the product information center at the following website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/tins_pctcl_using.html 2.6.2 Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 The Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 package allows you to create applications that run separately from your application server. A client application uses the framework provided by an underlying client to access the resources provided by WebSphere Application Server. Application Client offerings The Application Client for WebSphere Application Server is packaged with the following components: Java Runtime Environment (JRE) (or an optional full Software Development Kit) that IBM i provides. The runtime environment for Java EE client applications (that uses services provided by the Java EE Client Container) The runtime environment for Java thin client applications (Java SE applications that do not use services provided by the Java EE Client Container) An ActiveX to EJB Bridge for ActiveX programs to access enterprise beans through a set of ActiveX automation objects (Windows only) IBM plug-in for Java platforms for Applet client applications (Windows only) A variety of stand-alone thin clients, provided as embeddable JAR filesChapter 2. Installing WebSphere Application Server on distributed systems 57 To learn more about this offering, refer to the product information center website at this address: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.doc/ae/c cli_clientapps.html Installing the Application Client package To install the Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5: 1. Start Installation Manger. 2. Add the repository to the WebSphere supplements package. 3. In the main Installation Manager window, click Install. 4. From the list of offerings. choose the Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 (refer to Figure 2-14), and click Next. Figure 2-14 Installation of the Application Client for WebSphere Application Server package 5. Accept the license agreement, and click Next. 6. Provide the installation directory for the package, and ensure that you chose the Create a new package group option, and then click Next. 7. In the Features window (see Figure 2-15 on page 58), select the features you want to install from the lists of available features. For this example installation, Samples features are used. Deprecated feature: The Pluggable Application Client is deprecated. It is replaced by the stand-alone, thin client, IBM Thin Client for EJB. The Pluggable Application Client runs only on the Windows platform and requires that you previously installed the Sun Java Runtime Environment (JRE) files. In all other aspects, the Pluggable Application Client and the Java thin application client are similar. Note: Samples features contain source code and executable files that can be helpful when working with Application Client for WebSphere Application Server.58 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 2-15 Selecting features of Application Client for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 8. Specify the host name and bootstrap port of the WebSphere Application Server to which you want to connect using the Application Client (see Figure 2-16), and then click Next. Figure 2-16 Configuring WebSphere Application Server for the Application Client 9. Review the summary, and then click Install. 10.Click Finish when the installation process ends.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. 59 Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems Installing a WebSphere Application Server environment requires careful planning. A major decision point is the topology for the system. You must consider, for example, whether you should use a stand-alone server, a distributed managed server, or a flexible management environment. Planning for a topology design is covered in WebSphere Application Server V8.5: Concepts, Planning and Design Guide, SG24-8022. That book is designed to help you select a topology and develop a clear idea of what steps are needed to set up the environment of your choice. The purpose of this chapter is to help you build your initial WebSphere Application Server environment after you install the product. In this chapter, we cover the following topics: Types of profiles Planning for profiles Building systems with profiles Managing profiles with the command line 360 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 3.1 Types of profiles The WebSphere Application Server installation process simply lays down a set of core product files required for the runtime processes. After installation, you need to create one or more profiles that define the run time to have a functional system. The core product files are shared among the runtime components defined by these profiles. The next section provides an overall description about each profile type. 3.1.1 Application server profile The application server profile defines a single stand-alone application server. Using this profile gives you an application server that can be run in unmanaged (stand-alone) mode or managed mode (by federating it with the administrative agent profile). The environment has the following characteristics: The profile consists of one cell, one node, and one server. The cell and node are not relevant in terms of administration, but you see them when you administer the server through the administrative console scopes. The server uses a dedicated, built-in administrative console. The primary uses for this type of profile are: To build a stand-alone server using the Base or Express installation packages. To build a stand-alone server in a Network Deployment installation that is not managed by the deployment manager (a test machine, for example). To build a server in a distributed server environment to be later federated and managed by the deployment manager. When you federate this node, the default cell becomes obsolete, the node is added to the deployment manager cell, and the administrative console is removed from the application server. 3.1.2 Deployment manager profile The deployment manager profile defines a deployment manager in a distributed server environment. Although you can conceivably have the Network Deployment edition and run only stand-alone servers, this action bypasses the primary advantages of Network Deployment, which is workload management, failover, and central administration. In a Network Deployment environment, create one deployment manager profile for each cell. This setup gives you: A cell for the administrative domain A node for the deployment manager A deployment manager with an administrative console No application serversChapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 61 After you have the deployment manager, you can: Federate nodes built either from existing application server profiles or custom profiles. Create new application servers and clusters on the nodes from the administrative console. 3.1.3 Custom profile A custom profile is an empty node without any server instance that is intended for federation to a deployment manager. After federation, the deployment manager uses it as a target on which it can create, for example, application server profile instances. 3.1.4 Cell profile A cell profile combines two profiles: a deployment manager profile and an application server profile. In this case, the deployment manager and application server reside on the same system, and the application server profile is already federated to the deployment manager cell. Using this type of profile is a good way to quickly set up a distributed server environment. It can be useful for test environments that can have all nodes on one test system. 3.1.5 Administrative agent profile The administrative agent profile provides enhanced management capabilities for stand-alone application servers. An administrative agent profile is created on the same node as the stand-alone servers and can manage only servers on that node. The node configuration for each stand-alone server is separate from any other servers on the system, but it is managed using the administrative console on the administrative agent, as illustrated on Figure 3-1 on page 62. When a base application server registers with an administrative agent, much of the administrative code that was in the base server is now consumed by the administrative agent.62 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-1 Overview of an administrative agent profile architecture 3.1.6 Job manager profile A job manager is defined by a job manager profile. The job manager’s primary purpose is to support flexible management of WebSphere Application Server profiles and to queue jobs to registered servers. For stand-alone application servers, to participate in flexible management, first they are registered with the administrative agent, as described in 3.1.5, “Administrative agent profile” on page 61. After that, the administrative agent registers the node for the application server with the job manager. If a deployment manager wants to participate in an environment controlled by a job manager, the deployment manager registers directly with the job manager. No administrative agent is involved in this case. Both the deployment manager and administrative agents retain autonomy and can be managed without the job manager. A job manager can submit jobs to one or more administrative agents or deployment managers, and an administrative agent or a deployment manager can register with more than one job manager, if desired. The units of work that are handled by the flexible management environment are known as jobs. The semantics of these jobs are typically straightforward and require few parameters. The jobs are processed asynchronously and can have an activation time, expiration time, and a recurrence indicator. You can also specify to send an email notification upon completion of a job. Additionally, you can view the current status of a job by issuing a status command. Base node A Config filesConfig files Application servers Base node B Config filesConfig files Application servers Base node C Config filesConfig files Application servers Admin node Administrative agent C:\> wsadmin Administrative console wsadmin command line Liberty profile: The Liberty profile can also participate in the flexible management. Using job manager, it can be installed and managed just like the stand-alone profile. For more information, see WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration Guide for the Liberty Profile, SG24-8170.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 63 Figure 3-2 presents a sample flexible management topology, where the single job manager indirectly manages multiple stand-alone servers using administrative agents and also directly manages multiple deployment manager cells. Figure 3-2 Overview of a flexible management topology using job manager to administer multiple environments 3.2 Planning for profiles Before creating WebSphere Application Server profiles, remember that a minimum amount of space must be available in the directory where you create a profile. This minimum requirements are documented in the information center at the following website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/rpro_diskspace.html Profiles grow when applications and associated log files are created, and therefore these increases must be considered at the planning stages. Errors can occur when you do not provide enough space to create a profile. Verify that you have file system reserves in addition to the minimum space required for a particular profile, for log files, and temporary files. The amount and size of these files can vary on your configuration and on used applications. Base nodesBase nodes Application servers Admin node B Administrative agent Cell A Manager node DMgr Federated nodes Federated nodes Node agent Application servers Cell B Manager node DMgr Federated nodes Federated nodes Node agent Application servers Base nodesBase nodes Application servers Admin node A Administrative agent Job manager Note: From WebSphere Application Server V8, you can also use some of the job manager actions from a deployment manager profile web console.64 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 3.3 Building systems with profiles Profiles can be created at any time during or after installation using graphical or command-line tools. WebSphere Application Server provides the following profile management tools: The manageprofiles command: A command-line interface for profile management functions. Profile Management Tool (PMT): A GUI interface delivered by the WebSphere Customization Toolbox. This tool gathers user input and invokes the manageprofiles command-line tool to manage the profiles for you. Administrative console of the deployment manager or the job manager profile, which can create profiles on remote machines. This section shows how to create different profile types using both methods. 3.3.1 Starting the WebSphere Customization Toolbox Profile Management Tool There are several ways to start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox: At the end of the installation process using the Installation Manager install wizard, select the option to start the Profile Management Tool to create a profile. Select the WebSphere Customization Toolbox option from the programs list: – Windows only: From the Start menu, select Start  Programs  IBM WebSphere  Application Server Network Deployment V8.5  WebSphere Customization Toolbox. – For Linux only: From the operating system menu to start programs, select Applications  IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5  WebSphere Customization Toolbox  Profile Management Tool. – For all platforms: Use the wct.bat or wct.sh command located in the /bin/ProfileManagement directory. Note: When you use the Profile Management Tool with the Motif graphical user interface on the Solaris operating system, the default size of the Profile Management Tool might be too small to view all of the messages and buttons of the Profile Management Tool. To fix the problem, add the following lines to the app_server_root/.Xdefaults file: Eclipse*spacing:0 Eclipse*fontList:-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal-*-10-100-75-75-c-60-iso8859-1 After adding the lines, run the following command before launching the Profile Management Tool: xrdb -load user_home/.Xdefaults Note: Each profile you create is registered in a profile registry, which is under: install_root/properties/profileRegistry.xmlChapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 65 3.3.2 Common steps for all profiles Many of the options that are available when you create a profile are the same, regardless of the type of profile. This section introduces the common steps that are used while defining different profiles. Environment selection The Profile Management Tool provides multiple profile templates, including the cell template, which has the ability to create a cell in a single step. During profile creation, you are asked to select the type of profile to create, as shown in Figure 3-3. Figure 3-3 Profile type selection You can select the following profiles: Cell (deployment and a federated application server) Management: – Administrative agent – Deployment manager – Job manager Application server Custom profile Secure proxy (configuration-only) Profile creation options While creating profiles, you are presented with a choice (Figure 3-4 on page 66) of following the Typical path, where a set of default values for most settings are used, or an Advanced path, which lets you specify values for more options. Note: A pmt.bat(sh) shell script will also start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, but it is provided only for backward compatibility. It is deprecated from WebSphere Application Server V8.66 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-4 Profile creation path selection The Advanced path is preferred because it gives you additional control over names and settings. Administrative security All profiles except the custom profile can be secured by enabling the administrative security. This setting prevents users from gaining unauthorized access to the administrative console. If you enable administrative security during profile creation, you are asked for a user ID and password that are added to a file-based user registry with the Administrator role, as shown on Figure 3-5 on page 67. Enabling administrative security: Consider enabling administrative security. An XML file-based user repository is created during profile creation and can be later federated with other repositories to provide a robust user registry for both administrative and application security. If you do not want to use the file-based repository, do not enable administrative security during profile creation and configure it manually afterwards.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 67 Figure 3-5 Configuration of administrative security during profile creation You can find more information about administrative security in 6.2, “Securing the administrative console” on page 211. Certificates Each profile contains a unique chained certificate signed by a unique long-lived root certificate that is generated when the profile was created. When a profile is federated to a deployment manager, the signer for the root signing certificate is added to the common truststore for the cell, establishing trust for all certificates signed by that root certificate. For a full description of the certificates and the keystore password, refer to the information center at the following website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/csec_7ssldefault_chainedcert_config.html Two windows are used during profile creation to manage the import or creation of these certificates. The first window (Figure 3-6 on page 68) allows you to generate the certificates or import existing certificates. Note: If you are going to create a job manager and register a deployment manager, keep in mind that you cannot register a deployment manager that has security enabled to a job manager that does not. So, plan your administrative security policy across the entire WebSphere environment.68 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-6 Creating self-signed certificates or importing existing personal or root certificates The second window (Figure 3-7 on page 69) is used to modify the certificate information to create new certificates during profile creation. The auto-generated DNs for the certificates are usually long, so you might want to change them. Important: The default password for the generated keystores is WebAS. Consider changing it with your own password to increase the server security. Also review the expiration period of the certificates. Note that the root certificate minimal expiration period is 15 years.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 69 Figure 3-7 Modifying certificate information during profile creation Port assignments Every process uses a set of ports at run time. These ports must be unique to a system. For the default port assignment on a distributed platform, see the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.migration.n d.doc/ae/rmig_portnumber.html The profile management tool wizard assigns unique port numbers to a profile to omit port conflicts when multiple profiles are installed on the same system. Ensure that there are no port conflicts with other software installed on the same system. Figure 3-8 on page 70 shows a sample of ports generated by the installer for an application server profile.70 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-8 Assigning the server ports When you take the Advanced path through the profile wizard, you have three options: Default Port Values: Use the default set of port numbers. Recommended Port Values: Use the recommended set of port numbers. These are selected as unique to the WebSphere installation. Manually customize the port numbers. After profile creation, you can obtain port numbers by looking in the following file: profile_home/properties/portdef.props profile_home/logs/AboutThisProfile.txt For example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv01\properties\portdef.props C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv01\logs\AboutThisProfile.txtChapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 71 Running as a service When you create a profile on a Windows or Linux system, you have the option of running the application server as a Windows service. This action provides you with a simple way of automatically starting the server process with the system. If you want to run the process as a Windows service, select the check box, and enter the values for the logon and startup type. Note that the window lists the user rights that the user ID you select needs to have. If the user ID does not have these rights, the wizard automatically adds them (see Figure 3-9 on page 72). Information: You can also use the PortManagement command group for the AdminTask object in wsadmin to list application and server ports and modify server ports. For more information about the PortManagement command group, refer to the information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multi platform.doc/ae/rxml_atportmgt.html Note the following port numbers for later use: SOAP connector port: If you plan to federate this node to a deployment manager later using the deployment manager administrator console, you must know this port number. This port is also the port that you connect to when using the wsadmin administration scripting interface. Administrative console port: You must know this port to access the administrative console. When you turn on security, you must know the Administrative console secure port. HTTP transport port: This port is used to access applications running on the server directly versus going through a web server.72 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-9 Configuring the profile to run as a Windows service When you take the Typical path through the profile creation wizard on a Windows operating system, the default is to define the process as a Windows service. On Linux operating systems, the default setting is not to define the process as a service. If you do not register the process as a Windows or Linux service during profile creation, you can do that later using the WASService command. This command enables to you create a service for a Java process on both Windows and Linux operating systems. Refer to the information center for more information: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/rins_wasservice.html Verification steps At the end of the profile creation, you have the opportunity to start the First steps console (Figure 3-10 on page 73). This interface helps you start the server process and has other useful links, such as opening the administrative console, an information center and IBM Education Assistant link, starting the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, and installation verification.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 73 Figure 3-10 Using the First steps console after successful profile creation To verify the new profile installation, you can use the Installation verification link. It launches the new profile and log information in a pop-up window, as illustrated on Figure 3-11 on page 74. You can also use it later by running the firststeps script from profile_root directory, for example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv01\firststeps74 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-11 Using Installation verification tool to verify profile creation To manually verify profile installation, refer to the following list of activities to perform: View the messages produced during profile creation: install_root/logs/manageprofiles/profile_name_create.log For example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\logs\manageprofiles\AppSrv01_create.log Review server logs for any problems, errors, or warnings: – profile_root/logs/server_name/startServer.log – profile_root/logs/server_name/SystemOut.log – profile_root/logs/server_name/SystemErr.log For example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv01\logs\server1\SystemOut.log If applicable, log in to the administrative console hosted by the process. You can access the console from the First Steps menu or by accessing its URL from a web browser: http://server_host:/ibm/console For example (The administrative console port is selected during profile creation): http://localhost:9060/ibm/console/ Click the Log in button. If security is not enabled, you can enter any or no user name. If you enabled security, enter the user ID and password you specified. 3.3.3 Creating an application server profile An application server profile can be run stand-alone or can be later federated to a deployment manager cell for central management.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 75 This section takes you through the steps of creating the application server profile using the WebSphere Customization Toolbox. To create the profile: 1. Start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, and open Profile Management Tool. 2. Click Create. 3. Select Application server as the profile type, and click Next. 4. Select whether to take a typical or advanced path to install the profile: – If Typical is selected, proceed to step 8 and continue from step 13. – If Advanced is selected, continue with the following steps. 5. Select both check boxes to deploy the administrative console and the default application. Installing the administrative console is recommended. However, there might be some circumstances when you do not want to install an administrative console, such as if you plan to control all administrative tasks through scripting. If you do not install the administrative console during profile creation, you can install it using the deployConsole.py script at a later time. The second option of deploying the default application installs a default application that can be used to verify that your application server is running and serving application content. The default application contains a web module called DefaultWebApplication and an EJB module called Increment. The application includes a number of servlets that retrieve information that can be used for verification. For example you can try to invoke the Snoop servlet to verify if the application server is properly serving the content: http://localhost:9080/snoop You can find other sample applications that can be deployed after profile creation at the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.samples. doc/ae/welcome_samples.html Click Next. Information: To install the administrative console after profile creation: 1. Navigate to profile_root/bin. 2. Start the server using the following command: startServer.bat(sh) server1 3. Enter the following command to install the application: wsadmin.bat(sh) -lang jython -f deployConsole.py install If you configured administrative security during profile creation, you are prompted for an administrative user ID and password when running the wsadmin install command.76 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 4. Enter a unique name for the profile or accept the default. Enter a unique directory path for the profile directory or accept the default, as shown on Figure 3-12. Click Next. Figure 3-12 Specifying the profile name and its location 5. Enter the new node name and the system host name. The node name defaults to a name based on the host name of your system. The wizard checks if there are existing nodes in the installation and takes this situation into account when creating the default node name (Figure 3-13 on page 77). Click Next. Note: From WebSphere Application Server V8, additional server runtime performance tuning option has been introduced during profile creation. You have three performance tuning options to choose from: Standard, which is the standard default configuration settings that are optimized for general purpose usage. Peak, which is appropriate for a production environment where application changes are rare and optimal runtime performance is important. Development, which is appropriate for a development environment where frequent application updates are performed and system resources are at a minimum. Do not use the development setting for production servers. Note: If you plan to create multiple stand-alone application servers for federation later to the same cell, make sure that you select a unique node name for each application server.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 77 Figure 3-13 Specifying the node, host, and server names 6. Choose whether to enable administrative security. Refer to “Administrative security” on page 66 for more information. Click Next. 7. The next two screens guide you through certificate generation. Refer to “Certificates” on page 67 for more information. Click Next. 8. Configure TCP/IP ports for the server. Refer to “Port assignments” on page 69 for more information. Click Next. 9. If you install the server on Windows or Linux, configure the server to run as a service. Refer to “Running as a service” on page 71 for more information. Click Next. 10.The wizard allows you to create an optional web server definition, which defines an external web server. This setup allows you to manage web server plug-in configuration files for the web server and, in some cases, to manage the web server instance. If you have not installed a web server or want to perform this action later, you can easily do it from the administrative console. Working with web servers and WebSphere Application Server was covered in Chapter 12, “Configuring and managing web servers” on page 417. For this installation, disable the check box, and click Next. 11.Review the options you provided for the new profile, and click Create to create the profile. 12.Click Finish to close the wizard and start the First Steps console. 13.Use the First Steps console to verify the installation, start the server, and access the administrative console. 14.Log in to the console, if you disabled the security login without providing credentials. 15.Click Servers  Server Types  WebSphere Application servers. You can see the application server you just created (Figure 3-14 on page 78).78 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-14 Application server profile viewed in the administrative console For more information about working with the server, see Chapter 6, “Administration consoles and commands” on page 183. 3.3.4 Creating a deployment manager profile To create the deployment manager profile: 1. Start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, and open Profile Management Tool. 2. Click Create. 3. Select Management, and click Next. 4. Select Deployment manager, and click Next. 5. Select whether to take a typical or advanced path to install the profile: – If Typical is selected, then proceed to step 9 and continue from step 13 – If Advanced is selected, continue with the following steps 6. Select the option to deploy the administrative console (the default), and click Next.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 79 7. Enter a unique name for the profile or accept the default. The profile name becomes the directory name for the profile files. Click Next. 8. Enter the node, host, and cell names. The defaults are based on the host name of your system, as illustrated on Figure 3-15. The wizard recognizes if there are existing cells and nodes in the installation and takes this setup into account when creating the default names. Click Next. Figure 3-15 Creating a deployment manager profile - Enter cell, host, and node names 9. Choose whether to enable administrative security. Refer to “Administrative security” on page 66 for more information. Click Next. 10.The next two screens guide you through certificate generation. Refer to “Certificates” on page 67 for more information. Click Next. 11.Configure TCP/IP ports for the server. Refer to “Port assignments” on page 69 for more information. Click Next. 12.If you install the server on Windows or Linux, configure the server to run as a service. Refer to “Running as a service” on page 71 for more information. Click Next. 13.Review the options you provided for the new profile, and click Create to create the profile. 14.Click Finish to close the wizard and start the First Steps console. 15.Use the First Steps console to verify the installation, start the server, and access the administrative console. 16.Log in to the console, if you disabled the security login without providing credentials. 17.In the console, the following items are visible from the administrative console: – Deployment manager: Select System administration  Deployment manager. – Deployment manager node: Select System administration  Nodes. – The default node group: Select System administration  Node groups. – Cell information: Select System administration  Cell  Local Topology. You can see a similar topology, as illustrated on Figure 3-16 on page 80. Notice, that at completion of this process, you do not have any nodes or application servers in the cell. Note: If you enable the Make this profile the default check box, this profile receives console wsadmin commands by default. Otherwise you must specify the profile name for the command using the profile parameter.80 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-16 Topology of the deployment manager profile installation 3.3.5 Creating a cell profile Using this option, you create two distinct profiles: a deployment manager profile and an application server profile that is federated to the new cell. The Profile Management Tool windows give you basically the same options that you see if you create a deployment manager and then an application server. Table 3-1 shows a summary of the available options during a cell profile creation using typical and advanced paths. Table 3-1 Cell profile options Working with deployment managers: For information about starting, stopping, and viewing deployment managers, see Chapter 6, “Administration consoles and commands” on page 183. Typical Advanced The administrative console and default application are deployed by default. You have the option to deploy the administrative console (recommended), the default application, and the sample applications (if installed). The profile name for the deployment manager is Dmgrxx by default, where xx is 01 for the first deployment manager profile and increments for each one created. The profile is stored in install_root/profiles/Dmgrxx. You can specify the profile name and its location.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 81 3.3.6 Creating a custom profile A custom profile defines an empty node on a system. The purpose of this profile is to define a node to be federated to a cell for management through a deployment manager. As you create the profile, you have the option to federate the node to a cell during the wizard or to simply create the profile for later federation. Before you can federate the custom profile to a cell, you must have a running deployment manager. To create the custom profile, complete the following steps: 1. Start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, and open Profile Management Tool. 2. Click Create. 3. Select Custom profile, and then click Next. 4. Select whether to take a typical or advanced path to install the profile: – If Typical is selected, only proceed with steps 7, 9 and 10. – If Advanced is selected, continue with every following steps. 5. Enter a unique name for the profile or accept the default. The profile name becomes the directory name for the profile files. If you enable the Make this profile the default check box, this profile receives console commands by default. Click Next. The profile name for the federated application server and node is AppSrvxx by default, where xx is 01 for the first application server profile and increments for each one created. The profile is stored in install_root/profiles/AppSrvxx. You can specify the profile name and its location. Neither profile is made the default profile. You can choose to make the deployment manager profile the default profile. The cell name is Cellxx. The node name for the deployment manager is CellManagerxx. The node name for the application server is Nodexx. You can specify the cell name, the host name, and the profile names for both profiles. You can enable administrative security (yes or no). If you select yes, you are asked to specify a user name and password that is given administrative authority. TCP/IP ports default to a set of ports not used by any profiles in this WebSphere installation instance. You can use the recommended ports for each profile (unique to the installation), Note that there are three different configurations for deployment manager, application server, and node agent. If installing on Windows, the deployment manager runs as a service. If installing on Windows or Linux, you can choose whether the deployment manager runs as a service. Does not create a web server definition. Allows you to define an external web server to the configuration. Typical Advanced Note: With other profiles, you have the option of registering the processes as Windows or Linux services. This option is not available when you create a custom profile. 82 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 6. Enter the node and host names. The defaults are based on the host name of your system. The wizard recognizes if there are existing cells and nodes in the installation and takes this setup into account when creating the default names. Click Next. 7. If you want to federate the new node defined by the profile to a cell as part of the wizard process, leave the Federate this node later check box disabled; however, we will federate the nodes later in “Federating a custom node to a cell” on page 84, so you can enable the check box, as illustrated on Figure 3-17, and click Next. Figure 3-17 Federation option during custom profile installation 8. The next two screens guide you through certificate generation. Refer to “Certificates” on page 67 for more information. Click Next. 9. Review the options you provided for the new profile, and click Create to create the profile. Note: If you choose to federate the node during the custom profile installation, enter the host name, SOAP port, user ID, and password of the administrator defined for the deployment manager profile you created in 3.3.4, “Creating a deployment manager profile” on page 78. The wizard uses this information to attempt a connection to the deployment manager. If you entered any of these values incorrectly, an error is displayed and you will have to correct the values. To federate the node, the network deployment profile have to be up and running.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 83 10.Disable the Launch the First steps console check box, and click Finish. If you choose to federate the node to the deployment manager during the installation, you might want to check if it is available from the deployment manager console by accessing the cell local topology, as illustrated on Figure 3-16 on page 80, and continue by defining an application server on the new node, as described in 7.4.1, “Creating an application server” on page 248. 3.3.7 Federating nodes to a cell A custom profile defines a node that can be added to a cell using the addNode command. A stand-alone application server can also be federated to a cell with the addNode command or from the deployment manager administrative console (the administrative console invokes the addNode command on the target system). When you federate a node, the node name from the federated node is used as the new node name and must be unique in the cell. If the name of the node that you are federating already exists, the addNode operation fails. Using the addnode command The addNode command is run from the install_root/bin or profile_root/bin directory of the profile to be federated. The most important addNode command parameters are: dmgr_host, dmgr_port, username, password These parameters are used to obtain connection to the deployment manager. startingport, portprops The new node agent is assigned a range of ports automatically. If you want to specify the ports for the node rather than taking the default, you can specify a starting port using the startingport parameter. The numbers are incremented from this number. For example, if you specify 3333, the BOOTSTRAP_ADDRESS port will be 3333, CSIV2_SSL_MUTUALAUTH_LISTENER_ADDRESS will be 3334, and so on. As an alternative, you can provide specific ports by supplying a file with the port properties. includeapps, includebuses If you are federating an application server, you can keep any applications or service integration buses that are deployed to the server. The default behavior is not to include any of these resources during federation, so they will be lost. For more information about the addNode syntax and more options, see the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.doc/ae/r xml_addnode.html Note: Custom profiles do not create a server process, so you cannot verify, stop, or start this profile. The only reason to launch the First Steps menu is if you want to link to the information center or launch the migration wizard.84 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile The addNode command performs the following actions: 1. Connects to the deployment manager process. This action is necessary for the file transfers performed to and from the deployment manager to add the node to the cell. 2. Attempts to stop all running application servers on the node. 3. Backs up the current stand-alone node configuration to the profile_root/config/backup/base/ directory. 4. Copies the stand-alone node configuration to a new cell structure that matches the deployment manager structure at the cell level. 5. Creates a new local config directory and definition (server.xml) for the node agent. 6. Creates entries (directories and files) in the master repository for the new node’s managed servers, node agent, and application servers. 7. Uses the FileTransfer service to copy files from the new node to the master repository. 8. Uploads application or service bus resources to the cell only if the includeapps or includebuses options are specified. 9. Performs the first file synchronization for the new node. This action synchronizes data from the cell to the new node. 10.Corrects the node’s setupCmdLine and wsadmin scripts to reflect the new cell environment settings. 11.Launches the node agent (unless noagent is specified). You can trace this procedure by viewing the federation logs provided on Example 3-1. Federating a custom node to a cell To federate the custom node to the cell: 1. Ensure that the deployment manager is up and running. If it is stopped, start it. 2. Go to the profile_root/bin directory on the system where you created the custom profile for the new node. 3. Run the addNode command from Example 3-1, providing your information about the deployment manager. If administrative security is enabled, use the username and password arguments on the command line to provide the deployment manager user ID and password. If you do not provide the arguments, you are prompted for them. Example 3-1 Federating node to a deployment manager cell using addNode command C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\Custom01\bin>addNode.bat was85.ral.ibm.com 8879 -username wasadmin -password passw0rd -includeapps ADMU0116I: Tool information is being logged in file C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\Custom01\logs\addNode.log ADMU0128I: Starting tool with the Custom01 profile CWPKI0308I: Adding signer alias "CN=was85.ral.ibm.com, OU=Root C" to local keystore "ClientDefaultTrustStore" with the following SHA digest: B8:3A:87:41:57:53:73:FB:B5:B3:8A:30:68:83:55:ED:06:12:BF:EB CWPKI0309I: All signers from remote keystore already exist in local keystore. ADMU0001I: Begin federation of node was85Node01 with Deployment Manager at was85.ral.ibm.com:8879. Note: You only have to do this action if you created a custom profile and chose not to federate it at the time.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 85 ADMU0009I: Successfully connected to Deployment Manager Server: was85.ral.ibm.com:8879 ADMU0507I: No servers found in configuration under: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\Custom01\config/cells/saw211-2008srv2Node02Cell/nodes/was85N ode01/servers ADMU2010I: Stopping all server processes for node was85Node01 ADMU0024I: Deleting the old backup directory. ADMU0015I: Backing up the original cell repository. ADMU0012I: Creating Node Agent configuration for node: was85Node01 ADMU0014I: Adding node was85Node01 configuration to cell: was85Cell01 ADMU0016I: Synchronizing configuration between node and cell. ADMU0018I: Launching Node Agent process for node: was85Node01 ADMU0020I: Reading configuration for Node Agent process: nodeagent ADMU0022I: Node Agent launched. Waiting for initialization status. ADMU0030I: Node Agent initialization completed successfully. Process id is: 1752 ADMU0505I: Servers found in configuration: ADMU0506I: Server name: nodeagent ADMU0308I: The node was85Node01 and associated applications were successfully added to the was85Cell01 cell. ADMU0306I: Note: ADMU0302I: Any cell-level documents from the standalone was85Cell01 configuration have not been migrated to the new cell. ADMU0307I: You might want to: ADMU0303I: Update the configuration on the was85Cell01 Deployment Manager with values from the old cell-level documents. ADMU0003I: Node was85Node01 has been successfully federated. C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\Custom01\bin> 4. Open the deployment manager administrative console, and view the new node and node agent details: –Select System Administration  Nodes. The new node is visible. –Select System Administration  Node agents. The new node agent and its status are visible –Select System administration  Cell  Local Topology to see the new node in the topology overview, as illustrated on Figure 3-18 on page 86.86 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-18 The new custom profile federated to the cell as a new node The node is started as a result of the federation process. If it does not appear to be started in the console, you can check the status from a command window on the node system: serverStatus.bat(sh) -all If you find that it is not started, start it using the startNode command from its profile_home\bin directory: startNode.bat(sh) For more information about managing nodes, see 7.5, “Working with nodes in a Network Deployment environment” on page 282. Be aware that the custom profile does not automatically give you an application server. You can complete the steps in 7.4.1, “Creating an application server” on page 248 to create a new server after the custom profile has federated to a cell. Federating an application server profile to a cell To federate an application server profile to a cell: 1. Ensure that both the target application server and the deployment manager are running. 2. Open the deployment manager administrative console, and log in with administrative privileges. 3. Click System Administration  Nodes  Add Node. 4. Select Managed node, and click Next. 5. Enter the information about your environment, as illustrated on Figure 3-19 on page 87, and click OK. Note: If despite the successful addNode command usage, you do not see any new nodes in the deployment manager console, log out and log in to the console again. This forces the deployment manager GUI to pick the new changes to view them.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 87 Notice that if your application server profile is secured, you must provide credentials for both the application server and the deployment manager. If you want to keep the applications you installed on the application profile, select the Include applications check box. Figure 3-19 Federating the application profile using the deployment manager console 6. If the node you are adding runs on a Windows machine, you can register the new node agent to run as a Windows service. Click OK to start the profile federation. The federation process is similar to the process described in “Using the addnode command” on page 83. You can observe the state of this operation in the console window. When the process completes: The profile directory for the application server still exists and is used for the new node. Note: You can choose the method to connect to the application server from the deployment manager. Consider using the default SOAP method if possible. Using the RMI method is also available but deprecated in WebSphere Application Server V8.5. Use the JSR160RMI connection type instead, if you want to stick to RMI.88 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile The old cell name for the application server is replaced in the profile directory with the cell name of the deployment manager: profile_root/config/cells/dmgr_cell A new entry in the deployment manager profile directory is added for the new node: dmgr_profile_root/config/cells/dmgr_cell/nodes/federated_node An entry for each node in the cell is added to the application server profile configuration. Each node entry contains the serverindex.xml file for the node: profile_root/config/cells/dmgr_cell/nodes/federated_node In turn, an entry for the new node is added to the nodes directory for each node in the cell with a serverindex.xml entry for the new node. After successful federation, check the new cell member in the local cell topology in the deployment manager console, as illustrated on Figure 3-18 on page 86. 3.3.8 Creating a job manager profile To create the job manager profile: 1. Start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, and open Profile Management Tool. 2. Click Create. 3. Select Management, and click Next. 4. Select Job manager, and click Next. 5. Select whether to take a typical or advanced path to install the profile: – If Typical is selected, jump to step 9 and continue from step 13. – If Advanced is selected, continue with the following steps. 6. Select the option to deploy the administrative console (the default), and click Next. 7. Enter a unique name for the profile or accept the default. The profile name becomes the directory name for the profile files. Click Next. 8. Enter the node and host name. The defaults are based on the host name of your system. Click Next. 9. Choose whether to enable administrative security. Refer to “Administrative security” on page 66 for more information. Click Next. 10.The next two screens guide you through certificate generation. Refer to “Certificates” on page 67 for more information. Click Next. 11.Configure TCP/IP ports for the server. Refer to “Port assignments” on page 69 for more information. Click Next. 12.If you install the server on Windows or Linux, configure the server to run as a service. Refer to “Running as a service” on page 71 for more information. Click Next. 13.Review the options you provided for the new profile, and click Create to create the profile. 14.Click Finish to close the wizard and start the First Steps application. 15.Use the First Steps console to verify the installation, start the server, and access the administrative console. 16.Log in to the console, if you disabled the security login without providing credentials. 17.Click System Administration  Job manager. The main job manager administration panel is displayed, as illustrated on Figure 3-20 on page 89.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 89 Figure 3-20 Job manager administration console Job manager can send jobs to remote machines to remotely install or configure profiles. You can view the list of its targets by clicking Jobs  Targets. After initial creation of the job manager profile, the list is empty. To add new targets and work with jobs, refer to Chapter 29, “Managing an environment with the centralized installation manager” on page 1001. To register an administrative agent node with job manager, see 3.3.12, “Registering administrative nodes with a job manager” on page 92. 3.3.9 Creating an administrative agent profile To create the administrative agent profile: 1. Start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox and open Profile Management Tool. 2. Click the Create button. 3. Select Management, and click Next. 4. Select Administrative agent, and click Next. The rest of the administrative agent profile installation is the same as the installation for the job manager profile. Follow the 3.3.8, “Creating a job manager profile” on page 88 from step 5 to 16 of the installation process. 5. Click System Administration  Administrative agent. The main administrative agent administration panel is displayed, as illustrated in Figure 3-21 on page 90.90 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-21 Administrative agent administration console Nodes that are registered to the administrative agent can be viewed by clicking the Nodes link under Managed nodes. After initial creation of the administrative agent, the list will be empty. To register or deregister stand-alone application server nodes with the administrative agent, see 3.3.10, “Registering nodes to an administrative agent” on page 90 and 3.3.11, “Deregistering a node from the administrative agent” on page 92. 3.3.10 Registering nodes to an administrative agent The administrative agent profile provides a single interface to manage unfederated application server nodes (stand-alone application server profiles). To register a node with an administrative agent, use the registerNode command. Example 3-2 on page 91 lists a sample command usage. In this case, the AppSrv02 profile is being registered to AdminAgent01 administrative agent profile. Notes for use: The administrative agent and application servers must be on the same machine or sysplex. The administrative agent must be started before running the registerNode command. You can only run the command on an unfederated stand-alone application server. When you run the command, the node for the stand-alone server is converted into a node that the administrative agent manages. Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 91 Example 3-2 Registering a stand-alone application server to an administrative agent C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AdminAgent01\bin>registerNode.bat -profileName AdminAgent01 -host was85.ral.ibm.com -profilePath "C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv02" -connType SOAP -port 8877 -username aaadmin -password aapassw0rd -nodeusername wasadmin -nodepassword passw0rd ADMU0116I: Tool information is being logged in file C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AdminAgent01\logs\registerNode.log [...] C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv02 has been successfully registered. To learn more about the registerNode command, refer to the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/ragt_registerNode.html After registering a new server to the administrative agent, log in to the administrative agent console to manage the server. Notice that now you can select which server to administrator, the administrative agent, or the new stand-alone profile, as illustrated on Figure 3-22. Figure 3-22 Choosing the profile to manage when logging to the administrative agent console If you select the new server, provide its credentials to log in. Go to Servers  Server Types  WebSphere application servers. Figure 3-23 on page 92 illustrates the new management console view for the stand-alone server. Notice that from this console you can do additional operations to the profile, such as starting the server. There is no such option in standard stand-alone console.92 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 3-23 Administrative console of a registered stand-alone application server profile 3.3.11 Deregistering a node from the administrative agent To deregister a node from the administrative agent, simply run the deregisterNode command from the adminAgnt_profile_root/bin directory, as shown on Example 3-3. Example 3-3 Deregistering a stand-alone application server from an administrative agent C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AdminAgent01\bin>deregisterNode.bat -connTyp e SOAP -port 8877 -profilePath "C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv02" -u sername wasadmin -password passw0rd To learn more about the deregisterNode command, refer to the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/ragt_deregisterNode.html 3.3.12 Registering administrative nodes with a job manager The Job manager profile provides a single administrative interface for managing other WebSphere profiles. In this section, we register both the administrative agent and deployment manager profiles to a job manager. Registering administrative agents To register administrative agents with a job manager: 1. Log on to the administrative agent node. Note: After registering the stand-alone application server it no longer provides the build-in management console. If you try to access the console using the server’s administrative port, notice that the management console is no longer available. It is important to understand that a stand-alone server can be federated to a deployment manager cell or registered to administrative agent. You cannot do both operations on the same stand-alone server.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 93 2. Click System administration  Administrative agent  Nodes. 3. Select the node that you want to register with the job manager, as illustrated in Figure 3-24, and then click Register with Job Manager. Figure 3-24 Select which node will be registered with the job manager 4. Enter the information required to connect to the job manager, including the host name, port, user ID, and password, as illustrated in Figure 3-25. Click OK. Figure 3-25 Registering a node with a job manager94 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile To view the newly registered node, log in to the job manager console, and click Jobs  Targets. This action lists the nodes and deployment managers that are registered with the job manager, as illustrated in Figure 3-26. Figure 3-26 Listing targets in the job manager console Refer to the following information center website for more details about registering administrative agents with job manager: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/tagt_adminagent_setup.html Registering deployment managers To register a deployment manager node with a job manager: 1. Log in to the deployment manager administrative console, and click System administration  Deployment manager. 2. Under Additional Properties, click Job managers. 3. Click Register with Job Manager. 4. Enter the information required to connect to the job manager, including the host name, port, user ID, and password. Click OK (see Figure 3-25 on page 93). To view the newly registered deployment manager, log in to the job manager console, and click Jobs  Targets. This action lists the nodes and deployment managers that are registered with the job manager. Note: If the node name you are registering is already in use by the job manager, you can enter an alias for the node. Note: If the node name you are registering is already in use by the job manager, you can enter an alias for the node.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 95 3.4 Managing profiles with the command line You already saw how profiles are created with the Profile Management Tool and administrative consoles. At the heart of these tool lays the manageprofiles command, which can also be used to manage profiles directly. Using the manageprofiles command, you can create, list, augment, or delete the profiles. The manageprofiles command is in the install_root/bin directory. To get more information about using this command, type: manageprofiles -help To explore all of the functions of this command, refer to the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/rxml_manageprofiles.html 3.4.1 Listing profiles To list all created profiles, run the command shown in Example 3-4. Example 3-4 Listing profiles C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>manageprofiles.bat -listProfiles [Dmgr01, AppSrv01, Custom01, AdminAgent01, JobMgr01, AppSrv02] 3.4.2 Creating profiles from templates When you create a profile using the manageprofiles command, you must specify a profile template, which is supplied with the product. WebSphere Application Server uses these templates as a base for creating a new profile. These templates are located in the install_root/profile templates directory. Each template consists of a set of files that provide the initial settings for the profile and a list of actions to perform after the profile is created. The following profiles are defined by default for the WebSphere Application Server V8.5: Default (for application server profiles) Management (for deployment manager, job manager, and administrative agent profiles) Managed (for custom profiles) Cell (for cell profiles) To create a deployment manager named Dmgr02 with enabled administrative security enabled, see the command used in Example 3-5. Example 3-5 Creating deployment manager profile with the manageprofiles command manageprofiles.bat -create -templatePath c:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profileTemplates\management -serverType DEPLOYMENT_MANAGER -profileName Dmgr02 -profilePath c:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\Dmgr02 -enableAdminSecurity true -adminUserName wasadmin -adminPassword passw0rd -cellName myHostCell01 -nodeName myHostCellManager0196 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile The log files that are created when you run the manageprofiles command are located in: install_root/logs/manageprofile/profilename_action.log For example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\logs\manageprofiles\Dmgr02_create.log Additional log files are created in the following directory: install_root/logs/manageprofile/profile_name/ For example: C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\logs\manageprofiles\Dmgr02 3.4.3 Creating profiles with non-default ports During profile creation using the manageprofiles command, you can accept the default port values, or you can specify your own port settings. If you want to specify ports, you can do so in any of the following ways: Specify the ports by pointing to a file that contains the port values Specify the starting port value Specify the default port values During profile creation, the manageprofiles command uses an automatically generated set of recommended ports. You can modify the port values using the following parameters on the manageprofiles command: defaultPorts: Assigns default or base port value for the profile. startingPort: Specifies the starting port number for generating and assigning all ports for the profile. If a port value in the sequence conflicts with an existing port assignment, the next available port value is used. portsFile: Specifies a path to a file that defines port settings for the profile. Example 3-6 shows sample content of such a file. You can use the portdef.props file as a template. Example 3-6 Example contents of portdef.props file IPC_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS=9636 CSIV2_SSL_SERVERAUTH_LISTENER_ADDRESS=9416 XDAGENT_PORT=7063 OVERLAY_UDP_LISTENER_ADDRESS=11011 WC_adminhost=9064 DataPowerMgr_inbound_secure=5556 DCS_UNICAST_ADDRESS=9357 BOOTSTRAP_ADDRESS=9812 SAS_SSL_SERVERAUTH_LISTENER_ADDRESS=9417 SOAP_CONNECTOR_ADDRESS=8884 CELL_DISCOVERY_ADDRESS=7279 ORB_LISTENER_ADDRESS=9103 STATUS_LISTENER_ADDRESS=9421 Important: Do not manually modify the files that are located in the install_root/ profileTemplates directory. Note: When you create a managed profile you should not use any of these parameters.Chapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 97 CSIV2_SSL_MUTUALAUTH_LISTENER_ADDRESS=9418 OVERLAY_TCP_LISTENER_ADDRESS=11012 WC_adminhost_secure=9047 You can also use the validatePorts parameter, which specifies that ports must be validated to ensure that they are not reserved or in use. This parameter helps identify ports that are not being used. Example 3-7 shows how to create an AppSrv05 stand-alone application server profile using the startingPort parameter that generates ports greater then 22222. Example 3-7 Creating a stand-alone profile using the startingPort parameter C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>manageprofiles.bat -create -templatePath c:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profileTemplates\default -profileName AppSrv05 -profilePath c:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv05 -startingPort 22222 -cellName test5Cell01 -nodeName test5Node01 For more examples of creating profiles with non-default ports, refer to the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multipla tform.doc/ae/rxml_manageprofiles.html 3.4.4 Deleting profiles To properly delete a profile: If you are removing an application server profile that has not been federated to a cell: a. Stop the application server. b. Delete the profile using the following command: manageprofiles -delete -profileName profile_name c. Clean the profile registry using the following command: manageprofiles -validateAndUpdateRegistry d. Delete the profile_root directory. If you are removing a custom profile or application server profile that is federated to a cell: a. Stop the profile server instance on this node. b. Remove the node from the cell using the administrative console or the removeNode command. This will not delete the node but only restore it to its pre-federated configuration. c. Delete the profile using the following command: manageprofiles -delete -profileName profile_name. d. Clean the profile registry using the following command: manageprofiles -validateAndUpdateRegistry Note: To change the ports after the profile creation, use the updatePorts tool. For more information, refer to the following information center website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/topic/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multi platform.doc/ae/tins_updatePorts.html98 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile e. Delete the profile_root directory. If you are removing a deployment manager profile: a. Remove any nodes federated to the cell using the administrative console or the removeNode command. This will not delete the node but only restore it to its pre-federated configuration. b. Stop the deployment manager. c. Delete the deployment manager profile using the following command: manageprofiles -delete -profileName profile_name d. Clean the profile registry using the following command: manageprofiles -validateAndUpdateRegistry e. Delete the profile_root directory. In case of problems or errors while deleting the profiles, check the logs under: install_root/logs/manageprofile/profilename_delete.log Example 3-8 shows the deletion of the AppSrv05 stand-alone profile and cleaning of the profile registry. Example 3-8 Deleting a profile using manageprofiles C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>manageprofiles.bat -delete -profileName AppSrv05 INSTCONFSUCCESS: Success: The profile no longer exists. C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>manageprofiles -validateAndUpdateRegistry [] For more uses of the manageprofile command, see Chapter 30, “System recovery” on page 1055, where the following topics are discussed: Backing up a profile Restoring a profile Exporting and importing profiles 3.4.5 Using the manageprofiles interactive utility The manageprofile command takes many parameters and for complex WebSphere environments it can be difficult to use. There is an interactive tool called Manage Profiles Interactive that guides you through the important manageprofile use cases. This command is not shipped with the WebSphere package, but it is available to download at no cost. You will find the tool, documentation, and a sample video on its usage at the following website: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21442487 After you download the tool, you must unpack its content in the install_root/bin directory. After you unpack it, you can use two scripts to run it: run_manageprofilesInteractive.bat for Windows operating systems run_manageprofilesInteractive.sh for UNIX operating systemsChapter 3. Working with profiles on distributed systems 99 Example 3-9 illustrastes the tool usage of listing the profiles. Example 3-9 Listing profiles using the interactive manageprofiles tool C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>run_manageprofilesInteractive.bat C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>CALL "C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin\setupCmdLine.bat" manageprofilesInteractive-v70 V0.6.6 ~ 2011.05.10/Windows Server 2008 R2 ----------------------------- MANAGEPROFILES - Command Menu ----------------------------- 1 create 2 augment 3 delete 4 unaugment 5 unaugmentAll 6 deleteAll 7 listProfiles 8 listAugments 9 backupProfile 10 restoreProfile 11 getName 12 getPath 13 validateRegistry 14 validateAndUpdateRegistry 15 getDefaultName 16 setDefaultName 17 response 18 help Select number [press "q" to quit]: 7 listProfiles ----------------------------- LISTPROFILES command summary: ----------------------------- Press "b" to go back and make changes or "c" to continue: c Press "q" to quit, "r" add to response file, or "c" to run the command: c ------------------------------------- manageprofiles.bat -listProfiles Added command to C:/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer/logs/manageprofilesInteractive.log You may check C:/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer/logs/manageprofiles/listProfiles.log for command status. [Dmgr01, AppSrv01, Custom01, AdminAgent01, JobMgr01, AppSrv02, Dmgr02] Elapse time: 4.954 seconds Done! After the tool is launched, it prints the available operations. To select the operation, provide the operation number and follow any instructions to execute the command. Notice that this tool can also generate response files for the manageprofile command. The tool also records all invoked commands in a special manageprofilesInteractive.log file. In Example 3-9, the following command was logged: [6/25/12 6:55 PM] manageprofiles.bat -listProfiles100 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012, 2013. All rights reserved. 101 Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems In this chapter, we provide an overview of IBM Installation Manager and explain how to install WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems. This chapter includes the following topics: IBM Installation Manager overview Installing Installation Manager Working with Installation Manager Using Installation Manager Installing WebSphere Application Server WebSphere Customization Toolbox Troubleshooting 4102 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 4.1 IBM Installation Manager overview IBM Installation Manager is a general-purpose software installation and update tool that can be used to install and maintain software packages. It provides the following features: Consistency across all platforms Lifecycle management for the products you install Ability to run as a command-line UNIX System Services application with the same look and feel Common packaging Greater efficiency for delivering new fixes (no need for a ++APAR to install an interim fix for WebSphere Application Server on z/OS) Invocable through a command-line interface, console mode, or response files. Modifiable through the addition or removal of optional features or language packs. Figure 4-1 provides a high-level view of Installation Manager and the products it is used to install. Figure 4-1 Installation Manager overview We use the following concepts and terminology in this chapter: Package: is a software product that can be installed by Installation Manager. It is a separately installable unit that can operate independently from other packages of that software. A package can include a product, a group of components, or a single component. Each package has a name, version, and an identifier, for example, in case of WebSphere Application Server V8.5 for ZOS: – Package name: com.ibm.websphere.ZOS.V85 – Package version: 8.5.0.20120501_1118 – Package identifier: com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 The packages are installed at a defined location in a UNIX System Services file system. Installation Manager allows you to control where products are installed and at which level. Package group: Packages installed to the same location that share UI elements. When more than one product is installed at the same location, the package group names are set automatically by Installation Manager. Repository: A place where the packages to be installed can be found. It has a list of files organized in a tree structure and includes metadata that describes the software version Install kit Installation Manager Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Repository containing metadata and program objects Used to install Used to installChapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 103 and how it must be installed. A repository can reside on a local directory or on a remote, reachable server. Installation Manager installs, uninstalls, modifies, and maintains the software using a software repository. In doing this, it uses three software locations: – Binary location: The directory where Installation Manager is installed. – Agent data location (also known as appDataLocation): The directory where Installation Manager stores data associated with an application, including the application state and operations history. – Object Cache location: Used by Installation Manager to reduce the time when an operation is performed, which avoids spending time going online to use objects. Figure 4-2 shows the components of Installation Manager. Figure 4-2 Installation Manager components 4.2 Installing Installation Manager You must run Installation Manager only on systems on which you install or update product code. Typically, you need only one Installation Manager on a system because one Installation Manager can track any number of product installations. You install Installation Manager through SMP/E, and then use the z/OS Profile Management Tool (zPMT) to configure your environment, as shown in Figure 4-3 on page 104. Installation Manager Repositories Binaries Runtime data (appdata) Cached objects (shared data) Installation kit Package groups104 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Figure 4-3 Installation process on z/OS For further information about Installation Manager, visit the product information center at this website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp 4.2.1 Checking prerequisites Before you install WebSphere Application Server for z/OS Version 8.5, be sure to check the hardware and software prerequisites at the following website: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27024798 4.2.2 Obtaining an Installation Manager installation kit The installation kit for Installation Manager has function modification identifier (FMID) HGIN140, provided within WebSphere Application Server for z/OS Version 8.5. You can also obtain the stand-alone installation kit in one of the following ways: Through a ServerPac or IBM SystemPac® in a ready-to-use format. Under this method, PTFs must be installed to bring the kit up to Installation Manager Version 1.5.2, which is the minimum that is required to install WebSphere Application Server for z/OS V8.5. Through a Custom-Built Product Delivery Offering (CBPDO). In this scenario, you must use the following jobs to install CBPDO: – GINRECEV to receive the deliverables – GINALLOC to allocate target and distribution data sets – GINDDEF to create SMP/E DDDEFs – GINISMKD to mount the installation file system and create directories – GINAPPLY to apply the installation kit FMID – GINACCEPT to accept the installation kit FMID WebSphere product code WebSphere configuration zPMT Installation manager WebSphere repository Installation Manager and WebSphere SMP/E SMP/EChapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 105 By downloading the kit from the Internet, transferring the compressed file to the z/OS system, and extracting it. You can order Installation Manager through Shopz or find the most current version at the following website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.cic.a gent.ui.doc%2Ftopics%2Fr_links.html 4.2.3 Installing Installation Manager on the system Prepare for installation by determining the mode in which Installation Manager will run: Admin mode Installation Manager can be invoked by any superuser. There can be only one admin mode Installation Manager on a system. User mode Installation Manager can be invoked by a non-superuser. There can be only one user mode Installation Manager per user. Group mode Installation Manager can be invoked by any user who is connected to the group that owns Installation Manager. There is no limit for the number of group mode installations. Installation Manager includes the following sets of files: Binaries: A set of executable files. Runtime: A set of files that describe the installed products. Shared data: A set of files that store artifacts from a repository when installing packages. To install WebSphere Application Server, the shared data must have at least 30,000 tracks of free space. The data stored in the shared data directory is used only for a package rollback if a product repository is not available. The amount of shared data can become large if you have several products installed. If you have access to the product repositories, you can delete the shared data contents after using Installation Manger. As an alternative, you can ask Installation Manager to discard the cache objects by adding the preference value shown in Example 4-1 to the imcl install command. Example 4-1 The preference parameter to discard cached objects -preferences com.ibm.cic.common.core.preferences.preserveDownloadedArtifacts=false This value is used in the sample jobs in library SBBOJCL. Important: If you download Installation Manager from the Internet, SMP/E cannot maintain and track its level. Note: The shared resources directory is set at the time a package is first installed. If all cached objects are removed and the directory becomes empty, Installation Manager can unset the shared resources location. Important: All sets of files must be writable by an Installation Manager user or group. The permission settings for the admin and user modes are 755, and for group mode, 775.106 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile The user who will run Installation Manager must have the following permissions on IBM Resource Access Control Facility (RACF®): Read access to FACILITY profile BPX.FILEATTR.APF Read access to FACILITY profile BPX.FILEATTR.PROGCTL Read access to FACILITY profile BPX.FILEATTR.SHARELIB Read access to UNIXPRIV profile SUPERUSER.FILESYS.CHOWN Read access to UNIXPRIV profile SUPERUSER.FILESYS.CHANGEPERMS Table 4-1lists the file systems that are needed to hold Installation Manager information. Table 4-1 Installation Manager default locations To install Installation Manager: 1. Go to the directory where Installation Manager is installed, and run the following command: ./set-ext-attr.sh 2. Choose a user ID to be the owner of this Installation Manager. If you need to create a user ID, use the GIN2ADMN job. 3. Create and mount two file systems to configure Installation Manager. You can use the GIN2CFS sample job. 4. Issue one of the following commands to begin installing Installation Manager in your preferred mode: installc Installs Installation Manager in administrator mode. userinstc Installs Installation Manager in user mode. groupinstc Installs Installation Manager in group mode. Example 4-2 demonstrates how to install Installation Manager in admin mode using the following parameters: -acceptLicense Accepts the software license agreement -installationDirectory Specifies the directory where Installation Manager binaries are installed -dataLocation Specifies the directory where runtime data is installed Example 4-2 Installing Installation Manager in admin mode /usr/lpp/InstallationManager/V1R5/installc -acceptLicense -installationDirectory /InstallationManager/bin -dataLocation /InstallationManager/appdata As an alternative to these step-by-step instructions, you also can install Installation Manager using the GIN2INST sample job. Information type Default location Binaries /InstallationManager/bin Application data /InstallationManager/appdata Important: The user who runs the command is the Installation Manager owner.Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 107 Additional information about installing Installation Manager can be found at the following website: http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg24031300 4.3 Working with Installation Manager When you work with Installation Manager, you can influence how it operates by setting certain preferences. You also need one or more repositories. In this section, we explain how to work with Installation Manager. 4.3.1 Installation Manager preferences You can set the Installation Manager preferences using one of the following methods: When using command line, specify the -preferences parameter followed by the parameter name and its value, as shown in Example 4-2 on page 106. When using a response file, specify the preference in XML format, as shown in Example 4-3. Example 4-3 Setting a preference in a response file 4.3.2 Repository overview Installation Manager uses a repository to identify the packages or updates to install. A repository is a location that stores data for installing, modifying, rolling back, updating, or uninstalling packages. Each installed package has an embedded location for its default update repository. You can add, edit, or remove repositories as needed. Based on the configured repositories, Installation Manager determines the specific packages to install, including products, fix packs, interim fixes, and so on. It checks prerequisites and interdependencies and installs the selected packages. An Installation Manager repository contains one or more product offerings, each with both metadata and the actual offering payload. The offering metadata describes the following aspects of the offering: Name, version, supported platforms, and so on Required and optional features Relationships and dependencies between offerings and features of offerings Normally, an Installation Manager repository contains the full content that is required to install the product on various platforms, operating systems, and so on. Verification: To verify that Installation Manager was installed, run the following command: /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools/imcl -version108 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Repository topologies can be generalized into these categories: A public repository that is accessible to the general public at an IBM-hosted site, such as IBM Passport Advantage A local repository that is used by a single user and not shared with others An enterprise repository that is located behind the firewall and is accessed by multiple machines within the enterprise 4.3.3 Updating Installation Manager To update Installation Manager, you must update the installation kit. Refer to 4.2.2, “Obtaining an Installation Manager installation kit” on page 104 for more information. After you obtain the updated installation kit, refresh the Installation Manager installation using the same commands that you used for the initial installation (installc, userinstc, or groupinstc). For details about these commands, refer to 4.2.3, “Installing Installation Manager on the system” on page 105. 4.3.4 Installing the WebSphere Application Server initial repository WebSphere Application Server V8.5 has FMID HBBO850 and can be obtained in one of the following ways: Through a ServerPac or SystemPac: Follow the instructions in the Installing Your Order guide to create the repository file system .SBBOIMR and the .SBBOJCL library. Through a Custom-Built Product Delivery Offering (CBPDO): Run the jobs to install the WebSphere Application Server repository following the instructions that are available at Program Directory to create the repository file system .SBBOIMR and the .SBBOJCL library. Run the following jobs to create the WebSphere Application Server repository: BBORECEV to receive the deliverables BBOISMKD to allocate the system paths BBODDDEF to define de SMP/E DDDEFs BBOAPPLY to apply product repository BBOACCEP to accept product repository 4.4 Using Installation Manager Before you begin using Installation Manager, consider in which mode it is going to be used and what actions are going to be performed in the software that is going to be maintained. The following options are available: Command-line mode Use the Installation Manager command line (imcl) to manage installations from the /eclipse/tools subdirectory. Silent mode Use this mode to install software easily to multiple systems. Silent mode uses the imcl command in conjunction with response files. You can use all of the commands that we demonstrate in this chapter in z/OS jobs using BPXBATCH.Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 109 4.4.1 Key features of Installation Manager In addition to installing packages, Installation Manager can be used to perform maintenance operations, such as updating, modifying, or rolling back packages. These operations differ slightly from how they are performed on a distributed platform. Installing packages When the specific version of a package is not specified in the installation command, Installation Manager checks the designated repository and picks the highest version that is available there. For example, the WebSphere package name for z/OS is com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85. Due to this approach, if a repository shows more than one WebSphere version and the installation needs to be done at a level that is not the highest, you must specify the complete package name, such as com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118, in your command. Updating packages You can update a package as soon as the updates are available in an Installation Manager repository. You can apply the following types of updates: A fix pack is a new product level. Each fix pack repository is a delta on top of the previous fix pack level. Fix packs have the same package name but a different version level. A fix pack can be delivered as an SMP/E program temporary fix (PTF) to the initial product repository. An interim fix is also known as a patch. Interim fixes use the package name, and they are not available as SMP/E PTF. You can obtain fix packs and interim fixes by downloading them from the IBM Fix Central website: http://www.ibm.com/support/fixcentral/ When you need to verify the fixes that are available for maintenance, use the imcl listAvailableFixes command, as shown in Example 4-4, with the following parameters: The package to be installed with the version -repositories The repository location Example 4-4 Listing available fixes in a repository /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl listAvailableFixes com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 Modifying packages A package can have features, languages, and functions added or removed by Installation Manager. To modify a package, run imcl install. To add sample applications to WebSphere Application Server, as shown in Example 4-5 on page 110, run imcl install with the following parameters: , The package and feature name to be installed -installationDirectory The directory where the package is installed -repositories The repository location110 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile Example 4-5 Adding sample applications to WebSphere Application Server /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl install com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85,samples -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 Modified com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 in the /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 directory. To uninstall the sample applications from WebSphere Application Server, as shown in Example 4-6, run imcl install with the following parameters: The package name to be installed -installationDirectory The directory where the package is installed Example 4-6 Uninstalling Application samples from WebSphere Application Server /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl uninstall com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85,samples -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 To add a language pack to WebSphere Application Server, as shown in Example 4-7, run imcl install with the following parameters: The package name to be installed -properties cic.selector.nl The language pack to be installed -installationDirectory The directory where the package is installed -repositories The repository location Example 4-7 Adding a language pack to WebSphere Application Server /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl install com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85 -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 -properties cic.selector.nl=de -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 Modified com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 in the /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 directory. Rolling back packages To roll back a package, run imcl install, and specify the previous product level. For example, if you are running WebSphere at Fix Pack 14 and want to roll it back to Fix Pack 13, issue an installation command that specifies Fix Pack 13. If there were interim fixes installed at the previous level, you must reinstall them. You can do this using a single command, or you can just install the interim fixes after the rollback is completed. Creating a keyring Credentials are required for authentication when you access certain URLs, such as to download fixes from IBM Fix Central. To use these credentials, you need a keyring file. Important: Take care when interim fixes are involved in building the product’s previous level. If interim fixes are available only online, you must specify all of the repositories (local and online) in the installation command and separate their names by commas without any blank spaces in between.Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 111 The imcl command does not have keyring capability, so use the imutilsc command, as shown in Example 4-8, with the following parameters: saveCredential Instructs imutilsc to save credentials -url The URL that is accessed -userName The user name that authenticates to the URL -userPassword The password for the user -keyring The file where information is stored Example 4-8 Creating a keyring /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imutilsc saveCredential -url http://www.mycorporation.com/repository -userName jsmith -userPassword secret -keyring /u/jsmith/corporate.keyring Listing installed products You can list information about the installed products by running imcl listInstalledPackages, as shown in Example 4-9. Example 4-9 Listing the installed packages /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl listInstalledPackages com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 When you need to check the features that are installed with a package, use the imcl listInstalledPackages -feature command, as shown in Example 4-10. Example 4-10 Listing the features installed by packages /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl listInstalledPackages -features com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 : ejbdeploy,embeddablecontainer,thinclient Optionally, you can use the versionInfo.sh command to show the same information as the -feature option. For more imcl command line arguments, refer to this website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.cic.comman dline.doc/topics/r_tools_imcl.html 4.4.2 Uninstalling Installation Manager Before you uninstall Installation Manager, you must uninstall all of the software packages that were previously installed using it. To uninstall Installation Manager: 1. Log in as the Installation Manager owner’s user ID. 2. Uninstall all software packages. 3. To uninstall Installation Manager, run uninstallc, which is in the agent data directory under the uninstall subdirectory, as shown in Example 4-11. Example 4-11 Uninstall Installation Manager /InstallationManager/appdata/uninstall $ ./uninstallc112 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile As an alternative to these step-by-step instructions, you also can uninstall Installation Manager using the GIN2UNIN sample job. 4.5 Installing WebSphere Application Server You can install WebSphere Application Server V8 using the command line or the supplied jobs. In this section, we describe how to install WebSphere Application Server using the command line. 4.5.1 Installing using the command line Complete the following steps to install WebSphere Application Server using the command line: 1. Create an empty file system to hold the WebSphere Application Server installation. You can create the file system manually, or you can use the zCreateFileSystem.sh script. The file system needs at least 35,000 tracks (3390) or 1,800 MB. Example 4-12 shows a sample execution using the following parameters: -name Data set name -type Type of file system -megabytes Primary and secondary allocation -volume Volume where the data set will reside -mountpoint Directory where the file system will be mounted -owner Directory owner -group Group owner Example 4-12 Creating an empty file system /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ zCreateFileSystem.sh -name OMVS. BBO8558.SBBOHFS -type ZFS -megabytes 1800 200 -volume TARHF1 -mountpoint /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 -owner STC -group TSO CWLCS9023I Defining file system OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS . IOEZ00248I VSAM linear dataset OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS successfully created. CWLCS9024I File system OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS successfully defined. CWLCS9022I Formatting ZFS file system OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS. IOEZ00077I HFS-compatibility aggregate OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS has been successfully created CWLCS9012I Creating mount point directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9013I Mount point directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 successfully created. CWLCS9006I Mounting data set OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS at mount point /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9007I OMVS.BBO8558.SBBOHFS successfully mounted at mount point /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9017I Setting owner and group for directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9018I Owner and group successfully set for directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9019I Setting permissions for directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. CWLCS9020I Permissions succesfully set for directory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5. As an alternative, you can use the BBO1CFS job to create the file system instead of using the command line.Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 113 2. Confirm that the repository has the needed packages by running imcl listAvailablePackages from the /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools directory, as shown in Example 4-13. Use the repositories parameter to set the repository location. Example 4-13 Listing available packages on a repository /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl listAvailablePackages -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 com.ibm.websphere.IHS.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1121 com.ibm.websphere.NDDMZ.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 com.ibm.websphere.PLG.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1122 com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 3. Install WebSphere Application Server by running imcl install, as shown in Example 4-14, using the following parameters: The package to be installed -installationDirectory The directory where the package is installed -repositories The repository location -sharedResourcesDirectory The directory where the artifacts from repository are stored -acceptLicense To accept the software license agreement Example 4-14 WebSphere Application Server installation /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl install com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85 -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 -sharedResourcesDirectory /InstallationManager/sharedResources -acceptLicense Installed com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 to the /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 directory. As an alternative, you can use the BBO1INST job to install WebSphere Application Server instead of using the command line. 4. After installing WebSphere Application Server, mount and remount the product file system in read-only mode for use by WebSphere Application Server nodes and servers. 4.5.2 Installing additional packages WebSphere Application Server includes the following additional packages: DMZ secure proxy IBM HTTP server Web server plug-ins You can install these packages using the following jobs: BBO2CFS to allocate a file system for the DMZ secure proxy Important: You can find the license for a package in the lafiles subdirectory of the Installation Manager repository. Be sure to check it before installing products. Important: The -sharedResourcesDirectory parameter can be omitted in subsequent commands after the shared resources directory is set for the first time.114 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile BBO2INST to install the DMZ secure proxy BBO3CFS to allocate a file system for the web server plug-ins BBO3INST to install the web server plug-ins BBO4CFS to allocate a file system for the IBM HTTP Server BBO4INST to install the IBM HTTP Server 4.5.3 Creating response files You can create a response file that will contain all of the installation commands needed to install software with Installation Manager. This method allows you to reuse the commands to perform the installation on several machines. A response file can be created using sample files or by recording one during an Installation Manager operation. Using sample files Some products deliver a sample file to use during the installation process. If a sample file is not available, as is the case with WebSphere Application Server, you can create one using the samples that are available at the product information center at this website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.silentin stall12.doc%2Ftopics%2Fc_sample_response_files.html Choose one of the scenarios and adapt the sample file to your installation. The commands that you can use in response files are available at this website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/install/v1r5/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.silentin stall12.doc%2Ftopics%2Fr_silent_inst_commands12.html Recording a response file During an Installation Manager operation, a response file can be recorded for later reuse. Example 4-15 shows how to generate a response file during the WebSphere Application Server V8.5 package installation. It uses the following parameters: Specifies the action that must be taken Specifies the package that is handled by the action -repositories Specifies the repository to use -record Specifies the file name that will be generated -acceptLicense Specifies that you agree to the license agreement -installationDirectory Specifies in which directory the package is installed Example 4-15 Record a response file when installing a package /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl install com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85 -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 -repositories /usr/lpp/InstallationManagerRepository/HBBO850 -record /tmp/WAS_inst.xml -sharedResourcesDirectory /InstallationManager/sharedResources -acceptLicense The resulting file has all of the instructions needed to install the web server plug-in package, as shown in Example 4-16. Example 4-16 Response file for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 installation Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 115 4.5.4 Installing silently You can use silent installation mode to perform software deployment to multiple systems. To do this, complete the following steps: 1. Install Installation Manager. 2. Generate a response file. 3. Manage your packages silently.116 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile After Installation Manager is installed and a response file is recorded, you can use the response file to make new installations, as shown in Example 4-17. Run imcl with the following parameters: input Specifies which response file to be used -log Specifies the log file to be generated -acceptLicense Specifies that you agree to the license agreement Example 4-17 Package installation in silent mode /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl input /tmp/WAS_inst.xml -log /tmp/silent.log -acceptLicense 4.5.5 The post-installer For z/OS systems, WebSphere Application Server sometimes requires that service-applied changes be made to configuration files. The post-installer can update the configuration files automatically or manually. You can use the post-installer to complete the following tasks: Run configuration actions by Installation Manager during installation or uninstallation Automatically detect the application or removal of fix packs, and run any necessary configuration actions Automatically detect the addition or removal of an offering, optional feature, or interim fix, and then create or remove any associated symbolic links Installation Manager considers the post-installation step as a nonfatal step. Thus, if the post-installer returns a FAIL or PARTIAL SUCCESS return code, Installation Manager displays the following message: The packages are installed with warnings 4.5.6 Service information The Preventive Service Planning (PSP) database can be searched for specific installation tips, high-impact or pervasive problems, and service recommendations. Information about both software and hardware for the System z family of servers is in the database at the following website: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/psearch/search?domain=psp To find the proper information, complete the Upgrade Name and Subset name fields with the values for WebSphere Application Server and Installation Manager listed in Table 4-2. Table 4-2 PSP information for WebSphere Application Server and Installation Manager Figure 4-4 on page 117 shows a PSP search result for WebSphere Application Server 8.5. Product Upgrade name Subset name WebSphere Application Server WASAS850 HBBO850 Installation Manager IIMZOSV1 HGIN140Chapter 4. Installing WebSphere Application Server on z/OS systems 117 Figure 4-4 Installation tips from Preventive Service Planning 4.5.7 Uninstalling packages You can uninstall packages using the command line or using supplied jobs. Here, we describe how to uninstall WebSphere Application Server using the command line. To uninstall WebSphere Application Server: 1. From the /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools directory, run imcl listInstalledPackages to verify that the package is installed, as shown in Example 4-18. Example 4-18 Listing installed packages /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl listInstalledPackages com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 2. Initiate the uninstallation by running imcl uninstall, as shown in Example 4-19, using the following parameters: The package to be uninstalled -installationDirectory The directory where the package is installed Example 4-19 WebSphere Application Server uninstallation /InstallationManager/bin/eclipse/tools $ imcl uninstall com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85 -installationDirectory /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 Uninstalled com.ibm.websphere.zOS.v85_8.5.0.20120501_1118 from the /usr/lpp/zWebSphere/V8R5 directory. As an alternative, you can use the BBO1UNIN job to uninstall WebSphere Application Server instead of using the command line. The uninstallation jobs for the other WebSphere components are: BBO2UNIN to uninstall the DMZ secure proxy BBO3UNIN to uninstall the web server plug-ins BBO4UNIN to uninstall the IBM HTTP Server118 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Administration and Configuration Guide for the Full Profile 4.5.8 Preparing the base z/OS operating system After installing WebSphere Application Server, you must prepare the z/OS system. Because of extensive use of underlying z/OS services for security, reliability, and performance, consider performing the following tasks: Prepare z/OS operating system settings Prepare z/OS sysplex settings Prepare the z/OS job entry subsystem (JES) Set up Resource Recovery Services (RRS) Set up Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) Prepare TCP/IP For IBM DB2® database, set up DB2 for concurrency control management For the complete list of tasks to prepare z/OS target systems, visit the following website: http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v8r5/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.webspher e.installation.zseries.doc%2Fae%2Fwelc_howdoi_tins.html 4.6 WebSphere Customization Toolbox The WebSphere Customization Toolbox for WebSphere Application Server V8.5 includes tools for managing, configuring, and migrating various parts of your WebSphere Application Server environment. The WebSphere Customization Toolbox includes the following features: Web Server Plug-ins Configuration Tool to configure web server plug-ins Profile Management Tool (z/OS only) to generate jobs and instructions for creating profiles (Intel-based Windows or Linux operating systems) z/OS Migration Management Tool to generate definitions for migrating WebSphere Application Server for z/OS profiles (Intel-based Windows or Linux operating systems) For details about using the WebSphere Customization Toolbox, refer to Chapter 5, “Working with profiles on z/OS systems” on page 121. 4.7 Troubleshooting To diagnose an Installation Manager problem, go to the Installation Manager binaries location and look into the config.ini file in the configuration directory. The following line in config.ini gives the location of the runtime data (appdata): cic.appDataLocation=/InstallationManager/appdata The Installation Manager logs are in /logs and are named _