Debian Reference Card


Dpkg dpkg --compare-- versionsv1 gt v2 Compare version numbers, check with echo $?. dpkg-query -W --showformat=f- ormat Query installed packages, format e.g. '${Package} ${Version} ${Installed-Size}\n'. dpkg --get-selections > file Write package selections to file. dpkg --set-selections < file Set package selections from file. The Network /etc/network/ interfaces Network interface configuration. ifup, ifdown [device] Start, stop network interfaces according to files above. /sbin/ip Show and manipulate network interfaces and routing, needs iproute. ssh -X user@host Login at other machine. scp files user@host:path Copy files to other machine (and vice versa). Web Server (Apache2) /etc/apache2/ Configuration files. /etc/apache2/ sites-available/ Contains virtual hosts. To enable a virtual host, use a2ensite. /etc/apache2/ mods-available/ Contains available modules files. To enable a module, use a2enmod. Legal Notice This document may be used under the terms the GNU General Public License version 3 or higher. Conditions for copying and translations can be found at http://t- angosoft.com/refcard/, where you can always get the latest version of the reference card. Copyright © 2004, 2010 W. Martin Borgert Made by: http://tangosoft.com/refcard/ Debian GNU/Linux Reference Card Version 5.0.5 2010-04-30 http://www.debian.org/ Getting Help man page or man bash Read online help for every command and many configuration files. command [--help, -h] Brief help for most commands. /usr/share/doc/ package-name/ Find all documentation here, optional file README.Debian contains specifics. Web documentation Reference, manuals, FAQs, HOWTOs, etc. at http://w- ww.debian.org/doc/ Mailing lists at http://lists.de- bian.org/ The community is always helpful, search for users. The Wiki at http://wiki.deb- ian.org/ Contains all kind of useful information. Installation Installer All information about it at http://www.debian.org/d- evel/debian-installer/ CD images Download from http://ww- w.debian.org/distrib/ boot:expert E.g. to set up the network w/o DHCP or using LILO instead of GRUB. Bugs Bug Tracking at http://bugs.deb- ian.org/ All about existing and fixed bugs. Package specific See http://bugs.debian.- org/package-name/, use wnpp to ask for new packages. reportbug Report a bug by e-mail. Reporting Instructions at http://www.debian.org/B- ugs/Reporting Configuration /etc/ All system configuration files are under directory /etc/. editor files Default text editor. May be nano, emacs, vi, joe. CUPS at http://- hostname:631 Browser interface to printing system. dpkg-reconfigure package-name Reconfigure a package, e.g. console-common (keyboard), locales (localisation). update- alternatives options Manage command alternatives. update-grub After changing /etc/default/grub. make-kpkg --initrd -- revision=2:my.1.0 --rootcmd fakeroot --uc --us kernel_image Build a kernel packages from sources, if a customised kernel is really needed, needs kernel-package. m-a a-i module kernel_image Create and install third-party modules (gspca, ...), needs module-assistant. Daemons and System /etc/init.d/file restart Restart a service, system daemon. /etc/init.d/file stop Stop a service, system daemon. /etc/init.d/file start Start a service, system daemon. halt, reboot, poweroff Halts, reboots, shuts down system. /var/log/ All log files are under this directory. /etc/default/ Default values for many daemons and services. Important Shell Commands cat files Print files to screen. cd directory Change to directory. cp filesdest Copy files and directories. echo string Echo string to screen. gzip, bzip2 [-d] files Compress, uncompress files. Important Shell Commands pager files Show contents of files. ls [files] List files. mkdir directory-names Create directories. mv file1file2 Move, rename files. rm files Remove files. rmdir dirs Remove empty directories. tar [c][x][t][z][j] -f file.tar [files] Create, eXtract, list Table of archive file, z, j for .gz, .bz2. find directories expressions Find files like -namename or -size+1000 , etc. grep search-string files Find search-string in files. kill [-9] number Send signal to process (e.g. terminate it). ln -s filelink Create a symbolic link to a file. ps [options] Show current processes. su - [username] Become another user, e.g. root. sudo command Execute a command as root as normal user, see /etc/sudoers command>file Overwrite file with output of command. command>>file Append output of command to file. cmd1|cmd2 Use output of command 1 as input of command 2. command
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