oracle经典sql查询


oracle 常用经典 SQL 查询 常用 SQL 查询: 1、查看表空间的名称及大小 select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name group by t.tablespace_name; 2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小 select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name, round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space from dba_data_files order by tablespace_name; 3、查看回滚段名称及大小 select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status, (initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent, max_extents, v.curext CurExtent From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+) order by segment_name; 4、查看控制文件 select name from v$controlfile; 5、查看日志文件 select member from v$logfile; 6、查看表空间的使用情况 select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name; SELECTA.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTESTOTAL,B.BYTESUSED,C.BYTESFREE, (B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "%FREE" FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME; 7、查看数据库库对象 select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status; 8、查看数据库的版本 Select version FROM Product_component_version Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle'; 9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式 Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database; 10、捕捉运行很久的 SQL column username format a12 column opname format a16 column progress format a8 select username,sid,opname, round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress, time_remaining,sql_text from v$session_longops , v$sql where time_remaining <> 0 and sql_address = address and sql_hash_value = hash_value / 11。查看数据表的参数信息 SELECT partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name, pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent, next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS, freelist_groups, LOGGING,BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks, empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size, last_analyzed FROM dba_tab_partitions --WHERE table_name = :tnameAND table_owner = :towner ORDERBY partition_position 12.查看还没提交的事务 select * from v$locked_object; select * from v$transaction; 13。查找 object 为哪些进程所用 select p.spid, s.sid, s.serial# serial_num, s.username user_name, a.type object_type, s.osuser os_user_name, a.owner, a.object object_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, p.program oracle_process, s.terminal terminal, s.program program, s.status session_status from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p where s.paddr = p.addr and s.type = 'USER' and a.sid = s.sid and a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR' order by s.username, s.osuser 14。回滚段查看 select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs, v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes, sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs, v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum 15。耗资源的进程( top session) select s.schemaname schema_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, status session_status, s.osuser os_user_name, s.sid, p.spid , s.serial# serial_num, nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name, s.terminal terminal, s.program program, st.value criteria_value from v$sesstat st, v$session s , v$process p where st.sid = s.sid and st.statistic# = to_number('38') and ('ALL' = 'ALL' or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc, p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc 16。查看锁( lock)情况 select /*+ RULE*/ ls.osuser os_user_name, ls.username user_name, decode(ls.type, 'RW','Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM','DML enqueue lock', 'TX', 'Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL','User supplied lock') lock_type, o.object_name object, decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3, 'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null) lock_mode, o.owner, ls.sid, ls.serial# serial_num, ls.id1, ls.id2 from sys.dba_objects o, ( select s.osuser, s.username, l.type, l.lmode, s.sid, s.serial#, l.id1, l.id2 from v$session s, v$lock l where s.sid = l.sid ) ls where o.object_id = ls.id1 and o.owner <> 'SYS' order by o.owner, o.object_name 17。查看等待( wait)情况 SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN('db block gets', 'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count 18。查看 sga 情况 SELECTNAME,BYTESFROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDERBYNAMEASC 19。查看 catched object SELECT owner, name, db_link, namespace, type, sharable_mem, loads, executions, locks, pins, kept FROM v$db_object_cache 20。查看 V$SQLAREA SELECTSQL_TEXT,SHARABLE_MEM,PERSISTENT_MEM,RUNTIME_MEM,SORTS, VERSION_COUNT,LOADED_VERSIONS,OPEN_VERSIONS,USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS, USERS_EXECUTING,LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS,PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS, BUFFER_GETS,ROWS_PROCESSEDFROM V$SQLAREA 21。查看 object 分类数量 select decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 ,'CLUSTER', 4, 'VIEW', 5 , 'SYNONYM', 6 ,'SEQUENCE','OTHER') object_type , count(*) quantity from sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 ,'CLUSTER', 4, 'VIEW', 5 ,'SYNONYM', 6 ,'SEQUENCE','OTHER') union select 'COLUMN', count(*) from sys.col$ union select 'DBLINK', count(*) from 22。按用户查看 object 种类 select u.name schema, sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes, sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables, sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL)) clusters, sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views, sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1, NULL)) synonyms, sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences, sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1)) others from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u where o.type# >= 1 and u.user# = o.owner# and u.name <> 'PUBLIC' group by u.name order by sys.link$ union select 'CONSTRAINT', count(*) from sys.con$ 23。有关 connection 的相关信息 1)查看有哪些用户连接 select s.osuser os_user_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, p.program oracle_process, status session_status, s.terminal terminal, s.program program, s.username user_name, s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter, '' query, 0 memory, 0 max_memory, 0 cpu_usage, s.sid, s.serial# serial_num from v$session s, v$process p where s.paddr=p.addr and s.type = 'USER' order by s.username, s.osuser 2)根据 v.sid 查看对应连接的资源占用等情况 select n.name, v.value, n.class, n.statistic# from v$statname n, v$sesstat v where v.sid = 71 and v.statistic# = n.statistic# order by n.class, n.statistic# 3)根据 sid 查看对应连接正在运行的 sql select /*+ PUSH_SUBQ*/ command_type, sql_text, sharable_mem, persistent_mem, runtime_mem, sorts, version_count, loaded_versions, open_versions, users_opening, executions, users_executing, loads, first_load_time, invalidations, parse_calls, disk_reads, buffer_gets, rows_processed, sysdate start_time, sysdate finish_time, '>' || address sql_address, 'N' status from v$sqlarea where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71) 24.查询表空间使用情况 select a.tablespace_name "表空间名称 ", 100-round((nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/a.bytes_alloc)*100,2) "占用率 (%)", round(a.bytes_alloc/1024/1024,2) "容量 (M)", round(nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/1024/1024,2) "空闲 (M)", round((a.bytes_alloc-nvl(b.bytes_free,0))/1024/1024,2) "使用 (M)", Largest "最大扩展段 (M)", to_char(sysdate,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') "采样时间 " from (select f.tablespace_name, sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc, sum(decode(f.autoextensible,'YES',f.maxbytes,'NO',f.bytes)) maxbytes from dba_data_files f group by tablespace_name) a, (select f.tablespace_name, sum(f.bytes) bytes_free from dba_free_space f group by tablespace_name) b, (select round(max(ff.length)*16/1024,2) Largest, ts.name tablespace_name from sys.fet$ ff, sys.file$ tf,sys.ts$ ts where ts.ts#=ff.ts# and ff.file#=tf.relfile# and ts.ts#=tf.ts# group by ts.name, tf.blocks) c where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name and a.tablespace_name = c.tablespace_name 25. 查询表空间的碎片程度 select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name having count(tablespace_name)>10; alter tablespace name coalesce; alter table name deallocate unused; create or replace view ts_blocks_v as select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,'free space' segment_name from dba_free_space union all select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents; select * from ts_blocks_v; select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name; 26。查询有哪些数据库实例在运行 select inst_name from v$active_instances; =========================================================== ######### 创建数据库 ----look $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/buildall.sql ############# create database db01 maxlogfiles 10 maxdatafiles 1024 maxinstances 2 logfile GROUP 1 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, GROUP 2 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, GROUP 3 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, datafile 'u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf') SIZE 100M, undo tablespace UNDO datafile '/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 40M default temporary tablespace TEMP tempfile '/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 20M extent management local uniform size 128k character set AL32UTE8 national character set AL16UTF16 set time_zone='America/New_York'; ############### 数据字典 ########## set wrap off select * from v$dba_users; grant select on table_name to user/rule; select * from user_tables; select * from all_tables; select * from dba_tables; revoke dba from user_name; shutdown immediate startup nomount select * from v$instance; select * from v$sga; select * from v$tablespace; alter session set nls_language=american; alter database mount; select * from v$database; alter database open; desc dictionary select * from dict; desc v$fixed_table; select * from v$fixed_table; set oracle_sid=foxconn select * from dba_objects; set serveroutput on execute dbms_output.put_line('sfasd'); ############# 控制文件 ########### select * from v$database; select * from v$tablespace; select * from v$logfile; select * from v$log; select * from v$backup; /*备份用户表空间 */ alter tablespace users begin backup; select * from v$archived_log; select * from v$controlfile; alter system set control_files='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl', '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl' scope=spfile; cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl startup pfile='../initSID.ora' select * from v$parameter where name like 'control%' ; show parameter control; select * from v$controlfile_record_section; select * from v$tempfile; /*备份控制文件 */ alter database backup controlfile to '../filepath/control.bak'; /*备份控制文件,并将二进制控制文件变为了 asc 的文本文件 */ alter database backup controlfile to trace; ############### redo log ############## archive log list; alter system archive log start;--启动自动存档 alter system switch logfile;--强行进行一次日志 switch alter system checkpoint;--强制进行一次 checkpoint alter tablspace users begin backup; alter tablespace offline; /*checkpoint 同步频率参数 FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET,同步频率越高, 系统恢复所需 时 间越短 */ show parameter fast; show parameter log_checkpoint; /*加入一个日志组 */ alter database add logfile group 3 ('/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' size 10M); /*加入日志组的一个成员 */ alter database add logfile member '/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to group 3; /*删除日志组 :当前日志组不能删;活动的日志组不能删;非归档的日志组不能删 */ alter database drop logfile group 3; /*删除日志组中的某个成员,但每个组的最后一个成员不能被删除 */ alter databse drop logfile member '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'; /*清除在线日志 */ alter database clear logfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'; alter database clear logfile group 3; /*清除非归档日志 */ alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3; /*重命名日志文件 */ alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo'; show parameter db_create; alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='path_name'; select * from v$log; select * from v$logfile; /*数据库归档模式到非归档模式的互换 ,要启动到 mount 状态下才能改变 ;startup mount;然后 再打开数据库 .*/ alter database noarchivelog/archivelog; achive log start;---启动自动归档 alter system archive all;--手工归档所有日志文件 select * from v$archived_log; show parameter log_archive; ###### 分析日志文件 logmnr ############## 1) 在init.ora 中set utl_file_dir 参数 2) 重新启动 oracle 3) create 目录文件 desc dbms_logmnr_d; dbms_logmnr_d.build; 4) 加入日志文件 add/remove log file dhms_logmnr.add_logfile dbms_logmnr.removefile 5) start logmnr dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr 6) 分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content --sqlredo/sqlundo 实践: desc dbms_logmnr_d; /*对数据表做一些操作,为恢复操作做准备 */ update 表set qty=10 where stor_id=6380; delete 表where stor_id=7066; /***********************************/ utl_file_dir 的路径 execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('foxdict.ora','$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump'); execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log',dbms_logmnr.newfile); execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.o ra'); ######### tablespace ############## select * form v$tablespace; select * from v$datafile; /*表空间和数据文件的对应关系 */ select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#; alter tablespace users add datafile 'path' size 10M; select * from dba_rollback_segs; /*限制用户在某表空间的使用限额 */ alter user user_name quota 10m on tablespace_name; create tablespace xxx [datafile 'path_name/datafile_name'] [size xxx] [extent management local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)]; exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M AUTOEXTENDONNEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M; create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10) offline; /*9i 以后, oracle 建议使用 local 管理,而不使用 dictionary 管理,因为 local 采用 bitmap 管 理表空间 ,不会产生系统表空间的自愿争用 ;*/ create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m; create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local autoallocate; /*在创建表空间时,设置表空间内的段空间管理模式,这里用的是自动管理 */ create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m segment space management auto; alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10; alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m next 1m pctincrease 20); /*undo tablespace(不能被用在字典管理模下 )*/ create undo tablespace undo1 datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 40M extent management local; show parameter undo; /*temporary tablespace*/ create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 10m extent management local; /*设置数据库缺省的临时表空间 */ alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; /*系统 /临时 /在线的 undo 表空间不能被 offline*/ alter tablespace tablespace_name offline/online; alter tablespace tablespace_name read only; /*重命名用户表空间 */ alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'; /*重命名系统表空间 ,但在重命名前必须将数据库 shutdown,并重启到 mount 状态 */ alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf'; drop tablespace userdata including contents and datafiles;---drop tablespce /*resize tablespace,autoextend datafile space*/ alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500M; /*resize datafile*/ alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' resize 50m; /*给表空间扩展空间 */ alter tablespace userdata add datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' size 10m; /*将表空间设置成 OMF 状态 */ alter system set db_create_file_dest='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata'; create tablespace userdata;---use OMF status to create tablespace; drop tablespace userdata;---user OMF status to drop tablespace; select * from dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files; /*将表的某分区移动到另一个表空间 */ alter table table_name move partition partition_name tablespace tablespace_name; ###### ORACLE storage structure and relationships ######### /*手工分配表空间段的分区 (extend)大小 */ alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'); alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused; ---释放表中没有用到的分区 show parameter db; alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m; ---配置 8k 块的内存空间块参数 select * from dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace; select * from dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace; /*数据对象所占用的字节数 */ select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where onwer='kong' and segment_name ='table_name'; ############ UNDO Data ################ show parameter undo; alter tablespace users offline normal; alter tablespace users offline immediate; recover datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf'; alter tablespace users online ; select * from dba_rollback_segs; alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1; /*忽略回滚段的错误提示 */ alter system set undo_suppress_errors=true; /*在自动管理模式下 ,不会真正建立 rbs1;在手工管理模式则可以建立 ,且是私有回滚段 */ create rollback segment rbs1 tablespace undotbs; desc dbms_flashback; /*在提交了修改的数据后 ,9i 提供了旧数据的回闪操作 ,将修改前的数据只读给用户看 ,但这 部 分数据不会又恢复在表中 ,而是旧数据的一个映射 */ execute dbms_flashback.enable_at_time('26-JAN-04:12:17:00 pm'); execute dbms_flashback.disable; /*回滚段的统计信息 */ select end_time,begin_time,undoblks from v$undostat; /*undo 表空间的大小计算公式 : UndoSpace=[UR *(UPS*DBS)] + (DBS* 24) UR:UNDO_RETENTION 保留的时间 (秒) UPS:每秒的回滚数据块 DBS:系统 EXTENT 和FILESIZE(也就是 db_block_size)*/ select * from dba_rollback_segs/v$rollname/v$rollstat/v$undostat/v$session/v$transaction; show parameter transactions; show parameter rollback; /*在手工管理模式下 ,建立公共的回滚段 */ create public rollback segment prbs1 tablespace undotbs; alter rollback segment rbs1 online;----在手工管理模式 /*在手工管理模式中,initSID.ora 中指定undo_management=manual 、 rollback_segment=('rbs1','rbs2',...)、 transactions=100 、transactions_per_rollback_segment=10 然后 shutdown immediate ,startup pfile=....\???.ora */ ########## Managing Tables ########### /*char type maxlen=2000;varchar2 type maxlen=4000 bytes rowid 是18 位的 64 进制字符串 (10 个bytes 80 bits) rowid 组成 : object#(对象号 )--32bits,6 位 rfile#(相对文件号 )--10bits,3 位 block#(块号 )--22bits,6 位 row#(行号 )--16bits,3 位 64 进制 :A-Z,a-z,0-9,/,+ 共64 个符号 dbms_rowid 包中的函数可以提供对 rowid 的解释 */ select rowid,dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid),dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) from table_name; create table test2 ( id int, lname varchar2(20) not null, fname varchar2(20) constraint ck_1 check(fname like 'k%'), empdate date default sysdate) ) tablespace tablespace_name; create global temporary table test2 on commit delete/preserve rows as select * from kong.authors; create table user.table(...) tablespace tablespace_name storage(...) pctfree10 pctused 40; alter table user.tablename pctfree 20 pctused 50 storage(...);---changing table storage /*手工分配分区 ,分配的数据文件必须是表所在表空间内的数据文件 */ alter table user.table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile '...'); /*释放表中没有用到的空间 */ alter table table_name deallocate unused; alter table table_name deallocate unused keep 8k; /*将非分区表的表空间搬到新的表空间 ,在移动表空间后, 原 表中的索引对象将会不可用, 必 须重建 */ alter table user.table_name move tablespace new_tablespace_name; create index index_name on user.table_name(column_name) tablespace users; alter index index_name rebuild; drop table table_name [CASCADECONSTRAINTS]; alter table user.table_name drop column col_name [CASCADECONSTRAINTSCHECKPOINT 1000];---drop column /*给表中不用的列做标记 */ alter table user.table_name set unused column comments CASCADECONSTRAINTS; /*drop 表中不用的做了标记列 */ alter table user.table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; /*当在 drop col 是出现异常,使用 CONTINUE,防止重删前面的 column*/ ALTERTABLEUSER.TABLE_NAMEDROPCOLUMNSCONTINUECHECKPOINT 1000; select * from dba_tables/dba_objects; ######## managing indexes ########## /*create index*/ example: /*创建一般索引 */ create index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name; /*创建位图索引 */ create bitmap index index_name on table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace tablespace_name; /*索引中不能用 pctused*/ create [bitmap] index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) ; /*大数据量的索引最好不要做日志 */ create [bitmap] index index_name table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) nologging; /*创建反转索引 */ create index index_name on table_name(column_name) reverse; /*创建函数索引 */ create index index_name on table_name(function_name(column_name)) tablespace tablespace_name; /*建表时创建约束条件 */ create table user.table_name(column_name number(7) constraint constraint_name primary key deferrable using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace tablespace_name,column_name2 varchar2(25) constraint constraint_name not null,column_name3 number(7)) tablespace tablespace_name; /*给创建 bitmap index 分配的内存空间参数,以加速建索引 */ show parameter create_bit; /*改变索引的存储参数 */ alter index index_name pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k); /*给索引手工分配一个分区 */ alter index index_name allocate extent (size 200k datafile '$ORACLE/oradata/..'); /*释放索引中没用的空间 */ alter index index_name deallocate unused; /*索引重建 */ alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name; /*普通索引和反转索引的互换 */ alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name reverse; /*重建索引时,不锁表 */ alter index index_name rebuild online; /*给索引整理碎片 */ alter index index_name COALESCE; /*分析索引 ,事实上是更新统计的过程 */ analyze index index_name validate structure; desc index_state; drop index index_name; alter index index_name monitoring usage;-----监视索引是否被用到 alter index index_name nomonitoring usage;----取消监视 /*有关索引信息的视图 */ select * from dba_indexes/dba_ind_columns/dbs_ind_expressions/v$object_usage; ########## 数据完整性的管理 (Maintaining data integrity) ########## alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;----drop 约束 alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name primary key(column_name1,column_name2);-----创建主键 alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column_name1,column_name2);--- 创建唯一约束 /*创建外键约束 */ alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name foreign key(column_name1) references table_name(column_name1); /*不效验老数据,只约束新的数据 [enable/disable:约束 /不约束新数据 ;novalidate/validate:不 对/对老数据进行验证 ]*/ alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name like 'B%') enable/disable novalidate/validate; /*修改约束条件,延时验证, commit 时验证 */ alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially deferred; /*修改约束条件,立即验证 */ alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially immediate; alter session set constraints=deferred/immediate; /*drop 一个有外键的主键表 ,带cascade constraints 参数级联删除 */ drop table table_name cascade constraints; /*当truncate 外键表时,先将外键设为无效,再 truncate;*/ truncate table table_name; /*设约束条件无效 */ alter table table_name disable constraint constraint_name; alter table table_name enable novalidate constraint constraint_name; /*将无效约束的数据行放入 exception 的表中,此表记录了违反数据约束的行的 行号;在此 之前,要先建 exceptions 表*/ alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name >15) enable validate exceptions into exceptions; /*运行创建 exceptions 表的脚本 */ start $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlexcpt.sql; /*获取约束条件信息的表或视图 */ select * from user_constraints/dba_constraints/dba_cons_columns; ################## managing password security and resources #################### alter user user_name account unlock/open;----锁定 /打开用户 ; alter user user_name password expire;---设定口令到期 /*建立口令配置文件 ,failed_login_attempts 口令输多少次后锁, password_lock_times 指多少 天 后口令被自动解锁 */ create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_times 1/1440; /*创建口令配置文件 */ create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function password_grace_time 5; /*建立资源配置文件 */ create profile prfile_name limit session_per_user 2 cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; alter user user_name profile profile_name; /*设置口令解锁时间 */ alter profile profile_name limit password_lock_time 1/24; /*password_life_time 指口令文件多少时间到期, password_grace_time 指在第一次成功登录 后 到口令到期有多少天时间可改变口令 */ alter profile profile_name limit password_lift_time 2 password_grace_time 3; /*password_reuse_time指口令在多少天内可被重用 ,password_reuse_max口令可被重用的最 大 次数 */ alter profile profile_name limit password_reuse_time 10[password_reuse_max 3]; alter user user_name identified by input_password;-----修改用户口令 drop profile profile_name; /*建立了 profile 后,且指定给某个用户,则必须用 CASCADE 才能删除 */ drop profile profile_name CASCADE; alter system set resource_limit=true;---启用自愿限制 ,缺省是 false /*配置资源参数 */ alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_session 10000 connect_time 60 idle_time 5; /*资源参数 (session 级) cpu_per_session 每个 session 占用 cpu 的时间 单位 1/100 秒 sessions_per_user 允许每个用户的并行 session 数 connect_time 允许连接的时间 单位分钟 idle_time 连接被空闲多少时间后,被自动断开 单位分钟 logical_reads_per_session 读块数 private_sga 用户能够在 SGA 中使用的私有的空间数 单位 bytes (call 级) cpu_per_call 每次 (1/100 秒)调用 cpu 的时间 logical_reads_per_call 每次调用能够读的块数 */ alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_call 1000 logical_reads_per_call 10; desc dbms_resouce_manager;---资源管理器包 /*获取资源信息的表或视图 */ select * from dba_users/dba_profiles; ###### Managing users ############ show parameter os; create user testuser1 identified by kxf_001; grant connect,createtable to testuser1; alter user testuser1 quota 10m on tablespace_name; /*创建用户 */ create user user_name identified by password default tablespace tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; /*数据库级设定缺省临时表空间 */ alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; /*制定数据库级的缺省表空间 */ alter database default tablespace tablespace_name; /*创建 os 级审核的用户, 需 知道 os_authent_prefix, 表示 oracle 和os 口令对应的前缀 ,'OPS$' 为此参数的值,此值可以任意设置 */ create user user_name identified by externally default OPS$tablespace_name tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; /*修改用户使用表空间的限额 ,回滚表空间和临时表空间不允许授予限额 */ alter user user_name quota 5m on tablespace_name; /*删除用户或删除级联用户 (用户对象下有对象的要 用 CASCADE,将其下一些对象一起删 除)*/ drop user user_name [CASCADE]; /*每个用户在哪些表空间下有些什么限额 */ desc dba_ts_quotas;select * from dba_ts_quotas where username='...'; /*改变用户的缺省表空间 */ alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name; ######### Managing Privileges ############# grant create table,create session to user_name; grant create any table to user_name; revoke create any table from user_name; /*授予权限语法 ,public 标识所有用户 ,with admin option 允许能将权限授予第三者的权限 */ grant system_privs,[......] to [user/role/public],[....] [with admin option]; select * from v$pwfile_users; /*当O7_dictionary_accessiblity 参数为 True 时,标识select any table 时, 包 括系统表也能 select ,否则,不包含系统表 ;缺省为 false*/ show parameter O7; /*由于 O7_dictionary_accessiblity 为静态参数, 不 能动态改变, 故加 scope=spfile,下次启动 时 才生效 */ alter system set O7_dictionary_accessiblity=true scope=spfile; /*授予对象中的某些字段的权限,如 select 某表中的某些字段的权限 */ grant [object_privs(column,....)],[...] on object_name to user/role/public,... with grant option; /*oracle 不允许授予 select 某列的权限 ,但可以授 insert ,update 某列的权限 */ grant insert(column_name1,column_name2,...) on table_name to user_name with grant option; select * from dba_sys_privs/session_privs/dba_tab_privs/user_tab_privs/dba_col_privs/user_col_privs; /*db/os/none 审计被记录在 数据库 /操作系统 /不审计 缺省是 none*/ show parameter audit_trail; /*启动对表的 select 动作 */ audit select on user.table_name by session; /*by session 在每个 session 中发出 command 只记录一次,by access则每个 command 都记录 */ audit [create table][select/update/insert on object by session/access][whenever successful/not successful]; desc dbms_fga;---进一步设计,则可使用 dbms_fgs 包 /*取消审计 */ noaudit select on user.table_name; /*查被审计信息 */ select * from all_def_audit_opts/dba_stmt_audit_opts/dba_priv_audit_opts/dba_obj_audit_opts; /*获取审计记录 */ select * from dba_audit_trail/dba_audit_exists/dba_audit_object/dba_audit_session/dba_audit_statement; ########### Managing Role ################# create role role_name; grant select on table_name to role_name; grant role_name to user_name; set role role_name; create role role_name; create role role_name identified by password; create role role_name identified externally; set role role_name ;----激活 role set role role_name identified by password; alter role role_name not identified; alter role role_name identified by password; alter role role_name identified externally; grant priv_name to role_name [WITHADMINOPTION]; grant update(column_name1,col_name2,...) on table_name to role_name; grant role_name1 to role_name2; /*建立 default role,用户登录时,缺省激活 default role*/ alter user user_name default role role_name1,role_name2,...; alter user user_name default role all; alter user user_name default role all except role_name1,...; alter user user_name default role none; set role role1 [identified by password],role2,....; set role all; set role except role1,role2,...; set role none; revoke role_name from user_name; revoke role_name from public; drop role role_name; select * from dba_roles/dba_role_privs/role_role_privs/dba_sys_privs/role_sys_privs/role_tab_privs/session_rol es; ########### Basic SQLSELECT################ select col_name as col_alias from table_name ; select col_name from table_name where col1 like '_o%'; ----'_'匹配单个字符 /*使用字符函数 (右边截取 ,字段中包含某个字符 ,左边填充某字符到固定位数 ,右边填充某字 符到固定位数 )*/ select substr(col1,-3,5),instr(col2,'g'),LPAD(col3,10,'$'),RPAD(col4,10,'%') from table_name; /*使用数字函数 (往右 /左几位四舍五入 ,取整 ,取余 )*/ select round(col1,-2),trunc(col2),mod(col3) from table_name ; /*使用日期函数 (计算两个日期间相差 几个星期 ,两个日期间相隔几个 月 ,在某个月份上加几 个月 ,某个日期的下一个日期 , 某日期所在月的最后的日期 ,对某个日期的月分四舍五入,对某个日期的月份进行取整 )*/ select (sysdate-col1)/7 week,months_between(sysdate,col1),add_months(col1,2),next_day(sysdate,'FRIDAY'),last_day(s ysdate), round(sysdate,'MONTH'),trunc(sysdate,'MONTH') from table_name; /*使用 NULL 函数 (当expr1 为空取 expr2/当expr1 为空取 expr2,否则取 expr3/当expr1=expr2 返回空 )*/ select nvl(expr1,expr2),nvl2(expr1,expr2,expr3),nullif(expr1,expr2) from table_name; select column1,column2,column3, case column2 when '50' then column2*1.1 when '30' then column2*2.1 when '10' then column3/20 else column3 end as ttt from table_name ;------使用 case 函数 select table1.col1,table2.col2 from table1 [CROSSJOIN table2] | -----笛卡儿连接 [NATURALJOIN table2] | -----用两个表中的同名列连接 [JOIN table2 USING(column_name)] | -----用两个表中的同名列中的某一列或几列连接 [JOIN table2 ON(table1.col1=table2.col2)] | [LEFT|RIGHT|FULL OUTERJOIN table2 ------相当于 (+)=,=(+)连接 ,全外连接 ON(table1.col1=table2.col2)]; ------SQL 1999 中的 JOIN语法 ; example: select col1,col2 from table1 t1 join table2 t2 on t1.col1=t2.col2 and t1.col3=t2.col1 join table3 t3 on t2.col1=t3.col3; select * from table_name where col1 < any (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); select * from table_name where col1 < all (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); insert into (select col1,col2,col3 form table_name where col1> 50 with check option) values (value1,value2,value3); MERGEINTO table_name table1 USING table_name2 table2 ON(table1.col1=table2.col2) WHENMATCHEDTHEN UPDATESET table1.col1=table2.col2, table1.col2=table2.col3, ... WHENNOTMATCHEDTHEN INSERT VALUES(table2.col1,table2.col2,table2.col3,...); -----合并语句 ##################### CREATE/ALTERTABLE####################### alter table table_name drop column column_name ;---drop column alter table table_name set unused (col1,col2,...);----设置列无效,这个比较快。 alter table table_name drop unused columns;---删除被设为无效的列 rename table_name1 to table_name2; ---重命名表 comment on table table_name is 'comment message';----给表放入注释信息 create table table_name (col1 int not null,col2 varchar2(20),col3 varchar2(20), constraint uk_test2_1 unique(col2,col3))); -----定义表中的约束条件 alter table table_name add constraint pk_test2 primary key(col1,col2,...); ----创建主键 /*建立外键 */ create table table_name (rid int,name varchar2(20),constraint fk_test3 foreign key(rid) references other_table_name(id)); alter table table_name add constraint ck_test3 check(name like 'K%'); alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name; alter table table_name drop primary key cascade;----级联删除主键 alter table table_name disable/enable constraint constraint_name;----使约束暂时无效 /*删除列,并级联删除此列下的约束条件 */ alter table table_name drop column column_name cascade constraint; select * from user_constraints/user_cons_columns;---约束条件相关视图 ############## Create Views ##################### CREATE[ORREPLACE][FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view_name [(alias[,alias]...)] AS subquery [WITHCHECKOPTION[CONSTRAINT constraint_name]] [WITHREADONLY[CONSTRAINT constraint_name]]; ------创建视图的语法 example: Create or replace view testview as select col1,col2,col3 from table_name; ------创建视图 /*使用别名 */ Create or replace view testview as select col1,sum(col2) col2_alias from table_name; /*创建复杂视图 */ Create view view_name (alias1,alias2,alias3,alias4) as select d.col1,min(e.col1),max(e.col1),avg(e.col1) from table_name1 e,table_name2 d where e.col2=d.col2 group by d.col1; /*当用 update 修改数据时,必须满足视图的 col1>10 的条件,不满足则不能被改变 .*/ Create or replace view view_name as select * from table_name where col1>10 with check option; /*改变视图的值 .对于简单视图可以 用 update 语法修改表数据,但 复杂视图 则不一 定能改。 如使用了函数, group by ,distinct 等的列 */ update view_name set col1=value1; /*TOP-N 分析 */ select [column_list],rownum from (select [column_list] from table_name order by Top-N_column) where rownum<=N; /*找出某列三条最大值的记录 */ example: select rownum as rank ,col1 ,col2 from (select col1 ,col2 from table_name order by col2 desc) where rownum<=3; ############# Other database Object ############### CREATESEQUENCE sequence_name [INCREMENTBY n] [STARTWITH n] [{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] [{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] [{CYCEL | NOCYCLE}] [{CACHE n | NOCACHE}];-----创建 SEQUENCE example: CREATESEQUENCE sequence_name INCREMENTBY 10 STARTWITH 120 MAXVALUE 9999 NOCACHE NOCYCLE; select * from user_sequences ;---当前用户下记录 sequence的视图 select sequence_name.nextval,sequence_name.currval from dual;-----sequence的引用 alter sequence sequence_name INCREMENTBY 20 MAXVALUE 999999 NOCACHE NOCYCLE;-----修改 sequence,不能改变起始序号 drop sequence sequence_name; ----删除 sequence CREATE[PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name FOR object; ------创建同义词 DROP[PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name;----删除同义词 CREATEPUBLICDATABASELINK link_name USEINGOBJECT;----创建 DBLINK select * from object_name@link_name; ----访问远程数据库中的对象 /*union 操作,它将两个集合的交集部分压缩,并对数据排序 */ select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; /*union all 操作,两个集合的交集部分不压缩,且不对数据排序 */ select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union all select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; /*intersect 操作,求两个集合的交集 ,它将对重复数据进行压缩,且排序 */ select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name intersect select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; /*minus 操作,集合减 ,它将压缩两个集合减后的重复记录 , 且对数据排序 */ select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name minus select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; /*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数 . 此例是抽取当前日期中的年 */ select EXTRACT(YEARFROMSYSDATE) from dual; /*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数 . 此例是抽取当前日期中的月 */ select EXTRACT(MONTHFROMSYSDATE) from dual; ########################## 增强的 group by 子句 ######################### select [column,] group_function(column)... from table [WHERE condition] [GROUPBY[ROLLUP] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression]; [ORDERBY column]; -------ROLLUP 操作字, 对 group by 子句的各字段从右到左进行再聚 合 example: /*其结果看起来象对 col1 做小计 */ select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup(col1,col2); /*复合 rollup 表达式 */ select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup((col1,col2)); select [column,] group_function(column)... from table [WHERE condition] [GROUPBY[CUBE] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression]; [ORDERBY column]; -------CUBE 操作字,除完成 ROLLUP 的功能外,再对 ROLLUP 后的 结果集从右到左再聚合 example: /*其结果看起来象对 col1 做小计后,再对 col2 做小计,最后算总计 */ select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube(col1,col2); /*复合 rollup 表达式 */ select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube((col1,col2)); /*混合 rollup,cube 表达式 */ select col1,col2,col3,sum(col4) from table group by col1,rollup(col2),cube(col3); /*GROUPING(expr)函数,查看 select 语句种以何字段聚合,其取值为 0或1*/ select [column,] group_function(column)...,GROUPING(expr) from table [WHERE condition] [GROUPBY[ROLLUP] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression]; [ORDERBY column]; example: select col1,col2,sum(col3),grouping(col1),grouping(col2) from table group by cube(col1,col2); /*grouping sets操作,对 group by 结果集先对 col1 求和, 再对 col2 求和, 最 后将其结果集 并 在一起 */ select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by grouping sets((col1),(col2));
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