# python入门指南

Python Tutorial Python \H Release 2.5b2 Guido van Rossum Fred L. Drake, Jr., editor 11th July, 2006 Python Software Foundation Email: docs@python.org Copyright © 2001-2006 Python Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2000 BeOpen.com. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1995-2000 Corporation for National Research Initiatives. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum. All rights reserved. See the end of this document for complete license and permissions information. Abstract Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efﬁcient high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to object-oriented programming. Python’s elegant syntax and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms. Python ´«N´ÆSr?§ó"§¹ p¨p?êâ(¨§U ^{ü p¨ª?1 ¡é?§"Python ä{ÚÄa.§±9§U,)ºUå§¦Ù¤ õê²þ2· ^u+n óÚmu¸" The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are freely available in source or binary form for all major platforms from the Python Web site, http://www.python.org/, and may be freely distributed. The same site also contains distributions of and pointers to many free third party Python modules, programs and tools, and additional documentation. Python )ºì9Ù*ÐIO¥ èÚ?È±lPython Web Õ:, http://www.python.org/,9 Ù¤kºÕþ¤¼§¿±gduÙ"TÕ:þJø Python  1n¬§§S§ó ä§±9N\© " The Python interpreter is easily extended with new functions and data types implemented in C or C++ (or other languages callable from C). Python is also suitable as an extension language for customizable applications. Python)ºì±éN´ÏLC½öC++£½öÙ§±ÏLCN^ó¤*Ð#¼êÚêâa ."Python ±½A^*Ðó" This tutorial introduces the reader informally to the basic concepts and features of the Python language and system. It helps to have a Python interpreter handy for hands-on experience, but all examples are self-contained, so the tutorial can be read off-line as well. ÃþÖö0 Python ó9ÙXÚÄ£Vg"ÜPython)ºìÆS¬ékÏ§ØL¤k ~fÑ®)3©¥§¤±ùÃþé±lÖ" For a description of standard objects and modules, see the Python Library Reference document. The Python Refer- ence Manual gives a more formal deﬁnition of the language. To write extensions in C or C++, read Extending and Embedding the Python Interpreter and Python/C API Reference. There are also several books covering Python in depth. Ik'IOéÚ¬[0 {§¦ÎPython ¥ëÃþ© "Python ëÃþJø õ 'uó¡ª²"I?C½C++*Ð§ÖPython )ºì*ÐÚ8¤ ±9Python/C API ë Ãþ"ùAÖºX ÝþPython£" This tutorial does not attempt to be comprehensive and cover every single feature, or even every commonly used feature. Instead, it introduces many of Python’s most noteworthy features, and will give you a good idea of the language’s ﬂavor and style. After reading it, you will be able to read and write Python modules and programs, and you will be ready to learn more about the various Python library modules described in the Python Library Reference. ÃþØ¬ºXPython ¤kõU§Ø¬)º¤^¤k'£"§§0 NõPython ¥Ú<58õU§ù¬éÖöÝºùóºkÏ"ÖL§ §\AT±ÖÚ?Python ¬Ú§S§e5±lPython ¥ëÃþ ¥?ÚÆSPythonE,õC¥Ú¬" CONTENTS 1 Whetting Your Appetite mmmèèè 1 2 Using the Python Interpreter ¦¦¦^^^Python)))ºººììì 5 2.1 Invoking the Interpreter N^)ºì .................................. 5 2.2 The Interpreter and Its Environment )ºì9Ù¸ ......................... 7 3 More Control Flow Tools \\\666§§§ 11 3.1 if Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2 for Statements for é ........................................ 11 3.3 The range() Function range()¼ê ................................ 12 3.4 break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops break Úcontinue é, ±9 Ì¥else fé .......................................... 13 3.5 pass Statements pass é ...................................... 14 3.6 Deﬁning Functions ½Â¼ê ...................................... 14 3.7 More on Deﬁning Functions \¼ê½Â............................... 16 4 Data Structures êêêâââ(((¨¨¨ 23 4.1 More on Lists \óL......................................... 23 4.2 The del statement delé ...................................... 28 4.3 Tuples and Sequences £|ÚS ................................... 28 4.4 Sets 8Ü................................................. 30 4.5 Dictionaries i;............................................. 30 4.6 Looping Techniques ÌEâ ..................................... 32 4.7 More on Conditions \^ ................................... 33 4.8 Comparing Sequences and Other Types ØÓSa.' ..................... 34 5 Modules ¬¬¬ 37 5.1 More on Modules \¬ ....................................... 38 5.2 Standard Modules IO¬ ....................................... 41 5.3 The dir() Function dir() ¼ê ................................... 42 5.4 Packages  ............................................... 43 6 Input and Output ÑÑÑ\\\ÚÚÚÑÑÑÑÑÑ 49 6.1 Fancier Output Formatting OÑÑª ............................... 49 6.2 Reading and Writing Files Ö© .................................. 53 7 Errors and Exceptions ØØØÚÚÚÉÉÉ~~~ 57 7.1 Syntax Errors {Ø......................................... 57 7.2 Exceptions É~ ............................................. 57 7.3 Handling Exceptions ?nÉ~ ..................................... 58 i 7.4 Raising Exceptions ÑÉ~ ...................................... 61 7.5 User-deﬁned Exceptions ^rg½ÂÉ~ ............................... 62 7.6 Deﬁning Clean-up Actions ½Ân1 ............................... 63 7.7 Predeﬁned Clean-up Actions ý½Ân1 ............................. 65 8 Classes 67 8.1 A Word About Terminology âû!................................. 67 8.2 Python Scopes and Name Spaces ^Ú·¶m ......................... 68 8.3 A First Look at Classes Ð£a ..................................... 70 8.4 Random Remarks  ² ....................................... 74 8.5 Inheritance U«............................................. 76 8.6 Private Variables hkCþ ....................................... 77 8.7 Odds and Ends Ö¿........................................... 78 8.8 Exceptions Are Classes Too É~´a ................................ 79 8.9 Iterators Sì ............................................. 80 8.10 Generators )¤ì ............................................ 81 8.11 Generator Expressions )¤ìLª .................................. 82 9 Brief Tour of the Standard Library IIIOOO¥¥¥VVVAAA 83 9.1 Operating System Interface öXÚ ............................... 83 9.2 File Wildcards ©ÏÎ....................................... 84 9.3 Command Line Arguments ·-1ëê ................................ 84 9.4 Error Output Redirection and Program Termination ØÑÑ­½Ú§Sª . . . . . . . . . . 84 9.5 String Pattern Matching iÎGK ................................ 85 9.6 Mathematics êÆ............................................ 85 9.7 Internet Access pé¯ ....................................... 86 9.8 Dates and Times FÏÚm ...................................... 86 9.9 Data Compression êâØ  ...................................... 87 9.10 Performance Measurement 5UÝþ .................................. 87 9.11 Quality Control þ ........................................ 87 9.12 Batteries Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 10 Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IIIOOO¥¥¥VVVAAA 91 10.1 Output Formatting ªzÑÑ..................................... 91 10.2 Templating  ............................................. 92 10.3 Working with Binary Data Record Layouts ¦^?P¹  .................... 93 10.4 Multi-threading õ§ ......................................... 94 10.5 Logging F ............................................... 95 10.6 Weak References fÚ^ ........................................ 95 10.7 Tools for Working with Lists óLóä ................................. 96 10.8 Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic ?2:ê{........................ 98 11 What Now? 99 A Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution 101 A.1 Line Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 A.2 History Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 A.3 Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 A.4 Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 B Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations 105 B.1 Representation Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 C History and License 109 C.1 History of the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 ii C.2 Terms and conditions for accessing or otherwise using Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 C.3 Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 D Glossary 123 Index 127 iii iv CHAPTER ONE Whetting Your Appetite mè If you do much work on computers, eventually you ﬁnd that there’s some task you’d like to automate. For example, you may wish to perform a search-and-replace over a large number of text ﬁles, or rename and rearrange a bunch of photo ﬁles in a complicated way. Perhaps you’d like to write a small custom database, or a specialized GUI application, or a simple game. bXJ\^OÅéõó§\F"k ?Ö±gÄ¤"~X§\UF"3þ©© ¥?1¦éOö§N´ÏLE,ª­·¶¿­#{1ã©"U\U¢½ êâ¥§½öAÏGUIA^§S§½ö{üiZ" If you’re a professional software developer, you may have to work with several C/C++/Java libraries but ﬁnd the usual write/compile/test/re-compile cycle is too slow. Perhaps you’re writing a test suite for such a library and ﬁnd writing the testing code a tedious task. Or maybe you’ve written a program that could use an extension language, and you don’t want to design and implement a whole new language for your application. XJ\´;^muö§\U^AC/C++/Java ¥ó§¢´uyÏ~?/?È/ÿÁ/­?È Ìú "U\3z¥?éAÿÁè§¢´uyù´<¹"½ö\3? k*Ðó§S§ \Ø\A^§SOÚ¢y#ó" Python is just the language for you. Python Ò´\Ió" You could write a UNIX shell script or Windows batch ﬁles for some of these tasks, but shell scripts are best at moving around ﬁles and changing text data, not well-suited for GUI applications or games. You could write a C/C++/Java program, but it can take a lot of development time to get even a ﬁrst-draft program. Python is simpler to use, available on Windows, MacOS X, and UNIX operating systems, and will help you get the job done more quickly. \U ¢é ?Ö?UNIX shell ½öWindows 1?n©§¢´ óò£Ä©Ú?U© êâ§Ø·ÜGUI A^§S½öiZ"\UC/C++/Java§S§¢´ù EâÒ´mu{ü§S ^þmum"ÃØ3Windows!MacOS X ½öUNIX öXÚþ§Python ~´u¦^§±Ï \¯¤?Ö" Python is simple to use, but it is a real programming language, offering much more structure and support for large pro- grams than shell scripts or batch ﬁles can offer. On the other hand, Python also offers much more error checking than C, and, being a very-high-level language, it has high-level data types built in, such as ﬂexible arrays and dictionaries. Because of its more general data types Python is applicable to a much larger problem domain than Awk or even Perl, yet many things are at least as easy in Python as in those languages. Python éN´þÃ§¢§´ý?§ó§éuShell§§Jø¢é.§S|±Ú(¨õ õ",¡§§Jø 'C õØu¦§¿§~p?ó§§PkSp?êâ a.§~XCê|Úi;§XJÏLC 5¢y{§ù óU4\ZþAUm"ÏPkõ Ï^êâa.§Python ·Ü'Awk $Perl 2¯K+§3Ù§éõ+§Python ¨'O ó´^õ" Python allows you to split your program into modules that can be reused in other Python programs. It comes with a 1 large collection of standard modules that you can use as the basis of your programs — or as examples to start learning to program in Python. Some of these modules provide things like ﬁle I/O, system calls, sockets, and even interfaces to graphical user interface toolkits like Tk. Python ±4\rgC§S© ¤ØÓ ¬§±B3Ù§Python §S¥­^"ù\Ò±4g C§SÄuéIO ¬8½ö^§«~5ÆSPython ?§"Python ¥8¤  aq© I/O§XÚN^§sockets§$Tk ùã/óä" Python is an interpreted language, which can save you considerable time during program development because no compilation and linking is necessary. The interpreter can be used interactively, which makes it easy to experiment with features of the language, to write throw-away programs, or to test functions during bottom-up program development. It is also a handy desk calculator. Python´)º.ó§ÏØI?ÈÚóm§§±\e mum")ºì±¢p ª¦^§ùÒ±éBÿÁó¥«õU§±Bu?uÙ^§S§½ö?1ge þm u"±¨§´Ã^Oì" Python enables programs to be written compactly and readably. Programs written in Python are typically much shorter than equivalent C, C++, or Java programs, for several reasons: Python ±Ñé;nÚÖ5ér§S"^Python §SÏ~'ÓC!C++ ½Java§Sá õ§ù´Ï±eA¦Ïµ • the high-level data types allow you to express complex operations in a single statement; • statement grouping is done by indentation instead of beginning and ending brackets; • no variable or argument declarations are necessary. • p?êâ(¨¦\±3üÕé¥LÑéE,ö¶ • é|6u ? Ø´begin/end ¬¶ •ØICþ½ëê(²" Python is extensible: if you know how to program in C it is easy to add a new built-in function or module to the interpreter, either to perform critical operations at maximum speed, or to link Python programs to libraries that may only be available in binary form (such as a vendor-speciﬁc graphics library). Once you are really hooked, you can link the Python interpreter into an application written in C and use it as an extension or command language for that application. Python ´*ÐµXJ\¬^C ó§S§@Ò±éN´)ºìV\#8¤¬ÚõU§½ö z´¶§¦ÙÝ§½ö¦Python U ó¤I?e¨þ£'X,;^ûã/ ¥¤"\ýÙGù §\Ò±òPython 8¤?dC ¤§S§rPython ¨ù§S*Ð ½·-1ó" By the way, the language is named after the BBC show “Monty Python’s Flying Circus” and has nothing to do with nasty reptiles. Making references to Monty Python skits in documentation is not only allowed, it is encouraged! ^Be§ùó¶i5 uBBC /Monty Python’s Flying Circus0!8§Ú8÷Ávk?Û 'X"3© ¥Ú^Monty Python ;Ø=´#N§ Éy Now that you are all excited about Python, you’ll want to examine it in some more detail. Since the best way to learn a language is to use it, the tutorial invites you to play with the Python interpreter as you read. y3·®² ) Python ¥¤k-Ä<%ÀÜ§V\c[ÁÁ§ "ÆSóÐ{ Ò´¦^§§X\¤Ö§©¬Ú+\$^Python )ºì" In the next chapter, the mechanics of using the interpreter are explained. This is rather mundane information, but essential for trying out the examples shown later. e!¥§·²)ºì^{"ùvko SN§ØLkÏu·öS ¡Ð«~f" 2 Chapter 1. Whetting Your Appetite mè The rest of the tutorial introduces various features of the Python language and system through examples, beginning with simple expressions, statements and data types, through functions and modules, and ﬁnally touching upon ad- vanced concepts like exceptions and user-deﬁned classes. HÙ§Ü©ÏL~f0 Python óÚXÚ«õU§m©´{üLª!{Úêâa.§ e5´¼êÚ ¬§ ´ÃXÉ~Úg½Âaùp?SN" 3 4 CHAPTER TWO Using the Python Interpreter ¦ ^Python)ºì 2.1 Invoking the Interpreter N^)ºì The Python interpreter is usually installed as ‘/usr/local/bin/python’ on those machines where it is available; putting ‘/usr/local/bin’ in your UNIX shell’s search path makes it possible to start it by typing the command Ï~Python )ºìSC38IÅì‘/usr/local/bin/python’ 8¹e¶r‘/usr/local/bin’ 8¹?\UNIX Shell |¢´»p§(¢§±ÏLÑ\ python to the shell. Since the choice of the directory where the interpreter lives is an installation option, other places are possible; check with your local Python guru or system administrator. (E.g., ‘/usr/local/python’ is a popular alternative location.) 5éÄ"ÏSC´»´À§¤±kUSC3Ù§ §\±SCPython ^r½XÚ+n éX"£~X§‘/usr/local/python’Ò´é~ÀJ¤ On Windows machines, the Python installation is usually placed in ‘C:\Python24’, though you can change this when you’re running the installer. To add this directory to your path, you can type the following command into the command prompt in a DOS box: 3WindowsÅìþ§Python Ï~SC3‘C:\Python25’(¦©´24§·ù²²´2.5tut§w5¦ö3 ùp¿ ))Èö),¨,§·3$1SC§Sÿ±UC§"Irù8¹\\·Path ¥ {§±e¡ù3DOS I¥Ñ\·-1" set path=%path%;C:\python24 Typing an end-of-ﬁle character (Control-D on UNIX, Control-Z on Windows) at the primary prompt causes the interpreter to exit with a zero exit status. If that doesn’t work, you can exit the interpreter by typing the following commands: ‘import sys; sys.exit()’. Ñ\©(åÎ£UNIXþ´ kbdCtrl+D§Windowsþ´Ctrl+Z¤)ºì¬±0òÑ"XJùvkå ^§\±Ñ\±e·-òÑµ‘import sys; sys.exit()’" The interpreter’s line-editing features usually aren’t very sophisticated. On UNIX, whoever installed the interpreter may have enabled support for the GNU readline library, which adds more elaborate interactive editing and history features. Perhaps the quickest check to see whether command line editing is supported is typing Control-P to the 5 ﬁrst Python prompt you get. If it beeps, you have command line editing; see Appendix A for an introduction to the keys. If nothing appears to happen, or if ^P is echoed, command line editing isn’t available; you’ll only be able to use backspace to remove characters from the current line. )ºì1?6õU¿ØéE,"C3UNIXþ)ºìU¬kGNU readline ¥|±§ùÒ±£© °|¢p?6Ú{¤P¹õU"Uu¦·-1?6ì|±UåBª´3ÌJ«ÎeÑ \Ctrl-P"XJkþþ(£OÅ(ì¤§²\±¦^·-1?6õU§lN¹AA ±¦¯$0 "XJovku(§½ö^Pw« Ñ5§²·-1?6õUØ^§\k^ò íKÑ \·- " The interpreter operates somewhat like the UNIX shell: when called with standard input connected to a tty device, it reads and executes commands interactively; when called with a ﬁle name argument or with a ﬁle as standard input, it reads and executes a script from that ﬁle. )ºìök UNIX Shellµ¦^ªàIOÑ\5N^§§)ºì¢p)ÖÚ1·-§ ÏL©¶ëê½±©IOÑ\§§l©¥)Ö¿1 " A second way of starting the interpreter is ‘python -c command [arg] ...’, which executes the statement(s) in command, analogous to the shell’s -c option. Since Python statements often contain spaces or other characters that are special to the shell, it is best to quote command in its entirety with double quotes. éÄ)ºì1{´‘python -c command [arg] ...’§ù«{±3·-1¥1é§ ÓuShell-c À"ÏPythonéÏ~¬)aAÏiÎ§¤±Ðré ^VÚÒ å5" Some Python modules are also useful as scripts. These can be invoked using ‘python -m module [arg] ...’, which executes the source ﬁle for module as if you had spelled out its full name on the command line. k Python ¬±¨ ¦^"§±^‘python -m module [arg] ...’N^§ùÒ¬\ 3·-1¥ÑÙ¶i$1 ©" Note that there is a difference between ‘python file’ and ‘python ’); for continuation lines it prompts with the secondary prompt, by default three dots (‘... ’). The interpreter prints a welcome message stating its version number and a copyright notice before printing the ﬁrst prompt: ltty Ö·-§·¡)ºìóu¢pª "ù«ªe§âÌJ«Î51§ÌJ«ÎÏ~I£ nuÒ£‘»> ’ ¤¶UYÜ©¡láJ«Î §dn:I££‘... ’¤"311c§) ºì<H&E!ÒÚÇJ«µ python Python 1.5.2b2 (#1, Feb 28 1999, 00:02:06) [GCC 2.8.1] on sunos5 Copyright 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam >>> Continuation lines are needed when entering a multi-line construct. As an example, take a look at this if statement: Ñ\õ1(¨IláJ«Î §~X§e¡ùif éµ >>> the_world_is_flat = 1 >>> if the_world_is_flat: ... print "Be careful not to fall off!" ... Be careful not to fall off! 2.2 The Interpreter and Its Environment )ºì9Ù¸ 2.2.1 Error Handling Ø?n When an error occurs, the interpreter prints an error message and a stack trace. In interactive mode, it then returns to the primary prompt; when input came from a ﬁle, it exits with a nonzero exit status after printing the stack trace. (Exceptions handled by an except clause in a try statement are not errors in this context.) Some errors are uncon- ditionally fatal and cause an exit with a nonzero exit; this applies to internal inconsistencies and some cases of running out of memory. All error messages are written to the standard error stream; normal output from executed commands is written to standard output. kØu)§)ºì<Ø&EÚÒlì"¢pªe§§£ÌJ«Î§XJl©Ñ\ 1§§3<Òlì ±"GòÑ"£É~±dtry é¥except fé5§ùÒØ¬Ñ yþ©¥Ø&E¤k ~·Ø¬"GeòÑ§ùdÏ~dSÜgñÚSÄÑE ¤"¤kØ&EÑ\IOØ6¶·-¥1ÊÏÑÑ\IOÑÑ" Typing the interrupt character (usually Control-C or DEL) to the primary or secondary prompt cancels the input and returns to the primary prompt.1 Typing an interrupt while a command is executing raises the KeyboardInterrupt 1 A problem with the GNU Readline package may prevent this. 2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment )ºì9Ù¸ 7 exception, which may be handled by a try statement. 3ÌJ«Î½NáJ«ÎÑ\¥äÎ£Ï~´Control-C ½öDEL¤Ò¬¨cÑ\§£Ì·-1"2. 1·-Ñ\¥äÎ¬ÑKeyboardInterrupt É~§§±try é¼" 2.2.2 Executable Python Scripts 1Python  On BSD’ish UNIX systems, Python scripts can be made directly executable, like shell scripts, by putting the line BSDaUNIXXÚ¥§Python ±Shell @1"3 ©mÞ1·-§½ ©Úªµ #! /usr/bin/env python (assuming that the interpreter is on the user’s PATH) at the beginning of the script and giving the ﬁle an executable mode. The ‘#!’ must be the ﬁrst two characters of the ﬁle. On some platforms, this ﬁrst line must end with a UNIX-style line ending (‘\n’), not a Mac OS (‘\r’) or Windows (‘\r\n’) line ending. Note that the hash, or pound, character, ‘#’, is used to start a comment in Python. ((@Python )ºì3^r´»¥)‘#!’ 7L´©cüiÎ§3, ²þ§117L±UNIXº 1(åÎ£‘\n’¤(å§ØU^Mac£‘\r’¤½Windows£‘\r\n’¤(åÎ"5¿§‘#’´Python¥´ 15ºå©Î" The script can be given an executable mode, or permission, using the chmod command: ±ÏLchmod ·-½1ªÚ" $chmod +x myscript.py 2.2.3 Source Code Encoding §S?è It is possible to use encodings different than ASCII in Python source ﬁles. The best way to do it is to put one more special comment line right after the #! line to deﬁne the source ﬁle encoding: Python  ©±ÏL?è¦^ASCII ±©iÎ8"Ð{´3#! 1 ¡^AÏ5º15 ½ÂiÎ8" #-*- coding: encoding -*- With that declaration, all characters in the source ﬁle will be treated as having the encoding encoding, and it will be possible to directly write Unicode string literals in the selected encoding. The list of possible encodings can be found in the Python Library Reference, in the section on codecs. âù(²§Python ¬}Áò©¥iÎ?è=encoding ?è"¿ §§¦Uò½?è ¤Unicode © "3Python ¥ëÃþ ¥codecs Ü°±é^?èL£â<²¨§í¦ ^cp-936½utf-8?n¥©¨¨Èö5¤" For example, to write Unicode literals including the Euro currency symbol, the ISO-8859-15 encoding can be used, with the Euro symbol having the ordinal value 164. This script will print the value 8364 (the Unicode codepoint corresponding to the Euro symbol) and then exit: 2GNU readline ¯KU¬E¤§Ã{~ó" 8 Chapter 2. Using the Python Interpreter ¦^Python)ºì ~X§±^ISO-8859-15 ?è±^5?¹î£ÎÒUnicode © §Ù?è164"ù ¬Ñ Ñ8364 £î£ÎÒUnicode éA?è¤, òÑµ #-*- coding: iso-8859-15 -*- currency = u"C" print ord(currency) If your editor supports saving ﬁles as UTF-8 with a UTF-8 byte order mark (aka BOM), you can use that in- stead of an encoding declaration. IDLE supports this capability if Options/General/Default Source Encoding/UTF-8 is set. Notice that this signature is not understood in older Python releases (2.2 and earlier), and also not understood by the operating system for script ﬁles with #! lines (only used on UNIX systems). XJ\©?6ì|±UTF-8 ª§¿ ±¢UTF-8 IP£aka BOM - Byte Order Mark¤§\±^ ù5O?è(²"IDLE±ÏL½Options/General/Default Source Encoding/UTF-8 5 |±§"I5¿´ÎPythonØ|±ùIP£Python 2.2½@ ¤§Ó|±#!1öXÚ Ø¬|±§£=^uUNIXXÚ¤" By using UTF-8 (either through the signature or an encoding declaration), characters of most languages in the world can be used simultaneously in string literals and comments. Using non-ASCII characters in identiﬁers is not supported. To display all these characters properly, your editor must recognize that the ﬁle is UTF-8, and it must use a font that supports all the characters in the ﬁle. ¦^UTF-8 Sè£ÃØ´^IP´?è(²¤§·±3iÎGÚ5º¥¦^­.þÜ©ó" I£Î¥ØU¦^ASCII iÎ8" (w«¤kiÎ§\½3?6ì¥ò©¢UTF-8  ª§ ¦^|±©¥¤kiÎiN" 2.2.4 The Interactive Startup File ¢pª¸éÄ© When you use Python interactively, it is frequently handy to have some standard commands executed every time the interpreter is started. You can do this by setting an environment variable named PYTHONSTARTUP to the name of a ﬁle containing your start-up commands. This is similar to the ‘.proﬁle’ feature of the UNIX shells. ¦^Python )ºìÿ§·UI3zg)ºìéÄ1 ·-"\±3©¥ ¹\1·-§½¶PYTHONSTARTUP ¸Cþ5½ù©"ùaquUnix shell‘.proﬁle’ ©" This ﬁle is only read in interactive sessions, not when Python reads commands from a script, and not when ‘/dev/tty’ is given as the explicit source of commands (which otherwise behaves like an interactive session). It is executed in the same namespace where interactive commands are executed, so that objects that it deﬁnes or imports can be used without qualiﬁcation in the interactive session. You can also change the prompts sys.ps1 and sys.ps2 in this ﬁle. ù©3¢p¬{Ï´Ö§¨Python l ¥)Ö©½±ªà‘/dev/tty’ ©Ü·- KØ¬X d£¦+§1é´?3¢p¬{Ï"¤§)ºì1·-?3Ó·¶m§¤±d§½ Â½Ú^±3)ºì¥ØÉ¦^"\±3ù©¥UCsys.ps1 Úsys.ps2 -" If you want to read an additional start-up ﬁle from the current directory, you can program this in the global start- up ﬁle using code like ‘if os.path.isfile(’.pythonrc.py’): execfile(’.pythonrc.py’)’. If you want to use the startup ﬁle in a script, you must do this explicitly in the script: XJ\3¨c8¹¥1N\éÄ©§±3 ÛéÄ©¥\\aq±eèµ‘if os.path.isfile(’.pythonrc.py’): execfile(’.pythonrc.py’)’"XJ\3, ¥ ¦^éÄ©§7L3 ¥\ùéµ 2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environment )ºì9Ù¸ 9 import os filename = os.environ.get(’PYTHONSTARTUP’) if filename and os.path.isfile(filename): execfile(filename) 10 Chapter 2. Using the Python Interpreter ¦^Python)ºì CHAPTER THREE More Control Flow Tools \6§ Besides the while statement just introduced, Python knows the usual control ﬂow statements known from other languages, with some twists. Ø c¡0 while é§Python lOó¥/  6§õU§¿k¤UC" 3.1 if Statements Perhaps the most well-known statement type is the if statement. For example: Nk¶´if é"~Xµ >>> x = int(raw_input("Please enter an integer: ")) >>> if x < 0: ... x = 0 ... print ’Negative changed to zero’ ... elif x == 0: ... print ’Zero’ ... elif x == 1: ... print ’Single’ ... else: ... print ’More’ ... There can be zero or more elif parts, and the else part is optional. The keyword ‘elif’ is short for ‘else if’, and is useful to avoid excessive indentation. An if ... elif ... elif . . . sequence is a substitute for the switch or case statements found in other languages. U¬k"õelif Ü©§else ´À"' i/elif0´/else if 0 §ù±k¨; L  ?"if ... elif ... elif ... S^uOÙ§ó¥switch ½case é" 3.2 for Statements for é The for statement in Python differs a bit from what you may be used to in C or Pascal. Rather than always iterating over an arithmetic progression of numbers (like in Pascal), or giving the user the ability to deﬁne both the iteration step and halting condition (as C), Python’s for statement iterates over the items of any sequence (a list or a string), in the order that they appear in the sequence. For example (no pun intended): Python ¥for éÚC ½Pascal ¥ÑkØÓ"Ï~ÌU¬â êÚ?L§ £XPascal¤½d^r5½ÂSÚ½Ú¥^£XC ¤§Python for éâ?¿S£óL½ 11 iÎG¤¥f§U§3S¥^S5?1S"~X£vkV¤µ >>> # Measure some strings: ... a = [’cat’, ’window’, ’defenestrate’] >>> for x in a: ... print x, len(x) ... cat 3 window 6 defenestrate 12 It is not safe to modify the sequence being iterated over in the loop (this can only happen for mutable sequence types, such as lists). If you need to modify the list you are iterating over (for example, to duplicate selected items) you must iterate over a copy. The slice notation makes this particularly convenient: 3SL§¥?USSØS £k3¦^óLùCSâ¬kù¹¤"XJ\ ?U\SS£~X§EÀJ¤§\±S§E "¦^I£Ò±éBù :µ >>> for x in a[:]: # make a slice copy of the entire list ... if len(x) > 6: a.insert(0, x) ... >>> a [’defenestrate’, ’cat’, ’window’, ’defenestrate’] 3.3 The range() Function range()¼ê If you do need to iterate over a sequence of numbers, the built-in function range() comes in handy. It generates lists containing arithmetic progressions: XJ\IêS§S¼êrange()U¬ék^§§)¤ ?êóL" >>> range(10) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] The given end point is never part of the generated list; range(10) generates a list of 10 values, the legal indices for items of a sequence of length 10. It is possible to let the range start at another number, or to specify a different increment (even negative; sometimes this is called the ‘step’): range(10) )¤ ¹10óL§§^óL¢ÚW¿ ùÝ10L§¤)¤óL ¥Ø)¥(å"±4rangeöl,êm©§½ö±½ØÓÚ?£$ ´Kê§kù¡/Ú0¤µ >>> range(5, 10) [5, 6, 7, 8, 9] >>> range(0, 10, 3) [0, 3, 6, 9] >>> range(-10, -100, -30) [-10, -40, -70] 12 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ To iterate over the indices of a sequence, combine range() and len() as follows: ISóL¢Ú{§Xe¤«(Ü¦^range() Úlen() µ >>> a = [’Mary’, ’had’, ’a’, ’little’, ’lamb’] >>> for i in range(len(a)): ... print i, a[i] ... 0 Mary 1 had 2 a 3 little 4 lamb 3.4 break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops break Úcontinue é, ±9Ì¥else fé The break statement, like in C, breaks out of the smallest enclosing for or while loop. break éÚC ¥aq§^uaÑC?for ½while Ì" The continue statement, also borrowed from C, continues with the next iteration of the loop. continue é´lC ¥/5§§L«ÌUY1egS" Loop statements may have an else clause; it is executed when the loop terminates through exhaustion of the list (with for) or when the condition becomes false (with while), but not when the loop is terminated by a break statement. This is exempliﬁed by the following loop, which searches for prime numbers: Ì±kelse fé;§3ÌSL£éufor ¤½1^false £éuwhile ¤ 1§¢Ìbreak ¥¹eØ¬1"±e|¢ê«~§Sü« ùféµ >>> for n in range(2, 10): ... for x in range(2, n): ... if n % x == 0: ... print n, ’equals’, x, ’*’, n/x ... break ... else: ... # loop fell through without finding a factor ... print n, ’is a prime number’ ... 2 is a prime number 3 is a prime number 4 equals 2 * 2 5 is a prime number 6 equals 2 * 3 7 is a prime number 8 equals 2 * 4 9 equals 3 * 3 3.4. break and continue Statements, and else Clauses on Loops break Úcontinue é, ±9Ì ¥else fé 13 3.5 pass Statements pass é The pass statement does nothing. It can be used when a statement is required syntactically but the program requires no action. For example: pass éoØ"§^u@ {þ7Lkoé§¢§SoØ|Ü§~Xµ >>> while True: ... pass # Busy-wait for keyboard interrupt ... 3.6 Deﬁning Functions ½Â¼ê We can create a function that writes the Fibonacci series to an arbitrary boundary: ·±½Â¼ê±)¤?¿þ.Å@êêµ >>> def fib(n): # write Fibonacci series up to n ... """Print a Fibonacci series up to n.""" ... a, b = 0, 1 ... while b < n: ... print b, ... a, b = b, a+b ... >>> # Now call the function we just defined: ... fib(2000) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 The keyword def introduces a function deﬁnition. It must be followed by the function name and the parenthesized list of formal parameters. The statements that form the body of the function start at the next line, and must be indented. The ﬁrst statement of the function body can optionally be a string literal; this string literal is the function’s documentation string, or docstring. 'idef Ú\ ¼ê½Â"3Ù 7Lk¼ê¶Ú)/ªëê )Ò"¼êNéle 1m©§7L´ ?"¼êN11±´iÎG§ùiÎG´T¼ê(© iÎG £documentation string¤)§¡docstring" There are tools which use docstrings to automatically produce online or printed documentation, or to let the user interactively browse through code; it’s good practice to include docstrings in code that you write, so try to make a habit of it. k © iÎGóä±3?n½<© §½4^r¢pèAè;3è¥\\© iÎG´ Ð{§AT¤ùS." The execution of a function introduces a new symbol table used for the local variables of the function. More precisely, all variable assignments in a function store the value in the local symbol table; whereas variable references ﬁrst look in the local symbol table, then in the global symbol table, and then in the table of built-in names. Thus, global variables cannot be directly assigned a value within a function (unless named in a global statement), although they may be referenced. 1¼ê¬ÛÜCþÚ\#ÎÒL"¤kÛÜCþÑ;3ùÛÜÎÒL¥"Ú^ëê §¬klÛÜÎÒL¥¦é§, ´ÛÎÒL§, ´S·¶L"Ïd§Ûëê,±Ú ^§¢§ØU3¼ê¥D£Ø§^global é·¶¤" 14 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ The actual parameters (arguments) to a function call are introduced in the local symbol table of the called function when it is called; thus, arguments are passed using call by value (where the value is always an object reference, not the value of the object).1 When a function calls another function, a new local symbol table is created for that call. ¼êÚ^¢Sëê3¼êN^Ú\ÛÜÎÒL§Ïd§¢ëo´DN^£ùpo´éÚ ^§ Ø´Té¤"2 ¼ê,¼êN^§#ÛÜÎÒL3N^L§¥Mï" A function deﬁnition introduces the function name in the current symbol table. The value of the function name has a type that is recognized by the interpreter as a user-deﬁned function. This value can be assigned to another name which can then also be used as a function. This serves as a general renaming mechanism: ¼ê½Â3¨cÎÒL¥Ú\¼ê¶"^r½Â¼ê§¼ê¶k)ºì@a."ù ±DÙ§·¶§¦ÙU ¼ê5¦^"ùÒ­·¶Åµ >>> fib >>> f = fib >>> f(100) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 You might object that fib is not a function but a procedure. In Python, like in C, procedures are just functions that don’t return a value. In fact, technically speaking, procedures do return a value, albeit a rather boring one. This value is called None (it’s a built-in name). Writing the value None is normally suppressed by the interpreter if it would be the only value written. You can see it if you really want to: \U@fibØ´¼ê£function ¤§ ´L§£procedure ¤"Python ÚC §L§´ vk£¼ê"¢Sþ§lEâþù§L§k£§,´Ø?>> print fib(0) None It is simple to write a function that returns a list of the numbers of the Fibonacci series, instead of printing it: ±e«~ü« XÛl¼ê¥£¹Å@êêêóL§ Ø´<§µ >>> def fib2(n): # return Fibonacci series up to n ... """Return a list containing the Fibonacci series up to n.""" ... result = [] ... a, b = 0, 1 ... while b < n: ... result.append(b) # see below ... a, b = b, a+b ... return result ... >>> f100 = fib2(100) # call it >>> f100 # write the result [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89] 1 Actually, call by object reference would be a better description, since if a mutable object is passed, the caller will see any changes the callee makes to it (items inserted into a list). 2¯¢þ§¡N^éÚ^Ü·"ÏCéD4?5 §N^ö±wN^é?Û?U£X3óL¥¢ \#f¤" 3.6. Deﬁning Functions ½Â¼ê 15 This example, as usual, demonstrates some new Python features: Ú±c§ù~fü«  #Python õUµ • The return statement returns with a value from a function. return without an expression argument returns None. Falling off the end of a procedure also returns None. return él¼ê¥£§ØLªreturn £None"L§(å ¬£None " • The statement result.append(b) calls a method of the list object result. A method is a function that ‘belongs’ to an object and is named obj.methodname, where obj is some object (this may be an expression), and methodname is the name of a method that is deﬁned by the object’s type. Different types deﬁne different methods. Methods of different types may have the same name without causing ambiguity. (It is possible to deﬁne your own object types and methods, using classes, as discussed later in this tutorial.) The method append() shown in the example is deﬁned for list objects; it adds a new element at the end of the list. In this example it is equivalent to ‘result = result + [b]’, but more efﬁcient. éresult.append(b) ¡óLéresult {£method ¤"{´/áu0 ,é¼ê§§·¶obj.methodename §ùpobj ´,é£U´L ª¤§methodename ´,3Téa.½Â¥{·¶"ØÓa.½ÂØÓ{" ØÓa.UkÓ¶i{§¢Ø¬· "£¨\½ÂgCéa.Ú{§U¬Ñyù «¹§H ¡Ù!¬0 XÛ¦^a.¤"«~¥ü«append(){dóLé½Â§ §óL¥\\#£"3«~¥§Óu‘"result = result + [b]"’§ØL¨Çp" 3.7 More on Deﬁning Functions \¼ê½Â It is also possible to deﬁne functions with a variable number of arguments. There are three forms, which can be combined. kI½ÂëêêC¼ê"kn{±8§·±|Ü¦^§" 3.7.1 Default Argument Values ëê%@ The most useful form is to specify a default value for one or more arguments. This creates a function that can be called with fewer arguments than it is deﬁned to allow. For example: k^/ª´½õëê½%@"ùMï¼ê±^¨ëê5N^"~Xµ def ask_ok(prompt, retries=4, complaint=’Yes or no, please!’): while True: ok = raw_input(prompt) if ok in (’y’, ’ye’, ’yes’): return True if ok in (’n’, ’no’, ’nop’, ’nope’): return False retries = retries - 1 if retries < 0: raise IOError, ’refusenik user’ print complaint This function can be called either like this: ask_ok(’Do you really want to quit?’) or like this: ask_ok(’OK to overwrite the file?’, 2). ù  ¼ ê   ± ^ ± e   ª N ^ µask_ok(’Do you really want to quit?’)§ ½ ö  ù µask_ok(’OK to overwrite the file?’, 2)" This example also introduces the in keyword. This tests whether or not a sequence contains a certain value. ù«~0 'iin "§uÿS¥´Ä¹,½" 16 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ The default values are evaluated at the point of function deﬁnition in the deﬁning scope, so that %@3¼ê½Âã)Û§Xe¤«µ i = 5 def f(arg=i): print arg i = 6 f() will print 5. ±þè¬<5" Important warning: The default value is evaluated only once. This makes a difference when the default is a mutable object such as a list, dictionary, or instances of most classes. For example, the following function accumulates the arguments passed to it on subsequent calls: def f(a, L=[]): L.append(a) return L print f(1) print f(2) print f(3) This will print ù¬<Ñµ [1] [1, 2] [1, 2, 3] If you don’t want the default to be shared between subsequent calls, you can write the function like this instead: XJ\Ø3ØÓ¼êN^m¡ëê%@§±Xe¡¢~?¼êµ def f(a, L=None): if L is None: L = [] L.append(a) return L 3.7.2 Keyword Arguments Functions can also be called using keyword arguments of the form ‘keyword = value’. For instance, the following function: ¼ê±ÏL'iëê/ª5N^§/X‘keyword = value’"~X§±e¼êµ 3.7. More on Deﬁning Functions \¼ê½Â 17 def parrot(voltage, state=’a stiff’, action=’voom’, type=’Norwegian Blue’): print "-- This parrot wouldn’t", action, print "if you put", voltage, "volts through it." print "-- Lovely plumage, the", type print "-- It’s", state, "!" could be called in any of the following ways: ±^±e?{N^µ parrot(1000) parrot(action = ’VOOOOOM’, voltage = 1000000) parrot(’a thousand’, state = ’pushing up the daisies’) parrot(’a million’, ’bereft of life’, ’jump’) but the following calls would all be invalid: ØL±eA«N^´Ã¨µ parrot() # required argument missing parrot(voltage=5.0, ’dead’) # non-keyword argument following keyword parrot(110, voltage=220) # duplicate value for argument parrot(actor=’John Cleese’) # unknown keyword In general, an argument list must have any positional arguments followed by any keyword arguments, where the keywords must be chosen from the formal parameter names. It’s not important whether a formal parameter has a default value or not. No argument may receive a value more than once — formal parameter names corresponding to positional arguments cannot be used as keywords in the same calls. Here’s an example that fails due to this restriction: Ï~§ëêL¥z'iÑ7L5gu/ªëê§zëêÑkéA'i"/ªëêkvk %@¿Ø­"¢SëêØUgDõ))/ªëêØU3ÓgN^¥Ó¦^ Ú'i ½"ùpk~fü« 3ù«åe¤Ñy}¹µ >>> def function(a): ... pass ... >>> function(0, a=0) Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? TypeError: function() got multiple values for keyword argument ’a’ When a ﬁnal formal parameter of the form **name is present, it receives a dictionary containing all keyword argu- ments except for those corresponding to a formal parameter. This may be combined with a formal parameter of the form *name (described in the next subsection) which receives a tuple containing the positional arguments beyond the formal parameter list. (*name must occur before **name.) For example, if we deﬁne a function like this: Ú\/X**name ëê§§Âi; §Ti;¹ ¤kÑy3/ªëêL¥'i ëê"ùpU¬|Ü¦^/X*name /ªëê§§Â£|£e!¥¬[0 ¤§ ¹ ¤kvkÑy3/ªëêL¥ëê"£*name 7L3**name cÑy¤~X§·ù½Â ¼êµ 18 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ def cheeseshop(kind, *arguments, **keywords): print "-- Do you have any", kind, ’?’ print "-- I’m sorry, we’re all out of", kind for arg in arguments: print arg print ’-’*40 keys = keywords.keys() keys.sort() for kw in keys: print kw, ’:’, keywords[kw] It could be called like this: §±ùN^µ cheeseshop(’Limburger’, "It’s very runny, sir.", "It’s really very, VERY runny, sir.", client=’John Cleese’, shopkeeper=’Michael Palin’, sketch=’Cheese Shop Sketch’) and of course it would print: ¨,§¬UXeSN<µ -- Do you have any Limburger ? -- I’m sorry, we’re all out of Limburger It’s very runny, sir. It’s really very, VERY runny, sir. ---------------------------------------- client : John Cleese shopkeeper : Michael Palin sketch : Cheese Shop Sketch Note that the sort() method of the list of keyword argument names is called before printing the contents of the keywords dictionary; if this is not done, the order in which the arguments are printed is undeﬁned. 5¿sort(){3'ii;SN>> range(3, 6) # normal call with separate arguments [3, 4, 5] >>> args = [3, 6] >>> range(*args) # call with arguments unpacked from a list [3, 4, 5] In the same fashion, dictionaries can deliver keyword arguments with the **-operator: ±Óª§±¦^** öÎ© 'iëêi;µ >>> def parrot(voltage, state=’a stiff’, action=’voom’): ... print "-- This parrot wouldn’t", action, ... print "if you put", voltage, "volts through it.", ... print "E’s", state, "!" ... >>> d = {"voltage": "four million", "state": "bleedin’ demised", "action": "VOOM"} >>> parrot(**d) -- This parrot wouldn’t VOOM if you put four million volts through it. E’s bleedin’ demised ! 3.7.5 Lambda Forms Lambda /ª By popular demand, a few features commonly found in functional programming languages like Lisp have been added to Python. With the lambda keyword, small anonymous functions can be created. Here’s a function that returns the sum of its two arguments: ‘lambda a, b: a+b’. Lambda forms can be used wherever function objects are required. They are syntactically restricted to a single expression. Semantically, they are just syntactic sugar for a normal function deﬁnition. Like nested function deﬁnitions, lambda forms can reference variables from the containing scope: Ñu¢SI§kA«Ï~3õU5ó~XLisp ¥ÑyõU\\ Python "ÏLlambda 'i§ ±Mïá¢]¶¼ê"ùpk¼ê£§üëêÚµ‘lambda a, b: a+b’"Lambda /ª ±^u?ÛI¼êé"Ñu{§§UküÕLª"Âþù§§´ÊÏ ¼ê½Â¥{E|"aqui@¼ê½Â§lambda /ª±l¹SÚ^Cþµ 20 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ >>> def make_incrementor(n): ... return lambda x: x + n ... >>> f = make_incrementor(42) >>> f(0) 42 >>> f(1) 43 3.7.6 Documentation Strings © iÎG There are emerging conventions about the content and formatting of documentation strings. ùp0 VgÚª" The ﬁrst line should always be a short, concise summary of the object’s purpose. For brevity, it should not explicitly state the object’s name or type, since these are available by other means (except if the name happens to be a verb describing a function’s operation). This line should begin with a capital letter and end with a period. 11AT´'ué^å{0"{áå§Ø^²(ãé¶½a.§Ï§±lOå» )£Øù¶i-|Ò´£ãù¼êöÄc¤"ù1AT±i1mÞ§±éÒ(" If there are more lines in the documentation string, the second line should be blank, visually separating the summary from the rest of the description. The following lines should be one or more paragraphs describing the object’s calling conventions, its side effects, etc. XJ© iÎGkõ1§11ATÑ5§e5[£ã²(©"e5© ATk½õ ã£ãéN^½!>.¨A" The Python parser does not strip indentation from multi-line string literals in Python, so tools that process documen- tation have to strip indentation if desired. This is done using the following convention. The ﬁrst non-blank line after the ﬁrst line of the string determines the amount of indentation for the entire documentation string. (We can’t use the ﬁrst line since it is generally adjacent to the string’s opening quotes so its indentation is not apparent in the string literal.) Whitespace “equivalent” to this indentation is then stripped from the start of all lines of the string. Lines that are indented less should not occur, but if they occur all their leading whitespace should be stripped. Equivalence of whitespace should be tested after expansion of tabs (to 8 spaces, normally). Python)ºìØ¬lõ1© iÎG¥Ø ?§¤±7ÿA¨gCØ ?"ùÎÜÏ~S ."11 11û½ ©  ?ª"£·Ø^11´Ï§Ï~;Xå© ÚÒ§ ?ªw«ØÙ"¤3x/¨u0´iÎGå© ?"z1ÑØATk ?§XJ k ?{§¤k3xÑATØK"3xÝA¨u*ÐLÎ°Ý£Ï~´8¤" Here is an example of a multi-line docstring: ±e´õ1© iÎG«~µ 3.7. More on Deﬁning Functions \¼ê½Â 21 >>> def my_function(): ... """Do nothing, but document it. ... ... No, really, it doesn’t do anything. ... """ ... pass ... >>> print my_function.__doc__ Do nothing, but document it. No, really, it doesn’t do anything. 22 Chapter 3. More Control Flow Tools \6§ CHAPTER FOUR Data Structures êâ(¨ This chapter describes some things you’ve learned about already in more detail, and adds some new things as well. Ù!\ùã \®²ÆSLÀÜ§¿\\ #SN" 4.1 More on Lists \óL The list data type has some more methods. Here are all of the methods of list objects: óLa.kéõ{§ùp´óLa.¤k{µ append(x) Add an item to the end of the list; equivalent to a[len(a):] = [x]. r£V\óL(§¨ua[len(a):] = [x] extend(L) Extend the list by appending all the items in the given list; equivalent to a[len(a):] = L. ÏLV\½óL¤k£5*¿óL§¨ua[len(a):] = L" insert(i, x) Insert an item at a given position. The ﬁrst argument is the index of the element before which to in- sert, so a.insert(0, x) inserts at the front of the list, and a.insert(len(a), x) is equivalent to a.append(x). 3  ½    ¢ \   £  " 1   ë ê ´ O  ¢ \  Ù c ¡  @  £   ¢ Ú § ~ Xa.insert(0,x) ¬¢\óLc§ a.insert(len(a), x) ¨ua.append(x)" remove(x) Remove the ﬁrst item from the list whose value is x. It is an error if there is no such item. íØóL¥x1£"XJvkù£§Ò¬£Ø" pop([i]) Remove the item at the given position in the list, and return it. If no index is speciﬁed, a.pop() removes and returns the last item in the list. (The square brackets around the i in the method signature denote that the parameter is optional, not that you should type square brackets at that position. You will see this notation frequently in the Python Library Reference.) lóL½ íØ£§¿òÙ£"XJvk½¢Ú§a.pop() £ £"£ =lóL¥íØ"£{¥i ü>)ÒL«ùëê´À§ Ø´¦\Ñ\é) Ò§\¬²~3Python ¥ëÃþ¥ùIP"¤ index(x) Return the index in the list of the ﬁrst item whose value is x. It is an error if there is no such item. £óL¥1x £¢Ú"XJvk£Ò¬£Ø" 23 count(x) Return the number of times x appears in the list. £x3óL¥Ñygê" sort() Sort the items of the list, in place. éóL¥£Ò/£¦©in place§¿=Tö?UN^§é))Èö¤?1üS" reverse() Reverse the elements of the list, in place. Ò/£¦©in place§¿=Tö?UN^§é))Èö¤üóL¥£" An example that uses most of the list methods: e¡ù«~ü« óLÜ©{µ >>> a = [66.25, 333, 333, 1, 1234.5] >>> print a.count(333), a.count(66.25), a.count(’x’) 2 1 0 >>> a.insert(2, -1) >>> a.append(333) >>> a [66.25, 333, -1, 333, 1, 1234.5, 333] >>> a.index(333) 1 >>> a.remove(333) >>> a [66.25, -1, 333, 1, 1234.5, 333] >>> a.reverse() >>> a [333, 1234.5, 1, 333, -1, 66.25] >>> a.sort() >>> a [-1, 1, 66.25, 333, 333, 1234.5] 4.1.1 Using Lists as Stacks róL¨æÒ¦^ The list methods make it very easy to use a list as a stack, where the last element added is the ﬁrst element retrieved (“last-in, ﬁrst-out”). To add an item to the top of the stack, use append(). To retrieve an item from the top of the stack, use pop() without an explicit index. For example: óL{¦óL±éBæÒ5¦^§æÒA½êâ(¨§k?\£  º£ ?kÑ¤"^append() {±r£V\æÒº"^Ø½¢Úpop() { ±r£læÒººÑ5"~Xµ 24 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ >>> stack = [3, 4, 5] >>> stack.append(6) >>> stack.append(7) >>> stack [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] >>> stack.pop() 7 >>> stack [3, 4, 5, 6] >>> stack.pop() 6 >>> stack.pop() 5 >>> stack [3, 4] 4.1.2 Using Lists as Queues róL¨è¦^ You can also use a list conveniently as a queue, where the ﬁrst element added is the ﬁrst element retrieved (“ﬁrst-in, ﬁrst-out”). To add an item to the back of the queue, use append(). To retrieve an item from the front of the queue, use pop() with 0 as the index. For example: \±róL¨è¦^§èA½êâ(¨§k?\£kº£k?kÑ¤"¦ ^append() {±r£V\è §±0ëêN^pop() {±rk?\£ºÑ 5"~Xµ >>> queue = ["Eric", "John", "Michael"] >>> queue.append("Terry") # Terry arrives >>> queue.append("Graham") # Graham arrives >>> queue.pop(0) ’Eric’ >>> queue.pop(0) ’John’ >>> queue [’Michael’, ’Terry’, ’Graham’] 4.1.3 Functional Programming Tools ¼êz?§óä There are three built-in functions that are very useful when used with lists: filter(), map(), and reduce(). éuóL5ù§knS¼ê~k^µfilter()§map()§Úreduce()" ‘filter(function, sequence)’ returns a sequence consisting of those items from the sequence for which func- tion(item) is true. If sequence is a string or tuple, the result will be of the same type; otherwise, it is always a list. For example, to compute some primes: ‘filter(function, sequence)’ £  sequence£ S  ¤ §  )  ½ S  ¥ ¤ k N ^function(item) £true£"£XJU{§¬£Óa.¤"XJsequence ´ string £iÎG¤½ötuple££|¤§£7½´Óa.§ÄK§§o´list"~X§±e §S±OÜ©êµ 4.1. More on Lists \óL 25 >>> def f(x): return x % 2 != 0 and x % 3 != 0 ... >>> filter(f, range(2, 25)) [5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23] ‘map(function, sequence)’ calls function(item) for each of the sequence’s items and returns a list of the return values. For example, to compute some cubes: ‘map(function, sequence)’ z£gN^function(item)¿ò£|¤óL£"~X§± e§SOáµ >>> def cube(x): return x*x*x ... >>> map(cube, range(1, 11)) [1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729, 1000] More than one sequence may be passed; the function must then have as many arguments as there are sequences and is called with the corresponding item from each sequence (or None if some sequence is shorter than another). For example: ±D\õS§¼ê7LkéAêþëê§1¬g^SþéA£5N^¼ê £XJ, S'Ù§á§Ò^None5O¤"XJrNone¼êD\§K£ëêO "~Xµ >>> seq = range(8) >>> def add(x, y): return x+y ... >>> map(add, seq, seq) [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14] ‘reduce(function, sequence)’ returns a single value constructed by calling the binary function function on the ﬁrst two items of the sequence, then on the result and the next item, and so on. For example, to compute the sum of the numbers 1 through 10: ‘reduce(func, sequence)’ £ü§§´ù¨EµÄk±Scü£N^¼ê§2± £Ú1nëêN^§g1e"~X§±e§SO110êÚµ >>> def add(x,y): return x+y ... >>> reduce(add, range(1, 11)) 55 If there’s only one item in the sequence, its value is returned; if the sequence is empty, an exception is raised. XJS¥k£§Ò£§§XJS´§ÒÑÉ~" A third argument can be passed to indicate the starting value. In this case the starting value is returned for an empty sequence, and the function is ﬁrst applied to the starting value and the ﬁrst sequence item, then to the result and the next item, and so on. For example, ±D\1nëêÐ©"XJS´§Ò£Ð©§ÄK¼ê¬kÂÐ©ÚS1 £§, ´£Úe£§daí"~Xµ 26 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ >>> def sum(seq): ... def add(x,y): return x+y ... return reduce(add, seq, 0) ... >>> sum(range(1, 11)) 55 >>> sum([]) 0 Don’t use this example’s deﬁnition of sum(): since summing numbers is such a common need, a built-in function sum(sequence) is already provided, and works exactly like this. Ø«~¥ù½Âsum()µÏÜOê ´Ï^I¦§32.3¥§Jø Ssum(sequence) ¼ê" New in version 2.3. 4.1.4 List Comprehensions óLíª List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists without resorting to use of map(), filter() and/or lambda. The resulting list deﬁnition tends often to be clearer than lists built using those constructs. Each list comprehension consists of an expression followed by a for clause, then zero or more for or if clauses. The result will be a list resulting from evaluating the expression in the context of the for and if clauses which follow it. If the expression would evaluate to a tuple, it must be parenthesized. óLíªJø MïóL{üå»§ÃI¦^map()§filter() ±9lambda"£óL½Â Ï~'Mïù óLß"zóLíª)3for é Lª§"½õfor½if é"£´dfor ½iffé Lª£|¤óL"XJ£|§7L\ þ)Ò" >>> freshfruit = [’ banana’, ’ loganberry ’, ’passion fruit ’] >>> [weapon.strip() for weapon in freshfruit] [’banana’, ’loganberry’, ’passion fruit’] >>> vec = [2, 4, 6] >>> [3*x for x in vec] [6, 12, 18] >>> [3*x for x in vec if x > 3] [12, 18] >>> [3*x for x in vec if x < 2] [] >>> [[x,x**2] for x in vec] [[2, 4], [4, 16], [6, 36]] >>> [x, x**2 for x in vec] # error - parens required for tuples File "", line 1, in ? [x, x**2 for x in vec] ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax >>> [(x, x**2) for x in vec] [(2, 4), (4, 16), (6, 36)] >>> vec1 = [2, 4, 6] >>> vec2 = [4, 3, -9] >>> [x*y for x in vec1 for y in vec2] [8, 6, -18, 16, 12, -36, 24, 18, -54] >>> [x+y for x in vec1 for y in vec2] [6, 5, -7, 8, 7, -5, 10, 9, -3] >>> [vec1[i]*vec2[i] for i in range(len(vec1))] [8, 12, -54] 4.1. More on Lists \óL 27 List comprehensions are much more ﬂexible than map() and can be applied to complex expressions and nested functions: óLíª'map()E,§¦^E,LªÚi@¼ê" >>> [str(round(355/113.0, i)) for i in range(1,6)] [’3.1’, ’3.14’, ’3.142’, ’3.1416’, ’3.14159’] 4.2 The del statement delé There is a way to remove an item from a list given its index instead of its value: the del statement. This differs from the pop()) method which returns a value. The del statement can also be used to remove slices from a list or clear the entire list (which we did earlier by assignment of an empty list to the slice). For example: k{lóL¥íØ½¢Ú£µdel é"£Cþpop() {ØÓ§del é± lóL¥£rÜ©½öóL(Ò·@kòóLDÜ©)"~Xµ >>> a = [-1, 1, 66.25, 333, 333, 1234.5] >>> del a[0] >>> a [1, 66.25, 333, 333, 1234.5] >>> del a[2:4] >>> a [1, 66.25, 1234.5] >>> del a[:] >>> a [] del can also be used to delete entire variables: del ±^uíØCþµ >>> del a Referencing the name a hereafter is an error (at least until another value is assigned to it). We’ll ﬁnd other uses for del later. d 2Ú^ù¶i¬u)Ø£¨§D,¤" ¡·¬uydelÙ§^{" 4.3 Tuples and Sequences £|ÚS We saw that lists and strings have many common properties, such as indexing and slicing operations. They are two examples of sequence data types. Since Python is an evolving language, other sequence data types may be added. There is also another standard sequence data type: the tuple. ·óLÚiÎGkéõÏ^á5§~X¢ÚÚö"§´Sa.¥ü«"ÏPython´ 3ØÊ?zó§U¬\\Ù§Sa.§ùpk,«IOSa.µ£|" A tuple consists of a number of values separated by commas, for instance: £|dêÏÒ©|¤§~Xµ 28 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ >>> t = 12345, 54321, ’hello!’ >>> t[0] 12345 >>> t (12345, 54321, ’hello!’) >>> # Tuples may be nested: ... u = t, (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) >>> u ((12345, 54321, ’hello!’), (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)) As you see, on output tuples are always enclosed in parentheses, so that nested tuples are interpreted correctly; they may be input with or without surrounding parentheses, although often parentheses are necessary anyway (if the tuple is part of a larger expression). X\¤§£|3ÑÑo´k)Ò§±Bu(Li@(¨"3Ñ\Uk½vk)ÒÑ±§ ØL²~)ÒÑ´7L£XJ£|´LªÜ©¤" Tuples have many uses. For example: (x, y) coordinate pairs, employee records from a database, etc. Tuples, like strings, are immutable: it is not possible to assign to the individual items of a tuple (you can simulate much of the same effect with slicing and concatenation, though). It is also possible to create tuples which contain mutable objects, such as lists. £|kéõ^å"~X(x, y)I:§êâ¥¥ óP¹"£|ÒiÎG§ØUCµØU£| Õá£D£¦+\±ÏLéÚ5¤"±ÏL¹Cé5Mï£|§~ XóL" A special problem is the construction of tuples containing 0 or 1 items: the syntax has some extra quirks to accom- modate these. Empty tuples are constructed by an empty pair of parentheses; a tuple with one item is constructed by following a value with a comma (it is not sufﬁcient to enclose a single value in parentheses). Ugly, but effective. For example: AÏ¯K´¨E¹"½££|µ ·Aù«¹§{þk £©UC"é )Ò±Mï£|¶Mïü££|±3 ¡ÏÒ£3)Ò¥\ü´Ø ¤"Î§§¢´k¨"~Xµ >>> empty = () >>> singleton = ’hello’, # <-- note trailing comma >>> len(empty) 0 >>> len(singleton) 1 >>> singleton (’hello’,) The statement t = 12345, 54321, ’hello!’ is an example of tuple packing: the values 12345, 54321 and ’hello!’ are packed together in a tuple. The reverse operation is also possible: ét = 12345, 54321, ’hello!’ ´£|µC£sequence packing¤~fµ12345§54321 Ú’hello!’ µ C?£|"Ù_öU´ùµ >>> x, y, z = t This is called, appropriately enough, sequence unpacking. Sequence unpacking requires the list of variables on the left to have the same number of elements as the length of the sequence. Note that multiple assignment is really just a 4.3. Tuples and Sequences £|ÚS 29 combination of tuple packing and sequence unpacking! ùN^¡S µ~Ü·"S µ¦ýCþê8S£êÓ"5¿´ Cëê£multiple assignment ¤Ù¢´£|µCÚS µ(Ü There is a small bit of asymmetry here: packing multiple values always creates a tuple, and unpacking works for any sequence. ùpk:Øé¡µµCõ­ëêÏ~¬Mï£|§ µö±^u?ÛS" 4.4 Sets 8Ü Python also includes a data type for sets. A set is an unordered collection with no duplicate elements. Basic uses include membership testing and eliminating duplicate entries. Set objects also support mathematical operations like union, intersection, difference, and symmetric difference. Python ¹ êâa.))set£8Ü¤"8Ü´ÃSØ­E£8"ÄõU)'X ÿÁÚØ­E£"8Üé|±union£éÜ¤§intersection£¢¤§difference£ ¤Úsysmmetric difference£é¡ 8¤êÆ$" Here is a brief demonstration: ±e´{üü«µ >>> basket = [’apple’, ’orange’, ’apple’, ’pear’, ’orange’, ’banana’] >>> fruit = set(basket) # create a set without duplicates >>> fruit set([’orange’, ’pear’, ’apple’, ’banana’]) >>> ’orange’ in fruit # fast membership testing True >>> ’crabgrass’ in fruit False >>> # Demonstrate set operations on unique letters from two words ... >>> a = set(’abracadabra’) >>> b = set(’alacazam’) >>> a # unique letters in a set([’a’, ’r’, ’b’, ’c’, ’d’]) >>> a - b # letters in a but not in b set([’r’, ’d’, ’b’]) >>> a | b # letters in either a or b set([’a’, ’c’, ’r’, ’d’, ’b’, ’m’, ’z’, ’l’]) >>> a & b # letters in both a and b set([’a’, ’c’]) >>> a ^ b # letters in a or b but not both set([’r’, ’d’, ’b’, ’m’, ’z’, ’l’]) 4.5 Dictionaries i; Another useful data type built into Python is the dictionary. Dictionaries are sometimes found in other languages as “associative memories” or “associative arrays”. Unlike sequences, which are indexed by a range of numbers, dictionaries are indexed by keys, which can be any immutable type; strings and numbers can always be keys. Tuples can be used as keys if they contain only strings, numbers, or tuples; if a tuple contains any mutable object either 30 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ directly or indirectly, it cannot be used as a key. You can’t use lists as keys, since lists can be modiﬁed in place using index assignments, slice assignments, or methods like append() and extend(). ,~k^PythonSïêâa.´i;"i;3, ó¥U¡/éÜS0£“associative memories”¤½/éÜê|0£“associative arrays”¤"S´±ëYê¢Ú§dØÓ´§i;± ' i¢Ú§' i±´?¿ØCa.§Ï~^iÎG½ê"XJ£|¥¹iÎGÚêi§ §±' i§XJ§½m¹ Cé§ÒØU¨' i"ØU^óL' i§Ï óL±^¢Ú!½öappend() Úextend() {UC" It is best to think of a dictionary as an unordered set of key: value pairs, with the requirement that the keys are unique (within one dictionary). A pair of braces creates an empty dictionary: {}. Placing a comma-separated list of key:value pairs within the braces adds initial key:value pairs to the dictionary; this is also the way dictionaries are written on output. n)i;Zª´r§wÃS' iµ é£key:value pairs¤8Ü§' i7L´pØÓ £3Ói;S¤"é)ÒMïi;µ{}"Ð©zóL§3)ÒS|ÏÒ© ' iµé§ù´i;ÑÑª" The main operations on a dictionary are storing a value with some key and extracting the value given the key. It is also possible to delete a key:value pair with del. If you store using a key that is already in use, the old value associated with that key is forgotten. It is an error to extract a value using a non-existent key. i;Ìö´â' i5;ÚÛ"±^del 5íØ' iµé£key:value¤"XJ\^ ®²3' i;§±cT' i©Ò¬¢#"ÁãÛlØ3' i¥ Ö¬Ø" The keys() method of a dictionary object returns a list of all the keys used in the dictionary, in arbitrary order (if you want it sorted, just apply the sort() method to the list of keys). To check whether a single key is in the dictionary, either use the dictionary’s has_key() method or the in keyword. i;keys(){£d¤k' i|¤óL§TóL^SØ½£XJ\I§kS§UN^' ióLsort() {¤"¦^i;has_key(){½in ' i±u¦i;¥´Ä3,' i" Here is a small example using a dictionary: ù´'ui;A^¢«~µ >>> tel = {’jack’: 4098, ’sape’: 4139} >>> tel[’guido’] = 4127 >>> tel {’sape’: 4139, ’guido’: 4127, ’jack’: 4098} >>> tel[’jack’] 4098 >>> del tel[’sape’] >>> tel[’irv’] = 4127 >>> tel {’guido’: 4127, ’irv’: 4127, ’jack’: 4098} >>> tel.keys() [’guido’, ’irv’, ’jack’] >>> tel.has_key(’guido’) True >>> ’guido’ in tel True The dict() constructor builds dictionaries directly from lists of key-value pairs stored as tuples. When the pairs form a pattern, list comprehensions can compactly specify the key-value list. óL¥;' i-é£|{§dict() ±l¥¨Ei;"' i-é5g,A½ ª§ ±^óLíª{ü)¤' i-óL" 4.5. Dictionaries i; 31 >>> dict([(’sape’, 4139), (’guido’, 4127), (’jack’, 4098)]) {’sape’: 4139, ’jack’: 4098, ’guido’: 4127} >>> dict([(x, x**2) for x in (2, 4, 6)]) # use a list comprehension {2: 4, 4: 16, 6: 36} Later in the tutorial, we will learn about Generator Expressions which are even better suited for the task of supplying key-values pairs to the dict() constructor. 3\H ¡SN¥§·ò¬ÆS·udict() ¨Eì)¤ é)¤ìLª" When the keys are simple strings, it is sometimes easier to specify pairs using keyword arguments: ¦^{üiÎG' i{§Ï~^' iëê{ü" >>> dict(sape=4139, guido=4127, jack=4098) {’sape’: 4139, ’jack’: 4098, ’guido’: 4127} 4.6 Looping Techniques ÌEâ When looping through dictionaries, the key and corresponding value can be retrieved at the same time using the iteritems() method. 3i;¥Ì§' iÚéA±¦^iteritems(){Ó)ÖÑ5" >>> knights = {’gallahad’: ’the pure’, ’robin’: ’the brave’} >>> for k, v in knights.iteritems(): ... print k, v ... gallahad the pure robin the brave When looping through a sequence, the position index and corresponding value can be retrieved at the same time using the enumerate() function. 3S¥Ì§¢Ú ÚéA±¦^enumerate()¼êÓ" >>> for i, v in enumerate([’tic’, ’tac’, ’toe’]): ... print i, v ... 0 tic 1 tac 2 toe To loop over two or more sequences at the same time, the entries can be paired with the zip() function. ÓÌü½õS§±¦^zip() N)Ö" 32 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ >>> questions = [’name’, ’quest’, ’favorite color’] >>> answers = [’lancelot’, ’the holy grail’, ’blue’] >>> for q, a in zip(questions, answers): ... print ’What is your %s? It is %s.’ % (q, a) ... What is your name? It is lancelot. What is your quest? It is the holy grail. What is your favorite color? It is blue. To loop over a sequence in reverse, ﬁrst specify the sequence in a forward direction and then call the reversed() function. I_ÌS{§k½ S§, N^reversed() ¼ê >>> for i in reversed(xrange(1,10,2)): ... print i ... 9 7 5 3 1 To loop over a sequence in sorted order, use the sorted() function which returns a new sorted list while leaving the source unaltered. UüS ^SÌS{§¦^sorted() ¼ê§§ØUÄ¦S§ ´)¤#üÐSS " >>> basket = [’apple’, ’orange’, ’apple’, ’pear’, ’orange’, ’banana’] >>> for f in sorted(set(basket)): ... print f ... apple banana orange pear 4.7 More on Conditions \^ The conditions used in while and if statements can contain any operators, not just comparisons. while Úif é¥¦^^Ø=±¦^'§ ±¹?¿ö" The comparison operators in and not in check whether a value occurs (does not occur) in a sequence. The operators is and is not compare whether two objects are really the same object; this only matters for mutable objects like lists. All comparison operators have the same priority, which is lower than that of all numerical operators. in Únot in 'öÎ"Ø´Ä3«mS"öÎis is not Ú'üé´ÄÓ¶ù ÚÃXóLùCék'"¤k'öÎäkÓk?§$u¤kêö" Comparisons can be chained. For example, a < b == c tests whether a is less than b and moreover b equals c. 4.7. More on Conditions \^ 33 'ö±D4"~Xa < b == c "Ø´Äa ¢ub ¿b uc" Comparisons may be combined using the Boolean operators and and or, and the outcome of a comparison (or of any other Boolean expression) may be negated with not. These have lower priorities than comparison operators; between them, not has the highest priority and or the lowest, so that A and not B or C is equivalent to (A and (not B)) or C. As always, parentheses can be used to express the desired composition. 'ö±ÏLÜ6öÎand Úor |Ü§'(J±^not 5Â"ù öÎk?q$u'öÎ§3§¥§not äkpk?§or k?$§¤±A and not B or C u(A and (not B)) or C"¨,§Lª±^Ï"ªL«" The Boolean operators and and or are so-called short-circuit operators: their arguments are evaluated from left to right, and evaluation stops as soon as the outcome is determined. For example, if A and C are true but B is false, A and B and C does not evaluate the expression C. When used as a general value and not as a Boolean, the return value of a short-circuit operator is the last evaluated argument. Ü6öÎand Úor ¡á´öÎµ§ëêlm)Û§ (J±(½ÒÊ"~X§X JAÚC ý B b§A and B and C Ø¬)ÛC"^uÊÏÜ6§á´öÎ£ Ï~´ Cþ It is possible to assign the result of a comparison or other Boolean expression to a variable. For example, ±r'½Ù§Ü6Lª£DCþ§~Xµ >>> string1, string2, string3 = ’’, ’Trondheim’, ’Hammer Dance’ >>> non_null = string1 or string2 or string3 >>> non_null ’Trondheim’ Note that in Python, unlike C, assignment cannot occur inside expressions. C programmers may grumble about this, but it avoids a common class of problems encountered in C programs: typing = in an expression when == was intended. I5¿´PythonCØÓ§3LªSÜØUD"C §S ²~éd¦§ØL§; a3C § S¥i.Øµ3)Ûª¥¦== Ø^ = öÎ" 4.8 Comparing Sequences and Other Types ØÓSa.' Sequence objects may be compared to other objects with the same sequence type. The comparison uses lexicographical ordering: ﬁrst the ﬁrst two items are compared, and if they differ this determines the outcome of the comparison; if they are equal, the next two items are compared, and so on, until either sequence is exhausted. If two items to be compared are themselves sequences of the same type, the lexicographical comparison is carried out recursively. If all items of two sequences compare equal, the sequences are considered equal. If one sequence is an initial sub-sequence of the other, the shorter sequence is the smaller (lesser) one. Lexicographical ordering for strings uses the ASCII ordering for individual characters. Some examples of comparisons between sequences of the same type: Sé±Óa.Ù§é'"'öUi;S?1µÄk'cü£§XJØÓ§Ò û½ '(J¶XJÓ§Ò' ü£§daí§¤kSÑ¤'"XJü£ Ò´Óa.S§Ò48i;S'"XJüS¤kfÑ§Ò@S"XJ S´,SÐ©fS§áSÒ¢u,"iÎGi;SUìüiÎASCII ^S"e¡´Óa.Sm' ~fµ 34 Chapter 4. Data Structures êâ(¨ (1, 2, 3) < (1, 2, 4) [1, 2, 3] < [1, 2, 4] ’ABC’ < ’C’ < ’Pascal’ < ’Python’ (1, 2, 3, 4) < (1, 2, 4) (1, 2) < (1, 2, -1) (1, 2, 3) == (1.0, 2.0, 3.0) (1, 2, (’aa’, ’ab’)) < (1, 2, (’abc’, ’a’), 4) Note that comparing objects of different types is legal. The outcome is deterministic but arbitrary: the types are ordered by their name. Thus, a list is always smaller than a string, a string is always smaller than a tuple, etc. 1 Mixed numeric types are compared according to their numeric value, so 0 equals 0.0, etc. I5¿´ØÓa.é'´Ü{"ÑÑ(J´(½ ?¿µa.U§¶iüS"Ï §óL£list¤o´¢uiÎG£string¤§iÎG£string¤o´¢u£|£tuple¤ "êa.'¬Ú§êâa.§¤±0u0.0§"2 1 The rules for comparing objects of different types should not be relied upon; they may change in a future version of the language. 2 ØÓa.é'5KØ6ud§§kU¬3Pythonó U¥UC" 4.8. Comparing Sequences and Other Types ØÓSa.' 35 36 CHAPTER FIVE Modules ¬ If you quit from the Python interpreter and enter it again, the deﬁnitions you have made (functions and variables) are lost. Therefore, if you want to write a somewhat longer program, you are better off using a text editor to prepare the input for the interpreter and running it with that ﬁle as input instead. This is known as creating a script. As your program gets longer, you may want to split it into several ﬁles for easier maintenance. You may also want to use a handy function that you’ve written in several programs without copying its deﬁnition into each program. XJ\òÑPython )ºì­#?\§±cMï½Â£CþÚ¼ê¤ÒÜ¿ "Ïd§XJ\  È¢§S§Ð¦^©?6ì5?§S§r¢Ð©Ñ\)ºì"·¡ Mï "§SC §\U Bo r§©l¤A©"\U3A §S¥Ñ¦^~^¼ê§¢´Ør§½ÂEz§Sp" To support this, Python has a way to put deﬁnitions in a ﬁle and use them in a script or in an interactive instance of the interpreter. Such a ﬁle is called a module; deﬁnitions from a module can be imported into other modules or into the main module (the collection of variables that you have access to in a script executed at the top level and in calculator mode).  ÷vù I§PythonJø {±l©¥¼½Â§3 ½ö)ºì¢pª¢~¥ ¦^"ù©¡¬¶¬¥½Â±\,¬½Ì¬¥£3 1±N^ Cþ8 up?§¿?uOìª¤ A module is a ﬁle containing Python deﬁnitions and statements. The ﬁle name is the module name with the sufﬁx ‘.py’ appended. Within a module, the module’s name (as a string) is available as the value of the global variable __name__. For instance, use your favorite text editor to create a ﬁle called ‘ﬁbo.py’ in the current directory with the following contents: ¬´)Python ½ÂÚ(²©"©¶Ò´¬¶\þ‘.py’  M"¬¬¶£i ÎG¤±dÛCþ__name__ "~X§\±^gC.^©?6ì3¨c8¹eMï ‘ﬁbo.py’ ©§¹\XeSNµ 37 # Fibonacci numbers module def fib(n): # write Fibonacci series up to n a, b = 0, 1 while b < n: print b, a, b = b, a+b def fib2(n): # return Fibonacci series up to n result = [] a, b = 0, 1 while b < n: result.append(b) a, b = b, a+b return result Now enter the Python interpreter and import this module with the following command: y3?\Python)ºì§^Xe·-\ù¬µ >>> import fibo This does not enter the names of the functions deﬁned in fibo directly in the current symbol table; it only enters the module name fibo there. Using the module name you can access the functions: ùØ¬rfibo¥¼ê\¨cÂL¶§´Ú\ ¬¶fibo"\±ÏL¬¶UXe ª¯ù¼êµ >>> fibo.fib(1000) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 >>> fibo.fib2(100) [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89] >>> fibo.__name__ ’fibo’ If you intend to use a function often you can assign it to a local name: XJ\N^¼ê§Ï~±§D/¶¡µ >>> fib = fibo.fib >>> fib(500) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 5.1 More on Modules \¬ A module can contain executable statements as well as function deﬁnitions. These statements are intended to initialize the module. They are executed only the ﬁrst time the module is imported somewhere.1 1 In fact function deﬁnitions are also ‘statements’ that are ‘executed’; the execution enters the function name in the module’s global symbol table. 38 Chapter 5. Modules ¬ ¬±¼ê½Â¹1é"ù éÏ~^uÐ©z¬"§3¬1g\1 g"2 Each module has its own private symbol table, which is used as the global symbol table by all functions deﬁned in the module. Thus, the author of a module can use global variables in the module without worrying about accidental clashes with a user’s global variables. éAu½Â¬¥¤k¼êÛÂL§z¬kgChk ÂL"Ïd§¬ö±3¬¥¦^ ÛCþ§Ø¬Ï^rÛCþÀâ ÚuØ"On the other hand, if you know what you are doing you can touch a module’s global variables with the same notation used to refer to its functions, modname.itemname.,¡§XJ\(½\Iù§±Ú^¬¥¼ê ¼¬¥ÛCþ§/Xµmodname.itemname" Modules can import other modules. It is customary but not required to place all import statements at the beginning of a module (or script, for that matter). The imported module names are placed in the importing module’s global symbol table. ¬±\£import¤Ù§¬"S.þ¤kimport éÑ3¬£½ §¤mÞ§¢ù ¿Ø´7L"\¬¶\3¬ÛÂL¥" There is a variant of the import statement that imports names from a module directly into the importing module’s symbol table. For example: import éCNl\¬¥\·¶¬ÂL¥"~Xµ >>> from fibo import fib, fib2 >>> fib(500) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 This does not introduce the module name from which the imports are taken in the local symbol table (so in the example, fibo is not deﬁned). ùØ¬lÛÂL¥\¬¶£Xþ¤«§fibovk½Â¤" There is even a variant to import all names that a module deﬁnes: $k«ª±\ ¬¥¤k½Âµ >>> from fibo import * >>> fib(500) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 This imports all names except those beginning with an underscore (_). ù±\¤kØ ±ey(_)mÞ·¶" 5.1.1 The Module Search Path ¬|¢´» When a module named spam is imported, the interpreter searches for a ﬁle named ‘spam.py’ in the current directory, and then in the list of directories speciﬁed by the environment variable PYTHONPATH. This has the same syntax as the shell variable PATH, that is, a list of directory names. When PYTHONPATH is not set, or when the ﬁle is not found there, the search continues in an installation-dependent default path; on UNIX, this is usually ‘.:/usr/local/lib/python’.  \   spam  ¬  § ) º ì k 3 ¨ c 8 ¹ ¥ | ¢ ¶ ‘spam.py’  ©  § , 3  ¸ C þPYTHONPATH L«8¹L¥|¢§, ´¸CþPATH ¥´»L"XJPYTHONPATH v k§½ö©vké§e5|¢SC8¹§3UNIX¥§Ï~´‘.:/usr/local/lib/python’" 2 ¯¢þ¼ê½ÂQ´/(²0q´/1N0¶1Nd¼ê3 ¬ ÛÂL¥·¶\" 5.1. More on Modules \ ¬ 39 Actually, modules are searched in the list of directories given by the variable sys.path which is initialized from the directory containing the input script (or the current directory), PYTHONPATH and the installation-dependent default. This allows Python programs that know what they’re doing to modify or replace the module search path. Note that because the directory containing the script being run is on the search path, it is important that the script not have the same name as a standard module, or Python will attempt to load the script as a module when that module is imported. This will generally be an error. See section 5.2, “Standard Modules,” for more information. ¢Sþ§)ºìdsys.path Cþ½´»8¹|¢ ¬§TCþÐ©z%@¹ Ñ\ £½ ö¨c8¹¤§PYTHONPATH ÚSC8¹"ùÒ#NPython§S£¦©Xd§programs¶·ßAT´ /programer0§§S ¨¨Èö¤ )XÛ?U½O ¬|¢8¹"I5¿´duù 8¹¥¹ k|¢´»¥$1 §¤±ù ØATÚIO¬­¶§ÄK3\¬Python¬}Árù ¨¬5\1"ùÏ~¬ÚuØ"ë6.2!/IO¬£ 5.2¤0± )õ&E" 5.1.2 “Compiled” Python ﬁles Python/?È0© As an important speed-up of the start-up time for short programs that use a lot of standard modules, if a ﬁle called ‘spam.pyc’ exists in the directory where ‘spam.py’ is found, this is assumed to contain an already-“byte-compiled” version of the module spam. The modiﬁcation time of the version of ‘spam.py’ used to create ‘spam.pyc’ is recorded in ‘spam.pyc’, and the ‘.pyc’ ﬁle is ignored if these don’t match. éuÚ^ þIO¬á§S§kJpéÄÝ­{§XJ3‘spam.py’ ¤38¹e3 ¶‘spam.pyc’ ©§§¬Àspam ¬ý/?È0£“byte-compiled” §??È¤" ^uMï‘spam.pyc’ ù‘spam.py’ ?UmP¹3‘spam.pyc’ ©¥§XJüöØ§‘.pyc’ © Ò£Ñ" Normally, you don’t need to do anything to create the ‘spam.pyc’ ﬁle. Whenever ‘spam.py’ is successfully compiled, an attempt is made to write the compiled version to ‘spam.pyc’. It is not an error if this attempt fails; if for any reason the ﬁle is not written completely, the resulting ‘spam.pyc’ ﬁle will be recognized as invalid and thus ignored later. The contents of the ‘spam.pyc’ ﬁle are platform independent, so a Python module directory can be shared by machines of different architectures. Ï~\ØIMï‘spam.pyc’ ©?Ûó" ‘spam.py’ ¤õ?È§Ò¬Áã?ÈéA ‘spam.pyc’"XJk?Û¦Ï\Ø¤õ§£‘spam.pyc’ ©Ò¬ÀÃ¨§ =£ Ñ"‘spam.pyc’ ©SN´²Õá§¤±Python¬8¹±3ØÓe¨Åìm¡" Some tips for experts: Ü©p?E|µ • When the Python interpreter is invoked with the -O ﬂag, optimized code is generated and stored in ‘.pyo’ ﬁles. The optimizer currently doesn’t help much; it only removes assert statements. When -O is used, all bytecode is optimized; .pyc ﬁles are ignored and .py ﬁles are compiled to optimized bytecode. ±-O ëêN^Python)ºì§¬)¤zè¿¢3‘.pyo’ ©¥"y3zìvkõ Ï¶§´íØ äó£assert ¤é"¦^-O ëëê§¤kèÑ¬z¶.pyc ©£ Ñ§.py©?Èzè" • Passing two -O ﬂags to the Python interpreter (-OO) will cause the bytecode compiler to perform optimizations that could in some rare cases result in malfunctioning programs. Currently only __doc__ strings are removed from the bytecode, resulting in more compact ‘.pyo’ ﬁles. Since some programs may rely on having these available, you should only use this option if you know what you’re doing. Python)ºìD4ü-O ëê£-OO¤¬1z?z?È§ùó¬)¤Ø§ S"y3zì§´l?è¥íØ __doc__ ÎG§)¤;n‘.pyo’ ©"Ï, §S6uù Cþ^5§\AT3(½ÃØ|Ü¦^ùÀ" • A program doesn’t run any faster when it is read from a ‘.pyc’ or ‘.pyo’ ﬁle than when it is read from a ‘.py’ ﬁle; the only thing that’s faster about ‘.pyc’ or ‘.pyo’ ﬁles is the speed with which they are loaded. 40 Chapter 5. Modules ¬ 5g‘.pyc’ ©½‘.pyo’ ©¥§SØ¬'5g‘.py’ ©$1¯¶‘.pyc’ ½‘.pyo’ ©´3§ \1ÿ¯ " • When a script is run by giving its name on the command line, the bytecode for the script is never written to a ‘.pyc’ or ‘.pyo’ ﬁle. Thus, the startup time of a script may be reduced by moving most of its code to a module and having a small bootstrap script that imports that module. It is also possible to name a ‘.pyc’ or ‘.pyo’ ﬁle directly on the command line. ÏL ¶3·-1$1 §Ø¬òT Mï?è\‘.pyc’ ½‘.pyo’ ©"¨,§ r Ìè£?¬p§, ^¢éÄ \ù¬§Ò±Jp éÄ Ý"±3·-1¥½‘.pyc’ ½‘.pyo’ ©" • It is possible to have a ﬁle called ‘spam.pyc’ (or ‘spam.pyo’ when -O is used) without a ﬁle ‘spam.py’ for the same module. This can be used to distribute a library of Python code in a form that is moderately hard to reverse engineer. éuÓ¬£ùp~§‘spam.py’ ¨¨Èö¤§±k‘spam.pyc’ ©£½ö‘spam.pyc’ §3 ¦^-O ëê¤ vk‘spam.py’ ©"ù±uÙ'Ju_ó§Pythonè¥" • The module compileall can create ‘.pyc’ ﬁles (or ‘.pyo’ ﬁles when -O is used) for all modules in a directory. compileall ¬±½8¹¥¤k¬Mï‘.pyc’ ©£½ö¦^‘.pyo’ ëêMï.pyo© ¤" 5.2 Standard Modules IO¬ Python comes with a library of standard modules, described in a separate document, the Python Library Reference (“Library Reference” hereafter). Some modules are built into the interpreter; these provide access to operations that are not part of the core of the language but are nevertheless built in, either for efﬁciency or to provide access to operating system primitives such as system calls. The set of such modules is a conﬁguration option which also depends on the underlying platform For example, the amoeba module is only provided on systems that somehow support Amoeba primitives. One particular module deserves some attention: sys, which is built into every Python interpreter. The variables sys.ps1 and sys.ps2 deﬁne the strings used as primary and secondary prompts: PythonkIO¬¥§¿uÙkÕá© §¶Python ¥ëÃþ £d ¡Ù/¥ëÃ þ0¤"k ¬Su)ºì¥§ù ö¯Ø´óSØÜ©§¢´®²Su) ºì "ùQ´ Jp¨Ç§´ XÚN^öXÚ¦)¯Jø"ùa¬8Ü´ 6u. ²À"~X§amoeba ¬JøéAmoeba ¦)XÚ|±"käN¬ 5¿µsys §ù¬Su¤kPython)ºì"Cþsys.ps1 Úsys.ps2½Â ÌJ«ÎÚBÏJ «ÎiÎGµ >>> import sys >>> sys.ps1 ’>>> ’ >>> sys.ps2 ’... ’ >>> sys.ps1 = ’C> ’ C> print ’Yuck!’ Yuck! C> These two variables are only deﬁned if the interpreter is in interactive mode. ùüCþ3)ºì¢pªek¿Â" 5.2. Standard Modules IO¬ 41 The variable sys.path is a list of strings that determines the interpreter’s search path for modules. It is initialized to a default path taken from the environment variable PYTHONPATH, or from a built-in default if PYTHONPATH is not set. You can modify it using standard list operations: Cþsys.path ´)ºì¬|¢´»iÎGL"§d¸CþPYTHONPATH Ð©z§XJvk ½PYTHONPATH §ÒdS%@Ð©z"\±^IOiÎGö?U§µ >>> import sys >>> sys.path.append(’/ufs/guido/lib/python’) 5.3 The dir() Function dir() ¼ê The built-in function dir() is used to ﬁnd out which names a module deﬁnes. It returns a sorted list of strings: S¼êdir() ^uU¬¶|¢¬½Â§§£iÎGa.;Lµ >>> import fibo, sys >>> dir(fibo) [’__name__’, ’fib’, ’fib2’] >>> dir(sys) [’__displayhook__’, ’__doc__’, ’__excepthook__’, ’__name__’, ’__stderr__’, ’__stdin__’, ’__stdout__’, ’_getframe’, ’api_version’, ’argv’, ’builtin_module_names’, ’byteorder’, ’callstats’, ’copyright’, ’displayhook’, ’exc_clear’, ’exc_info’, ’exc_type’, ’excepthook’, ’exec_prefix’, ’executable’, ’exit’, ’getdefaultencoding’, ’getdlopenflags’, ’getrecursionlimit’, ’getrefcount’, ’hexversion’, ’maxint’, ’maxunicode’, ’meta_path’, ’modules’, ’path’, ’path_hooks’, ’path_importer_cache’, ’platform’, ’prefix’, ’ps1’, ’ps2’, ’setcheckinterval’, ’setdlopenflags’, ’setprofile’, ’setrecursionlimit’, ’settrace’, ’stderr’, ’stdin’, ’stdout’, ’version’, ’version_info’, ’warnoptions’] Without arguments, dir() lists the names you have deﬁned currently: ÃëêN^§dir() ¼ê£¨c½Â·¶µ >>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] >>> import fibo >>> fib = fibo.fib >>> dir() [’__builtins__’, ’__doc__’, ’__file__’, ’__name__’, ’a’, ’fib’, ’fibo’, ’sys’] Note that it lists all types of names: variables, modules, functions, etc. 5¿TLÑ ¤ka.¶¡µCþ§¬§¼ê§µ dir() does not list the names of built-in functions and variables. If you want a list of those, they are deﬁned in the standard module __builtin__: dir() Ø¬ÑS¼êÚCþ¶"XJ\Ñù SN§§3IO¬__builtin__¥½Âµ 42 Chapter 5. Modules ¬ >>> import __builtin__ >>> dir(__builtin__) [’ArithmeticError’, ’AssertionError’, ’AttributeError’, ’DeprecationWarning’, ’EOFError’, ’Ellipsis’, ’EnvironmentError’, ’Exception’, ’False’, ’FloatingPointError’, ’FutureWarning’, ’IOError’, ’ImportError’, ’IndentationError’, ’IndexError’, ’KeyError’, ’KeyboardInterrupt’, ’LookupError’, ’MemoryError’, ’NameError’, ’None’, ’NotImplemented’, ’NotImplementedError’, ’OSError’, ’OverflowError’, ’PendingDeprecationWarning’, ’ReferenceError’, ’RuntimeError’, ’RuntimeWarning’, ’StandardError’, ’StopIteration’, ’SyntaxError’, ’SyntaxWarning’, ’SystemError’, ’SystemExit’, ’TabError’, ’True’, ’TypeError’, ’UnboundLocalError’, ’UnicodeDecodeError’, ’UnicodeEncodeError’, ’UnicodeError’, ’UnicodeTranslateError’, ’UserWarning’, ’ValueError’, ’Warning’, ’WindowsError’, ’ZeroDivisionError’, ’_’, ’__debug__’, ’__doc__’, ’__import__’, ’__name__’, ’abs’, ’apply’, ’basestring’, ’bool’, ’buffer’, ’callable’, ’chr’, ’classmethod’, ’cmp’, ’coerce’, ’compile’, ’complex’, ’copyright’, ’credits’, ’delattr’, ’dict’, ’dir’, ’divmod’, ’enumerate’, ’eval’, ’execfile’, ’exit’, ’file’, ’filter’, ’float’, ’frozenset’, ’getattr’, ’globals’, ’hasattr’, ’hash’, ’help’, ’hex’, ’id’, ’input’, ’int’, ’intern’, ’isinstance’, ’issubclass’, ’iter’, ’len’, ’license’, ’list’, ’locals’, ’long’, ’map’, ’max’, ’min’, ’object’, ’oct’, ’open’, ’ord’, ’pow’, ’property’, ’quit’, ’range’, ’raw_input’, ’reduce’, ’reload’, ’repr’, ’reversed’, ’round’, ’set’, ’setattr’, ’slice’, ’sorted’, ’staticmethod’, ’str’, ’sum’, ’super’, ’tuple’, ’type’, ’unichr’, ’unicode’, ’vars’, ’xrange’, ’zip’] 5.4 Packages  Packages are a way of structuring Python’s module namespace by using “dotted module names”. For example, the module name A.B designates a submodule named ‘B’ in a package named ‘A’. Just like the use of modules saves the authors of different modules from having to worry about each other’s global variable names, the use of dotted module names saves the authors of multi-module packages like NumPy or the Python Imaging Library from having to worry about each other’s module names. Ï~´¦^^/ :¬¶0(¨z¬·¶m"~X§¶A.B ¬L« ¶‘A’ ¥¶ ‘B’ f¬"XÓ^¬5¢ØÓ¬e¨±;ÛCþmpÀâ§¦^ :¬¶ ¢NumPy ½Python Imaging Library aØÓa¥e¨±;¬m·¶Àâ" Suppose you want to design a collection of modules (a “package”) for the uniform handling of sound ﬁles and sound data. There are many different sound ﬁle formats (usually recognized by their extension, for example: ‘.wav’, ‘.aiff’, ‘.au’), so you may need to create and maintain a growing collection of modules for the conversion between the various ﬁle formats. There are also many different operations you might want to perform on sound data (such as mixing, adding echo, applying an equalizer function, creating an artiﬁcial stereo effect), so in addition you will be writing a never-ending stream of modules to perform these operations. Here’s a possible structure for your package (expressed in terms of a hierarchical ﬁlesystem): b\y3O¬8£/0¤5Ú?n(Ñ©Ú(Ñêâ"3A«ØÓ(Ñ ª£Ï~d§*Ð¶5I£§~Xµ‘.wav’ §‘.aiff’ §‘.au’) ¤§u´§ 3ØÓa.©ªm =§\IoØäO8Ü"U\é(ÑêâéõØÓö£~X·Ñ§V\ £(§A^²ïõU§Mï>> s = ’Hello, world.’ >>> str(s) ’Hello, world.’ >>> repr(s) "’Hello, world.’" >>> str(0.1) ’0.1’ >>> repr(0.1) ’0.10000000000000001’ >>> x = 10 * 3.25 >>> y = 200 * 200 >>> s = ’The value of x is ’ + repr(x) + ’, and y is ’ + repr(y) + ’...’ >>> print s The value of x is 32.5, and y is 40000... >>> # The repr() of a string adds string quotes and backslashes: ... hello = ’hello, world\n’ >>> hellos = repr(hello) >>> print hellos ’hello, world\n’ >>> # The argument to repr() may be any Python object: ... repr((x, y, (’spam’, ’eggs’))) "(32.5, 40000, (’spam’, ’eggs’))" >>> # reverse quotes are convenient in interactive sessions: ... ‘x, y, (’spam’, ’eggs’)‘ "(32.5, 40000, (’spam’, ’eggs’))" Here are two ways to write a table of squares and cubes: ±eü«{±ÑÑ²ÚáLµ 50 Chapter 6. Input and Output Ñ\ÚÑÑ >>> for x in range(1, 11): ... print repr(x).rjust(2), repr(x*x).rjust(3), ... # Note trailing comma on previous line ... print repr(x*x*x).rjust(4) ... 1 1 1 2 4 8 3 9 27 4 16 64 5 25 125 6 36 216 7 49 343 8 64 512 9 81 729 10 100 1000 >>> for x in range(1,11): ... print ’%2d %3d %4d’ % (x, x*x, x*x*x) ... 1 1 1 2 4 8 3 9 27 4 16 64 5 25 125 6 36 216 7 49 343 8 64 512 9 81 729 10 100 1000 (Note that one space between each column was added by the way print works: it always adds spaces between its arguments.) £I5¿´¦^print {zümkµ§o´3ëêm\"¤ This example demonstrates the rjust() method of string objects, which right-justiﬁes a string in a ﬁeld of a given width by padding it with spaces on the left. There are similar methods ljust() and center(). These methods do not write anything, they just return a new string. If the input string is too long, they don’t truncate it, but return it unchanged; this will mess up your column lay-out but that’s usually better than the alternative, which would be lying about a value. (If you really want truncation you can always add a slice operation, as in ‘x.ljust(n)[:n]’.) ±þ´rjust() ¼êü«§ù¼êriÎGÑÑ§¿ÏLýW¿5¦Ùméà" aq¼êkljust() Úcenter()"ù ¼ê´ÑÑ#iÎG§¿ØUCo"XJÑÑi ÎG§§Ø¬ä§§ ´¦ÑÑ§ù¬¦\ÑÑªC·Ï§ØLorL,«ÀJ £äiÎG¤§Ï@¬)ØÑÑ"£XJ\(¢Iä§§±¦^ö§~Xµ" ‘x.ljust( n)[:n]’"¤ There is another method, zfill(), which pads a numeric string on the left with zeros. It understands about plus and minus signs: k¼ê§zfill() §^uêiÎGLýW¿0"T¼ê±(n)KÒµ 6.1. Fancier Output Formatting OÑÑª 51 >>> ’12’.zfill(5) ’00012’ >>> ’-3.14’.zfill(7) ’-003.14’ >>> ’3.14159265359’.zfill(5) ’3.14159265359’ Using the % operator looks like this: ±Xeù¦^% öÎµ >>> import math >>> print ’The value of PI is approximately %5.3f.’ % math.pi The value of PI is approximately 3.142. If there is more than one format in the string, you need to pass a tuple as right operand, as in this example: XJkLiÎGªzN§ÒIò§D\£|m§Xe¤«µ >>> table = {’Sjoerd’: 4127, ’Jack’: 4098, ’Dcab’: 7678} >>> for name, phone in table.items(): ... print ’%-10s ==> %10d’ % (name, phone) ... Jack ==> 4098 Dcab ==> 7678 Sjoerd ==> 4127 Most formats work exactly as in C and require that you pass the proper type; however, if you don’t you get an exception, not a core dump. The %s format is more relaxed: if the corresponding argument is not a string object, it is converted to string using the str() built-in function. Using * to pass the width or precision in as a separate (integer) argument is supported. The C formats %n and %p are not supported. õêaC ªzöÑI\D\·¨a.§ØLXJ\vk½ÂÉ~§Ø¬kolSØ¥ÌÄ ¦Ñ5"£however, if you don’t you get an exception, not a core dump¤¦^%s ª¬t µXJéA ëêØ´iÎG§§¬ÏLSstr() ¼ê=ziÎG"Python|±^* l£.¤ë ê5D4°Ý½°Ý"Python Ø|±C%n Ú%p öÎ" If you have a really long format string that you don’t want to split up, it would be nice if you could reference the variables to be formatted by name instead of by position. This can be done by using form %(name)format, as shown here: XJ±Å:Ú^ªzCþ¶§Ò±)ÎÜý¢ÝªziÎG§Ø¬)m"ù¨ J±ÏL¦^form %(name)format (¨5¢yµ >>> table = {’Sjoerd’: 4127, ’Jack’: 4098, ’Dcab’: 8637678} >>> print ’Jack: %(Jack)d; Sjoerd: %(Sjoerd)d; Dcab: %(Dcab)d’ % table Jack: 4098; Sjoerd: 4127; Dcab: 8637678 This is particularly useful in combination with the new built-in vars() function, which returns a dictionary contain- ing all local variables. ùE|3#S¼êvars() |Ü¦^~k^§T¼ê£¹¤kÛÜCþi;" 52 Chapter 6. Input and Output Ñ\ÚÑÑ 6.2 Reading and Writing Files Ö© open() returns a ﬁle object, and is most commonly used with two arguments: ‘open(ﬁlename, mode)’. open() £©§Ï~^{Iüëêµ‘open(ﬁlename, mode)’" >>> f=open(’/tmp/workfile’, ’w’) >>> print f The ﬁrst argument is a string containing the ﬁlename. The second argument is another string containing a few charac- ters describing the way in which the ﬁle will be used. mode can be ’r’ when the ﬁle will only be read, ’w’ for only writing (an existing ﬁle with the same name will be erased), and ’a’ opens the ﬁle for appending; any data written to the ﬁle is automatically added to the end. ’r+’ opens the ﬁle for both reading and writing. The mode argument is optional; ’r’ will be assumed if it’s omitted. 1ëê´I£©¶iÎG"1ëê´dki1|¤iÎG§£ã ©ò¬X Û¦^"Àª kµ’r’ §dÀ¦©Ö¶’w’§dÀ¦©£éuÓ¶©§Tö¦ ¦k©CX¤¶’a’ §dÀ±J\ªm©¶’r+’ §dÀ±Öªm©¶XJvk ½§%@’r’ ª" On Windows and the Macintosh, ’b’ appended to the mode opens the ﬁle in binary mode, so there are also modes like ’rb’,’wb’, and ’r+b’. Windows makes a distinction between text and binary ﬁles; the end-of-line characters in text ﬁles are automatically altered slightly when data is read or written. This behind-the-scenes modiﬁcation to ﬁle data is ﬁne for ASCII text ﬁles, but it’ll corrupt binary data like that in ‘JPEG’ or ‘EXE’ ﬁles. Be very careful to use binary mode when reading and writing such ﬁles. 3Windows ÚMacintosh²þ§’b’ª±?ªm©§¤±U¬kaqu’rb’ §’wb’ §’r+b’ ª|Ü"Windows²þ©©?©´k«O§Ö©©§1¬ gÄV\1(åÎ"ù« öªéASCII ©©vko¯K§¢´öJPEG ½‘.EXE’ù? ©Ò¬)»"3öù ©½P±?ªm" 6.2.1 Methods of File Objects ©{é The rest of the examples in this section will assume that a ﬁle object called f has already been created. !¥«~Ñ%@©éf ®²Mï" To read a ﬁle’s contents, call f.read(size), which reads some quantity of data and returns it as a string. size is an optional numeric argument. When size is omitted or negative, the entire contents of the ﬁle will be read and returned; it’s your problem if the ﬁle is twice as large as your machine’s memory. Otherwise, at most size bytes are read and returned. If the end of the ﬁle has been reached, f.read() will return an empty string (""). Ö©SN§IN^f.read(size)§T{ÖeZêþêâ¿±iÎG/ª£ÙSN§iÎ GÝêsize ¤½¢"XJvk½size½ö½Kê§Ò¬Ö¿£©"¨© ¢¨cÅìSü§Ò¬)¯K"~¹e§¬¦UU'size ÖÚ£êâ"XJ ©"§f.read()¬£iÎG£""¤" >>> f.read() ’This is the entire file.\n’ >>> f.read() ’’ f.readline() reads a single line from the ﬁle; a newline character (\n) is left at the end of the string, and is only 6.2. Reading and Writing Files Ö© 53 omitted on the last line of the ﬁle if the ﬁle doesn’t end in a newline. This makes the return value unambiguous; if f.readline() returns an empty string, the end of the ﬁle has been reached, while a blank line is represented by ’\n’, a string containing only a single newline. f.readline()l©¥ÖüÕ1§iÎG(¬gÄ\þ1Î§k¨© 1vk± 1Î(§ùöâ¬£Ñ"ù£ÒØ¬ko· Ø§XJXJf.readline()£ iÎG§@ÒL« ©"§XJ´1§Ò¬£ã’\n´ §¹1ÎiÎ G" >>> f.readline() ’This is the first line of the file.\n’ >>> f.readline() ’Second line of the file\n’ >>> f.readline() ’’ f.readlines() returns a list containing all the lines of data in the ﬁle. If given an optional parameter sizehint, it reads that many bytes from the ﬁle and enough more to complete a line, and returns the lines from that. This is often used to allow efﬁcient reading of a large ﬁle by lines, but without having to load the entire ﬁle in memory. Only complete lines will be returned. f.readlines()£L§Ù¥¹ ©¥¤kêâ1"XJ½ sizehintëê§Ò¬Ö\õ u1'Aê§l¥£õ1©"ùõUÏ~^up¨Ö.1©§; ò©Ö\S "ù«ö£1" >>> f.readlines() [’This is the first line of the file.\n’, ’Second line of the file\n’] An alternate approach to reading lines is to loop over the ﬁle object. This is memory efﬁcient, fast, and leads to simpler code: ¢Ï±ÌÖ©é¥1"ù´Sö¨Ç§¯§è{üµ >>> for line in f: print line, This is the first line of the file. Second line of the file The alternative approach is simpler but does not provide as ﬁne-grained control. Since the two approaches manage line buffering differently, they should not be mixed. ¢Ïé{ü§¢´ØJø"ÏüÏ+nÀØÓ§§ØU·Ü" f.write(string) writes the contents of string to the ﬁle, returning None. f.write(string) òstring SN\©§£None " >>> f.write(’This is a test\n’) To write something other than a string, it needs to be converted to a string ﬁrst: XJI\iÎG±©êâ§Òkrù êâ=iÎG" 54 Chapter 6. Input and Output Ñ\ÚÑÑ >>> value = (’the answer’, 42) >>> s = str(value) >>> f.write(s) f.tell() returns an integer giving the ﬁle object’s current position in the ﬁle, measured in bytes from the beginning of the ﬁle. To change the ﬁle object’s position, use ‘f.seek(offset, from_what)’. The position is computed from adding offset to a reference point; the reference point is selected by the from_what argument. A from_what value of 0 measures from the beginning of the ﬁle, 1 uses the current ﬁle position, and 2 uses the end of the ﬁle as the reference point. from_what can be omitted and defaults to 0, using the beginning of the ﬁle as the reference point. f.tell()£ê§L©é3©¥¢ §TêOþ g©mÞ¢?'A ê"IUC©é¢{{§¦^‘f.seek(offset,from_what)’"¢3Tö¥l½Ú^ £ Äoffset 'A§Ú^ dfrom_what ëê½"from_what0L«g©åÐ?m©§1L«g¨c© ¢ m©§2L«g©"m©"from_what ±£Ñ§Ù%@"§dl©Þm©" >>> f = open(’/tmp/workfile’, ’r+’) >>> f.write(’0123456789abcdef’) >>> f.seek(5) # Go to the 6th byte in the file >>> f.read(1) ’5’ >>> f.seek(-3, 2) # Go to the 3rd byte before the end >>> f.read(1) ’d’ When you’re done with a ﬁle, call f.close() to close it and free up any system resources taken up by the open ﬁle. After calling f.close(), attempts to use the ﬁle object will automatically fail. ©¦^ §N^f.close()±'4©§ºm© Ó^XÚ] "N^f.close() § 2N^©é¬gÄÚuØ" >>> f.close() >>> f.read() Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? ValueError: I/O operation on closed file File objects have some additional methods, such as isatty() and truncate() which are less frequently used; consult the Library Reference for a complete guide to ﬁle objects. ©ék Ø~^N\{§'Xisatty() Útruncate() 3¥ëÃþ¥k©é H" 6.2.2 The pickle Module pickle ¬ Strings can easily be written to and read from a ﬁle. Numbers take a bit more effort, since the read() method only returns strings, which will have to be passed to a function like int(), which takes a string like ’123’ and returns its numeric value 123. However, when you want to save more complex data types like lists, dictionaries, or class instances, things get a lot more complicated. ·±éN´Ö©¥iÎG"êÒõ¤:±ò§Ïread() {¬£iÎG§AT òÙD\int(){¥§Ò±ò’123’ùiÎ=éAê123"ØL§¨\I¢E, êâa.§~XóL!i;§a¢~§¯Ò¬CE, " 6.2. Reading and Writing Files Ö© 55 Rather than have users be constantly writing and debugging code to save complicated data types, Python provides a standard module called pickle. This is an amazing module that can take almost any Python object (even some forms of Python code!), and convert it to a string representation; this process is called pickling. Reconstructing the object from the string representation is called unpickling. Between pickling and unpickling, the string representing the object may have been stored in a ﬁle or data, or sent over a network connection to some distant machine. Ð3^rØ7gC?ÚNÁ¢E,êâa.è"PythonJø ¶pickleIO ¬"ù´-<7'¬§A¢±r?ÛPythoné£$´ Python èã¤LiÎ G§ùL§¡µC £pickling¤"liÎGLÑ­#¨Eé¡ µ£unpickling¤"µCG ¥é±;3©½é¥§±ÏL ä3§ÅìmDÑ" If you have an object x, and a ﬁle object f that’s been opened for writing, the simplest way to pickle the object takes only one line of code: XJ\kéx §± ªm©éf§µCé{ü{I1èµ pickle.dump(x, f) To unpickle the object again, if f is a ﬁle object which has been opened for reading: XJf´±Ö ªm©é§Ò±­C µùéµ x = pickle.load(f) (There are other variants of this, used when pickling many objects or when you don’t want to write the pickled data to a ﬁle; consult the complete documentation for pickle in the Python Library Reference.) £XJØrµCêâ\©§ùpk Ù§Cz^"pickle © Python ¥ë Ãþ¤" pickle is the standard way to make Python objects which can be stored and reused by other programs or by a future invocation of the same program; the technical term for this is a persistent object. Because pickle is so widely used, many authors who write Python extensions take care to ensure that new data types such as matrices can be properly pickled and unpickled. pickle ´;Python é±øÙ§§S½Ù ± N^IO{"Jøù|Eâ´±Èzé £persistent object ¤"Ïpickle ^åé2§éõPython *ÐöÑ~5¿aqÝ ù# êâa.´Ä·ÜµCÚ µ" 56 Chapter 6. Input and Output Ñ\ÚÑÑ CHAPTER SEVEN Errors and Exceptions ØÚÉ~ Until now error messages haven’t been more than mentioned, but if you have tried out the examples you have probably seen some. There are (at least) two distinguishable kinds of errors: syntax errors and exceptions. 8vk?Ú!ØLØ&E§ØL3\®²Á¨L@ ~f¥§U®²L "Python ¥£¨¤kü«Øµ{ØÚÉ~£syntax errorsand exceptions ¤" 7.1 Syntax Errors {Ø Syntax errors, also known as parsing errors, are perhaps the most common kind of complaint you get while you are still learning Python: {Ø§¡)ÛØ§U´ÆSPython L§¥N´µ >>> while True print ’Hello world’ File "", line 1, in ? while True print ’Hello world’ ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax The parser repeats the offending line and displays a little ‘arrow’ pointing at the earliest point in the line where the error was detected. The error is caused by (or at least detected at) the token preceding the arrow: in the example, the error is detected at the keyword print, since a colon (‘:’) is missing before it. File name and line number are printed so you know where to look in case the input came from a script. )Ûì¬­EÑ1§¿31¥@uyØ þw«¢Þ"Ø£¨´uÿ¤Ò u)3Þ "«~¥ØLy3' iprint þ§Ï3§c¨ kÒ£‘:’¤"Ó ¬w«©¶Ú1Ò§ù\Ò±Ø5g= §o " 7.2 Exceptions É~ Even if a statement or expression is syntactically correct, it may cause an error when an attempt is made to execute it. Errors detected during execution are called exceptions and are not unconditionally fatal: you will soon learn how to handle them in Python programs. Most exceptions are not handled by programs, however, and result in error messages as shown here: =¦´3{þ (é§}Á1§ÿ§kU¬u)Ø"3§S$1¥uÿÑØ ¡É~§§Ï~Ø¬·¯K§\é¯Ò¬ÆXÛ3Python §S¥§"õêÉ~Ø ¬d§S?n§ ´w«Ø&Eµ 57 >>> 10 *(1/0) Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero >>> 4 + spam*3 Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? NameError: name ’spam’ is not defined >>> ’2’ + 2 Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? TypeError: cannot concatenate ’str’ and ’int’ objects The last line of the error message indicates what happened. Exceptions come in different types, and the type is printed as part of the message: the types in the example are ZeroDivisionError, NameError and TypeError. The string printed as the exception type is the name of the built-in exception that occurred. This is true for all built-in exceptions, but need not be true for user-deﬁned exceptions (although it is a useful convention). Standard exception names are built-in identiﬁers (not reserved keywords). Ø&E 1Ñu) oØ"É~kØÓa.§É~a.Ø&EÜ©w« Ñ5µ«~¥É~©O"ØØ£ZeroDivisionError ¤ §·¶Ø£NameError¤ Úa.Ø £TypeError¤"<Ø&E§É~a.É~S¶w«"éu¤kSÉ~Ñ´Xd§ ØL^rg½ÂÉ~ÒØ½ £¦+ù´ék^½¤"IOÉ~¶´SI££vk¢3' i¤" The rest of the line provides detail based on the type of exception and what caused it. ù1 Ü©´'uTÉ~a.[²§ù¿X§SN6uÉ~a." The preceding part of the error message shows the context where the exception happened, in the form of a stack traceback. In general it contains a stack traceback listing source lines; however, it will not display lines read from standard input. Ø&EcÜ©±æÒ/ªÑÉ~u) "Ï~3æÒ¥Ñ è1§, §5gIO Ñ\ èØ¬w«Ñ5" The Python Library Reference lists the built-in exceptions and their meanings. Python ¥ëÃþÑ SÉ~Ú§¹Â" 7.3 Handling Exceptions ?nÉ~ It is possible to write programs that handle selected exceptions. Look at the following example, which asks the user for input until a valid integer has been entered, but allows the user to interrupt the program (using Control-C or whatever the operating system supports); note that a user-generated interruption is signalled by raising the KeyboardInterrupt exception. ÏL?§±?n½É~"±e~f­E¦^rÑ\§^rÑ\´Ü{ê "ØLù§S#N^r¥ä§S£¦^Control-C ½öÙ§öXÚ|±{¤"I5¿´ ^ruÑ¥ä¬ÚuKeyboardInterrupt É~" 58 Chapter 7. Errors and Exceptions ØÚÉ~ >>> while True: ... try: ... x = int(raw_input("Please enter a number: ")) ... break ... except ValueError: ... print "Oops! That was no valid number. Try again..." ... The try statement works as follows. try éUXeªóµ • First, the try clause (the statement(s) between the try and except keywords) is executed. Äk§1try fé£3try Úexcept 'imÜ©¤" • If no exception occurs, the except clause is skipped and execution of the try statement is ﬁnished. XJvkÉ~u)§except fé 3try é1. Ò£Ñ " • If an exception occurs during execution of the try clause, the rest of the clause is skipped. Then if its type matches the exception named after the except keyword, the except clause is executed, and then execution continues after the try statement. XJ3try fé1L§¥u) É~§@oTféÙ{Ü©Ò¬£Ñ"XJÉ~ uexcept 'i ¡½É~a.§Ò1éAexceptfé§£ÑtryféÙ§Ü©",  UY1tryé è" • If an exception occurs which does not match the exception named in the except clause, it is passed on to outer try statements; if no handler is found, it is an unhandled exception and execution stops with a message as shown above. XJu) É~§3except fé¥vk©|§§Ò¬D4þ?try é¥"XJ ªEéØéA?né§§Ò¤?nÉ~§ª§S$1§w«J«&E" A try statement may have more than one except clause, to specify handlers for different exceptions. At most one handler will be executed. Handlers only handle exceptions that occur in the corresponding try clause, not in other handlers of the same try statement. An except clause may name multiple exceptions as a parenthesized tuple, for example: try éU¹õexcept fé§©O½?nØÓÉ~"õ¬k©|1"É~?n §S¬?néAtry fé¥u)É~§3Ótry é¥§Ù¦fé¥u)É~KØ?n" exceptfé±3)Ò¥ÑõÉ~¶i§~Xµ ... except (RuntimeError, TypeError, NameError): ... pass The last except clause may omit the exception name(s), to serve as a wildcard. Use this with extreme caution, since it is easy to mask a real programming error in this way! It can also be used to print an error message and then re-raise the exception (allowing a caller to handle the exception as well):  except fé±ÑÉ~¶§r§¨Ï¦^"½&^ù«{§Ï§éU¬¶ -Ký§SØ§¦<Ã{uy§±^u<1Ø&E§, ­#ÑÉ~£±¦N^ öÐ?nÉ~¤" 7.3. Handling Exceptions ?nÉ~ 59 import sys try: f = open(’myfile.txt’) s = f.readline() i = int(s.strip()) except IOError, (errno, strerror): print "I/O error(%s): %s" % (errno, strerror) except ValueError: print "Could not convert data to an integer." except: print "Unexpected error:", sys.exc_info()[0] raise The try ... except statement has an optional else clause, which, when present, must follow all except clauses. It is useful for code that must be executed if the try clause does not raise an exception. For example: try ... except é±kelse fé§TféUÑy3¤kexcept fé "¨try évkÑ É~§I1 è§±¦^ùfé"~Xµ for arg in sys.argv[1:]: try: f = open(arg, ’r’) except IOError: print ’cannot open’, arg else: print arg, ’has’, len(f.readlines()), ’lines’ f.close() The use of the else clause is better than adding additional code to the try clause because it avoids accidentally catching an exception that wasn’t raised by the code being protected by the try ... except statement. ¦^else fé'3try fé¥N\èÐ§Ïù±;try ... keywordexcept ¿© ¼ 5Øáu§¢o@ èÑÉ~" When an exception occurs, it may have an associated value, also known as the exception’s argument. The presence and type of the argument depend on the exception type. u)É~§U¬kNá§É~ëê3"ùëê´Ä3!´oa.§6uÉ~ a." The except clause may specify a variable after the exception name (or tuple). The variable is bound to an excep- tion instance with the arguments stored in instance.args. For convenience, the exception instance deﬁnes __- getitem__ and __str__ so the arguments can be accessed or printed directly without having to reference .args. 3É~¶£L¤ §±except fé½Cþ"ùCþ½uÉ~¢~§§; 3instance.args ëê¥" Bå§É~¢~½Â __getitem__ Ú__str__§ùÒ± ¯L<ëê Ø7Ú^.args" But use of .args is discouraged. Instead, the preferred use is to pass a single argument to an exception (which can be a tuple if multiple arguments are needed) and have it bound to the message attribute. One my also instantiate an exception ﬁrst before raising it and add any attributes to it as desired. ù«{ØÉy"§Ð{´É~D4ëê£XJD4õëê§±D4£ |¤§r§½message á5" É~u)§§¬3Ñc½¤k½á5" 60 Chapter 7. Errors and Exceptions ØÚÉ~ >>> try: ... raise Exception(’spam’, ’eggs’) ... except Exception, inst: ... print type(inst) # the exception instance ... print inst.args # arguments stored in .args ... print inst # __str__ allows args to printed directly ... x, y = inst # __getitem__ allows args to be unpacked directly ... print ’x =’, x ... print ’y =’, y ... (’spam’, ’eggs’) (’spam’, ’eggs’) x = spam y = eggs If an exception has an argument, it is printed as the last part (‘detail’) of the message for unhandled exceptions. éu?nÉ~§XJ§këê§@Ò¬Ø&E Ü©£/²[0¤<Ñ5" Exception handlers don’t just handle exceptions if they occur immediately in the try clause, but also if they occur inside functions that are called (even indirectly) in the try clause. For example: É~?néYØ±?nu)3try fé¥É~§=¦´Ù¥£$´m¤N^¼ê§u) É~§±?n"~Xµ >>> def this_fails(): ... x = 1/0 ... >>> try: ... this_fails() ... except ZeroDivisionError, detail: ... print ’Handling run-time error:’, detail ... Handling run-time error: integer division or modulo by zero 7.4 Raising Exceptions ÑÉ~ The raise statement allows the programmer to force a speciﬁed exception to occur. For example: §S ±^raise ér½É~u)"~Xµ >>> raise NameError, ’HiThere’ Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? NameError: HiThere The ﬁrst argument to raise names the exception to be raised. The optional second argument speciﬁes the exception’s argument. Alternatively, the above could be written as raise NameError(’HiThere’). Either form works ﬁne, but there seems to be a growing stylistic preference for the latter. 1ëê½ ¤ÑÉ~¶¡§1½ É~ëê"k«±O{´raise 7.4. Raising Exceptions ÑÉ~ 61 NameError(’HiThere’)"ü«/ªÑU^§ØLwþc«º' «Ð" If you need to determine whether an exception was raised but don’t intend to handle it, a simpler form of the raise statement allows you to re-raise the exception: XJ\û½ÑÉ~ Ø?n§§raise é±4\é{ü­#ÑTÉ~" >>> try: ... raise NameError, ’HiThere’ ... except NameError: ... print ’An exception flew by!’ ... raise ... An exception flew by! Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 2, in ? NameError: HiThere 7.5 User-deﬁned Exceptions ^rg½ÂÉ~ Programs may name their own exceptions by creating a new exception class. Exceptions should typically be derived from the Exception class, either directly or indirectly. For example: 3§S¥±ÏLMï#É~a.5·¶gCÉ~"É~aÏ~AT½mlException a  )§~Xµ >>> class MyError(Exception): ... def __init__(self, value): ... self.value = value ... def __str__(self): ... return repr(self.value) ... >>> try: ... raise MyError(2*2) ... except MyError, e: ... print ’My exception occurred, value:’, e.value ... My exception occurred, value: 4 >>> raise MyError, ’oops!’ Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? __main__.MyError: ’oops!’ In this example, the default __init__ of Exception has been overridden. The new behavior simply creates the value attribute. This replaces the default behavior of creating the args attribute. 3ù~f¥§Exception %@__init__ CX"#ª{üMïvalue á5"ùÒO ¦5 Mïargs á5ª" Exception classes can be deﬁned which do anything any other class can do, but are usually kept simple, often only offering a number of attributes that allow information about the error to be extracted by handlers for the exception. When creating a module that can raise several distinct errors, a common practice is to create a base class for exceptions deﬁned by that module, and subclass that to create speciﬁc exception classes for different error conditions: É~a¥±½Â?ÛÙ§a¥±½ÂÀÜ§¢´Ï~ ¢±{ü§3Ù¥\\Aá5&E§ 62 Chapter 7. Errors and Exceptions ØÚÉ~ ±øÉ~?néYJ"XJ#Mï¬¥IÑA«ØÓØ§Ï~{´T ¬½ÂÉ~Äa§, ¢éØÓØa. )ÑéAÉ~fa" class Error(Exception): """Base class for exceptions in this module.""" pass class InputError(Error): """Exception raised for errors in the input. Attributes: expression -- input expression in which the error occurred message -- explanation of the error """ def __init__(self, expression, message): self.expression = expression self.message = message class TransitionError(Error): """Raised when an operation attempts a state transition that’s not allowed. Attributes: previous -- state at beginning of transition next -- attempted new state message -- explanation of why the specific transition is not allowed """ def __init__(self, previous, next, message): self.previous = previous self.next = next self.message = message Most exceptions are deﬁned with names that end in “Error,” similar to the naming of the standard exceptions. IOÉ~q§õêÉ~·¶Ñ±/Error0(" Many standard modules deﬁne their own exceptions to report errors that may occur in functions they deﬁne. More information on classes is presented in chapter 8, “Classes.” éõIO¬¥Ñ½Â gCÉ~§^±§w3¦¤½Â¼ê¥Uu)Ø"'ua?Ú &Eë19 Ù8§/a0" 7.6 Deﬁning Clean-up Actions ½Ân1 The try statement has another optional clause which is intended to deﬁne clean-up actions that must be executed under all circumstances. For example: try ék,Àfé§83u½Â3?Û¹eÑ½1õU"~Xµ 7.6. Deﬁning Clean-up Actions ½Ân1 63 >>> try: ... raise KeyboardInterrupt ... finally: ... print ’Goodbye, world!’ ... Goodbye, world! Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 2, in ? KeyboardInterrupt A ﬁnally clause is always executed before leaving the try statement, whether an exception has occurred or not. When an exception has occurred in the try clause and has not been handled by an except clause (or it has occurred in a except or else clause), it is re-raised after the finally clause has been executed. The finally clause is also executed “on the way out” when any other clause of the try statement is left via a break, continue or return statement. A more complicated example: Ø+try fé¥kvku)É~§ﬁnally fé3§Slmtry  Ñ½¬1"¨try fé¥u)  except Ó¼É~£½ö§u)3excepte ½else fé¥¤§3ﬁnally fé1 §¬­# Ñ"try fé²dbreak§continue ½return éòÑ¬1ﬁnally fé"±e´E, ~fµ >>> def divide(x, y): ... try: ... result = x / y ... except ZeroDivisionError: ... print "division by zero!" ... else: ... print "result is", result ... finally: ... print "executing finally clause" ... >>> divide(2, 1) result is 2 executing finally clause >>> divide(2, 0) division by zero! executing finally clause >>> divide("2", "1") executing finally clause Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? File "", line 3, in divide TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for /: ’str’ and ’str’ As you can see, the finally clause is executed in any event. The TypeError raised by dividing two strings is not handled by the except clause and therefore re-raised after the finally clauses has been executed. X\¤§(ﬁnally) fé3?Û¹eÑ¬1"TypeError3üiÎGØÿÑ§except féÓ¼§Ïd3finally fé1. ­#Ñ" In real world applications, the finally clause is useful for releasing external resources (such as ﬁles or network connections), regardless of whether the use of the resource was successful. 3¢SA^§S¥§finally fé^uº©Ü] £~X©½äë¤§ÃØ] ¦^´Ä¤ õ" 64 Chapter 7. Errors and Exceptions ØÚÉ~ 7.7 Predeﬁned Clean-up Actions ý½Ân1 Some objects deﬁne standard clean-up actions to be undertaken when the object is no longer needed, regardless of whether or not the operation using the object succeeded or failed. Look at the following example, which tries to open a ﬁle and print its contents to the screen. k é½Â IOn1§ÃØéö´Ä¤õ§Ø2ITéÿÒ¬å^"±e«~ }Ám©¿rSN<¶4þ" for line in open("myfile.txt"): print line The problem with this code is that it leaves the ﬁle open for an indeterminate amount of time after the code has ﬁnished executing. This is not an issue in simple scripts, but can be a problem for larger applications. The with statement allows objects like ﬁles to be used in a way that ensures they are always cleaned up promptly and correctly. ùãè¯K3u3è1 vká='4m©"ù3{ü pvo§¢´.A^ §SÒ¬Ñ¯K"with é¦©aé±(¢oU9O(/?1n" with open("myfile.txt") as f: for line in f: print line After the statement is executed, the ﬁle f is always closed, even if a problem was encountered while processing the lines. Other objects which provide predeﬁned clean-up actions will indicate this in their documentation. é1 §©f o¬'4§=¦´3?n©¥êâÑ"Ù§é´ÄJø ý½Â n1¦w§© " 7.7. Predeﬁned Clean-up Actions ý½Ân1 65 66 CHAPTER EIGHT Classes Python’s class mechanism adds classes to the language with a minimum of new syntax and semantics. It is a mixture of the class mechanisms found in C++ and Modula-3. As is true for modules, classes in Python do not put an absolute barrier between deﬁnition and user, but rather rely on the politeness of the user not to “break into the deﬁnition.” The most important features of classes are retained with full power, however: the class inheritance mechanism allows multiple base classes, a derived class can override any methods of its base class or classes, and a method can call the method of a base class with the same name. Objects can contain an arbitrary amount of private data. Python 3¦UØO\#{ÚÂ¹e\\ aÅ"ù«Å´C++ ÚModula-3 · Ü"Python¥avk3^rÚ½Âmïáýé¶æ§ ´6u^rgúØ/»½Â0" , §aÅ­õUÑ¢3e5"aU«Å#NõU«§ )a±CX£override¤Äa ¥?Û{§{¥±N^Äa¥Ó¶{"é±¹?¿êþhk¤ " In C++ terminology, all class members (including the data members) are public, and all member functions are virtual. There are no special constructors or destructors. As in Modula-3, there are no shorthands for referencing the object’s members from its methods: the method function is declared with an explicit ﬁrst argument representing the object, which is provided implicitly by the call. As in Smalltalk, classes themselves are objects, albeit in the wider sense of the word: in Python, all data types are objects. This provides semantics for importing and renaming. Unlike C++ and Modula-3, built-in types can be used as base classes for extension by the user. Also, like in C++ but unlike in Modula-3, most built-in operators with special syntax (arithmetic operators, subscripting etc.) can be redeﬁned for class instances. ^C++ â5ù§¤ka¤ £)êâ¤ ¤Ñ´úk£public ¤§¤k¤ ¼êÑ´J[ £virtual ¤"vkA½¨EÚÛ¨¼ê"^Modula-3â5ù§3¤ {¥vko{Bª £shorthands¤±Ú^é¤ µ{¼ê3½ÂI±Ú^é1ëê§N^K¬Û ªÚ^é"ùÒ/¤ ÂþÚ\Ú­·¶"£This provides semantics for importing and renaming. ¤ ¢´§C++ Modula-3 ¥@§õêkAÏ{SöÎ£{$Î!eI ¤Ñ±¢ éaI­#½Â" 8.1 A Word About Terminology âû! Lacking universally accepted terminology to talk about classes, I will make occasional use of Smalltalk and C++ terms. (I would use Modula-3 terms, since its object-oriented semantics are closer to those of Python than C++, but I expect that few readers have heard of it.) duvko'uaÏ^â§·lSmalltalk ÚC++ ¥/^ £·F"^Modula-3 §Ï§¡ éÅ'C++CPython§ØL·võ¨ÖöfL§¤" Objects have individuality, and multiple names (in multiple scopes) can be bound to the same object. This is known as aliasing in other languages. This is usually not appreciated on a ﬁrst glance at Python, and can be safely ignored when dealing with immutable basic types (numbers, strings, tuples). However, aliasing has an (intended!) effect on the semantics of Python code involving mutable objects such as lists, dictionaries, and most types representing 67 entities outside the program (ﬁles, windows, etc.). This is usually used to the beneﬁt of the program, since aliases behave like pointers in some respects. For example, passing an object is cheap since only a pointer is passed by the implementation; and if a function modiﬁes an object passed as an argument, the caller will see the change — this eliminates the need for two different argument passing mechanisms as in Pascal. é´Az§õ¶i£3õ^¥¤±½Óé"ù¨uÙ§ó¥O¶"Ï~ éPython 1<¥¬£Ñù:§¦^@ ØCÄ a.£ê!iÎG!£|¤±é %£À§", §3Python èN^i;!óLaCé§±9õê9§S©Ü¢N£©! IN ¤a.§ùÂÒ¬kK"ùÏ^kÏuz§S§ÏO¶13, ¡aqu ¢"~X§éN´D4é§Ï31þ´D4 ¢"XJ¼ê?U ÏLëêD 4é§N^ö±ÂCz¨¨3Pascal ¥ùIüØÓëêD4Å" 8.2 Python Scopes and Name Spaces ^Ú·¶m Before introducing classes, I ﬁrst have to tell you something about Python’s scope rules. Class deﬁnitions play some neat tricks with namespaces, and you need to know how scopes and namespaces work to fully understand what’s going on. Incidentally, knowledge about this subject is useful for any advanced Python programmer. 30 ac§·Äk0  k'Python ^5Kµa½Â~|©$^ ·¶m§ n)e5£§Ikn)^Ú·¶mó¦n",©§ù£éu?Ûp?Python §S Ñ~k^" Let’s begin with some deﬁnitions. ·l ½Âm©" A namespace is a mapping from names to objects. Most namespaces are currently implemented as Python dictionaries, but that’s normally not noticeable in any way (except for performance), and it may change in the future. Examples of namespaces are: the set of built-in names (functions such as abs(), and built-in exception names); the global names in a module; and the local names in a function invocation. In a sense the set of attributes of an object also form a namespace. The important thing to know about namespaces is that there is absolutely no relation between names in different namespaces; for instance, two different modules may both deﬁne a function “maximize” without confusion — users of the modules must preﬁx it with the module name. ·¶m´l·¶éN"¨c·¶mÌ´ÏLPython i;¢y§ØLÏ~Ø'%äN¢ yª£ØÑu5UÄ¤§± kU¬UCÙ¢yª"±ek ·¶m~fµS·¶ £abs() ù¼ê§±9SÉ~¶¤8§¬¥Û·¶§¼êN^¥ÛÜ·¶",«¿Âþ ùéá58´·¶m"'u·¶mI )é­¯Ò´ØÓ·¶m¥·¶ vk?ÛéX§~XüØÓ¬UÑ¬½Â¶/maximize0¼ê Ø¬u)· ¨¨^r7 L±¬¶cM5Ú^§" By the way, I use the word attribute for any name following a dot — for example, in the expression z.real, real is an attribute of the object z. Strictly speaking, references to names in modules are attribute references: in the expression modname.funcname, modname is a module object and funcname is an attribute of it. In this case there happens to be a straightforward mapping between the module’s attributes and the global names deﬁned in the module: they share the same namespace! 1 ^BJé§·¡Python ¥?Û/.0 ·¶á5¨¨~X§Lªz.real ¥real ´éz á5"î5ù§l¬¥Ú^·¶´Ú^á5µLªmodname.funcname ¥§modname ´ ¬é§funcname ´§á5"Ïd§¬á5Ú¬¥Û·¶kN'Xµ§ ¡Ó·¶m2 1 Except for one thing. Module objects have a secret read-only attribute called __dict__ which returns the dictionary used to implement the module’s namespace; the name __dict__ is an attribute but not a global name. Obviously, using this violates the abstraction of namespace implementation, and should be restricted to things like post-mortem debuggers. 2 k~©"¬ékÛÖé§¶__dict__§§£^u¢y¬·¶mi;§·¶__dict__ ´á5 Û·¶"w,§¦^§ ·¶m¢yÄ¦K§ATîuNÁ¥" 68 Chapter 8. Classes Attributes may be read-only or writable. In the latter case, assignment to attributes is possible. Module attributes are writable: you can write ‘modname.the_answer = 42’. Writable attributes may also be deleted with the del statement. For example, ‘del modname.the_answer’ will remove the attribute the_answer from the object named by modname. á5±´ÖL½" «¹e§±éá5D"\±ùµ‘modname.the_answer = 42’"á5±^del éíØ"~Xµ‘del modname.the_answer’ ¬lmodname é¥í Øthe_answer á5" Name spaces are created at different moments and have different lifetimes. The namespace containing the built-in names is created when the Python interpreter starts up, and is never deleted. The global namespace for a module is created when the module deﬁnition is read in; normally, module namespaces also last until the interpreter quits. The statements executed by the top-level invocation of the interpreter, either read from a script ﬁle or interactively, are considered part of a module called __main__, so they have their own global namespace. (The built-in names actually also live in a module; this is called __builtin__.) ØÓ·¶m3ØÓMï§kØÓ)Ï"¹S·¶·¶m3Python )ºìéÄM ï§¬¢3§ØíØ"¬Û·¶m3¬½ÂÖ\Mï§Ï~§¬·¶m¬ ¢)ºìòÑ"d)ºì3p N^1é§Ø+§´l ©¥Ö\´5g¢pªÑ \§Ñ´__main__ ¬Ü©§¤±§PkgC·¶m"£S·¶Ó¹3¬ ¥§§¡__builtin__ "¤ The local namespace for a function is created when the function is called, and deleted when the function returns or raises an exception that is not handled within the function. (Actually, forgetting would be a better way to describe what actually happens.) Of course, recursive invocations each have their own local namespace. ¨¼êN^MïÛÜ·¶m§¼ê£LÑ3¼êS?nÉ~íØ"£¢S þ§´¢#b¤"¨,§z48N^PkgC·¶m" A scope is a textual region of a Python program where a namespace is directly accessible. “Directly accessible” here means that an unqualiﬁed reference to a name attempts to ﬁnd the name in the namespace. ^ ´Python§S¥·¶m±¯©«"/¯03ùp¿g´¦é·¶ ÃIÚ^·¶cM" Although scopes are determined statically, they are used dynamically. At any time during execution, there are at least three nested scopes whose namespaces are directly accessible: the innermost scope, which is searched ﬁrst, contains the local names; the namespaces of any enclosing functions, which are searched starting with the nearest enclosing scope; the middle scope, searched next, contains the current module’s global names; and the outermost scope (searched last) is the namespace containing built-in names. ¦+^´·½Â§3¦^¦Ñ´Ä"zg1§¨kn·¶m±¯ ^i@3åµ¹ÛÜ·¶¦^3p¡§Äk|¢¶Ùg|¢´¥ ^§ùp¹ Ó?¼ê¶ |¢©¡^§§¹S·¶" If a name is declared global, then all references and assignments go directly to the middle scope containing the module’s global names. Otherwise, all variables found outside of the innermost scope are read-only (an attempt to write to such a variable will simply create a new local variable in the innermost scope, leaving the identically named outer variable unchanged). XJ·¶(²Û§@o¤kDÚÚ^Ñ¢é¹Û·¶¥?^",©§l ©Ü¯¤kS ^CþÑ´Ö"£ÁãùCþ¬3SÜ^Mï#ÛÜ Cþ§©ÜI«·¶@CþØ¬UC¤" Usually, the local scope references the local names of the (textually) current function. Outside functions, the local scope references the same namespace as the global scope: the module’s namespace. Class deﬁnitions place yet another namespace in the local scope. li¡¿Âþù§ÛÜ^Ú^¨c¼ê·¶"3¼ê©§ÛÜ^Û¦^Ú^Ó·¶ mµ¬·¶m"a½Â´ÛÜ^¥,·¶m" 8.2. Python Scopes and Name Spaces ^Ú·¶m 69 It is important to realize that scopes are determined textually: the global scope of a function deﬁned in a module is that module’s namespace, no matter from where or by what alias the function is called. On the other hand, the actual search for names is done dynamically, at run time — however, the language deﬁnition is evolving towards static name resolution, at “compile” time, so don’t rely on dynamic name resolution! (In fact, local variables are already determined statically.) ­´^û½u §S©µ½Âu,¬¥¼êÛ^´T¬·¶m§ Ø´T¼êO¶½Â½N^ § )ù:~­",¡§·¶¢S|¢L§´Ä §3$1(½)), §Python ó3ØäuÐ§± kU¬¤·/?È0(½§¤ ±Ø6Ä)Û£¯¢þ§ÛÜCþ®²´·(½ "¤ A special quirk of Python is that assignments always go into the innermost scope. Assignments do not copy data — they just bind names to objects. The same is true for deletions: the statement ‘del x’ removes the binding of x from the namespace referenced by the local scope. In fact, all operations that introduce new names use the local scope: in particular, import statements and function deﬁnitions bind the module or function name in the local scope. (The global statement can be used to indicate that particular variables live in the global scope.) Python AO?3uÙDöo´3p ^"DØ¬Eêâ))´ò·¶½ é"íØ´Xdµ‘del x’ ´lÛÜ^·¶m¥íØ·¶x "¯¢þ§¤kÚ\#·¶ö Ñ^uÛÜ^"AO´import éÚ¼ê½ò ¬¶½¼ê½uÛÜ^"£±¦^global éòCþÚ\ Û^"¤ 8.3 A First Look at Classes Ð£a Classes introduce a little bit of new syntax, three new object types, and some new semantics. aÚ\ :#{§n«#éa.§±9 #Â" 8.3.1 Class Deﬁnition Syntax a½Â{ The simplest form of class deﬁnition looks like this: {üa½Â/ªXeµ class ClassName: . . . Class deﬁnitions, like function deﬁnitions (def statements) must be executed before they have any effect. (You could conceivably place a class deﬁnition in a branch of an if statement, or inside a function.) a½ÂÒ¼ê½Â£def é¤§k1âU)¨"£\¨,±r§?if é,©|§½ ö¼êSÜ"¤ In practice, the statements inside a class deﬁnition will usually be function deﬁnitions, but other statements are allowed, and sometimes useful — we’ll come back to this later. The function deﬁnitions inside a class normally have a peculiar form of argument list, dictated by the calling conventions for methods — again, this is explained later. S.þ§a½ÂéSNÏ~´¼ê½Â§ØLÙ§é±§k¬ék^)) ¡·2£LÞ 5?Ø"a¥¼ê½ÂÏ~) AÏ/ªëêL§^u{N^½))Ó·3 ¡? Øù " 70 Chapter 8. Classes When a class deﬁnition is entered, a new namespace is created, and used as the local scope — thus, all assignments to local variables go into this new namespace. In particular, function deﬁnitions bind the name of the new function here. S.þ§a½ÂéSNÏ~´¼ê½Â§ØLÙ§é±§k¬ék^)) ¡·2£LÞ 5?Ø"a¥¼ê½ÂÏ~) AÏ/ªëêL§^u{N^½))Ó·3 ¡? Øù " When a class deﬁnition is left normally (via the end), a class object is created. This is basically a wrapper around the contents of the namespace created by the class deﬁnition; we’ll learn more about class objects in the next section. The original local scope (the one in effect just before the class deﬁnition was entered) is reinstated, and the class object is bound here to the class name given in the class deﬁnition header (ClassName in the example). a½Â¤£~òÑ¤§ÒMï aé"Ä þ§´éa½ÂMï·¶m?1  C¶·3e!?ÚÆSaé£"¦©ÛÜ^£a½ÂÚ\c)¨@¤¡ E§aé3ùp½a½ÂÞÜa¶£~f¥´ClassName ¤" 8.3.2 Class Objects aé Class objects support two kinds of operations: attribute references and instantiation. aé|±ü«öµá5Ú^Ú¢~z" Attribute references use the standard syntax used for all attribute references in Python: obj.name. Valid attribute names are all the names that were in the class’s namespace when the class object was created. So, if the class deﬁnition looked like this: á5Ú^¦^ÚPython ¥¤ká5Ú^IO{µobj.name"aéMï §a·¶m¥¤k ·¶Ñ´k¨á5¶"¤±XJa½Â´ùµ class MyClass: "A simple example class" i = 12345 def f(self): return ’hello world’ then MyClass.i and MyClass.f are valid attribute references, returning an integer and a function object, re- spectively. Class attributes can also be assigned to, so you can change the value of MyClass.i by assignment. __doc__ is also a valid attribute, returning the docstring belonging to the class: "A simple example class". @oMyClass.i ÚMyClass.f ´k¨á5Ú^§©O£êÚ{é"±éaá 5D§\±ÏLMyClass.i D5?U§"__doc__ ´k¨á5§£a© iÎ Gµ"A simple example class"" Class instantiation uses function notation. Just pretend that the class object is a parameterless function that returns a new instance of the class. For example (assuming the above class): a¢~z¦^¼êÎÒ"òaéw´£#a¢~Ãëê¼ê="~X£b÷^ c¡a¤µ x = MyClass() creates a new instance of the class and assigns this object to the local variable x. ±þMï #a¢~¿òTéDÛÜCþx" The instantiation operation (“calling” a class object) creates an empty object. Many classes like to create objects with instances customized to a speciﬁc initial state. Therefore a class may deﬁne a special method named __init__(), 8.3. A First Look at Classes Ð£a 71 like this: ù¢~zö£/N^0aé¤5Mïé"éõaÑuòéMïkÐ©G "ÏdaU¬½Â¶__init__() AÏ{§e¡ùµ def __init__(self): self.data = [] When a class deﬁnes an __init__() method, class instantiation automatically invokes __init__() for the newly-created class instance. So in this example, a new, initialized instance can be obtained by: a½Â __init__() {{§a¢~zö¬gÄ#Mïa¢~N^__init__() {"¤± 3e~¥§±ùMï#¢~µ x = MyClass() Of course, the __init__() method may have arguments for greater ﬂexibility. In that case, arguments given to the class instantiation operator are passed on to __init__(). For example, ¨,§Ñu¦5I§__init__() {±këê"¯¢þ§ëêÏL__init__() D4a¢~ zöþ"~Xµ >>> class Complex: ... def __init__(self, realpart, imagpart): ... self.r = realpart ... self.i = imagpart ... >>> x = Complex(3.0, -4.5) >>> x.r, x.i (3.0, -4.5) 8.3.3 Instance Objects ¢~é Now what can we do with instance objects? The only operations understood by instance objects are attribute refer- ences. There are two kinds of valid attribute names, data attributes and methods. y3·±^¢~éoº¢~é^öÒ´á5Ú^"kü«k¨á5¶" data attributes correspond to “instance variables” in Smalltalk, and to “data members” in C++. Data attributes need not be declared; like local variables, they spring into existence when they are ﬁrst assigned to. For example, if x is the instance of MyClass created above, the following piece of code will print the value 16, without leaving a trace: êâá5¨uSmalltalk ¥/¢~Cþ0½C++¥/êâ¤ 0"ÚÛÜCþ§êâá5ØI( ²§1g¦^§Ò¬)¤"~X§XJx ´c¡MïMyClass ¢~§e¡ùãè¬<Ñ16 Ø¬k?Ûõ{í3µ x.counter = 1 while x.counter < 10: x.counter = x.counter * 2 print x.counter del x.counter 72 Chapter 8. Classes The other kind of instance attribute reference is a method. A method is a function that “belongs to” an object. (In Python, the term method is not unique to class instances: other object types can have methods as well. For example, list objects have methods called append, insert, remove, sort, and so on. However, in the following discussion, we’ll use the term method exclusively to mean methods of class instance objects, unless explicitly stated otherwise.) ,«¢~é¤ÉÚ^á5´{"{´/áu0é¼ê"£3Python ¥§{Ø ´a¢~¤ÕkµÙ§a.ék{"~X§óLékappend§insert§remove§sort {" , §3 ¡0 ¥§ØAO²§·J{Aa{¤ Valid method names of an instance object depend on its class. By deﬁnition, all attributes of a class that are function objects deﬁne corresponding methods of its instances. So in our example, x.f is a valid method reference, since MyClass.f is a function, but x.i is not, since MyClass.i is not. But x.f is not the same thing as MyClass.f — it is a method object, not a function object. ¢~ék¨¶¡6u§a"Uì½Â§a¥¤k£^r½Â¤¼êééA§¢~¥ {"¤±3·~f¥§x.f ´k¨{Ú^§ÏMyClass.f ´¼ê"¢x.i Ø´§Ï MyClass.i ´Ø´¼ê"ØLx.f ÚMyClass.f ØÓ¨¨§´{é§Ø´¼êé" 8.3.4 Method Objects {é Usually, a method is called right after it is bound: Ï~§{ÏLm½N^µ x.f() In the MyClass example, this will return the string ’hello world’. However, it is not necessary to call a method right away: x.f is a method object, and can be stored away and called at a later time. For example: 3MyClass «~¥§ù¬£iÎG’hello world’ ", §Ø´½N^{"x.f ´ {é§§±;å5± N^"~Xµ xf = x.f while True: print xf() will continue to print ‘hello world’ until the end of time. ¬Øä<‘hello world’" What exactly happens when a method is called? You may have noticed that x.f() was called without an argument above, even though the function deﬁnition for f speciﬁed an argument. What happened to the argument? Surely Python raises an exception when a function that requires an argument is called without any — even if the argument isn’t actually used... N^{u) oº\U5¿N^x.f() vkÚ^c¡IÑCþ§¦+3f ¼ê½Â¥ ² ëê"ùëêNo º¯¢þXJ¼êN^¥"¨ëê§Python ¬ÑÉ~¨¨$ùëê ¢Sþvo^,, Actually, you may have guessed the answer: the special thing about methods is that the object is passed as the ﬁrst argument of the function. In our example, the call x.f() is exactly equivalent to MyClass.f(x). In general, calling a method with a list of n arguments is equivalent to calling the corresponding function with an argument list that is created by inserting the method’s object before the ﬁrst argument. ¢Sþ§\U®²ß Yµ{AO?3u¢~é¼ê1ëêD ¼ê"3· ~f¥§N^x.f() ¨uMyClass.f(x) "Ï~§±n ëêLN^{Ò¨uò 8.3. A First Look at Classes Ð£a 73 {é¢\ëêLc¡ §±ùLN^A¼ê" If you still don’t understand how methods work, a look at the implementation can perhaps clarify matters. When an instance attribute is referenced that isn’t a data attribute, its class is searched. If the name denotes a valid class attribute that is a function object, a method object is created by packing (pointers to) the instance object and the function object just found together in an abstract object: this is the method object. When the method object is called with an argument list, it is unpacked again, a new argument list is constructed from the instance object and the original argument list, and the function object is called with this new argument list. XJ\´Øn){ó¦n§ )e§¢yNkÏ"Ú^êâá5¢~á5§¬| ¢§a"XJù·¶(@k¨¼êéaá5§Ò¬ò¢~éÚ¼êéµC?Ä éµùÒ´{é"±ëêLN^{é§§­# µ§^¢~éÚ¦©ëêL ¨E#ëêL§, ¼êéN^ù#ëêL" 8.4 Random Remarks  ² Data attributes override method attributes with the same name; to avoid accidental name conﬂicts, which may cause hard-to-ﬁnd bugs in large programs, it is wise to use some kind of convention that minimizes the chance of conﬂicts. Possible conventions include capitalizing method names, preﬁxing data attribute names with a small unique string (perhaps just an underscore), or using verbs for methods and nouns for data attributes. Ó¶êâá5¬CX{á5§ ;U·¶Àâ¨¨ù3.§S¥U¬J±uybug ¨¨Ð±,«·¶½5;Àâ"À½){Äi1§êâá5¶cM¢£U ´ey¤§½ö{¦^Äc êâá5¦^¶c" Data attributes may be referenced by methods as well as by ordinary users (“clients”) of an object. In other words, classes are not usable to implement pure abstract data types. In fact, nothing in Python makes it possible to enforce data hiding — it is all based upon convention. (On the other hand, the Python implementation, written in C, can completely hide implementation details and control access to an object if necessary; this can be used by extensions to Python written in C.) êâá5±d{Ú^§±dÊÏ^r£r¤N^"é{§aØU¢yXêâa."¯¢ þPython ¥vko{±rÛõêâ¨¨ÑÄ½.~"£,{ù§Python ¢y´ ^C ¤§XJk7§±^C 5?Python *Ð§Ûõ¢y[!§é¯"¤ Clients should use data attributes with care — clients may mess up invariants maintained by the methods by stamping on their data attributes. Note that clients may add data attributes of their own to an instance object without affecting the validity of the methods, as long as name conﬂicts are avoided — again, a naming convention can save a lot of headaches here. rAT¢%¦^êâá5¨¨rU¬Ï¿?Uêâá5 » 5d{oêâ 5"I5¿´§r5¿;·¶Àâ§Ò±¿¢~¥V\êâá5 Ø¬K{k ¨5¨¨2grN§·¶½±éõæ" There is no shorthand for referencing data attributes (or other methods!) from within methods. I ﬁnd that this actually increases the readability of methods: there is no chance of confusing local variables and instance variables when glancing through a method. l{SÜÚ^êâá5£±9Ù§{¤vko¯$ª"·@ù¯¢þO\ {Ö 5µ=¦oÑèA{§Ø¬k· ÛÜCþÚ¢~CþÅ¬" Often, the ﬁrst argument of a method is called self. This is nothing more than a convention: the name self has absolutely no special meaning to Python. (Note, however, that by not following the convention your code may be less readable to other Python programmers, and it is also conceivable that a class browser program might be written that relies upon such a convention.) Ï~{1ëê·¶self "ù==´½µéPython ó§self ýévk?ÛAÏ¹Â" £, 5¿´§XJØÅù½§OPython §S Ö\è¬kØB§ k aèA 74 Chapter 8. Classes §S´Ìd½mu"¤ Any function object that is a class attribute deﬁnes a method for instances of that class. It is not necessary that the function deﬁnition is textually enclosed in the class deﬁnition: assigning a function object to a local variable in the class is also ok. For example: aá5¥?Û¼êé3a¢~¥Ñ½Â{"Ø´7Lò¼ê½Âè?a½Â¥§±ò ¼êéDa¥Cþ"~Xµ # Function defined outside the class def f1(self, x, y): return min(x, x+y) class C: f = f1 def g(self): return ’hello world’ h = g Now f, g and h are all attributes of class C that refer to function objects, and consequently they are all methods of instances of C— h being exactly equivalent to g. Note that this practice usually only serves to confuse the reader of a program. y3f, g Úh Ñ´aC á5§Ú^Ñ´¼êé§Ïd§Ñ´C ¢~{¨¨h î ug"5¿ ´ù«S.Ï~¬¾§SÖö" Methods may call other methods by using method attributes of the self argument: ÏLself ëê{á5§{±N^Ù§{µ class Bag: def __init__(self): self.data = [] def add(self, x): self.data.append(x) def addtwice(self, x): self.add(x) self.add(x) Methods may reference global names in the same way as ordinary functions. The global scope associated with a method is the module containing the class deﬁnition. (The class itself is never used as a global scope!) While one rarely encounters a good reason for using global data in a method, there are many legitimate uses of the global scope: for one thing, functions and modules imported into the global scope can be used by methods, as well as functions and classes deﬁned in it. Usually, the class containing the method is itself deﬁned in this global scope, and in the next section we’ll ﬁnd some good reasons why a method would want to reference its own class! {±Ú^ÊÏ¼ê@Ú^ Û·¶"{'é Û^´¹a½Â ¬"£a [Ø¬ Û^¦^¤¦+é¨kÐnd3{¥¦^ Ûêâ§ Û^(kéõÜ{ ^åµÙ´{±N^\ Û^¼êÚ{§±N^½Â3Ù¥aÚ¼ê"Ï~§ ¹d{a¬½Â3ù Û^§3e!·¬ )Û{Ú^gCa 8.4. Random Remarks  ² 75 8.5 Inheritance U« Of course, a language feature would not be worthy of the name “class” without supporting inheritance. The syntax for a derived class deﬁnition looks like this: ¨,§XJ«óØ|±U«Ò§/a0Òvko¿Â" )a½ÂXe¤«µ class DerivedClassName(BaseClassName): . . . The name BaseClassName must be deﬁned in a scope containing the derived class deﬁnition. In place of a base class name, other arbitrary expressions are also allowed. This can be useful, for example, when the base class is deﬁned in another module: ·¶BaseClassName£«~¥Äa¶¤7L )a½Â3^S"Ø a§±^Lª§ Äa½Â3, ¬¥ù:~k^µ class DerivedClassName(modname.BaseClassName): Execution of a derived class deﬁnition proceeds the same as for a base class. When the class object is constructed, the base class is remembered. This is used for resolving attribute references: if a requested attribute is not found in the class, the search proceeds to look in the base class. This rule is applied recursively if the base class itself is derived from some other class. )a½Â1L§ÚÄa´"¨E )aé§ÒP4 Äa"ù3)Ûá5Ú^ÿc Ùk^µXJ3a¥éØ¦N^á5§Ò|¢Äa"XJÄa´dOa ) 5§ù5K¬4 8A^þ" There’s nothing special about instantiation of derived classes: DerivedClassName() creates a new instance of the class. Method references are resolved as follows: the corresponding class attribute is searched, descending down the chain of base classes if necessary, and the method reference is valid if this yields a function object. )a¢~zvkoAÏ?µDerivedClassName() £«¥ )a¤Mï#a¢~" {Ú^UXe5K)Ûµ|¢éAaá5§7÷ÄaóÅ?|¢§XJé ¼êéù{ Ú^Ò´Ü{ Derived classes may override methods of their base classes. Because methods have no special privileges when calling other methods of the same object, a method of a base class that calls another method deﬁned in the same base class may end up calling a method of a derived class that overrides it. (For C++ programmers: all methods in Python are effectively virtual.) )aU¬CXÙÄa{"Ï{N^Óé¥Ù§{vkA§Äa{N^Ó Äa{§U¢SþªN^ )a¥CX{"£éuC++ §S 5§Python¥¤k { þÑ´J{"¤ An overriding method in a derived class may in fact want to extend rather than simply replace the base class method of the same name. There is a simple way to call the base class method directly: just call ‘BaseClassName.methodname(self, arguments)’. This is occasionally useful to clients as well. (Note that this only works if the base class is deﬁned or imported directly in the global scope.) )a¥CX{U´*¿ Ø´{üOÄa¥­¶{"k{ü{±N ^Äa{§N^µ‘BaseClassName.methodname(self, arguments)’"kùéuré 76 Chapter 8. Classes k^"£5¿¥kÄa3Ó Û^½Â½\âUù^"¤ 8.5.1 Multiple Inheritance õU« Python supports a limited form of multiple inheritance as well. A class deﬁnition with multiple base classes looks like this: PythonÓk|±õU«/ª"õU«a½Â/Xe~µ class DerivedClassName(Base1, Base2, Base3): . . . The only rule necessary to explain the semantics is the resolution rule used for class attribute references. This is depth-ﬁrst, left-to-right. Thus, if an attribute is not found in DerivedClassName, it is searched in Base1, then (recursively) in the base classes of Base1, and only if it is not found there, it is searched in Base2, and so on. ù p   I  ) º   Â ´ )Û a á 5  5 K" ^ S ´ Ý  k § l   m "Ï d § XJ 3DerivedClassName £«~¥ )a¤¥vké,á5§Ò¬|¢Base1 §, £48¤ |¢ÙÄa§XJªvké§Ò|¢Base2§±daí" (To some people breadth ﬁrst — searching Base2 and Base3 before the base classes of Base1 — looks more natural. However, this would require you to know whether a particular attribute of Base1 is actually deﬁned in Base1 or in one of its base classes before you can ﬁgure out the consequences of a name conﬂict with an attribute of Base2. The depth-ﬁrst rule makes no differences between direct and inherited attributes of Base1.) £k <@2Ýk¨¨3|¢Base1Äac|¢Base2ÚBase3¨¨wå5g,", §X JBase1ÚBase2mu) ·¶Àâ§\I )ùá5´½ÂuBase1´Base1Äa¥" ÝkØ«©á5U«gÄa´½Â"¤ It is clear that indiscriminate use of multiple inheritance is a maintenance nightmare, given the reliance in Python on conventions to avoid accidental name conﬂicts. A well-known problem with multiple inheritance is a class derived from two classes that happen to have a common base class. While it is easy enough to ﬁgure out what happens in this case (the instance will have a single copy of “instance variables” or data attributes used by the common base class), it is not clear that these semantics are in any way useful. w,Ø\¦^õU«¬5oþý§ÏPython ¥½5;·¶Àâ"õU« ék¶¯K´ )U«üÄaÑ´lÓÄaU« 5"8cØÙù3Âþko¿ Â§, éN´ù¬E¤o J£¢~¬kÕá/¢~Cþ0½êâá5E ^uú¡Ä a"¤ 8.6 Private Variables hkCþ There is limited support for class-private identiﬁers. Any identiﬁer of the form __spam (at least two leading under- scores, at most one trailing underscore) is textually replaced with _classname__spam, where classname is the current class name with leading underscore(s) stripped. This mangling is done without regard to the syntactic position of the identiﬁer, so it can be used to deﬁne class-private instance and class variables, methods, variables stored in globals, and even variables stored in instances. private to this class on instances of other classes. Truncation may occur when the mangled name would be longer than 255 characters. Outside classes, or when the class name consists of only underscores, no mangling occurs. 8.6. Private Variables hkCþ 77 Python éahk¤ Jø k|±"?Û/X__spam£±¨VeymÞ§õüey(¤ =ÑO_classname__spam§Kceyclassname =¨ca¶"ù«· Ø'%I £Î{ §¤±^5½Âhka¢~ÚaCþ!{§±9 ÛCþ§$uòÙ§a¢~¢ hkCþ"· ¶ÝL255iÎÿU¬u)ä"3a©Ü§½a¶¹ey§ Ø¬u)ä" Name mangling is intended to give classes an easy way to deﬁne “private” instance variables and methods, without having to worry about instance variables deﬁned by derived classes, or mucking with instance variables by code outside the class. Note that the mangling rules are designed mostly to avoid accidents; it still is possible for a determined soul to access or modify a variable that is considered private. This can even be useful in special circumstances, such as in the debugger, and that’s one reason why this loophole is not closed. (Buglet: derivation of a class with the same name as the base class makes use of private variables of the base class possible.) ·¶· ¿3Ñ3a¥½Â/hk0¢~CþÚ{{üå»§; )a¢~Cþ½Â) ¯K§½ö©.è¥Cþt·"5¿´· 5KÌ83u;¿©Ø§@hk CþE,kU¯½?U"3A½|Ü§´k^§'XNÁÿ§ù´vk×þù ¦É¦Ï£¢¦Éµ )aÚÄaÓ¶iÒ±¦^ÄahkCþ"¤ Notice that code passed to exec, eval() or evalfile() does not consider the classname of the invoking class to be the current class; this is similar to the effect of the global statement, the effect of which is likewise restricted to code that is byte-compiled together. The same restriction applies to getattr(), setattr() and delattr(), as well as when referencing __dict__ directly. 5¿´D\exec§eval() ½evalfile() èØ¬òN^§aÀ¨ca§ùglobal  é   ¹ a q §global   ^ Û  u /Ó  1 0 ? 1 i !?È   è "Ó      · ^ ugetattr()§setattr() Údelattr()§±9Ú^__dict__ ÿ" 8.7 Odds and Ends Ö¿ Sometimes it is useful to have a data type similar to the Pascal “record” or C “struct”, bundling together a few named data items. An empty class deﬁnition will do nicely: kaquPascal¥/P¹£record¤0½C¥/(¨£struct¤0êâa.ék^§§ò|®·¶ê â½3å"a½Â±éÐ¢yù§µ class Employee: pass john = Employee() # Create an empty employee record # Fill the fields of the record john.name = ’John Doe’ john.dept = ’computer lab’ john.salary = 1000 A piece of Python code that expects a particular abstract data type can often be passed a class that emulates the methods of that data type instead. For instance, if you have a function that formats some data from a ﬁle object, you can deﬁne a class with methods read() and readline() that get the data from a string buffer instead, and pass it as an argument. ,ãPython èIAÏÄêâ(¨{§Ï~±D\a§¯¢þù Ta {"~X§XJ\k^ul©é¥ªzêâ¼ê§\±½Âkread() Úreadline() {a§±dliÎGÀÖêâ§, òTaéëêD\cã¼ê" Instance method objects have attributes, too: m.im_self is the instance object with the method m, and m.im_func 78 Chapter 8. Classes is the function object corresponding to the method. ¢~{éká5µm.im_self ´¢~{¤áé§ m.im_func ´ù{éA¼ê é" 8.8 Exceptions Are Classes Too É~´a User-deﬁned exceptions are identiﬁed by classes as well. Using this mechanism it is possible to create extensible hierarchies of exceptions. ^rg½ÂÉ~±´a"|^ùÅ±Mï*ÐÉ~NX" There are two new valid (semantic) forms for the raise statement: ±e´ü«#k¨£Âþ¤É~Ñ/ªµ raise Class, instance raise instance In the ﬁrst form, instance must be an instance of Class or of a class derived from it. The second form is a shorthand for: 1«/ª¥§instance 7L´Class ½Ù )a¢~"1«/ª´±e/ª{µ raise instance.__class__, instance A class in an except clause is compatible with an exception if it is the same class or a base class thereof (but not the other way around — an except clause listing a derived class is not compatible with a base class). For example, the following code will print B, C, D in that order: u)É~Ùa.XJ´É~fé¥Ña§½ö´Ù )a§@o§Ò´Î£L5¨ ¨u)É~Ùa.XJ´É~fé¥ÑaÄa§§ÒØÎ¤"~X§±eè¬U^S u" When an error message is printed for an unhandled exception, the exception’s class name is printed, then a colon and a space, and ﬁnally the instance converted to a string using the built-in function str(). <É~aØ&E§k>> s = ’abc’ >>> it = iter(s) >>> it >>> it.next() ’a’ >>> it.next() ’b’ >>> it.next() ’c’ >>> it.next() Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in ? it.next() StopIteration 80 Chapter 8. Classes Having seen the mechanics behind the iterator protocol, it is easy to add iterator behavior to your classes. Deﬁne a __iter__() method which returns an object with a next() method. If the class deﬁnes next(), then __- iter__() can just return self: ) SìÆ Å§Ò±éN´gCaV\Sì1"½Â__iter__()  {§¦Ù£knext() {é"XJùa®²½Â next()§@o__iter__() I £selfµ class Reverse: "Iterator for looping over a sequence backwards" def __init__(self, data): self.data = data self.index = len(data) def __iter__(self): return self def next(self): if self.index == 0: raise StopIteration self.index = self.index - 1 return self.data[self.index] >>> for char in Reverse(’spam’): ... print char ... m a p s 8.10 Generators )¤ì Generators are a simple and powerful tool for creating iterators. They are written like regular functions but use the yield statement whenever they want to return data. Each time next() is called, the generator resumes where it left-off (it remembers all the data values and which statement was last executed). An example shows that generators can be trivially easy to create: )¤ì´MïSì{ü róä"§å5Ò´K¼ê§I£êâÿ¦^yield é"zgnext() N^§)¤ì£E§øl £§PÁé g1 Ú¤kêâ ¤"±e«~ü« )¤ì±é{üMïÑ5µ def reverse(data): for index in range(len(data)-1, -1, -1): yield data[index] >>> for char in reverse(’golf’): ... print char ... f l o g Anything that can be done with generators can also be done with class based iterators as described in the previous 8.10. Generators )¤ì 81 section. What makes generators so compact is that the __iter__() and next() methods are created automatically. c!¥£ã ÄuaSì§§Uz¯)¤ìU"ÏgÄMï __iter__() Únext() {§)¤ìwXd{'" Another key feature is that the local variables and execution state are automatically saved between calls. This made the function easier to write and much more clear than an approach using instance variables like self.index and self.data. ,©'õU´ügN^mÛÜCþÚ1¹ÑgÄ¢ e5"ù¼ê?å5Ò'Ã ÄN^self.index Úself.data ùaCþN´õ" In addition to automatic method creation and saving program state, when generators terminate, they automatically raise StopIteration. In combination, these features make it easy to create iterators with no more effort than writing a regular function. Ø MïÚ¢§SGgÄ{§¨u)ìª(§¬gÄÑStopIteration É~"nþ¤ ã§ù õU¦?K¼ê¤MïSì{ü{" 8.11 Generator Expressions )¤ìLª Some simple generators can be coded succinctly as expressions using a syntax similar to list comprehensions but with parentheses instead of brackets. These expressions are designed for situations where the generator is used right away by an enclosing function. Generator expressions are more compact but less versatile than full generator deﬁnitions and tend to be more memory friendly than equivalent list comprehensions. k{ü)¤ì±^{'ªN^§ÒØ¥)ÒóLíª"ù Lª´¼êN^)¤ ì O")¤ìLª')¤ì½Â{'§¢´vk@oõC§ Ï~'dóLí ªN´P" Examples: ~Xµ >>> sum(i*i for i in range(10)) # sum of squares 285 >>> xvec = [10, 20, 30] >>> yvec = [7, 5, 3] >>> sum(x*y for x,y in zip(xvec, yvec)) # dot product 260 >>> from math import pi, sin >>> sine_table = dict((x, sin(x*pi/180)) for x in range(0, 91)) >>> unique_words = set(word for line in page for word in line.split()) >>> valedictorian = max((student.gpa, student.name) for student in graduates) >>> data = ’golf’ >>> list(data[i] for i in range(len(data)-1,-1,-1)) [’f’, ’l’, ’o’, ’g’] 82 Chapter 8. Classes CHAPTER NINE Brief Tour of the Standard Library IO¥ VA 9.1 Operating System Interface öXÚ The os module provides dozens of functions for interacting with the operating system: os ¬Jø Ø¨öXÚ'é¼ê" >>> import os >>> os.system(’time 0:02’) 0 >>> os.getcwd() # Return the current working directory ’C:\\Python24’ >>> os.chdir(’/server/accesslogs’) Be sure to use the ‘import os’ style instead of ‘from os import *’. This will keep os.open() from shad- owing the builtin open() function which operates much differently. AT ^‘import os’ º  ‘from os import *’" ù   ± ¢ y  ö  XÚØÓ k ¤ C z os.open() Ø¬CXS¼êopen()" The builtin dir() and help() functions are useful as interactive aids for working with large modules like os: 3¦^ os ù.¬Sdir() Úhelp() ¼ê~k^" >>> import os >>> dir(os) >>> help(os) For daily ﬁle and directory management tasks, the shutil module provides a higher level interface that is easier to use: ¢éF~©Ú8¹+n?Ö§shutil ¬Jø ´u¦^p?" 83 >>> import shutil >>> shutil.copyfile(’data.db’, ’archive.db’) >>> shutil.move(’/build/executables’, ’installdir’) 9.2 File Wildcards ©ÏÎ The glob module provides a function for making ﬁle lists from directory wildcard searches: glob ¬Jø ¼ê^ul8¹ÏÎ|¢¥)¤©L" >>> import glob >>> glob.glob(’*.py’) [’primes.py’, ’random.py’, ’quote.py’] 9.3 Command Line Arguments ·-1ëê Common utility scripts often need to process command line arguments. These arguments are stored in the sys module’s argv attribute as a list. For instance the following output results from running ‘python demo.py one two three’ at the command line: Ï^óä ²~N^·-1ëê"ù ·-1ëê±óL/ª;usys ¬argv Cþ"~X3·- 1¥1‘python demo.py one two three’  ±±eÑÑ(Jµ >>> import sys >>> print sys.argv [’demo.py’, ’one’, ’two’, ’three’] The getopt module processes sys.argv using the conventions of the UNIX getopt() function. More powerful and ﬂexible command line processing is provided by the optparse module. getopt ¬¦^UNIX getopt() ¼?nsys.argv"õE,·-1?ndoptparse ¬Jø" 9.4 Error Output Redirection and Program Termination ØÑÑ­½ Ú§Sª The sys module also has attributes for stdin, stdout, and stderr. The latter is useful for emitting warnings and error messages to make them visible even when stdout has been redirected: sys kstdin§stdout Ústderr á5§=¦3stdout ­½§ ö±^uw«´wÚØ&E" >>> sys.stderr.write(’Warning, log file not found starting a new one\n’) Warning, log file not found starting a new one The most direct way to terminate a script is to use ‘sys.exit()’. õ ½ªÑ¦^‘sys.exit()’" 84 Chapter 9. Brief Tour of the Standard Library IO¥VA 9.5 String Pattern Matching iÎGK The re module provides regular expression tools for advanced string processing. For complex matching and manipu- lation, regular expressions offer succinct, optimized solutions: re ¬p?iÎG?nJø KLªóä"éuE,Ú?n§KLªJø {'!z )ûY" >>> import re >>> re.findall(r’\bf[a-z]*’, ’which foot or hand fell fastest’) [’foot’, ’fell’, ’fastest’] >>> re.sub(r’(\b[a-z]+) \1’, r’\1’, ’cat in the the hat’) ’cat in the hat’ When only simple capabilities are needed, string methods are preferred because they are easier to read and debug: XJI{üõU§ATÄkÄiÎG{§Ï§~{ü§´uÖÚNÁ" >>> ’tea for too’.replace(’too’, ’two’) ’tea for two’ 9.6 Mathematics êÆ The math module gives access to the underlying C library functions for ﬂoating point math: math ¬2:$Jø é. C¼ê¥¯" >>> import math >>> math.cos(math.pi / 4.0) 0.70710678118654757 >>> math.log(1024, 2) 10.0 The random module provides tools for making random selections: random Jø )¤Åêóä" >>> import random >>> random.choice([’apple’, ’pear’, ’banana’]) ’apple’ >>> random.sample(xrange(100), 10) # sampling without replacement [30, 83, 16, 4, 8, 81, 41, 50, 18, 33] >>> random.random() # random float 0.17970987693706186 >>> random.randrange(6) # random integer chosen from range(6) 4 9.5. String Pattern Matching iÎGK 85 9.7 Internet Access pé ¯ There are a number of modules for accessing the internet and processing internet protocols. Two of the simplest are urllib2 for retrieving data from urls and smtplib for sending mail: kA ¬^u¯pé ±9?n äÏ&Æ"Ù¥{üü´^u?nlurls Âêâ urllib2 ±9^uux>fesmtplib" >>> import urllib2 >>> for line in urllib2.urlopen(’http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/cgi-bin/timer.pl’): ... if ’EST’ in line or ’EDT’ in line: # look for Eastern Time ... print line Nov. 25, 09:43:32 PM EST >>> import smtplib >>> server = smtplib.SMTP(’localhost’) >>> server.sendmail(’soothsayer@example.org’, ’jcaesar@example.org’, """To: jcaesar@example.org From: soothsayer@example.org Beware the Ides of March. """) >>> server.quit() 9.8 Dates and Times FÏÚm The datetime module supplies classes for manipulating dates and times in both simple and complex ways. While date and time arithmetic is supported, the focus of the implementation is on efﬁcient member extraction for output formatting and manipulation. The module also supports objects that are timezone aware. datetime ¬FÏÚm?nÓJø {üÚE,{"|±FÏÚm{Ó§¢y­ :3k¨?nÚªzÑÑ"T ¬|±«?n" # dates are easily constructed and formatted >>> from datetime import date >>> now = date.today() >>> now datetime.date(2003, 12, 2) >>> now.strftime("%m-%d-%y. %d %b %Y is a %A on the %d day of %B.") ’12-02-03. 02 Dec 2003 is a Tuesday on the 02 day of December.’ # dates support calendar arithmetic >>> birthday = date(1964, 7, 31) >>> age = now - birthday >>> age.days 14368 86 Chapter 9. Brief Tour of the Standard Library IO¥VA 9.9 Data Compression êâØ Common data archiving and compression formats are directly supported by modules including: zlib, gzip, bz2, zipfile, and tarfile. ±e ¬|±Ï^êâÚØ ªµ zlib§gzip§bz2§zipfile§±9tarfile >>> import zlib >>> s = ’witch which has which witches wrist watch’ >>> len(s) 41 >>> t = zlib.compress(s) >>> len(t) 37 >>> zlib.decompress(t) ’witch which has which witches wrist watch’ >>> zlib.crc32(s) 226805979 9.10 Performance Measurement 5UÝþ Some Python users develop a deep interest in knowing the relative performance of different approaches to the same problem. Python provides a measurement tool that answers those questions immediately. k ^ré ))ûÓ¯KØÓ{m5U Ééa,"Python Jø Ýþóä§ù ¯KJø Y" For example, it may be tempting to use the tuple packing and unpacking feature instead of the traditional approach to swapping arguments. The timeit module quickly demonstrates a modest performance advantage: ~X§¦^£|µCÚ µ5¢£wå5'¦^DÚ{p<õ"timeit y² DÚ{ ¯ " >>> from timeit import Timer >>> Timer(’t=a; a=b; b=t’, ’a=1; b=2’).timeit() 0.57535828626024577 >>> Timer(’a,b = b,a’, ’a=1; b=2’).timeit() 0.54962537085770791 In contrast to timeit’s ﬁne level of granularity, the profile and pstats modules provide tools for identifying time critical sections in larger blocks of code. éutimeit [âÝ§profile Úpstats ¬Jø ¢éè¬mÝþóä" 9.11 Quality Control þ One approach for developing high quality software is to write tests for each function as it is developed and to run those tests frequently during the development process. mupþ^{´z¼êmuÿÁè§¿ 3muL§¥²~?1ÿÁ" 9.9. Data Compression êâØ 87 The doctest module provides a tool for scanning a module and validating tests embedded in a program’s docstrings. Test construction is as simple as cutting-and-pasting a typical call along with its results into the docstring. This improves the documentation by providing the user with an example and it allows the doctest module to make sure the code remains true to the documentation: doctest ¬Jø óä§×£ ¬¿â§S¥Si© iÎG1ÿÁ"ÿÁ¨EXÓ{ü ò§ÑÑ(J}¿Êb© iÎG¥"ÏL^rJø~f§§uÐ © §#Ndoctest ¬(@ è(J´Ä© " def average(values): """Computes the arithmetic mean of a list of numbers. >>> print average([20, 30, 70]) 40.0 """ return sum(values, 0.0) / len(values) import doctest doctest.testmod() # automatically validate the embedded tests The unittest module is not as effortless as the doctest module, but it allows a more comprehensive set of tests to be maintained in a separate ﬁle: unittest ¬Ødoctest ¬@oN´¦^§ØL§±3Õá©pJø ¡ÿÁ 8" import unittest class TestStatisticalFunctions(unittest.TestCase): def test_average(self): self.assertEqual(average([20, 30, 70]), 40.0) self.assertEqual(round(average([1, 5, 7]), 1), 4.3) self.assertRaises(ZeroDivisionError, average, []) self.assertRaises(TypeError, average, 20, 30, 70) unittest.main() # Calling from the command line invokes all tests 9.12 Batteries Included Python has a “batteries included” philosophy. This is best seen through the sophisticated and robust capabilities of its larger packages. For example: Python Ny /batteries included0óÆ"Python ±ÏL5AG«E,¹rU å§lù:·±wÑTgA^"~Xµ • The xmlrpclib and SimpleXMLRPCServer modules make implementing remote procedure calls into an almost trivial task. Despite the modules names, no direct knowledge or handling of XML is needed. xmlrpclib ÚSimpleXMLRPCServer ¬¢y 3¡?Ö¥N^§L§"¦+kù¶ i§Ù¢^rØI?nXML §ØIù¡£" • The email package is a library for managing email messages, including MIME and other RFC 2822-based message documents. Unlike smtplib and poplib which actually send and receive messages, the email 88 Chapter 9. Brief Tour of the Standard Library IO¥VA package has a complete toolset for building or decoding complex message structures (including attachments) and for implementing internet encoding and header protocols. email ´eE+n¥§±?nMIME ½Ù§ÄuRFC 2822 E© "ØÓu¢Su xÚÂEsmtplib Úpoplib ¬§email k^u¨ï½)ÛE,E(¨£)N ¤±9¢ypé ?èÚÞÆóä8" • The xml.dom and xml.sax packages provide robust support for parsing this popular data interchange format. Likewise, the csv module supports direct reads and writes in a common database format. Together, these modules and packages greatly simplify data interchange between python applications and other tools. xml.dom Úxml.sax 61&E¢ªJø r|±"Ó§csv ¬|±3Ï^êâ ¥ª¥Ö"nÜå5§ù ¬Ú{z Python A^§SÚÙ§óämêâ¢ " • Internationalization is supported by a number of modules including gettext, locale, and the codecs package. ISzdgettext§localeÚcodecs |± 9.12. Batteries Included 89 90 CHAPTER TEN Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IO¥VA This second tour covers more advanced modules that support professional programming needs. These modules rarely occur in small scripts. 1Ü©¹ |±;?§ó¤Ip? ¬§ù ¬é¨Ñy3¢ ¥" 10.1 Output Formatting ªzÑÑ The repr module provides a version of repr() customized for abbreviated displays of large or deeply nested containers: >>> import repr >>> repr.repr(set(’supercalifragilisticexpialidocious’)) "set([’a’, ’c’, ’d’, ’e’, ’f’, ’g’, ...])" The pprint module offers more sophisticated control over printing both built-in and user deﬁned objects in a way that is readable by the interpreter. When the result is longer than one line, the “pretty printer” adds line breaks and indentation to more clearly reveal data structure: The pprint ¬PÃJø «)ºìÖª \SÚ^rg½Âé<"¨ÑÑL 1ÿ§/{z<£pretty printer¤0V\ä1ÚI£Î§¦êâ(¨w«ßµ >>> import pprint >>> t = [[[[’black’, ’cyan’], ’white’, [’green’, ’red’]], [[’magenta’, ... ’yellow’], ’blue’]]] ... >>> pprint.pprint(t, width=30) [[[[’black’, ’cyan’], ’white’, [’green’, ’red’]], [[’magenta’, ’yellow’], ’blue’]]] The textwrap module formats paragraphs of text to ﬁt a given screen width: The textwrap ¬ªz© ãá±·A½¶°µ 91 >>> import textwrap >>> doc = """The wrap() method is just like fill() except that it returns ... a list of strings instead of one big string with newlines to separate ... the wrapped lines.""" ... >>> print textwrap.fill(doc, width=40) The wrap() method is just like fill() except that it returns a list of strings instead of one big string with newlines to separate the wrapped lines. The locale module accesses a database of culture speciﬁc data formats. The grouping attribute of locale’s format function provides a direct way of formatting numbers with group separators: The locale ¬U¯ý½ÐI[&Eêâ¥"localeªz¼êá58Jø ª±©| I«ªzêiµ >>> import locale >>> locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, ’English_United States.1252’) ’English_United States.1252’ >>> conv = locale.localeconv() # get a mapping of conventions >>> x = 1234567.8 >>> locale.format("%d", x, grouping=True) ’1,234,567’ >>> locale.format("%s%.*f", (conv[’currency_symbol’], ... conv[’frac_digits’], x), grouping=True) ’$1,234,567.80’ 10.2 Templating  The string module includes a versatile Template class with a simpliﬁed syntax suitable for editing by end-users. This allows users to customize their applications without having to alter the application. string Jø (¹õCatemplate§¦^§ª^r±^{ü?1?6"ù¦^r± 3Ø?1UC¹e½¦A^§S" The format uses placeholder names formed by ‘$’ with valid Python identiﬁers (alphanumeric characters and un- derscores). Surrounding the placeholder with braces allows it to be followed by more alphanumeric letters with no intervening spaces. Writing ‘$$’ creates a single escaped ‘’: ª¦^‘’ mÞPython Ü{I££êi!i1Úey¤Ó Î"Ó Î©¡)Ò¦§± ÚÙ§iÎØ\·3å"‘$$’MïüÕ‘$’" >>> from string import Template >>> t = Template(’${village}folk send$$10 to$cause.’) >>> t.substitute(village=’Nottingham’, cause=’the ditch fund’) ’Nottinghamfolk send $10 to the ditch fund.’ The substitute method raises a KeyError when a placeholder is not supplied in a dictionary or a keyword argument. For mail-merge style applications, user supplied data may be incomplete and the safe_substitute method may be more appropriate — it will leave placeholders unchanged if data is missing: 92 Chapter 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IO¥VA i;½ö' iëê¥"¨,Ó Îÿsubstitute {ÑKeyError É~"3e-Ü¿º A^§S¥§^rJøêâU¿Ø§N^safe-substitute {Ü·))XJêâØ §§¢3UÄÓ Îµ >>> t = Template(’Return the$item to $owner.’) >>> d = dict(item=’unladen swallow’) >>> t.substitute(d) Traceback (most recent call last): ... KeyError: ’owner’ >>> t.safe_substitute(d) ’Return the unladen swallow to$owner.’ Template subclasses can specify a custom delimiter. For example, a batch renaming utility for a photo browser may elect to use percent signs for placeholders such as the current date, image sequence number, or ﬁle format: fa±½½©Î"~X§ãèAì1þ·¶óäUÀ^z©ÒL«¨cF Ï!ãSÒ½©ªÓ Îµ >>> import time, os.path >>> photofiles = [’img_1074.jpg’, ’img_1076.jpg’, ’img_1077.jpg’] >>> class BatchRename(Template): ... delimiter = ’%’ >>> fmt = raw_input(’Enter rename style (%d-date %n-seqnum %f-format): ’) Enter rename style (%d-date %n-seqnum %f-format): Ashley_%n%f >>> t = BatchRename(fmt) >>> date = time.strftime(’%d%b%y’) >>> for i, filename in enumerate(photofiles): ... base, ext = os.path.splitext(filename) ... newname = t.substitute(d=date, n=i, f=ext) ... print ’%s --> %s’ % (filename, newname) img_1074.jpg --> Ashley_0.jpg img_1076.jpg --> Ashley_1.jpg img_1077.jpg --> Ashley_2.jpg Another application for templating is separating program logic from the details of multiple output formats. This makes it possible to substitute custom templates for XML ﬁles, plain text reports, and HTML web reports. ,A^´òõzÑÑª[!l§SÜ6¥©lÑ5"ù¦XML ©§X©§L§HTML web §L½O¤U" 10.3 Working with Binary Data Record Layouts ¦^?P¹  The struct module provides pack() and unpack() functions for working with variable length binary record formats. The following example shows how to loop through header information in a ZIP ﬁle (with pack codes "H" and "L" representing two and four byte unsigned numbers respectively): struct ¬Jøpack() Úunpack() ¼ê^uC?P¹ª"±e«~w« XÛÏLZIP© Þ&E£Ø è¥"H" Ú"L" ©OD4Úoi!ÃÎÒê¤" 10.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts ¦^?P¹  93 import struct data = open(’myfile.zip’, ’rb’).read() start = 0 for i in range(3): # show the first 3 file headers start += 14 fields = struct.unpack(’LLLHH’, data[start:start+16]) crc32, comp_size, uncomp_size, filenamesize, extra_size = fields start += 16 filename = data[start:start+filenamesize] start += filenamesize extra = data[start:start+extra_size] print filename, hex(crc32), comp_size, uncomp_size start += extra_size + comp_size # skip to the next header 10.4 Multi-threading õ§ Threading is a technique for decoupling tasks which are not sequentially dependent. Threads can be used to improve the responsiveness of applications that accept user input while other tasks run in the background. A related use case is running I/O in parallel with computations in another thread. §´©lÃ^S6'X?ÖEâ"3, ?Ö$1u ÿA^§S¬C´ §§ ±J,ÙÝ"k'^å´3I/OÓÙ§§±¿1O" The following code shows how the high level threading module can run tasks in background while the main program continues to run: e¡èw« p? ¬threading XÛ3Ì§S$1Ó$1?Ö" import threading, zipfile class AsyncZip(threading.Thread): def __init__(self, infile, outfile): threading.Thread.__init__(self) self.infile = infile self.outfile = outfile def run(self): f = zipfile.ZipFile(self.outfile, ’w’, zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED) f.write(self.infile) f.close() print ’Finished background zip of: ’, self.infile background = AsyncZip(’mydata.txt’, ’myarchive.zip’) background.start() print ’The main program continues to run in foreground.’ background.join() # Wait for the background task to finish print ’Main program waited until background was done.’ The principal challenge of multi-threaded applications is coordinating threads that share data or other resources. To that end, the threading module provides a number of synchronization primitives including locks, events, condition 94 Chapter 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IO¥VA variables, and semaphores. õ§A^§S­]Ô´3N§¡êâÚÙ§] "ª§§ ¬Jø AÄ Ó ÚªX£!¯§^CþÚá" While those tools are powerful, minor design errors can result in problems that are difﬁcult to reproduce. So, the preferred approach to task coordination is to concentrate all access to a resource in a single thread and then use the Queue module to feed that thread with requests from other threads. Applications using Queue objects for inter-thread communication and coordination are easier to design, more readable, and more reliable. ¦+óäér§¢OØUE¤J±£æ"Ïd§Ð{´ò¤k] ¯8 ¥Õá§¥§, ¦^Queue ¬NÝT§AÙ§§¦"A^§S¦^Queue é ±4SÜ§Ï&ÚNN´O§Ö§" 10.5 Logging F The logging module offers a full featured and ﬂexible logging system. At its simplest, log messages are sent to a ﬁle or to sys.stderr: logging ¬ J ø   Ú( ¹  F  XÚ" §  { ü  ^ { ´ P ¹ &E¿ u x    ©  ½sys.stderr: import logging logging.debug(’Debugging information’) logging.info(’Informational message’) logging.warning(’Warning:config file %s not found’, ’server.conf’) logging.error(’Error occurred’) logging.critical(’Critical error -- shutting down’) This produces the following output: ùp´ÑÑµ WARNING:root:Warning:config file server.conf not found ERROR:root:Error occurred CRITICAL:root:Critical error -- shutting down By default, informational and debugging messages are suppressed and the output is sent to standard error. Other output options include routing messages through email, datagrams, sockets, or to an HTTP Server. New ﬁlters can select different routing based on message priority: DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, and CRITICAL. %@  ¹ e Ó ¼ &EÚNÁ  E ¿ ò ÑÑ u x  IO  Ø 6 "Ù §  À  ´ d &E  ª ÏLemail§ ê â § © §socket½ öHTTP Server"Ä u  E á 5 § #  LÈ ì  ± ÀJØÓ  ´ dµDEBUG,INFO§WARNING§ERROR ÚCRITICAL" The logging system can be conﬁgured directly from Python or can be loaded from a user editable conﬁguration ﬁle for customized logging without altering the application. FXÚ±3Python ¥½§±Ø²LA^§S3^r?6©¥\1" 10.6 Weak References fÚ^ Python does automatic memory management (reference counting for most objects and garbage collection to eliminate cycles). The memory is freed shortly after the last reference to it has been eliminated. 10.5. Logging F 95 Python gÄ?1S+n£éõêé?1Ú^OêÚ-Ã£Â±Ì|^¤3 Ú^ §S¬é¯º" This approach works ﬁne for most applications but occasionally there is a need to track objects only as long as they are being used by something else. Unfortunately, just tracking them creates a reference that makes them permanent. The weakref module provides tools for tracking objects without creating a reference. When the object is no longer needed, it is automatically removed from a weakref table and a callback is triggered for weakref objects. Typical applications include caching objects that are expensive to create: ùóªéõêA^§SóûÐ§¢´ó¬Ilé5 ¯"Ø3´§==l §MïÚ^¬¦ÙÏ3"weakref ¬Jø Ø^MïÚ^léóä§ éØ2 3§§gÄlfÚ^LþíØ¿>u£N";.A^)Ó¼J±¨Eéµ >>> import weakref, gc >>> class A: ... def __init__(self, value): ... self.value = value ... def __repr__(self): ... return str(self.value) ... >>> a = A(10) # create a reference >>> d = weakref.WeakValueDictionary() >>> d[’primary’] = a # does not create a reference >>> d[’primary’] # fetch the object if it is still alive 10 >>> del a # remove the one reference >>> gc.collect() # run garbage collection right away 0 >>> d[’primary’] # entry was automatically removed Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in -toplevel- d[’primary’] # entry was automatically removed File "C:/PY24/lib/weakref.py", line 46, in __getitem__ o = self.data[key]() KeyError: ’primary’ 10.7 Tools for Working with Lists óLóä Many data structure needs can be met with the built-in list type. However, sometimes there is a need for alternative implementations with different performance trade-offs. éõêâ(¨U¬^SóLa.", §kUIØÓ5Ud¢y" The array module provides an array() object that is like a list that stores only homogenous data and stores it more compactly. The following example shows an array of numbers stored as two byte unsigned binary numbers (typecode "H") rather than the usual 16 bytes per entry for regular lists of python int objects: array ¬Jø aqóLarray() é§§==´;êâ§;n"±e«~ü«  ;Vi!ÃÎÒêê|£a.?è"H"¤ ;16i!Python êéÊÏ5óL§µ 96 Chapter 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IO¥VA >>> from array import array >>> a = array(’H’, [4000, 10, 700, 22222]) >>> sum(a) 26932 >>> a[1:3] array(’H’, [10, 700]) The collections module provides a deque() object that is like a list with faster appends and pops from the left side but slower lookups in the middle. These objects are well suited for implementing queues and breadth ﬁrst tree searches: collections ¬Jø aqóLdeque() é§§l>V\£append¤Ú¦Ñ£pop¤¯§¢´ 3SÜ¦Îú"ù é·^uè¢yÚ2Ýkä|¢µ >>> from collections import deque >>> d = deque(["task1", "task2", "task3"]) >>> d.append("task4") >>> print "Handling", d.popleft() Handling task1 unsearched = deque([starting_node]) def breadth_first_search(unsearched): node = unsearched.popleft() for m in gen_moves(node): if is_goal(m): return m unsearched.append(m) In addition to alternative list implementations, the library also offers other tools such as the bisect module with functions for manipulating sorted lists: Ø óLO¢y§T¥Jø bisect ù ¬±ö;óLµ >>> import bisect >>> scores = [(100, ’perl’), (200, ’tcl’), (400, ’lua’), (500, ’python’)] >>> bisect.insort(scores, (300, ’ruby’)) >>> scores [(100, ’perl’), (200, ’tcl’), (300, ’ruby’), (400, ’lua’), (500, ’python’)] The heapq module provides functions for implementing heaps based on regular lists. The lowest valued entry is always kept at position zero. This is useful for applications which repeatedly access the smallest element but do not want to run a full list sort: heapq Jø Äu5óLæ¢y"¢o´¢±30:"ù3F"Ì¯¢£¢´Ø1 æüSÿ~k^" >>> from heapq import heapify, heappop, heappush >>> data = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 2, 4, 6, 8, 0] >>> heapify(data) # rearrange the list into heap order >>> heappush(data, -5) # add a new entry >>> [heappop(data) for i in range(3)] # fetch the three smallest entries [-5, 0, 1] 10.7. Tools for Working with Lists óLóä 97 10.8 Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic ?2:ê{ The decimal module offers a Decimal datatype for decimal ﬂoating point arithmetic. Compared to the built- in float implementation of binary ﬂoating point, the new class is especially helpful for ﬁnancial applications and other uses which require exact decimal representation, control over precision, control over rounding to meet legal or regulatory requirements, tracking of signiﬁcant decimal places, or for applications where the user expects the results to match calculations done by hand. decimal ¬Jø Decimal êâa.^u2:êO"'S?2:ê¢yfloat§# a.AO·^u7KA^ÚÙ§I°(?L|Ü§°Ý§\±·A{Æ½ö5½ ¦§(¢?ê °Ý§½ö^rF"^êÆO|Ü" For example, calculating a 5% tax on a 70 cent phone charge gives different results in decimal ﬂoating point and binary ﬂoating point. The difference becomes signiﬁcant if the results are rounded to the nearest cent: ~X§O70 ©>{¤5% [O§?2:êÚ?2:êO(J OXe"XJ3©þ \§ù OÒé­ " >>> from decimal import * >>> Decimal(’0.70’) * Decimal(’1.05’) Decimal("0.7350") >>> .70 * 1.05 0.73499999999999999 The Decimal result keeps a trailing zero, automatically inferring four place signiﬁcance from multiplicands with two place signiﬁcance. Decimal reproduces mathematics as done by hand and avoids issues that can arise when binary ﬂoating point cannot exactly represent decimal quantities. Decimal (Jo´¢k(0§gÄlü °Ýò4 "Decimal­y ÃóêÆ$§ùÒ(¢ ?2:êÃ{°(¢kêâ°Ý" Exact representation enables the Decimal class to perform modulo calculations and equality tests that are unsuitable for binary ﬂoating point: p°Ý¦Decimal ±1?2:êÃ{?1\$ÚÿÁ" >>> Decimal(’1.00’) % Decimal(’.10’) Decimal("0.00") >>> 1.00 % 0.10 0.09999999999999995 >>> sum([Decimal(’0.1’)]*10) == Decimal(’1.0’) True >>> sum([0.1]*10) == 1.0 False The decimal module provides arithmetic with as much precision as needed: decimal Jø °Ý{" >>> getcontext().prec = 36 >>> Decimal(1) / Decimal(7) Decimal("0.142857142857142857142857142857142857") 98 Chapter 10. Brief Tour of the Standard Library – Part II IO¥VA CHAPTER ELEVEN What Now? Reading this tutorial has probably reinforced your interest in using Python — you should be eager to apply Python to solving your real-world problems. Where should you go to learn more? This tutorial is part of Python’s documentation set. Some other documents in the set are: • Python Library Reference: You should browse through this manual, which gives complete (though terse) reference material about types, functions, and the modules in the standard library. The standard Python distribution includes a lot of additional code. There are modules to read UNIX mailboxes, retrieve documents via HTTP, generate random numbers, parse command-line options, write CGI programs, compress data, and many other tasks. Skimming through the Library Reference will give you an idea of what’s available. • Installing Python Modules explains how to install external modules written by other Python users. • Language Reference: A detailed explanation of Python’s syntax and semantics. It’s heavy reading, but is useful as a complete guide to the language itself. More Python resources: • http://www.python.org: The major Python Web site. It contains code, documentation, and pointers to Python-related pages around the Web. This Web site is mirrored in various places around the world, such as Europe, Japan, and Australia; a mirror may be faster than the main site, depending on your geographical location. • http://docs.python.org: Fast access to Python’s documentation. • http://cheeseshop.python.org: The Python Package Index, nicknamed the Cheese Shop, is an index of user-created Python modules that are available for download. Once you begin releasing code, you can register it here so that others can ﬁnd it. • http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Python/Cookbook/: The Python Cookbook is a sizable collection of code examples, larger modules, and useful scripts. Particularly notable contributions are collected in a book also titled Python Cookbook (O’Reilly & Associates, ISBN 0-596-00797-3.) For Python-related questions and problem reports, you can post to the newsgroup comp.lang.python, or send them to the mailing list at python-list@python.org. The newsgroup and mailing list are gatewayed, so messages posted to one will automatically be forwarded to the other. There are around 120 postings a day (with peaks up to several hundred), asking (and answering) questions, suggesting new features, and announcing new modules. Before posting, be sure to check the list of Frequently Asked Questions (also called the FAQ), or look for it in the ‘Misc/’ directory of the Python source distribution. Mailing list archives are available at http://mail.python.org/pipermail/. The FAQ answers many of the questions that come up again and again, and may already contain the solution for your problem. 99 100 APPENDIX A Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution Some versions of the Python interpreter support editing of the current input line and history substitution, similar to facilities found in the Korn shell and the GNU Bash shell. This is implemented using the GNU Readline library, which supports Emacs-style and vi-style editing. This library has its own documentation which I won’t duplicate here; however, the basics are easily explained. The interactive editing and history described here are optionally available in the UNIX and Cygwin versions of the interpreter. This chapter does not document the editing facilities of Mark Hammond’s PythonWin package or the Tk-based envi- ronment, IDLE, distributed with Python. The command line history recall which operates within DOS boxes on NT and some other DOS and Windows ﬂavors is yet another beast. A.1 Line Editing If supported, input line editing is active whenever the interpreter prints a primary or secondary prompt. The current line can be edited using the conventional Emacs control characters. The most important of these are: C-A (Control-A) moves the cursor to the beginning of the line, C-E to the end, C-B moves it one position to the left, C-F to the right. Backspace erases the character to the left of the cursor, C-D the character to its right. C-K kills (erases) the rest of the line to the right of the cursor, C-Y yanks back the last killed string. C-underscore undoes the last change you made; it can be repeated for cumulative effect. A.2 History Substitution History substitution works as follows. All non-empty input lines issued are saved in a history buffer, and when a new prompt is given you are positioned on a new line at the bottom of this buffer. C-P moves one line up (back) in the history buffer, C-N moves one down. Any line in the history buffer can be edited; an asterisk appears in front of the prompt to mark a line as modiﬁed. Pressing the Return key passes the current line to the interpreter. C-R starts an incremental reverse search; C-S starts a forward search. A.3 Key Bindings The key bindings and some other parameters of the Readline library can be customized by placing commands in an initialization ﬁle called ‘˜/.inputrc’. Key bindings have the form 101 key-name: function-name or "string": function-name and options can be set with set option-name value For example: # I prefer vi-style editing: set editing-mode vi # Edit using a single line: set horizontal-scroll-mode On # Rebind some keys: Meta-h: backward-kill-word "\C-u": universal-argument "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file Note that the default binding for Tab in Python is to insert a Tab character instead of Readline’s default ﬁlename completion function. If you insist, you can override this by putting Tab: complete in your ‘˜/.inputrc’. (Of course, this makes it harder to type indented continuation lines if you’re accustomed to using Tab for that purpose.) Automatic completion of variable and module names is optionally available. To enable it in the interpreter’s interactive mode, add the following to your startup ﬁle:1 import rlcompleter, readline readline.parse_and_bind(’tab: complete’) This binds the Tab key to the completion function, so hitting the Tab key twice suggests completions; it looks at Python statement names, the current local variables, and the available module names. For dotted expressions such as string.a, it will evaluate the expression up to the ﬁnal ‘.’ and then suggest completions from the attributes of the resulting object. Note that this may execute application-deﬁned code if an object with a __getattr__() method is part of the expression. A more capable startup ﬁle might look like this example. Note that this deletes the names it creates once they are no longer needed; this is done since the startup ﬁle is executed in the same namespace as the interactive commands, and removing the names avoids creating side effects in the interactive environment. You may ﬁnd it convenient to keep 1 Python will execute the contents of a ﬁle identiﬁed by the PYTHONSTARTUP environment variable when you start an interactive interpreter. 102 Appendix A. Interactive Input Editing and History Substitution some of the imported modules, such as os, which turn out to be needed in most sessions with the interpreter. # Add auto-completion and a stored history file of commands to your Python # interactive interpreter. Requires Python 2.0+, readline. Autocomplete is # bound to the Esc key by default (you can change it - see readline docs). # # Store the file in ~/.pystartup, and set an environment variable to point # to it: "export PYTHONSTARTUP=/max/home/itamar/.pystartup" in bash. # # Note that PYTHONSTARTUP does *not* expand "~", so you have to put in the # full path to your home directory. import atexit import os import readline import rlcompleter historyPath = os.path.expanduser("~/.pyhistory") def save_history(historyPath=historyPath): import readline readline.write_history_file(historyPath) if os.path.exists(historyPath): readline.read_history_file(historyPath) atexit.register(save_history) del os, atexit, readline, rlcompleter, save_history, historyPath A.4 Commentary This facility is an enormous step forward compared to earlier versions of the interpreter; however, some wishes are left: It would be nice if the proper indentation were suggested on continuation lines (the parser knows if an indent token is required next). The completion mechanism might use the interpreter’s symbol table. A command to check (or even suggest) matching parentheses, quotes, etc., would also be useful. A.4. Commentary 103 104 APPENDIX B Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations Floating-point numbers are represented in computer hardware as base 2 (binary) fractions. For example, the decimal fraction 0.125 has value 1/10 + 2/100 + 5/1000, and in the same way the binary fraction 0.001 has value 0/2 + 0/4 + 1/8. These two fractions have identical values, the only real difference being that the ﬁrst is written in base 10 fractional notation, and the second in base 2. Unfortunately, most decimal fractions cannot be represented exactly as binary fractions. A consequence is that, in general, the decimal ﬂoating-point numbers you enter are only approximated by the binary ﬂoating-point numbers actually stored in the machine. The problem is easier to understand at ﬁrst in base 10. Consider the fraction 1/3. You can approximate that as a base 10 fraction: 0.3 or, better, 0.33 or, better, 0.333 and so on. No matter how many digits you’re willing to write down, the result will never be exactly 1/3, but will be an increasingly better approximation of 1/3. In the same way, no matter how many base 2 digits you’re willing to use, the decimal value 0.1 cannot be represented 105 exactly as a base 2 fraction. In base 2, 1/10 is the inﬁnitely repeating fraction 0.0001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011... Stop at any ﬁnite number of bits, and you get an approximation. This is why you see things like: >>> 0.1 0.10000000000000001 On most machines today, that is what you’ll see if you enter 0.1 at a Python prompt. You may not, though, because the number of bits used by the hardware to store ﬂoating-point values can vary across machines, and Python only prints a decimal approximation to the true decimal value of the binary approximation stored by the machine. On most machines, if Python were to print the true decimal value of the binary approximation stored for 0.1, it would have to display >>> 0.1 0.1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625 instead! The Python prompt uses the builtin repr() function to obtain a string version of everything it displays. For ﬂoats, repr(ﬂoat) rounds the true decimal value to 17 signiﬁcant digits, giving 0.10000000000000001 repr(ﬂoat) produces 17 signiﬁcant digits because it turns out that’s enough (on most machines) so that eval(repr(x)) == x exactly for all ﬁnite ﬂoats x, but rounding to 16 digits is not enough to make that true. Note that this is in the very nature of binary ﬂoating-point: this is not a bug in Python, and it is not a bug in your code either. You’ll see the same kind of thing in all languages that support your hardware’s ﬂoating-point arithmetic (although some languages may not display the difference by default, or in all output modes). Python’s builtin str() function produces only 12 signiﬁcant digits, and you may wish to use that instead. It’s unusual for eval(str(x)) to reproduce x, but the output may be more pleasant to look at: >>> print str(0.1) 0.1 It’s important to realize that this is, in a real sense, an illusion: the value in the machine is not exactly 1/10, you’re simply rounding the display of the true machine value. Other surprises follow from this one. For example, after seeing >>> 0.1 0.10000000000000001 you may be tempted to use the round() function to chop it back to the single digit you expect. But that makes no difference: 106 Appendix B. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations >>> round(0.1, 1) 0.10000000000000001 The problem is that the binary ﬂoating-point value stored for "0.1" was already the best possible binary approximation to 1/10, so trying to round it again can’t make it better: it was already as good as it gets. Another consequence is that since 0.1 is not exactly 1/10, summing ten values of 0.1 may not yield exactly 1.0, either: >>> sum = 0.0 >>> for i in range(10): ... sum += 0.1 ... >>> sum 0.99999999999999989 Binary ﬂoating-point arithmetic holds many surprises like this. The problem with "0.1" is explained in precise detail below, in the "Representation Error" section. See The Perils of Floating Point for a more complete account of other common surprises. As that says near the end, “there are no easy answers.” Still, don’t be unduly wary of ﬂoating-point! The errors in Python ﬂoat operations are inherited from the ﬂoating-point hardware, and on most machines are on the order of no more than 1 part in 2**53 per operation. That’s more than adequate for most tasks, but you do need to keep in mind that it’s not decimal arithmetic, and that every ﬂoat operation can suffer a new rounding error. While pathological cases do exist, for most casual use of ﬂoating-point arithmetic you’ll see the result you expect in the end if you simply round the display of your ﬁnal results to the number of decimal digits you expect. str() usually sufﬁces, and for ﬁner control see the discussion of Python’s % format operator: the %g,%f and %e format codes supply ﬂexible and easy ways to round ﬂoat results for display. B.1 Representation Error This section explains the “0.1” example in detail, and shows how you can perform an exact analysis of cases like this yourself. Basic familiarity with binary ﬂoating-point representation is assumed. Representation error refers to the fact that some (most, actually) decimal fractions cannot be represented exactly as binary (base 2) fractions. This is the chief reason why Python (or Perl, C, C++, Java, Fortran, and many others) often won’t display the exact decimal number you expect: >>> 0.1 0.10000000000000001 Why is that? 1/10 is not exactly representable as a binary fraction. Almost all machines today (November 2000) use IEEE-754 ﬂoating point arithmetic, and almost all platforms map Python ﬂoats to IEEE-754 "double precision". 754 doubles contain 53 bits of precision, so on input the computer strives to convert 0.1 to the closest fraction it can of the form J/2**N where J is an integer containing exactly 53 bits. Rewriting 1 / 10 ~= J / (2**N) as B.1. Representation Error 107 J ~= 2**N / 10 and recalling that J has exactly 53 bits (is >= 2**52 but < 2**53), the best value for N is 56: >>> 2**52 4503599627370496L >>> 2**53 9007199254740992L >>> 2**56/10 7205759403792793L That is, 56 is the only value for N that leaves J with exactly 53 bits. The best possible value for J is then that quotient rounded: >>> q, r = divmod(2**56, 10) >>> r 6L Since the remainder is more than half of 10, the best approximation is obtained by rounding up: >>> q+1 7205759403792794L Therefore the best possible approximation to 1/10 in 754 double precision is that over 2**56, or 7205759403792794 / 72057594037927936 Note that since we rounded up, this is actually a little bit larger than 1/10; if we had not rounded up, the quotient would have been a little bit smaller than 1/10. But in no case can it be exactly 1/10! So the computer never “sees” 1/10: what it sees is the exact fraction given above, the best 754 double approximation it can get: >>> .1 * 2**56 7205759403792794.0 If we multiply that fraction by 10**30, we can see the (truncated) value of its 30 most signiﬁcant decimal digits: >>> 7205759403792794 * 10**30 / 2**56 100000000000000005551115123125L meaning that the exact number stored in the computer is approximately equal to the decimal value 0.100000000000000005551115123125. Rounding that to 17 signiﬁcant digits gives the 0.10000000000000001 that Python displays (well, will display on any 754-conforming platform that does best-possible input and output conver- sions in its C library — yours may not!). 108 Appendix B. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations APPENDIX C History and License C.1 History of the software Python was created in the early 1990s by Guido van Rossum at Stichting Mathematisch Centrum (CWI, see http: //www.cwi.nl/) in the Netherlands as a successor of a language called ABC. Guido remains Python’s principal author, although it includes many contributions from others. In 1995, Guido continued his work on Python at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI, see http: //www.cnri.reston.va.us/) in Reston, Virginia where he released several versions of the software. In May 2000, Guido and the Python core development team moved to BeOpen.com to form the BeOpen PythonLabs team. In October of the same year, the PythonLabs team moved to Digital Creations (now Zope Corporation; see http://www.zope.com/). In 2001, the Python Software Foundation (PSF, see http://www.python.org/ psf/) was formed, a non-proﬁt organization created speciﬁcally to own Python-related Intellectual Property. Zope Corporation is a sponsoring member of the PSF. All Python releases are Open Source (see http://www.opensource.org/ for the Open Source Deﬁnition). Historically, most, but not all, Python releases have also been GPL-compatible; the table below summarizes the various releases. 109 Release Derived from Year Owner GPL compatible? 0.9.0 thru 1.2 n/a 1991-1995 CWI yes 1.3 thru 1.5.2 1.2 1995-1999 CNRI yes 1.6 1.5.2 2000 CNRI no 2.0 1.6 2000 BeOpen.com no 1.6.1 1.6 2001 CNRI no 2.1 2.0+1.6.1 2001 PSF no 2.0.1 2.0+1.6.1 2001 PSF yes 2.1.1 2.1+2.0.1 2001 PSF yes 2.2 2.1.1 2001 PSF yes 2.1.2 2.1.1 2002 PSF yes 2.1.3 2.1.2 2002 PSF yes 2.2.1 2.2 2002 PSF yes 2.2.2 2.2.1 2002 PSF yes 2.2.3 2.2.2 2002-2003 PSF yes 2.3 2.2.2 2002-2003 PSF yes 2.3.1 2.3 2002-2003 PSF yes 2.3.2 2.3.1 2003 PSF yes 2.3.3 2.3.2 2003 PSF yes 2.3.4 2.3.3 2004 PSF yes 2.3.5 2.3.4 2005 PSF yes 2.4 2.3 2004 PSF yes 2.4.1 2.4 2005 PSF yes 2.4.2 2.4.1 2005 PSF yes 2.4.3 2.4.2 2006 PSF yes 2.5 2.4 2006 PSF yes Note: GPL-compatible doesn’t mean that we’re distributing Python under the GPL. All Python licenses, unlike the GPL, let you distribute a modiﬁed version without making your changes open source. The GPL-compatible licenses make it possible to combine Python with other software that is released under the GPL; the others don’t. Thanks to the many outside volunteers who have worked under Guido’s direction to make these releases possible. C.2 Terms and conditions for accessing or otherwise using Python PSF LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 2.5 1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Python Software Foundation (“PSF”), and the Individual or Or- ganization (“Licensee”) accessing and otherwise using Python 2.5 software in source or binary form and its associated documentation. 2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, PSF hereby grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use Python 2.5 alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that PSF’s License Agreement and PSF’s notice of copyright, i.e., “Copyright © 2001-2006 Python Software Foundation; All Rights Reserved” are retained in Python 2.5 alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee. 3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or incorporates Python 2.5 or any part thereof, and wants to make the derivative work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python 2.5. 4. PSF is making Python 2.5 available to Licensee on an “AS IS” basis. PSF MAKES NO REPRESENTA- TIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PSF MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABIL- ITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF PYTHON 2.5 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. 110 Appendix C. History and License 5. PSF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 2.5 FOR ANY IN- CIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 2.5, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. 6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of its terms and conditions. 7. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between PSF and Licensee. This License Agreement does not grant permission to use PSF trademarks or trade name in a trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third party. 8. By copying, installing or otherwise using Python 2.5, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement. BEOPEN.COM LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 2.0 BEOPEN PYTHON OPEN SOURCE LICENSE AGREEMENT VERSION 1 1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between BeOpen.com (“BeOpen”), having an ofﬁce at 160 Saratoga Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 95051, and the Individual or Organization (“Licensee”) accessing and otherwise using this software in source or binary form and its associated documentation (“the Software”). 2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this BeOpen Python License Agreement, BeOpen hereby grants Licensee a non-exclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use the Software alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that the BeOpen Python License is retained in the Software, alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee. 3. BeOpen is making the Software available to Licensee on an “AS IS” basis. BEOPEN MAKES NO REPRE- SENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMI- TATION, BEOPEN MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MER- CHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF THE SOFT- WARE WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. 4. BEOPEN SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF THE SOFTWARE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF USING, MODIFYING OR DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF AD- VISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. 5. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of its terms and conditions. 6. This License Agreement shall be governed by and interpreted in all respects by the law of the State of Cali- fornia, excluding conﬂict of law provisions. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between BeOpen and Licensee. This License Agreement does not grant permission to use BeOpen trademarks or trade names in a trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third party. As an exception, the “BeOpen Python” logos available at http://www.pythonlabs.com/logos.html may be used according to the permissions granted on that web page. 7. By copying, installing or otherwise using the software, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement. CNRI LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 1.6.1 1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Corporation for National Research Initiatives, having an ofﬁce at 1895 Preston White Drive, Reston, VA 20191 (“CNRI”), and the Individual or Organization (“Licensee”) accessing and otherwise using Python 1.6.1 software in source or binary form and its associated documentation. C.2. Terms and conditions for accessing or otherwise using Python 111 2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, CNRI hereby grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use Python 1.6.1 alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that CNRI’s License Agreement and CNRI’s notice of copyright, i.e., “Copyright © 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives; All Rights Reserved” are retained in Python 1.6.1 alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee. Alternately, in lieu of CNRI’s License Agreement, Licensee may substitute the following text (omitting the quotes): “Python 1.6.1 is made available subject to the terms and conditions in CNRI’s License Agreement. This Agreement together with Python 1.6.1 may be located on the Internet using the following unique, persistent identiﬁer (known as a handle): 1895.22/1013. This Agreement may also be obtained from a proxy server on the Internet using the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1895. 22/1013.” 3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or incorporates Python 1.6.1 or any part thereof, and wants to make the derivative work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python 1.6.1. 4. CNRI is making Python 1.6.1 available to Licensee on an “AS IS” basis. CNRI MAKES NO REPRESENTA- TIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, CNRI MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABIL- ITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF PYTHON 1.6.1 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. 5. CNRI SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 1.6.1 FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 1.6.1, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. 6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of its terms and conditions. 7. This License Agreement shall be governed by the federal intellectual property law of the United States, including without limitation the federal copyright law, and, to the extent such U.S. federal law does not apply, by the law of the Commonwealth of Virginia, excluding Virginia’s conﬂict of law provisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with regard to derivative works based on Python 1.6.1 that incorporate non-separable material that was previously distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), the law of the Commonwealth of Virginia shall govern this License Agreement only as to issues arising under or with respect to Paragraphs 4, 5, and 7 of this License Agreement. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between CNRI and Licensee. This License Agreement does not grant permission to use CNRI trademarks or trade name in a trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third party. 8. By clicking on the “ACCEPT” button where indicated, or by copying, installing or otherwise using Python 1.6.1, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement. ACCEPT CWI LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 0.9.0 THROUGH 1.2 Copyright © 1991 - 1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without speciﬁc, written prior permission. STICHTING MATHEMATISCH CENTRUM DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFT- WARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL STICHTING MATHEMATISCH CENTRUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CON- SEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA 112 Appendix C. History and License OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. C.3 Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software This section is an incomplete, but growing list of licenses and acknowledgements for third-party software incorporated in the Python distribution. C.3.1 Mersenne Twister The _random module includes code based on a download from http://www.math.keio.ac.jp/ ~matumoto/MT2002/emt19937ar.html. The following are the verbatim comments from the original code: A C-program for MT19937, with initialization improved 2002/1/26. Coded by Takuji Nishimura and Makoto Matsumoto. Before using, initialize the state by using init_genrand(seed) or init_by_array(init_key, key_length). Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. Any feedback is very welcome. http://www.math.keio.ac.jp/matumoto/emt.html email: matumoto@math.keio.ac.jp C.3. Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software 113 C.3.2 Sockets The socket module uses the functions, getaddrinfo, and getnameinfo, which are coded in separate source ﬁles from the WIDE Project, http://www.wide.ad.jp/about/index.html. Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 WIDE Project. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ‘‘AS IS’’ AND GAI_ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR GAI_ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON GAI_ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN GAI_ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. C.3.3 Floating point exception control The source for the fpectl module includes the following notice: 114 Appendix C. History and License --------------------------------------------------------------------- / Copyright (c) 1996. \ | The Regents of the University of California. | | All rights reserved. | | | | Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for | | any purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided that this en- | | tire notice is included in all copies of any software which is or | | includes a copy or modification of this software and in all | | copies of the supporting documentation for such software. | | | | This work was produced at the University of California, Lawrence | | Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-ENG-48 | | between the U.S. Department of Energy and The Regents of the | | University of California for the operation of UC LLNL. | | | | DISCLAIMER | | | | This software was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an | | agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States | | Government nor the University of California nor any of their em- | | ployees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any | | liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or | | usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process | | disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe | | privately-owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commer- | | cial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, | | manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or | | imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United | | States Government or the University of California. The views and | | opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or | | reflect those of the United States Government or the University | | of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product | \ endorsement purposes. / --------------------------------------------------------------------- C.3.4 MD5 message digest algorithm The source code for the md5 module contains the following notice: C.3. Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software 115 Copyright (C) 1999, 2002 Aladdin Enterprises. All rights reserved. This software is provided ’as-is’, without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required. 2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software. 3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution. L. Peter Deutsch ghost@aladdin.com Independent implementation of MD5 (RFC 1321). This code implements the MD5 Algorithm defined in RFC 1321, whose text is available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1321.txt The code is derived from the text of the RFC, including the test suite (section A.5) but excluding the rest of Appendix A. It does not include any code or documentation that is identified in the RFC as being copyrighted. The original and principal author of md5.h is L. Peter Deutsch . Other authors are noted in the change history that follows (in reverse chronological order): 2002-04-13 lpd Removed support for non-ANSI compilers; removed references to Ghostscript; clarified derivation from RFC 1321; now handles byte order either statically or dynamically. 1999-11-04 lpd Edited comments slightly for automatic TOC extraction. 1999-10-18 lpd Fixed typo in header comment (ansi2knr rather than md5); added conditionalization for C++ compilation from Martin Purschke . 1999-05-03 lpd Original version. C.3.5 Asynchronous socket services The asynchat and asyncore modules contain the following notice: 116 Appendix C. History and License Copyright 1996 by Sam Rushing All Rights Reserved Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Sam Rushing not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. SAM RUSHING DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM RUSHING BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. C.3.6 Cookie management The Cookie module contains the following notice: Copyright 2000 by Timothy O’Malley All Rights Reserved Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Timothy O’Malley not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. Timothy O’Malley DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL Timothy O’Malley BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. C.3.7 Proﬁling The profile and pstats modules contain the following notice: C.3. Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software 117 Copyright 1994, by InfoSeek Corporation, all rights reserved. Written by James Roskind Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose (subject to the restriction in the following sentence) without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of InfoSeek not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. This permission is explicitly restricted to the copying and modification of the software to remain in Python, compiled Python, or other languages (such as C) wherein the modified or derived code is exclusively imported into a Python module. INFOSEEK CORPORATION DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL INFOSEEK CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. C.3.8 Execution tracing The trace module contains the following notice: 118 Appendix C. History and License portions copyright 2001, Autonomous Zones Industries, Inc., all rights... err... reserved and offered to the public under the terms of the Python 2.2 license. Author: Zooko O’Whielacronx http://zooko.com/ mailto:zooko@zooko.com Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Andrew Dalke Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix, Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. C.3.9 UUencode and UUdecode functions The uu module contains the following notice: C.3. Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software 119 Copyright 1994 by Lance Ellinghouse Cathedral City, California Republic, United States of America. All Rights Reserved Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Lance Ellinghouse not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. LANCE ELLINGHOUSE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL LANCE ELLINGHOUSE CENTRUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. Modified by Jack Jansen, CWI, July 1995: - Use binascii module to do the actual line-by-line conversion between ascii and binary. This results in a 1000-fold speedup. The C version is still 5 times faster, though. - Arguments more compliant with python standard C.3.10 XML Remote Procedure Calls The xmlrpclib module contains the following notice: 120 Appendix C. History and License The XML-RPC client interface is Copyright (c) 1999-2002 by Secret Labs AB Copyright (c) 1999-2002 by Fredrik Lundh By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT- ABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. C.3. Licenses and Acknowledgements for Incorporated Software 121 122 APPENDIX D Glossary »> The typical Python prompt of the interactive shell. Often seen for code examples that can be tried right away in the interpreter. ... The typical Python prompt of the interactive shell when entering code for an indented code block. BDFL Benevolent Dictator For Life, a.k.a. Guido van Rossum, Python’s creator. byte code The internal representation of a Python program in the interpreter. The byte code is also cached in .pyc and .pyo ﬁles so that executing the same ﬁle is faster the second time (recompilation from source to byte code can be avoided). This “intermediate language” is said to run on a “virtual machine” that calls the subroutines corresponding to each bytecode. classic class Any class which does not inherit from object. See new-style class. coercion The implicit conversion of an instance of one type to another during an operation which involves two argu- ments of the same type. For example, int(3.15) converts the ﬂoating point number to the integer 3, but in 3+4.5, each argument is of a different type (one int, one ﬂoat), and both must be converted to the same type be- fore they can be added or it will raise a TypeError. Coercion between two operands can be performed with the coerce builtin function; thus, 3+4.5 is equivalent to calling operator.add(*coerce(3, 4.5)) and results in operator.add(3.0, 4.5). Without coercion, all arguments of even compatible types would have to be normalized to the same value by the programmer, e.g., float(3)+4.5 rather than just 3+4.5. complex number An extension of the familiar real number system in which all numbers are expressed as a sum of a real part and an imaginary part. Imaginary numbers are real multiples of the imaginary unit (the square root of -1), often written i in mathematics or j in engineering. Python has builtin support for complex numbers, which are written with this latter notation; the imaginary part is written with a j sufﬁx, e.g., 3+1j. To get access to complex equivalents of the math module, use cmath. Use of complex numbers is a fairly advanced mathematical feature. If you’re not aware of a need for them, it’s almost certain you can safely ignore them. descriptor Any new-style object that deﬁnes the methods __get__(),__set__(), or __delete__(). When a class attribute is a descriptor, its special binding behavior is triggered upon attribute lookup. Normally, writing a.b looks up the object b in the class dictionary for a, but if b is a descriptor, the deﬁned method gets called. Understanding descriptors is a key to a deep understanding of Python because they are the basis for many features including functions, methods, properties, class methods, static methods, and reference to super classes. dictionary An associative array, where arbitrary keys are mapped to values. The use of dict much resembles that for list, but the keys can be any object with a __hash__() function, not just integers starting from zero. Called a hash in Perl. duck-typing Pythonic programming style that determines an object’s type by inspection of its method or attribute signature rather than by explicit relationship to some type object ("If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck.") By emphasizing interfaces rather than speciﬁc types, well-designed code improves its ﬂexibility by allowing polymorphic substitution. Duck-typing avoids tests using type() or isinstance(). Instead, it typically employs hasattr() tests or EAFP programming. 123 EAFP Easier to ask for forgiveness than permission. This common Python coding style assumes the existence of valid keys or attributes and catches exceptions if the assumption proves false. This clean and fast style is characterized by the presence of many try and except statements. The technique contrasts with the LBYL style that is common in many other languages such as C. __future__ A pseudo module which programmers can use to enable new language features which are not compatible with the current interpreter. For example, the expression 11/4 currently evaluates to 2. If the module in which it is executed had enabled true division by executing: from __future__ import division the expression 11/4 would evaluate to 2.75. By importing the __future__ module and evaluating its variables, you can see when a new feature was ﬁrst added to the language and when it will become the default: >>> import __future__ >>> __future__.division _Feature((2, 2, 0, ’alpha’, 2), (3, 0, 0, ’alpha’, 0), 8192) generator A function that returns an iterator. It looks like a normal function except that values are returned to the caller using a yield statement instead of a return statement. Generator functions often contain one or more for or while loops that yield elements back to the caller. The function execution is stopped at the yield keyword (returning the result) and is resumed there when the next element is requested by calling the next() method of the returned iterator. generator expression An expression that returns a generator. It looks like a normal expression followed by a for expression deﬁning a loop variable, range, and an optional if expression. The combined expression generates values for an enclosing function: >>> sum(i*i for i in range(10)) # sum of squares 0, 1, 4, ... 81 285 GIL See global interpreter lock. global interpreter lock The lock used by Python threads to assure that only one thread can be run at a time. This simpliﬁes Python by assuring that no two processes can access the same memory at the same time. Locking the entire interpreter makes it easier for the interpreter to be multi-threaded, at the expense of some parallelism on multi-processor machines. Efforts have been made in the past to create a “free-threaded” interpreter (one which locks shared data at a much ﬁner granularity), but performance suffered in the common single-processor case. IDLE An Integrated Development Environment for Python. IDLE is a basic editor and interpreter environment that ships with the standard distribution of Python. Good for beginners, it also serves as clear example code for those wanting to implement a moderately sophisticated, multi-platform GUI application. immutable An object with ﬁxed value. Immutable objects are numbers, strings or tuples (and more). Such an object cannot be altered. A new object has to be created if a different value has to be stored. They play an important role in places where a constant hash value is needed, for example as a key in a dictionary. integer division Mathematical division discarding any remainder. For example, the expression 11/4 currently eval- uates to 2 in contrast to the 2.75 returned by ﬂoat division. Also called ﬂoor division. When dividing two integers the outcome will always be another integer (having the ﬂoor function applied to it). However, if one of the operands is another numeric type (such as a float), the result will be coerced (see coercion) to a common type. For example, an integer divided by a ﬂoat will result in a ﬂoat value, possibly with a decimal fraction. Integer division can be forced by using the // operator instead of the / operator. See also __future__. 124 Appendix D. Glossary interactive Python has an interactive interpreter which means that you can try out things and immediately see their results. Just launch python with no arguments (possibly by selecting it from your computer’s main menu). It is a very powerful way to test out new ideas or inspect modules and packages (remember help(x)). interpreted Python is an interpreted language, as opposed to a compiled one. This means that the source ﬁles can be run directly without ﬁrst creating an executable which is then run. Interpreted languages typically have a shorter development/debug cycle than compiled ones, though their programs generally also run more slowly. See also interactive. iterable A container object capable of returning its members one at a time. Examples of iterables include all sequence types (such as list, str, and tuple) and some non-sequence types like dict and file and objects of any classes you deﬁne with an __iter__() or __getitem__() method. Iterables can be used in a for loop and in many other places where a sequence is needed (zip(), map(), ...). When an iterable object is passed as an argument to the builtin function iter(), it returns an iterator for the object. This iterator is good for one pass over the set of values. When using iterables, it is usually not necessary to call iter() or deal with iterator objects yourself. The for statement does that automatically for you, creating a temporary unnamed variable to hold the iterator for the duration of the loop. See also iterator, sequence, and generator. iterator An object representing a stream of data. Repeated calls to the iterator’s next() method return successive items in the stream. When no more data is available a StopIteration exception is raised instead. At this point, the iterator object is exhausted and any further calls to its next() method just raise StopIteration again. Iterators are required to have an __iter__() method that returns the iterator object itself so every iterator is also iterable and may be used in most places where other iterables are accepted. One notable exception is code that attempts multiple iteration passes. A container object (such as a list) produces a fresh new iterator each time you pass it to the iter() function or use it in a for loop. Attempting this with an iterator will just return the same exhausted iterator object used in the previous iteration pass, making it appear like an empty container. LBYL Look before you leap. This coding style explicitly tests for pre-conditions before making calls or lookups. This style contrasts with the EAFP approach and is characterized by the presence of many if statements. list comprehension A compact way to process all or a subset of elements in a sequence and return a list with the results. result = ["0x%02x" %x for x in range(256) if x %2 == 0] generates a list of strings containing hex numbers (0x..) that are even and in the range from 0 to 255. The if clause is optional. If omitted, all elements in range(256) are processed. mapping A container object (such as dict) that supports arbitrary key lookups using the special method __- getitem__(). metaclass The class of a class. Class deﬁnitions create a class name, a class dictionary, and a list of base classes. The metaclass is responsible for taking those three arguments and creating the class. Most object oriented programming languages provide a default implementation. What makes Python special is that it is possible to create custom metaclasses. Most users never need this tool, but when the need arises, metaclasses can provide powerful, elegant solutions. They have been used for logging attribute access, adding thread-safety, tracking object creation, implementing singletons, and many other tasks. mutable Mutable objects can change their value but keep their id(). See also immutable. namespace The place where a variable is stored. Namespaces are implemented as dictionaries. There are the local, global and builtin namespaces as well as nested namespaces in objects (in methods). Namespaces support mod- ularity by preventing naming conﬂicts. For instance, the functions __builtin__.open() and os.open() are distinguished by their namespaces. Namespaces also aid readability and maintainability by making it clear which module implements a function. For instance, writing random.seed() or itertools.izip() makes it clear that those functions are implemented by the random and itertools modules respectively. nested scope The ability to refer to a variable in an enclosing deﬁnition. For instance, a function deﬁned inside another function can refer to variables in the outer function. Note that nested scopes work only for reference and not for assignment which will always write to the innermost scope. In contrast, local variables both read and write in the innermost scope. Likewise, global variables read and write to the global namespace. 125 new-style class Any class that inherits from object. This includes all built-in types like list and dict. Only new-style classes can use Python’s newer, versatile features like __slots__, descriptors, properties, __- getattribute__(), class methods, and static methods. Python3000 A mythical python release, not required to be backward compatible, with telepathic interface. __slots__ A declaration inside a new-style class that saves memory by pre-declaring space for instance attributes and eliminating instance dictionaries. Though popular, the technique is somewhat tricky to get right and is best reserved for rare cases where there are large numbers of instances in a memory-critical application. sequence An iterable which supports efﬁcient element access using integer indices via the __getitem__() and __len__() special methods. Some built-in sequence types are list, str, tuple, and unicode. Note that dict also supports __getitem__() and __len__(), but is considered a mapping rather than a sequence because the lookups use arbitrary immutable keys rather than integers. Zen of Python Listing of Python design principles and philosophies that are helpful in understanding and using the language. The listing can be found by typing “import this” at the interactive prompt. 126 Appendix D. Glossary INDEX ..., 113 »>, 113 __all__, 47 __builtin__ (built-in module), 45 __future__, 114 __slots__, 116 append() (list method), 29 BDFL, 113 byte code, 113 classic class, 113 coercion, 113 compileall (standard module), 43 complex number, 113 count() (list method), 29 descriptor, 113 dictionary, 113 docstrings, 22, 27 documentation strings, 22, 27 duck-typing, 113 EAFP, 113 environment variables PATH, 5, 43 PYTHONPATH, 43, 44 PYTHONSTARTUP, 6, 92 extend() (list method), 29 ﬁle object, 52 for statement, 19 generator, 114 generator expression, 114 GIL, 114 global interpreter lock, 114 help() (built-in function), 75 IDLE, 114 immutable, 114 index() (list method), 29 insert() (list method), 29 integer division, 114 interactive, 114 interpreted, 115 iterable, 115 iterator, 115 LBYL, 115 list comprehension, 115 mapping, 115 metaclass, 115 method object, 67 module search path, 43 mutable, 115 namespace, 115 nested scope, 115 new-style class, 115 object ﬁle, 52 method, 67 open() (built-in function), 52 PATH, 5, 43 path module search, 43 pickle (standard module), 54 pop() (list method), 29 Python3000, 116 PYTHONPATH, 43, 44 PYTHONSTARTUP, 6, 92 readline (built-in module), 92 remove() (list method), 29 reverse() (list method), 29 rlcompleter (standard module), 92 127 search path, module, 43 sequence, 116 sort() (list method), 29 statement for, 19 string (standard module), 49 strings, documentation, 22, 27 sys (standard module), 44 unicode() (built-in function), 14 Zen of Python, 116 128 Index

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