Groovy and Grails Recipes

Groovy and Grails Recipes Bashar Abdul-Jawad Groovy and Grails Recipes Copyright © 2009 by Bashar Abdul-Jawad All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher. ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-4302-1600-1 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4302-1601-8 Printed and bound in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Trademarked names may appear in this book. Rather than use a trademark symbol with every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use the names only in an editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Java™ and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in the US and other countries. Apress, Inc., is not affiliated with Sun Microsystems, Inc., and this book was written without endorsement from Sun Microsystems, Inc. Lead Editors: Steve Anglin, Tom Welsh Technical Reviewer: Dave Klein Editorial Board: Clay Andres, Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Tony Campbell, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Michelle Lowman, Matthew Moodie, Jeffrey Pepper, Frank Pohlmann, Ben Renow-Clarke, Dominic Shakeshaft, Matt Wade, Tom Welsh Project Manager: Kylie Johnston Copy Editor: Sharon Wilkey Associate Production Director: Kari Brooks-Copony Production Editor: Kelly Gunther Compositor: Lynn L’Heureux Proofreaders: Linda Seifert and Patrick Vincent Indexer: Carol Burbo Artist: April Milne Cover Designer: Kurt Krames Manufacturing Director: Tom Debolski Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 233 Spring Street, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10013. Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax 201-348-4505, e-mail kn`ano)juqbbana`Na]`an7 eilknpf]r]*ek*Beha7 eilknpf]r]*ek*BehaNa]`an7 eilknpf]r]*ek*EKAt_alpekj7 lq^he__h]ooO]ilhaBehaNa]`anw op]pe_lq^he_Opnejcna]`Beha$Behabeha%w Opnejc>qbban_kjpajpo9jasOpnejc>qbban$%7 pnuw >qbbana`Na]`anna]`an9jas>qbbana`Na]`an$jasBehaNa]`an$beha%%7 pnuw Opnejcheja9jqhh7 sdeha$$heja9na]`an*na]`Heja$%%9jqhh%w _kjpajpo*]llaj`$heja%*]llaj` $Ouopai*capLnklanpu$heja*oal]n]pkn%%7 y ybej]hhuw na]`an*_hkoa$%7 y y_]p_d$EKAt_alpekjat%w _kjpajpo*]llaj`$at*capIaoo]ca$%%7 at*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y napqnj_kjpajpo*pkOpnejc$%7 y lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco%w Behabeha9jasBeha$?6XXpailXXpaop*ptp%7 Ouopai*kqp*lnejphj$O]ilhaBehaNa]`an*na]`Beha$beha%%7 y y That’s about 25 lines of code just to read a file and display its contents to the console output! Now let’s see how you can achieve the same task in Groovy with two lines of code. Take a look at Listing 1-3. CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY 7 Listing 1-3. Reading and Printing the Contents of a File in Groovy b9jasBeha$?6XXpailXXpaop*ptp% b*a]_dHejawlnejphjepy That’s it! No unnecessary boilerplate code for catching exceptions, releasing resources, and wrapping readers. Groovy’s GDK does all this for you without hav- ing to worry about the internals of Java’s I/O. This leads to faster development—and easier-to- read, more stable, less error- prone code. On top of that, the code makes no sacrifices in clarity or readability. Even for some- one who has never seen Groovy code before, reading the code in Listing 1-3 makes perfect sense. First you are creating a Beha object, passing the full name of the file you want to read in the constructor, and then you are iterating over each line printing it. Unlike Java, everything in Groovy is an object. There are no primitive types or opera- tors. Numbers, characters, and Booleans in Groovy are Java objects that use Java’s wrapper classes. For example, an ejpin Groovy is actually an instance of f]r]*h]jc* Ejpacan. Similarly, operators in Groovy are Java method calls. For example, the opera- tion /'/ in Groovy is executed as /*lhqo$/%, where the first operand is converted to an instance of Ejpacan and the second operand is passed as an argument of type Ejpacan to the lhqo operation, returning a new Ejpacan object of value 2. You will appreciate Groovy’s model of treating everything as an object when dealing with collections. Collections in Java can work on objects only and not on primitive types. Java 5.0 added support for autoboxing—automatic wrapping and unwrapping of objects with their primitive types. In Groovy, no autoboxing is needed because everything is an object. As an example, suppose you want to create three lists: the first list contains the integers from 0 to 9, the second list contains the integers from 1 to 10, and the third list contains the average of the two elements with the same index from the two lists. That is, the third list will contain the floats 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and so on. The Groovy code to do so is shown in Listing 1-4. Listing 1-4. Creating a List That Contains the Averages of Two Other Lists in Groovy heop-9WY7heop.9WY7heop/9WY bkn$ahaiajpej,**5%w heop-'9ahaiajp heop.'9ahaiajp'- heop/'9$heop-WahaiajpY'heop.WahaiajpY%+. y heop/*a]_dw lnejphjep y CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY8 There are a few points of interest here. First, because everything in Groovy is an object, no boxing and unboxing is necessary. Second, unlike in Java, division in Groovy produces a >ec@a_ei]h result if both operands are integers. To perform integer division, you need to cast the result of the division to an Ejpacan. Third, the preceding example illustrates Groovy’s language- level support for lists; by using syntax close to Java’s arrays, Java programmers are made to feel at home when working with lists in Groovy. In Chap- ters 2 and 3, you will see two more collective data types that Groovy supports at the language level: ranges and maps. Groovy has many powerful and advanced features that are lacking from the Java lan- guage. One of the most important features that Java lacks is closures: code blocks that can be treated as objects and passed around as method arguments. The closest thing that Java has to closures is anonymous inner classes, but they have severe limitations: they can be used only once, where they are defined; they can access only static and instance variables of the enclosing outer classes and final method variables; and their syntax is confusing. This might explain why anonymous inner classes are not widely used by Java program- mers outside of Swing development. You will learn more about closures in Groovy in Chapter 5. There are other advanced features in Groovy that have no counterparts in Java. You will learn more about these new features throughout the rest of this book. Groovy code (like Java) can be organized in classes. Groovy can also be written as scripts. Groovy scripts can be compiled and executed in one step to produce immedi- ate output. This means that you no longer need to write boilerplate code when learning Groovy. For example, the mandatory DahhkSknh` application can be written as a Groovy script in exactly one line: lnejphjDahhkSknh` 1-4. How Do I Download and Install Groovy? The first step toward learning and using Groovy is to install it. The only prerequisite for using Groovy is having JDK version 1.5 or higher installed on your system (starting with version 1.1-rc- 1, Groovy requires JDK version 1.5 or higher and won’t run on earlier ver- sions).You also need to have the F=R=[DKIA environment variable set correctly to point to your JDK installation. Use the following steps to install Groovy on your computer: 1. Download the latest stable version of Groovy from dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+ @ksjhk]`. The latest stable version at the time of this writing is 1.5.4. CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY 9 2. Groovy comes in different package types tailored to your operating system of choice. You can download a binary release in ZIP format, which is platform independent. You can also download a Windows EXE installer if you are using Win- dows. If you are using a Debian- based Linux distribution (for example, Ubuntu), you can download and install Groovy in one step with the following command: ]lp)capejop]hhcnkkru If you do download a platform- specific package, you can skip step 3 because the installer will take care of any postinstallation configuration. 3. If you download the binary release in ZIP format, you need to unzip it first to some location on your file system. You then need to create an environment vari- able called CNKKRU[DKIA and set it to the location where you unpacked your Groovy distribution. The last step is to add CNKKRU[DKIA+^ej to your L=PD environment variable. To test whether Groovy has installed correctly, open a command shell (a command prompt in Windows) and type cnkkruÌr*If your installation was successful, you should see a message similar to the following (your Groovy and JDK versions might be different): CnkkruRanoekj6-*1*0FRI6-*2*,[,/)^,1 1-5. What Tools Come with Groovy? Groovy comes with two tools that enable you to write and execute scripts: an interactive shell that enables you to type and run Groovy statements from the command line, and a graphical Swing console. Groovy scripts can also be compiled and executed from the command line by using the commands cnkkru and cnkkru_. 1-6. How Do I Use the Groovy Shell? To start using the Groovy shell, type cnkkruod at the command line. You should see the following output: CnkkruOdahh$-*1*0(FRI6-*2*,[,/)^,1% Pula#dahl#kn#Xd#bkndahl* )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) cnkkru6,,,: CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY10 The shell should look familiar to users of ^]od or p_od on Linux. You no longer need to type the ck command to execute the shell’s buffer; a simple return will do it. You can still write multiline expressions, however, because the console is smart enough not to evalu- ate an expression before it’s complete. Here is an example of creating a class that sums all the numbers in a list: cnkkru6,,,:_h]ooHeopOqiw cnkkru6,,-:lq^he_op]pe_ejpoqi$heop%w cnkkru6,,.:`abnaoqhp9, cnkkru6,,/:heop*a]_dw cnkkru6,,0:naoqhp'9ep cnkkru6,,1:y cnkkru6,,2:napqnjnaoqhp cnkkru6,,3:y cnkkru6,,4:y 999:pnqa cnkkru6,,,: cnkkru6,,,:]9W-(.(/(0(1Y 999:W-(.(/(0(1Y cnkkru6,,,:lnejphjHeopOqi*oqi$]% -1 999:jqhh Typing Xd at the command line will display the list of commands the shell supports. If you need more help on a particular command, type dahl_kii]j`. For example, to get more information on the ejola_p command, type dahlejola_p: cnkkru6,,,:dahlejola_p qo]ca6ejola_pW8r]ne]^ha:Y KlajopdaCQEk^fa_p^nksoanpkejola_p]r]ne]^haknpdanaoqhpkbpdaar]hq]pekj* 1-7. How Do I Use the Groovy Console? As an alternative to the shell, Groovy offers a graphical console that enables you to edit and execute Groovy files (see Figure 1-1). To start the console, type cnkkru?kjokha at the command line. CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY 11 Figure 1-1. Groovy console showing the editor in the top pane and the output in the bottom pane To execute all the code in the console, press Ctrl+R on your keyboard or choose Script ¢ Run from the menu. If you wish to execute a selection of the code, highlight only the code you wish to execute and press Ctrl+Shift+R or choose Script ¢ Run Selection. You can use the console to edit and save *cnkkru files for later compilation. The con- sole also serves as a great learning tool for experimenting with Groovy because it enables you to see the result of your program instantly, without having to compile and run it in separate steps. Compare this to Java, where any executable class must have a static i]ej method and needs to be compiled and executed in two separate steps. It is important to note that Groovy does a lot of work behind the scenes in order to execute your scripts on the fly. Remember that Groovy produces Java bytecode, which has to adhere to the JVM’s object model. 1-8. How Do I Use groovyc and groovy? You can call the Groovy compiler directly on your scripts by using the command cnkkru_ &*cnkkru. This will generate one or more &*_h]oo files that can be executed with the f]r] command. (You need to make sure to have the cnkkru)-*1*t*f]n file on your class path when executing a Groovy- generated *_h]oo file.) CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY12 You can also compile and execute Groovy scripts in one step by using the command cnkkru&*cnkkru. Unlike the cnkkru_ command, this won’t generate *_h]oo file(s) on the file system but, rather, the bytecode will be generated in memory and executed immediately. You might wonder how Groovy can generate executable bytecode from a script that has no i]ej method. After all, the bytecode is running on the JVM, so it has to have an executable i]ej method somehow. The answer to this is that before compiling your Groovy script, the Groovy compiler will feed it to the Groovy parser, which will generate an abstract syntax tree (AST) out of it in memory. Then the Groovy compiler will compile the AST (which will have an executable i]ej method) into Java bytecode. Finally, your bytecode is run in a standard way through an invocation of the f]r] command. It might be helpful to compile a simple Groovy script into Java bytecode and decom- pile it with a decompiler to see all the code that the Groovy parser generates. You don’t need to understand the generated code—which can be overwhelming for beginners—but it helps to appreciate the amount of work that Groovy does to achieve its dynamic nature. 1-9. Is There IDE Support for Groovy? Most major Java IDEs offer support for Groovy through downloadable plug- ins. In the following two recipes, I cover adding Groovy support to Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA. Other plug- ins exist for NetBeans, jEdit, Oracle JDeveloper, TextMate, and others. Please check Groovy’s documentation web site at dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+@k_qiajp]pekj for instructions on adding Groovy support to these IDEs. 1-10. How Do I Integrate Groovy with Eclipse? The Eclipse IDE can be downloaded for free from dppl6++sss*a_heloa*knc+`ksjhk]`o and requires Java 5 JRE or higher to run. If you are using Eclipse version 3.2 or above, you can add the Groovy plug- in by following these steps: 1. From the Help menu, choose Software Updates ¢ Find and Install ¢ Search for new features to install. 2. Click the New Remote Site option and type Groovy in the Name field and dppl6++ `eop*_k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru+`eopne^qpekjo+ql`]pa in the URL field. 3. Deselect all the sites to include in the search except for the Groovy site you just added. Click the Finish button. In the search results window, place a check mark next to Groovy and click Next. Accept the terms of the license agreement and click Finish to complete the installation. You will be prompted to restart Eclipse for the plug- in to install correctly. CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY 13 Upon a restart of Eclipse, you can add Groovy support to an existing Java project by right- clicking on the project and choosing Add Groovy Nature. This does two things to your project: it adds cnkkru)]hh)-*1*tf]n to your class path and creates a ^ej)cnkkru directory that will hold Groovy’s generated class files. If you wish to change the location where Groovy’s classes will be generated or to disable generation of Groovy classes alto- gether, right- click on your project and choose Properties, and then in the left pane click Groovy Project Properties. To create a new Groovy file, right- click on the package where you want your Groovy file to be created and choose New ¢ Other. In the Filter Text field, type Groovy to see two types of Groovy files you can create: Groovy Class and Groovy Unit Test. Choose Groovy Class, give it a name, and click Finish. The Groovy plug- in will provide syntax coloring and autocompletion for your Groovy code, as shown in Figure 1-2. Figure 1-2. Eclipse Groovy plug- in showing syntax highlighting and code completion To compile and execute a Groovy script, right- click in the editor window or on the script name in the Project Explorer, and choose Run As ¢ Groovy, as shown in Figure 1-3. The console window will show the output of your script. Figure 1-3. Running a Groovy script in Eclipse CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY14 1-11. How Do I Integrate Groovy with IntelliJ IDEA? IntelliJ is a commercial Java IDE from JetBrains. A full- featured 30- day trial can be down- loaded for free from dppl6++sss*fap^n]ejo*_ki+e`a]+`ksjhk]`. If you are using IntelliJ IDEA version 7.0 or higher, you are in luck. JetBrains has added a new plug- in called Jet- Groovy that adds Groovy and Grails support to IntelliJ. To install, follow these steps: 1. From the File menu, choose Settings ¢ Plugins. 2. Type Groovy in the Search field and select the JetGroovy check box. Click the OK button to download and install the plug- in. You will be prompted to restart IntelliJ for the changes to take effect. To add Groovy support to an existing project, right- click on the project and choose Add Framework support. Select the check box next to Groovy and click OK. You will now see the cnkkru)]hh)-*1*tf]n file added to your class path. To create a new Groovy class or script, right- click on the on_ folder and choose New ¢ Groovy ¢ Groovy Class or Groovy Script. Like Eclipse’s Groovy plug- in, the IntelliJ IDEA Groovy plug- in adds syntax highlighting and code completion to your Groovy files, as shown in Figure 1-4. Figure 1-4. IntelliJ IDEA JetGroovy plug- in showing syntax highlighting and code completion To compile a Groovy source file, right- click in the editor window and choose Com- pile "ClassName".groovy. To compile the file and execute it at the same time, choose Run "ClassName" from the same menu, as shown in Figure 1-5. CHAPTER 1 N GETTING STARTED WITH GROOVY 15 Figure 1-5. Compiling and executing a Groovy script using the IntelliJ IDEA JetGroovy plug- in Summary This chapter has explained the shortcomings of Java and how Groovy elegantly addresses these issues. After all, why bother learning a new language if there is no added value to it? Now that you have Groovy installed on your machine and integrated with your favorite IDE, you are ready to start the wonderful journey of Groovy. Don’t worry if you haven’t learned much about Groovy yet; I will cover the language in detail throughout the rest of this book. Because most people learning Groovy are Java users, and because this book assumes some Java knowledge, the next chapter is dedicated to explaining Groovy to Java develop- ers, illustrating the differences between Java and Groovy, and easing the transition from Java syntax to Groovy syntax. 17 CHAPTER 2 From Java to Groovy If you are reading this book, you probably have some experience working with Java. As I explained in the introduction, this book assumes an intermediate- level knowledge of Java. This is because I have noticed that most people learning Groovy have some Java background, and—impatient with the shortcomings and limitations of Java—have decided to give Groovy a try. They couldn’t be more right! This chapter focuses mainly on explaining the similarities and differences between Java and Groovy and how to integrate Groovy with Java. Thanks to the similarity between Groovy’s syntax and Java’s, the transition from Java to Groovy is a smooth one with an almost flat learning curve. As a matter of fact, Java developers can learn and start pro- gramming with Groovy in less than a day. It doesn’t get much easier than that! 2-1. What Are the Similarities Between Java and Groovy? Most of Groovy’s code should look instantly familiar to Java developers. As a matter of fact, Java developers can start up the Groovy console and start playing with Groovy before even reading a word about Groovy’s syntax. Almost all Java code can be compiled as is with no errors by using the cnkkru_ command. Both Java and Groovy are compiled languages. They compile to the same intermediate binary format (bytecode), which runs on the same virtual machine (JVM). As mentioned in Chapter 1, this model guarantees perfect interoperability between Groovy code and Java code and enables Java developers to use Groovy with all of their favorite Java- based frame- works and libraries. Almost all of Java’s syntax is part of Groovy; therefore, Groovy can be considered a near superset of Java. The only Java elements that Groovy doesn’t support at the moment are nested and anonymous inner classes. Groovy replaces them with closures, which are much more powerful. However, future versions of Groovy might add support to Java’s inner and anonymous classes, thus completing the superset. The decision to make Groovy support almost all of Java’s syntax was a deliberate one on the part of the Groovy CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY18 developers. They wanted to provide seamless integration with Java, and to make the tran- sition from Java to Groovy as smooth and easy as possible. Even though Groovy’s syntax can be considered a near superset of Java, you should be aware of the few semantic differences. For example, I showed in Chapter 1 that Groovy performs floating- point division by default when both operands are integers. In contrast, Java performs integer division. Another example is the 99 operator, which in Groovy, unlike Java, denotes equality rather than identity. Figure 2-1 shows an example of an actual Java class that I simply copied and pasted into the Groovy console and ran successfully with absolutely no modifications. Figure 2-1. Running Java code inside the Groovy console After you get more comfortable with Groovy syntax, however, you shouldn’t write Groovy code as you would write Java. That would defeat the whole purpose of learning a new dynamic language, and you would incur all the penalties of Groovy’s performance with no gains. But when you start learning Groovy, it’s perfectly acceptable to write it as you would write Java, because this will provide easier migration to the Groovy path. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 19 2-2. What Are the Differences Between Java and Groovy? The previous recipe on similarities between Java and Groovy was a relatively small one as you can consider that Java is Groovy while Groovy, however, is not Java. Think of Groovy as an extension to Java, offering many useful data and control structures, expressions, operators, data types, and helpers. Because Groovy is almost a superset of Java, many Java syntax elements are perfectly valid in Groovy. However, they are entirely optional, and as you get more comfortable with Groovy, you will learn how to leave out most of those optional elements. The rest of this recipe is dedicated to illustrating the differences between Java and Groovy. I introduce only the basics of such differences, and most of the topics covered in this recipe are elaborated throughout the rest of this book. Optional Syntax Elements Groovy achieves its brevity by leaving out a lot of the syntax elements that are always required in Java. The following is a list of optional syntax elements in Groovy. Import Statements By default Groovy always imports the following packages: sCnkkru*h]jc*& sCnkkru*qpeh*& sF]r]*h]jc*& sF]r]*qpeh*& sF]r]*jap*& sF]r]*ek*& Groovy also imports the classes f]r]*i]pd*>ecEjpacan and f]r]*i]pd*>ec@a_ei]h. Semicolons Semicolons in Groovy are optional, so the following two statements in Groovy are valid: lnejphj#DahhkSknh`#7 lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY20 However, if you want to print two statements on the same line, you have to delimit them with a semicolon: lnejphj#Dahhk#7lnejphj#Sknh`# The following code will not compile: lnejphj#Dahhk#lnejphj#Sknh`# Parentheses Parentheses are also optional in Groovy. The following two statements are valid in Groovy: lnejphj$#DahhkSknh`#% lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# It’s generally preferable, however, to add parentheses to all but the most trivial code, because it can be harder to read without them. Return Type and the return Keyword In Groovy you don’t need to specify a return type for a method and you don’t even need to use the napqnj keyword as the last statement in the method. If you use the `ab keyword as a return type, Groovy will dynamically figure out the return type during runtime depend- ing on the value returned, as shown in Listing 2-1. Listing 2-1. napqnj Keyword Is Optional in Groovy `abcapLe$%w /*-0 y ]ooanpcapLe$%ej>ec@a_ei]h ]ooanpcapLe$%99/*-0 Getters and Setters Groovy introduces GroovyBeans, which are similar to JavaBeans but with a much sim- pler syntax. Properties in GroovyBeans look just like public fields, with no need to define explicit getters and setters (except when you want to modify the default behavior, of course). Listing 2-2 illustrates the idea. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 21 Listing 2-2. GroovyBeans _h]ooLanokjw OpnejcbenopJ]ia Opnejch]opJ]ia `abcapJ]ia$%w benopJ]ia'##'h]opJ]ia y op]pe_rke`i]ej$]nco%w `ablanokj9jasLanokj$% lanokj*benopJ]ia9#>]od]n# lanokj*h]opJ]ia9#=^`qh# ]ooanplanokj*benopJ]ia99#>]od]n# ]ooanplanokj*j]ia99#>]od]n=^`qh# y y Access Modifiers In Java a class member that has no access modifier assigned to it will have a `ab]qhp access, which means it can be accessed only from the package it’s declared in. In Groovy, however, methods and fields are all lq^he_ by default, making them accessible from anywhere. Checked Exceptions In Groovy you don’t need to worry about catching or declaring checked exceptions because they will be wrapped up as NqjPeiaAt_alpekjs. The code in Listing 2-3 creates a new file in Java by using a call to the _na]paJasBeha method in the Beha class. Because this method throws an EKAt_alpekj (a checked exception), you have to wrap the code in a pnu+_]p_d block. Listing 2-3 also shows the same example written in Groovy, but this time you don’t have to wrap _na]paJasBeha with a pnu+_]p_d block because Groovy will automatically wrap up the exception with a NqjPeiaAt_alpekj. Listing 2-3. Checked Exceptions ++Beha?na]pkn*f]r]6 eilknpf]r]*ek*Beha7 eilknpf]r]*ek*EKAt_alpekj7 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY22 lq^he__h]ooBeha?na]pknw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w Behabeha9jasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkru*ptp%7 pnuw beha*_na]paJasBeha$%7 y_]p_d$EKAt_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y y y ++CnkkruBeha?na]pkn*cnkkru6 _h]ooCnkkruBeha?na]pknw op]pe_rke`i]ej$]nco%w Behabeha9jasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkru*ptp%7 beha*_na]paJasBeha$%7 y y New and Enhanced Syntax Elements, Structures, and Constructs Groovy adds new syntax elements, looping structures, and new language- level constructs that have no direct equivalence in Java. Groovy also enhances some of the existing ele- ments and structures, making them more convenient and useful. The following is a list of the most common ones found in Groovy. Assertions You must have noticed the use of assertions in most of the preceding examples. As a mat- ter of fact, assertions made writing the code examples in this book much easier as I used them extensively to verify the correctness of the resulting output. Assertions are also a great way of learning Groovy and are commonly used when experimenting with Groovy scripts in the Groovy console or the Groovy shell. They are used for writing self- checking code, revealing the current program state, and documenting the code. They are more useful than code comments because they are always executed when the code is run. For the same reason, they are more useful than using print statements to print the output to the console. Listing 2-4 is an example of writing an assertion. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 23 Listing 2-4. Assertions t9- ]ooanpt++tiqop^ajkpjqhh ]ooanp$t99-% ]ooanpW#]#Y++=heopiqop^ajkjailpu ]ooanpW#]#6-Y++=i]liqop^ajkjailpu ]ooanp#]#++=opnejciqop^ajkjailpu ]ooanp-++=jqi^aniqopjkp^aamq]hpkvank ]ooanpjqhh++Jqhhsehh]hs]uob]eh ]ooanppnqa++=pnqa>kkha]jr]hqanapqnjopnqa Notice that assertions in Groovy are more powerful than the ]ooanp keyword in Java because assertions in Groovy can accept any (nonvoid) type, whereas the ]ooanp keyword in Java works on Boolean conditions only. Groovy will try to coerce the non- Boolean objects to Boolean values based on certain rules: empty collections and strings, zero numbers, and null object references are all coerced to b]hoa. The reverse is also true. Assertions in Java can be disabled, whereas assertions in Groovy are always executed and can’t be disabled. When an assertion fails, you can throw a custom error message as shown here: ]9W-(.(/Y ]ooanp]*oeva$%99.(heop w]yiqop^akboeva. The preceding code will fail with the following message: At_alpekjpdnksj6f]r]*h]jc*=ooanpekjAnnkn6£ heopW-(.(/Yiqop^akboeva.*£ Atlnaooekj6$]*oeva$%99.% Closures Informally, a closure is a block of code that can be passed around and executed. A closure can optionally take arguments, return a value, and reference other variables within its scope. A closure is defined as follows: w]nc-(]nc.**):op]paiajpoy The ): character is used to separate the optional arguments list from the block of statements that define what the closure does. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY24 Even though the concept and syntax of closures are new to Java developers, they are relatively easy to start using right away. Closures, however, have a lot of advanced uses that I cover in detail in Chapter 5. For now, I am going to present only a gentle and simple introduction to closures to get you familiar with them. Listing 2-5 shows a few simple examples of using closures. Listing 2-5. Closures ++Oeilha_hkoqnasepdjk]ncqiajpo `ab_hko-9wlnejphjdahhksknh`y ++?]hhejcpda_hkoqna _hko-$% ++=_hkoqnasepd]ncqiajpo `ab_hko.9w]nc-(]nc.):lnejphj]nc-']nc.y _hko.$/(0% ++=_hkoqna`abeja`ejoe`a]iapdk`*Pda_hkoqnaeo^kqj`pkpda ++r]ne]^haosepdejepoo_kla `abiapdk`-$^kkg%w `ablnabet9Pdapephakbpda^kkgeo6 napqnjwlnejphjlnabet'^kkgy y `ab_hko/9iapdk`-$Cnkkru% _hko/$% At this point, you may be wondering what the difference is between a closure and a regular Java method. The answer is that closures are anonymous code blocks that can be declared outside of a class or a method and are executed only when called (not when defined). A closure is usually assigned to a variable, which is treated as an identifier of that closure and is used to make calls on it. The real power of this is that variables can be passed around your program, which means you can write closures and methods that accept closures as arguments. To illustrate this, consider the following example of a class called Ailhkuaa with a single method called _]h_qh]paN]eoa. The _]h_qh]paN]eoa method accepts a closure that defines how a salary increase should be calculated. For example, say you want to multiply some employees’ salaries by 1.5, whereas you want to add a fixed $300 to other employ- ees’ salaries. The code is shown in Listing 2-6. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 25 Listing 2-6. Passing Closures as Method Arguments lq^he__h]ooAilhkuaaw `abo]h]nu lq^he_`kq^ha_]h_qh]paN]eoa$_%w napqnj_$o]h]nu% y y Ailhkuaaailhkuaa-9jasAilhkuaa$o]h]nu6-,,,% `abn]eoa-9wo]h]nu):$o]h]nu&-*1%y ]ooanpailhkuaa-*_]h_qh]paN]eoa$n]eoa-%99-1,, Ailhkuaaailhkuaa.9jasAilhkuaa$o]h]nu61,,% `abn]eoa.9wo]h]nu):$o]h]nu'/,,%y ]ooanpailhkuaa.*_]h_qh]paN]eoa$n]eoa.%994,, To rewrite the preceding example in Java, you would probably define an interface called N]eoa with a single method called _]h_qh]paN]eoa. You would then create two implementations of that interface, each implementing _]h_qh]paN]eoa in a different way. Finally, you would create the Ailhkuaa class with a method that accepts an instance of N]eoa as an argument and would call _]h_qh]paN]eoa on it. Notice that the Groovy way is shorter and requires fewer types. With closures, you will rarely need to use interfaces. Collective Data Types As explained in Chapter 1, one of the most powerful features in Groovy is the added sup- port for collections at the language level: lists, maps, and ranges. Lists and maps should be conceptually familiar to Java developers. (However, they are much more powerful and flexible in Groovy.) Ranges are new structures that have no equivalent in Java. I briefly cover the basics of those new constructs next and will revisit them in detail in Chapter 3. Lists The syntax for lists in Groovy looks a bit similar to arrays in Java, but don’t let looks deceive you! Lists in Groovy are far more powerful than arrays in Java, which are fixed in length. Besides, you can’t easily add elements to Java arrays. A list in Groovy is defined as follows: `ab]9Wepai-(epai.(epai/Y An array can be defined as follows: `ab]9jasK^fa_pW0Y++Iqopola_ebupda]nn]uhajcpd CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY26 Or: `ab]9Wepai-(epai.(epai/Y*pk=nn]u$% Items in a collection do not need to be of the same type; you can add anything that is a subclass of f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p. The following example is valid in Groovy: ]9W#De#(-(pnqa(BehaY Listing 2-7 illustrates the basics of lists in Groovy. Listing 2-7. Lists in Groovy `ab]9WY++Ailpuheop ]'9W-(.(/Y++=``ejcahaiajpopk]heop ]ooanp]99W-(.(/Y ]ooanp]*oeva99/ ]880881++=jkpdans]ukb]``ejcahaiajpopk]heop ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1Y ]*]``$2%++=pden`s]ukb]``ejcahaiajpopk]heop ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1(2Y ++=__aooejcahaiajpokb]heop ]ooanp]W,Y99-++Qoejc]oq^o_nelp ]ooanp]*cap$,%99-++Qoejccap ]ooanp]*cap=p$,%99-++Qoejccap=p ]ooanp]W)-Y992++H]opahaiajpej`atop]npo]p)-^]_gs]n`o ++Ik`ebuejcahaiajpoej]heop ]*lqp=p$-(-% ]ooanp]99W-(-(/(0(1(2Y ]ooanp]*oap$-(.%99-++Sehhnapqnjpdakh`r]hqa ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1(2Y ++Epan]pejckran]heop ]*a]_dwlnejphj epy ++Lnejpejcepaioej]heopsepdpdaenej`at ]*a]_dSepdEj`atwep(ej`at):lnejphjepai6 ep(ej`at6 ej`aty ++Naikrejcepaiobnki]heop ])9-++Naikrajqi^an- CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 27 ]ooanp]99W.(/(0(1(2Y ]9]*iejqo$W.(/(0Y%++Naikrapdaoq^heopW.(/(0Y ]ooanp]99W1(2Y Maps A map is a data structure that associates keys with values. In Groovy, a map has the fol- lowing syntax: `ab]9Wgau-6r]hqa-(gau.6r]hqa.Y Keys and values can be of any type. Listing 2-8 illustrates the basics of maps in Groovy. Listing 2-8. Maps in Groovy ++?na]pejc]i]l `abi]l9W#j]ia#6#>]od]n#(#]ca#6.2(ogehho6W#F]r]#(#Cnkkru#Y(#]qpdkn#6pnqaY ]ooanpi]l*oeva$%990 ++=``ejc]gau+r]hqal]enpk]i]l i]l'9W#_epu#6#Pq_okj#Y ]ooanpi]l99W#j]ia#6#>]od]n#(#]ca#6.2(ogehho6W#F]r]#(#Cnkkru#Y( #]qpdkn#6pnqa(#_epu#6#Pq_okj#Y ++=hpanj]peras]ukb]``ejc]gau+r]hqal]enpk]i]l i]lW#op]pa#Y9#=V# ]ooanpi]l99W#j]ia#6#>]od]n#(#]ca#6.2(ogehho6W#F]r]#(#Cnkkru#Y( #]qpdkn#6pnqa(#_epu#6#Pq_okj#(#op]pa#6#=V#Y ++=__aooejci]lahaiajpo ]ooanpi]l*_epu99#Pq_okj# ]ooanpi]lW#_epu#Y99#Pq_okj# ]ooanpi]l*cap$#_epu#%99#Pq_okj# ]ooanpi]l*cap=p$#_epu#%99#Pq_okj# ]ooanpi]l*ogehhoW,Y99#F]r]# ++Gauo]naqjemqa ]ooanpW#j]ia#6#>]od]n#(#j]ia#6#=^`qh#Y99W#j]ia#6#=^`qh#Y ++Epan]pejckran]i]l i]l*a]_dwep):lnejphjep*gau'6'ep*r]hqay i]l*a]_dSepdEj`atwep(ej`at):lnejphjepai ej`at)'ep*gau'6'ep*r]hqay CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY28 Ranges A range is a sequence with a start and an end. Ranges are defined as follows: `abn]jca9op]np**aj` Ranges are useful when used with other structures and come in handy with the a]_d method. Listing 2-9 illustrates the basics of ranges. Listing 2-9. Ranges in Groovy ++?na]pejc]n]jca `abn]jca9-**-, ]ooanpn]jca99W-(.(/(0(1(2(3(4(5(-,Y n]jca9#]#**#_# ]ooanpn]jca99W#]#(#^#(#_#Y ++At_hq`ejcpdah]opahaiajpbnki]n]jca n]jca9-**84 ]ooanpn]jca99W-(.(/(0(1(2(3Y ++Qoejc]n]jcasepda]_diapdk` $-**1%*a]_dwlnejphjepy ++Qoejc]n]jcapk_na]pa]heop$ohe_ejc% ]ooanpW&-**0Y99W-(.(/(0Y ]ooanpW-(&.**0Y99W-(.(/(0Y New Helpers, Libraries, and APIs Groovy extends the JDK library by adding more methods to some of the existing classes in the JDK. For example, Groovy adds more methods to f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p, f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc, f]r]*qpeh*Heop, and many others. Groovy is able to achieve this by redirecting all method calls on an object through its metaclass, a technique known as metaprogramming, which gives Groovy its dynamic nature. You will learn more about metaprogramming in Chapter 4. Groovy also adds many new classes that help with various tasks—for example, accessing databases, performing unit testing, generating markup using builders, process- ing Extensible Markup Language (XML), and GUI programming. In addition to providing more helper methods to f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc, Groovy also introduces a new class of strings called GStrings, which are an instance of cnkkru*h]jc* COpnejc. GStrings enable placeholders to be included in the string and evaluated lazily. An example of a GString is Dahhk(iuj]iaeo wj]iay. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 29 Finally, Groovy has excellent support for regular expressions and introduces three new operators for working with them: sThe regex pattern operator: zL]ppanj sThe find operator: 9z sThe match operator: 99z GDK The GDK is Groovy’s extension to some of the existing classes in the JDK. Listing 2-10 shows some of the methods Groovy adds to f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p, f]r]*h]jc*Jqi^an, and f]r]* ek*Beha. Groovy’s GDK includes about 60 enhanced classes. The full API specification can be accessed at dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru)f`g. Listing 2-10. GDK ++f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p `ab]9W-(.(/Y ]ooanp]*]juwep:.y++=pha]opkjaahaiajpo]peobeaopda_kj`epekj ]ooanp]*aranuwep:,y++=hhahaiajpoiqopo]peobupda_kj`epekj ++Epan]pakran]hhpdaahaiajpo_]hhejcpda_hkoqnakja]_depai ]ooanp]*_khha_pwep&.y99W.(0(2Y ]ooanp]*bej`=hhwep:.y99W/Y++Bej`o]hhahaiajpopd]po]peobupda_kj`epekj ]*lnejp$]%++Lnejpopdar]hqaokb](_]j^a]hoksneppaj]olnejp$]% ++f]r]*h]jc*Jqi^an `abt9-, ]ooanpt*]^o$%99-,++Napqnjo]^okhqpar]hqa ]ooanpt*_kil]naPk$/%99-++?kil]naopskjqi^ano ]ooanpt*`er$.%991++@ere`aopskjqi^ano `abpkp]h9, t*`ksjpk$1%w jqi^an):pkp]h'9jqi^any++Oqiopdajqi^anobnki-,pk1ej_hqoera ]ooanppkp]h9901 pkp]h9, t*qlpk$-1%w jqi^an):pkp]h'9jqi^any++Oqiopdajqi^anobnki-,pk-1ej_hqoera ]ooanppkp]h9931 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY30 ++f]r]*ek*Beha `abb9jasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkru*ptp%++I]ngo]behabkn_na]pekj b*patp9Cnkkrunk_go++Behasehh^a_na]pa`ebep`kaoj#pateop ]ooanpb*ateopo$% ]ooanpb*patp99Cnkkrunk_go b*]llaj`$@kaoj#p;%++=llaj`opatppkpdabeha ]ooanpb*patp99Cnkkrunk_go@kaoj#p; b*naj]iaPk$jasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkruNaj]ia`*ptp%%++Naj]iao]beha ]ooanpb*j]ia99cnkkru*ptp++Behao]naeiiqp]^ha WjasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkru*ptp%(jasBeha$?6XXpailXXcnkkruNaj]ia`*ptp%Y* a]_dwep*`ahapa$%y++@ahapao^kpdbehao Strings and GStrings Groovy supports two kinds of strings: regular strings, which are instances of f]r]*h]jc* Opnejc but with additional methods added by the GDK; and GStrings, which are an instance of cnkkru*h]jc*COpnejc. GStrings differ from plain old strings by supporting placeholders, variables that are resolved and evaluated during runtime. Unlike Java, Groovy enables you to declare strings in various ways: s 5SINGSINGLEQUOTES4HISMETHODDOESNOTSUPPORT'3TRINGS)TISEQUIVALENTTO declaring strings in Java. `abpatp9#Sah_kiapkCnkkru# ]ooanppatp]of]r]*h]jc*Opnejc s 5SINGDOUBLEQUOTES4HISMETHODSUPPORTS'3TRINGSASSHOWNINTHEFOLLOWING example. If you want to display a dollar sign, you have to escape it like this: X . `abh]jcq]ca9Cnkkru `abpatp9Sah_kiapk h]jcq]ca ]ooanppatp99Sah_kiapkCnkkru ]ooanppatp]ocnkkru*h]jc*COpnejc s 5SINGTRIPLESINGLE QUOTES4HISMETHODALLOWSTEXTTOSPANMULTIPLELINES!NEW line is treated as Xj and all whitespaces are preserved. It doesn’t support GStrings, however. `abpatp9### Sah_kiapkCnkkru )))))))))))))))) ### ]ooanppatp99XjSah_kiapkCnkkruXj))))))))))))))))XjÏ CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 31 s 5SINGTRIPLEDOUBLE QUOTES4HISMETHODISSIMILARTOUSINGTRIPLESINGLE QUOTES but supports GStrings. It’s the most versatile way of declaring strings in Groovy. `abh]jcq]ca9Cnkkru `abpatp9 Sah_kiapk h]jcq]ca ))))))))))))))))))  ]ooanppatp99XjSah_kiapkCnkkruXj))))))))))))))))))XjÏ The GDK also adds many methods to strings. Listing 2-11 shows a few of them. Strings are covered in more detail in later chapters. Listing 2-11. Strings in Groovy `abpatp9Sah_kiapkCnkkru ++>kpdiapdk`onapqnjpdaoevakb]Opnejc ]ooanppatp*oeva$%""patp*hajcpd$%99-3 ]ooanppatp*oq^opnejc$,(3%99Sah_kia ]ooanppatp*_kjp]ejo$Sah_kia% ++?kqjpjqi^ankbk__qnaj_aokb]skn`ej]Opnejc ]ooanppatp*_kqjp$Sah_kia%99- patp'9XjSd]p]cna]ph]jcq]ca ++@a_e`asdapdan]Opnejc_]j^al]noa`]o]jqi^anknjkp ]ooanppatp*eoJqi^an$%99b]hoa ++Naranoa]Opnejc ]ooanppatp*naranoa$%99ac]qcj]hp]anc]p]dSXjurkknCkpaik_haS ]ooanppatp*bej`=hhwep:#s#y99W#u#Y++Bej`o]hh_d]n]_panocna]panpd]j#s# ]ooanppatp*nalh]_a$#Cnkkru#(#F]r]#%99#Sah_kiapkF]r]XjSd]p]cna]ph]jcq]ca# Regular Expressions Regular expressions (sometimes called regexes) enable you to identify and extract strings of text from a containing text. Regular expressions are defined as patterns with a specific syntax. You might use a regular expression to find all the words in a paragraph that end with the letters ion or to find all occurrences of the word red that come immediately after the word color. A detailed explanation of regular expressions’ syntax is beyond the scope of this book. (Indeed, whole books have been devoted to this subject.1) However, I do offer 1. Nathan A. Good, Regular Expression Recipes: A Problem- Solution Approach (Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2004). CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY32 a brief introduction to most regular expression pattern elements in the next chapter. Regular expression patterns can be defined by using Groovy’s slashy syntax of defining strings. Patterns are enclosed by ++ characters, so you don’t have to escape any back- slashes in the pattern: `abl]ppanj9+]^_+ ]ooanpl]ppanj99#]^_# l]ppanj9+XoX`+ ]ooanpl]ppanj99#XXoXX`# This is good news for Java developers because most regular expressions patterns con- tain a lot of backslashes that need to be escaped in regular Java strings. Groovy introduces three operators for working with regular expressions: sThe pattern operator: zis used to define a regular expression pattern. sThe find operator: =~ is used to find a pattern in a text. It evaluates to a I]p_dan object. sThe match operator: 99zis used to match text against a regular expression pattern. It evaluates to a Boolean. Listing 2-12 shows some regular expressions in action. The code is commented to explain what the patterns do. Listing 2-12. Regular Expressions in Groovy patp9Ejbkni]pekjpa_djkhkcunarkhqpekj l]ppanj9+X^Xs&ekjX^+++L]ppanj6]skn`pd]paj`osepdpdahappano#ekj# ]ooanppatp9zl]ppanj `abi]p_da`9WY ++Bej`]hhi]p_daokbpdal]ppanj patp*a]_dI]p_d$l]ppanj%wi]p_d):i]p_da`'9i]p_dW,Yy lnejphji]p_da` ]ooanpi]p_da`*oeva$%99. ]ooanpi]p_da`W,Y99Ejbkni]pekj ]ooanpi]p_da`W-Y99narkhqpekj Other Differences Groovy has a few other differences as compared to Java. In this section, I discuss two of them: optional typing and the ability to overload operators. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 33 Optional Typing Groovy enables you to use either static or dynamic typing when declaring variables. Dynamic typing can be achieved by using the `ab keyword when declaring a variable (the `ab keyword is optional in scripts). At runtime, Groovy will choose the appropriate run- time type for the variable based on the assigned value, as demonstrated in Listing 2-13. Listing 2-13. Dynamic Typing in Groovy `abr]n9- ]ooanpr]n*_h]ooejf]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan r]n9#DahhkSknh`# ]ooanpr]n*_h]ooejf]r]*h]jc*Opnejc Notice that Groovy gave the variable r]n a runtime type of f]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan when it was assigned the number -, while it gave it a runtime type of f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc when it was assigned the string #DahhkSknh`#. The code in Listing 2-14, however, will throw a ?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj. Listing 2-14. ?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj when Treating an Integer as a String `abr]n9-1 ]ooanpr]n99-1 At_alpekjpdnksj6f]r]*h]jc*?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj6 f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc_]jjkp^a_]oppkf]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan Groovy is a type- safe language, meaning that an object of one type cannot be treated as an object of a different type without an explicit conversion. For example, an object of type Ejpacan can never be treated as an object of type Opnejc without appropriate conver- sion. To make the previous code work, you would have to parse the string to an integer: `abr]n9-1 ]ooanpr]n99Ejpacan*l]noaEjp$-1% Static typing can be achieved by explicitly assigning a type to the variable when declaring it. The type assigned will be used for the variable during its lifetime and can’t be changed. Static typing will also restrict the types of values the variables may hold. The code in Listing 2-15 will throw a Cnkkru?]opAt_alpekj. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY34 Listing 2-15. Cnkkru?]opAt_alpekj When Assigning a String to a Variable of Type f]r]*h]jc* Ejpacan ejpr]n9- ]ooanpr]n]of]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan r]n9#DahhkSknh`# At_alpekjpdnksj6knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*nqjpeia*pulad]j`hejc*Cnkkru?]opAt_alpekj6 ?]jjkp_]opk^fa_p#DahhkSknh`#sepd_h]oo#f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc# pk_h]oo#f]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan# As mentioned in Chapter 1, everything in Groovy is an object, so when you declare the variable r]n to be of type ejp, Groovy will instead use the reference type Ejpacan. Because you are using explicit typing, you cannot assign a string to the Ejpacan r]n with- out proper conversion. Groovy, however, can cast the assigned value to the original type if possible; other- wise, an exception will be thrown, as shown in Listing 2-16. Listing 2-16. Automatic Conversion in Groovy ejpr]n9- r]n9.*3 ]ooanpr]n99. ]ooanpr]n*_h]ooejEjpacan r]n9#-#]o_d]n ]ooanpr]n9905 ]ooanpr]n*_h]ooejEjpacan In the previous example, the variable r]n of type f]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan was assigned the float value of .*3, which Groovy will cast to the integer .. When you assign the character - of type f]r]*h]jc*?d]n]_pan to r]n, Groovy will cast it to its integer representation of 05. The question of whether developers should use static or dynamic typing is not a simple one to answer. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Static typing adds more clarity to your code, has better IDE support, offers more scope for compiler optimizations, gives more- useful information during reflection, allows method overloading, and offers better sanity checks during compile time. On the other hand, dynamic typing is more convenient (especially when writing scripts), allows relaying objects between method calls without worrying about the object type, and allows duck typing—a style of dynamic typing in which the semantics of an object are determined by its own methods and properties rather than by inheriting from a class or implementing an interface. You will learn more about duck typing in Chapter 4. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 35 Because Java is a statically typed language, most Java developers when first learning Groovy will prefer to assign types to all of their variables. This is perfectly acceptable at first and will ease the transition from Java to Groovy. As Java developers get more com- fortable with Groovy, they should learn to leave out the type when declaring variables if they don’t care what their types are. Consider the example in Listing 2-17. Listing 2-17. Leaving Out the Type in Groovy `abqnh9jasQNH$dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc% `ab]9qnh*klaj?kjja_pekj$% lnejphj]*cap?kjpajpPula$% patp+dpih7_d]noap9QPB)4 In the previous example, you really don’t care to define the type of URL object or to define the type returned from the call to klaj?kjja_pekj. All you are interested in is to be able to call the cap?kjpajpPula method on the returned object to retrieve the value of the _kjpajp)pula header field. Operator Overloading As explained in Chapter 1, all operators in Groovy are method calls. For example, the operation -'- is translated into -*lhqo$-%. Groovy enables you to overload any operator with your own implementation. NNote It is technically more accurate to use the term operator overriding than operator overloading because all operators in Groovy are translated into method calls that can be overridden. Overloading means having different implementations of a method with different parameters. However, because operator over- loading is the popular term used to describe changing the behavior of an operator, I am using it instead. Groovy offers support for many operators that are mapped to regular Java method calls. Please check the Groovy Documentation web site for a complete list of supported Groovy operators: dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+@k_qiajp]pekj. An important Groovy operator that has different semantics from its Java equiva- lent is the 99 operator. As I mentioned in Chapter 1, the 99 operator in Groovy denotes object equality, not identity. For example, the operation ]99^ in Groovy is the same as ]*amq]ho$^% in Java. Similarly, ]9^ is the same as ]*amq]ho$^% in Java. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY36 NNote The 99 operator in Groovy does not always match the result of a call to the amq]ho method. For example, ]ooanp1991*, will return pnqa, but ]ooanp1*amq]ho$1*,% will throw an =ooanpekjAnnkn. This is because Groovy will perform coercion on the operands first when using the 99 operator, thus report- ing the numbers as equal, but it won’t perform any coercion on the numbers when using amq]ho because doing so would break the rules of the amq]ho method in Java. The Groovy web site promises improvements in this particular area to make the behavior more consistent and clear. It is fairly easy to overload an operator in Groovy. Listing 2-18 shows how to overload the next operator ('') to increment Roman numbers from I to IX. Listing 2-18. Overloading the '' Operator for Roman Numbers _h]ooNki]jJqi^anw lner]paOpnejcjqi^an  op]pe_jqi^ano9WE(EE(EEE(ER(R(RE(REE(REEE(ET(TY  Nki]jJqi^an$jqi^an%w pdeo*jqi^an9jqi^an y  ^kkha]jamq]ho$K^fa_pkpdan%w eb$jqhh99kpdan%napqnjb]hoa eb$$kpdanejop]j_akbNki]jJqi^an%%napqnjb]hoa eb$jqi^an9kpdan*jqi^an%napqnjb]hoa napqnjpnqa y  ejpd]od?k`a$%w jqi^an*d]od?k`a$% y  OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w pdeo*jqi^an y  CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 37 Nki]jJqi^anjatp$%w eb$pdeo*jqi^an*pkQllan?]oa$%99T% pdnksjasQjoqllknpa`Klan]pekjAt_alpekj $Oknnu(ukq_]jkjhuej_naiajpNki]jJqi^anoqlpkT% ejpej`at9jqi^ano*ej`atKb$pdeo*jqi^an*pkQllan?]oa$%% eb$ej`at8,% pdnksjasEhhac]h=ncqiajpAt_alpekj$QjgjksjNki]jJqi^an'pdeo*jqi^an%  napqnjjasNki]jJqi^an$jqi^anoWej`at'-Y% y y `abjqi^an9jasNki]jJqi^an$EE%7 lnejphjJqi^an6 jqi^an jqi^an''7 ]ooanpjqi^an99jasNki]jJqi^an$EEE% lnejphj=bpanej_naiajpejc6 jqi^an jqi^an''7 ]ooanpjqi^an99jasNki]jJqi^an$ER% lnejphj=bpanej_naiajpejc6 jqi^an And the result: Jqi^an6EE =bpanej_naiajpejc6EEE =bpanej_naiajpejc6ER Notice that the code works only on Roman numbers from I to IX. It should be fairly easy to add support for the rest of the Roman numbers. I override the amq]ho method to provide checking for null values because the default implementation for all comparison operators in Groovy is null safe, meaning that they handle nulls gracefully without throwing a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj. I also override d]od?k`a to give equal Roman numbers the same hash code. Finally, the '' operator is overridden by overriding its matching method call (jatp). NNote Technically, I didn’t override the jatp method, because the Nki]jJqi^an class has no jatp method in its parent class (K^fa_p). Operator implementation is a more accurate term. CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY38 2-3. How Do I Integrate Groovy with Java? In many scenarios, Groovy is ideal for the task at hand—such as in rapid prototyping or when building modular applications that can be extended with macros or plug- ins. Such extensions can be built with Groovy and seamlessly embedded in your application with- out requiring a long and tedious development and deployment cycle. These applications can benefit greatly from Groovy’s expressiveness, brevity, and powerful features. In other situations, however, Groovy might not be the best solution. This is particu- larly true for applications that require high performance, given the inevitable trade- off between agility and speed in Groovy. Groovy’s biggest selling point is its excellent integration with Java. It’s so versatile and flexible that there are at least five different ways of integrating Groovy with Java, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The following sections cover those five ways and provide guidelines on when to use each option. Compiling to Bytecode The easiest and most straightforward method of integrating Groovy with Java is to com- pile Groovy files to bytecode (*_h]oo files) and make them available on Java’s class path. The downside to this approach is that you have to fully compile your Groovy files first, which may be a problem if they are referencing other Java classes that need to be com- piled as well. Using GroovyShell CnkkruOdahh allows you to evaluate any Groovy expression inside your Java class (or even your Groovy class). It enables you to pass in parameters to the expression by using the >ej`ejc object and to return values from it. Listing 2-19 shows how to use CnkkruOdahh. Listing 2-19. CnkkruOdahh eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*>ej`ejc7 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*CnkkruOdahh7 lq^he__h]ooCnkkruOdahhAt]ilhaw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w >ej`ejc^ej`ejc9jas>ej`ejc$%7 ^ej`ejc*oapR]ne]^ha$t(-,%7 ^ej`ejc*oapR]ne]^ha$h]jcq]ca(Cnkkru%7 CnkkruOdahhodahh9jasCnkkruOdahh$^ej`ejc%7 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 39 K^fa_pr]hqa9odahh*ar]hq]pa $lnejphjXSah_kiapk h]jcq]caX7u9t&.7v9t&/7napqnjt%7 ]ooanpr]hqa*amq]ho$-,%7 ]ooanp^ej`ejc*capR]ne]^ha$u%*amq]ho$.,%7 ]ooanp^ej`ejc*capR]ne]^ha$v%*amq]ho$/,%7 y y CnkkruOdahh is ideal for evaluating dynamic expressions. A typical usage is when your application allows the user to enter a dynamic expression in Groovy through a user inter- face (UI)—for example, in a spreadsheet application. The expression can then be evaluated easily by using CnkkruOdahh. Using GroovyScriptEngine CnkkruOdahh is useful when evaluating stand- alone scripts or expressions, but if you have multiple scripts that depend on each other, you are better off using CnkkruO_nelpAjceja. CnkkruO_nelpAjceja loads Groovy scripts from a location you specify (file system, URL, database, and so forth) and reloads those scripts anytime they change. Like CnkkruOdahh, it enables you to pass in parameters and return values from your scripts. Suppose you have the following simple Groovy file inside ?6XpilXOeilhaO_nelp*cnkkru: ++OeilhaO_nelp*cnkkru lnejphjSah_kiapk h]jcq]ca napqnjPdaAj` Listing 2-20 shows how to execute the script by using CnkkruO_nelpAjceja to pass in the required parameter and return a value. Listing 2-20. CnkkruO_nelpAjceja l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cn]ehna_elao*_d]l,-7 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*>ej`ejc7 eilknpcnkkru*qpeh*CnkkruO_nelpAjceja7 lq^he__h]ooCnkkruO_nelpAjcejaAt]ilhaw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w pnuw CnkkruO_nelpAjcejaajceja9jasCnkkruO_nelpAjceja$?6XXpail%7 >ej`ejc^ej`ejc9jas>ej`ejc$%7 ^ej`ejc*oapR]ne]^ha$h]jcq]ca(Cnkkru%7 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY40 K^fa_pr]hqa9ajceja*nqj$OeilhaO_nelp*cnkkru(^ej`ejc%7 ]ooanpr]hqa*amq]ho$PdaAj`%7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y  y y CnkkruO_nelpAjceja is ideal when working with Groovy scripts but it doesn’t handle complex classes very well. For the most complete solution when dealing with Groovy classes and scripts, take a direct look at Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an (which both CnkkruOdahh and CnkkruO_nelpAjceja use). Using GroovyClassLoader Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an is a custom class loader that parses and loads Groovy classes to be used within Java classes. It is also able to compile required and dependent classes. Listing 2-21 shows how to use Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an to load a Groovy class and call a method on it. Listing 2-21. Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an ++CnkkruOeilhaBeha?na]pkn*cnkkru _h]ooCnkkruOeilhaBeha?na]pknw lq^he__na]paBeha$OpnejcbehaJ]ia%w Behabeha9jasBeha$behaJ]ia%7 beha*_na]paJasBeha$%7 y y ++Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`anAt]ilha*f]r]6 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an7 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*CnkkruK^fa_p7 eilknpf]r]*ek*Beha7 lq^he__h]ooCnkkru?h]ooHk]`anAt]ilhaw CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 41 lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w pnuw Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`anhk]`an9jasCnkkru?h]ooHk]`an$%7 ?h]oobeha?na]pkn9hk]`an*l]noa?h]oo $jasBeha$?6XXpailXXCnkkruOeilhaBeha?na]pkn*cnkkru%%7 CnkkruK^fa_pk^fa_p9$CnkkruK^fa_p%beha?na]pkn*jasEjop]j_a$%7 k^fa_p*ejrkgaIapdk`$_na]paBeha(?6XXpailXXailpuBeha*ptp%7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y y y A typical scenario for using Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an is when you have a Java interface and a Groovy implementation of that interface. You can load the Groovy implementation in your application by using Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an and call methods on the implemented inter- face directly. Listing 2-22 illustrates the idea. Listing 2-22. Implementing a Java Interface in Groovy ++Od]la*f]r]6 lq^he_ejpanb]_aOd]law ejp_]h_qh]pa=na]$%7 y ++Omq]na*cnkkru6 _h]ooOmq]naeilhaiajpoOd]law `abt7 ejp_]h_qh]pa=na]$%w napqnjt&t7 y y ++Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`anAt]ilha*f]r]6 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`an7 eilknpcnkkru*h]jc*CnkkruK^fa_p7 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY42 eilknpf]r]*ek*Beha7 lq^he__h]ooCnkkru?h]ooHk]`anAt]ilhaw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w pnuw Cnkkru?h]ooHk]`anhk]`an9jasCnkkru?h]ooHk]`an$%7 ?h]oocnkkru?h]oo9hk]`an*l]noa?h]oo$jasBeha$?6XXpailXXOmq]na*cnkkru%%7 CnkkruK^fa_pk^fa_p9$CnkkruK^fa_p%cnkkru?h]oo*jasEjop]j_a$%7 k^fa_p*ejrkgaIapdk`$oapT(-,%7 Od]laod]la9$Od]la%k^fa_p7 ]ooanpod]la*_]h_qh]pa=na]$%99-,,7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y y y Using JSR 223 If you are using Java 6, you have the option of using Sun’s Java Specification Request (JSR) 223: Scripting for the Java Platform. Using JSR 223 decouples your application from any particular scripting engine and enables you to change your scripting language eas- ily. Using JSR 223 is also recommended if you want to use other scripting languages from your Java code (for example, BeanShell or JRuby). If you are not using Java 6 and you still want to have the option of using multiple scripting languages, take a look at Apache’s Bean Scripting Framework: dppl6++f]g]np]*]l]_da*knc+^ob. Unless you want to keep your application decoupled from any particular scripting language, using Groovy’s own integration options is usually more flexible. Listing 2-23 shows how to integrate Groovy by using JSR 223. You will need to have the cnkkru)ajceja*f]n file added to your class path. You can obtain this file (and other scripting engine files) from dpplo6++o_nelpejc*`ar*f]r]*jap. This example demonstrates how to invoke a Groovy function, pass a parameter to it, and return a value from it. Listing 2-23. Using JSR 223 eilknpf]r]t*o_nelp*Ejrk_]^ha7 eilknpf]r]t*o_nelp*O_nelpAjceja7 eilknpf]r]t*o_nelp*O_nelpAjcejaI]j]can7 CHAPTER 2 N FROM JAVA TO GROOVY 43 lq^he__h]ooCnkkruFON../At]ilhaw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$Opnejc]ncoWY%w pnuw O_nelpAjcejaI]j]canb]_pknu9jasO_nelpAjcejaI]j]can$%7 O_nelpAjcejaajceja9b]_pknu*capAjceja>uJ]ia$cnkkru%7 OpnejcDahhkH]jcq]ca9`abdahhk$h]jcq]ca%wnapqnjXDahhk h]jcq]caXy7 ajceja*ar]h$DahhkH]jcq]ca%7 Ejrk_]^haejr9$Ejrk_]^ha%ajceja7 K^fa_pWYl]n]io9wjasOpnejc$Cnkkru%y7 K^fa_pnaoqhp9ejr*ejrkgaBqj_pekj$dahhk(l]n]io%7 ]ooanpnaoqhp*amq]ho$DahhkCnkkru%7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w ++PK@K=qpk)cajan]pa`_]p_d^hk_g a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y y y Summary This chapter served as a quick introduction to some of the most important differences between Java and Groovy. Don’t worry if you feel that you didn’t quite master all the topics covered in this chapter; they will all be revisited in detail (along with many other topics) throughout the remainder of this book. The purpose of this chapter is to give you a quick taste of how Java is Groovy, while Groovy is not Java, and to convince you that Groovy has a lot to offer Java developers. In this chapter, I have also shown you how you can integrate your Groovy code with your Java code. Groovy is very flexible and versatile when it comes to integrating with Java. After all, the reason Groovy was created was to be an addition to Java and not a replacement for it. I am now ready to go into more details in my coverage of Groovy and to present more- concrete and extensive examples. The next chapter covers Groovy’s data types, collections, and control structures. 45 CHAPTER 3 Groovy Data Types and Control Structures Groovy data types can be categorized into simple data types and collective data types. Simple data types include strings, regular expressions (regexes), and numbers. Collective data types include lists, maps, and ranges. Groovy offers support for such data types at the language level, meaning that it offers native syntax for declaring and using special operators on them. Groovy control structures can be categorized into conditional structures and looping structures. Conditional structures include the eb statement, the ternary operator (;6), and the osep_d statement. Looping structures include sdeha and bkn loops. This chapter covers, by example, all of Groovy’s supported data types and control structures. 3-1. What Are the Different Kinds of Strings in Groovy and How Do I Use Them? Groovy supports two kinds of strings: regular Java strings, which are an instance of f]r]* h]jc*Opnejc; and GStrings, which are an instance of cnkkru*h]jc*COpnejc and allow place- holders to be included in the text. GStrings are not a subclass of Opnejc because the Opnejc class is final and can’t be extended. However, GStrings behave like regular strings and can be used whenever a string is expected, as Groovy coerces them into Java strings. GStrings are useful in templating situations where you have to build your string dynamically. The code in Listing 3-1 shows an example of that. Listing 3-1. Using GStrings benopSkn`9#Dahhk# oa_kj`Skn`9#`hnkS# lnejphj benopSkn` woa_kj`Skn`*naranoa$%y CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES46 And the output is as follows: DahhkSknh` GStrings are distinguished from regular strings by the existence of a dollar sign ( ). If a string is enclosed by double or triple quotes and contains an unescaped , it will be an instance of cnkkru*h]jc*Copnejc; otherwise, it will be an instance of f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc. Notice that you can include any valid Groovy expression inside the w**y notation; this includes method calls or variable names. The expression is evaluated lazily only when the GString’s pkOpnejc method is called (for example, when printed out to the con- sole). The other kind of supported strings are f]r]*h]jc*Opnejcs. The GDK, however, dynamically injects a lot of helper methods into them, making them much more conve- nient to work with than in Java. The following example shows different ways of declaring a string in Groovy: o-9DahhkXSknh`X++Ao_]la`kq^hamqkpao o.9#DahhkSknh`# ]ooanpo-99o. o/9#DahhkX#Sknh`X##++Ao_]laoejchamqkpao o09Dahhk#Sknh`# ]ooanpo/99o0 ]ooanpjasOpnejc$#DahhkSknh`#%99DahhkSknh` `abo9W#d#(#a#(#h#(#h#(#k#Y]o_d]nWY ]ooanpjasOpnejc$o%99#dahhk# ]ooanpjasOpnejc$o(,(0%99#dahh# o*a]_dSepdEj`atw_d(ej`at):]ooanp_d99oWej`atYy ]ooanp#dahhk#*pk?d]n=nn]u$%99W#d#(#a#(#h#(#h#(#k#Y Some common escape characters are as follows: ]ooanp#Xp#99#X,--#++P]^ ]ooanp#Xj#99#X,-.#++Jasheja ]ooanp#Xn#99#X,-1#++?]nne]canapqnj ]ooanp#Xj#99 ++Ol]jjejciqhpelhahejao To convert objects to their string representation: `abk^fa_p9jasK^fa_p$% ]ooanpOpnejc*r]hqaKb$k^fa_p%99k^fa_p*pkOpnejc$%++K^fa_po ]ooanpOpnejc*r]hqaKb$pnqa%99pnqa*pkOpnejc$%++>kkha]jo CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 47 ]ooanpOpnejc*r]hqaKb$#]#%99#]#*pkOpnejc$%++?d]n]_pano ]ooanpOpnejc*r]hqaKb$-%99-*pkOpnejc$%++Jqi^ano ]ooanpOpnejc*r]hqaKb$W]6-(^6.Y%99W]6-(^6.Y*pkOpnejc$%++?khha_pekjo To find the size of a string: o9DahhkSknh` ]ooanpo*oeva$%99-- ]ooanpo*oeva$%99o*hajcpd$% To pad strings: ]ooanp#Dahhk#*l]`Necdp$3(#&#%99#Dahhk&&# ]ooanp#Dahhk#*l]`Habp$3(#&#%99#&&Dahhk# ]ooanp#Dahhk#*_ajpan$5(#&#%99#&&Dahhk&&# To tokenize strings: o9Pdamqe_g^nksjbktfqilokranpdah]vu`kc ]ooanpo*pkgajeva$%99W#Pda#(#mqe_g#(#^nksj#(#bkt#(#fqilo#(#kran#(#pda#(#h]vu#(#`k c#Y ]ooanpo*pkgajeva$%99jasOpnejcPkgajevan$o%*_khha_pwepy o-9Pda(mqe_g&^nksj&bkt(&fqilo&kran&pda&h]vu&`kc ]ooanpo-*pkgajeva$#(&#%99o*pkgajeva$% To search a string: ]hld]^apo9jasOpnejc$#]#**#v#]o_d]nWY% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*bej`wep:#b#y99#c#++Benopkjabkqj` ]ooanp]hld]^apo*bej`=hhwep:#b#y99#c#**#v#++=hhbkqj` ]ooanp]hld]^apo*bej`Ej`atKbwep:#b#y99]hld]^apo*ej`atKb$#c#% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*aranuwep:#=#y ]ooanp]hld]^apo*]juwep8#_#y ]ooanp]hld]^apo*op]npoSepd$#]^_#% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*aj`oSepd$#tuv#% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*_kjp]ejo$#`ab#% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*ej`atKb$#_#%99. ]ooanp]hld]^apo*ej`atKb$#`#%99]hld]^apo*h]opEj`atKb$#`#% ]ooanp]hld]^apo*_kqjp$#]#%99- To replace a string: o9Dahhk ]ooanpo*nalh]_a$#D#(#U#%99#Uahhk# ]ooanpo*nalh]_a$#h#(#l#%99#Dallk# CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES48 To reverse a string: o9#iennkn# ]ooanpo*naranoa$%99#nknnei# To use operators on strings: ]ooanp#dahhk#'#sknh`#)#h#99#dahksknh`#++Oq^pn]_po]pikopkjah ]ooanp$#Pk`]ueoOqj`]u#)#Oqj`]u#%*pnei$%99#Pk`]ueo# ]ooanp#dahhk#&.99#dahhkdahhk# `abailpu9WY ]ooanp#]^_#*a]_dwailpu88epy99#]^_# ]ooanp#]^_#*jatp$%99#]^`# ]ooanp#]^_#*lnarekqo$%99#]^^# To use the subscript operator: ]ooanp#dahhk#W-Y99#a# ]ooanp#dahhk#W.**#dahhk#*oeva$%)-Y99#hhk# ]ooanp#dahhk#W,(.(0Y99#dhk# ]ooanp#dahhk#W)0().Y99#ah# To compare strings: ]ooanp#]#8#^# ]ooanp#]#:#=# ]ooanp#]#*_kil]naPk$#^#%99)- ]ooanp#]#*_kil]naPkEcjkna?]oa$#=#%99, To find the max and min: ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*i]t$#]^_`aB#*pkHeop$%%99#a# ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*i]t$#]^_`aB#*pkHeop$%(Opnejc*?=OA[EJOAJOEPERA[KN@AN%99#B# ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*iej$W#]^_#(#]^`#(#]^a#Y%99#]^_# ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*iej$W#=^_#(#]>`#(#]^A#Y(Opnejc*?=OA[EJOAJOEPERA[KN@AN%99#=^_# Opnejc>qbbans and Opnejc>qeh`ans are mutable and allow the string to be changed in place. Opnejc>qeh`ans are not thread- safe and therefore perform faster than Opnejc>qbbans. The following are a few examples of using Opnejc>qbbans: `abo^9jasOpnejc>qbban$#DahhkSknh`#% ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99#DahhkSknh`# o^*hajcpd91 CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 49 ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99#Dahhk# ]ooanpo^*oq^opnejc$,(.%99#Da# ++Qoa88(]llaj`$Opnejc%knhabpOdebp$Opnejc%pk]llaj`pk]Opnejc>qbban* ++Qoejc'pk]llaj`pk]Opnejc>qbbansehhnapqnj]Opnejc o^9jasOpnejc>qbban$Dahhk% ]ooanpo^'#Sknh`#ejf]r]*h]jc*Opnejc ]ooanpo^88#Sknh`#ejf]r]*h]jc*Opnejc>qbban ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99$DahhkSknh`% ]ooanpo^*]llaj`$(Cnkkrunk_go%*pkOpnejc$%99DahhkSknh`(Cnkkrunk_go ]ooanpo^*habpOdebp$*@kaoj#p;%*pkOpnejc$%99DahhkSknh`(Cnkkrunk_go*@kaoj#p; You can also subscript a Opnejc>qbban or a Opnejc>qeh`an as in the following example: o^9jasOpnejc>qbban$]^_`abc% ]ooanpo^W,Y99#]# ]ooanpo^W.**0Y99#_`a# ]ooanpo^W,Y*_h]oo99Opnejc ]ooanpo^W)2**)0Y99^_` o^W,**.Y9tuv ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99tuv`abc To manipulate Opnejc>qbbans in place: o^9jasOpnejc>qbban$Opnejc>qbbano]naiqp]^ha% o^*`ahapa$o^*ej`atKb$]naiqp]^ha%(o^*oeva$%% ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99Opnejc>qbbano o^*ejoanp$o^*oeva$%(]naiqp]^ha% ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99Opnejc>qbbano]naiqp]^ha o^*nalh]_a$o^*ej`atKb$Opnejc>qbbano%(Opnejc>qbbano*oeva$%(Opnejc>qeh`ano% ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99Opnejc>qeh`ano]naiqp]^ha `abopnejc9jasOpnejc$o^% `abopnejc.9opnejc*nalh]_a=hh$Opnejc>qeh`ano(Opnejc>qbbano% ]ooanpopnejc.99Opnejc>qbbano]naiqp]^ha As you can see, the GDK adds plenty of useful methods to f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc, f]r]* h]jc*Opnejc>qbban, and f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc>qeh`an. The preceding examples cover only a subset of the available methods. I encourage you to check the API of Opnejc at dppl6++ cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru)f`g+f]r]+h]jc+Opnejc*dpih, Opnejc>qbban at dppl6++cnkkru* _k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru)f`g+f]r]+h]jc+Opnejc>qbban*dpih, and Opnejc>qeh`an at dppl6++ cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru)f`g+f]r]+h]jc+Opnejc>qeh`an*dpih. Here are a few points to remember when working with strings in Groovy: CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES50 s !SIN*AVA STRINGSIN'ROOVYAREIMMUTABLEREAD ONLY 5SEOpnejc>qbban or Opnejc>qeh`an to change strings in place. s !STRINGIN'ROOVYISANINSTANCEOFf]r]*h]jc*Opnejc if it’s surrounded by single quotes or if it’s surrounded by double or triple quotes with no unescaped dollar sign ( ). You can use any of the traditional string methods in the JDK. In addition, the GDK will dynamically inject additional methods into strings without changing their class. s 9OUCANUSEA'3TRINGANYWHEREYOUWOULDUSEASTRING AS'ROOVYWILLCOERCEIT into the Opnejc class. s 3TRINGSCANBEENCLOSEDINSINGLE DOUBLE ORTRIPLEQUOTES4RIPLEQUOTESENABLE a string to span multiple lines and preserve all whitespaces. s 'ROOVYADDSAoeva method to find the length of a string, Opnejc>qbban, or Opnejc>qeh`an. The oeva method is consistent with finding the size of collections. s 3OMESTRINGMETHODSTAKEACLOSURETHATSPECIFIESACONDITIONTOBESATISFIEDˆFOR example, bej`, bej`=hh, bej`Ej`atKb, aranu, and ]ju. These methods are dynamically injected by the GDK into f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p. s 9OUCANITERATEOVERASTRINGBYUSING_khha_p, a]_d, or a]_dSepdEj`at. These methods are also part of f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p. s 9OUCANUSEOPERATORSONASTRING4HE' operator performs concatenation. The Ì operator will subtract at most one instance of the right operand. The & operator will multiply a string with the supplied number. The jatp operation will increment the last character in a string, and the lnarekqo operation will decrement it. s 9OUCANUSETHESUBSCRIPTOPERATORONSTRINGS Opnejc>qbbans, and Opnejc>qeh`ans just as you would use it on a list. You can also use a range inside the subscript oper- ator and you can use negative indices. 3-2. How Do I Use Regular Expressions in Groovy? Groovy makes working with regexes much easier and more pleasant than in Java. In Java, working with regexes involves working with the L]ppanj and I]p_dan objects, and get- ting anything done requires a lot of boilerplate coding. Groovy still works with these two classes under the cover but enhances them with additional methods, and introduces a simplified new syntax and three new operators. In Groovy, you can define a string by using the slashy syntax ++. This is very useful when declaring regex patterns because they typically contain a lot of backslashes that need to be escaped in Java. For example: CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 51 ]ooanp$+DahhkSknh`+ejOpnejc% ]ooanp$+DeXpdana+99#DeXXpdana#% The first regex operator that Groovy adds is the pattern operator (z), which causes a string to be compiled as a regex pattern. For example: l9z+X^W])v=)VYX^+ The previous example is equivalent to doing so in Java: eilknpf]r]*qpeh*nacat*& L]ppanjl9L]ppanj*_kileha$ÎXX^W])v=)VY'XX^Ï% Table 3-1 lists some common regular expression patterns and what they mean. For a full list of supported regular expression patterns, check the L]ppanj API docs at dppl6++ f]r]*oqj*_ki+f.oa+-*1*,+`k_o+]le+f]r]+qpeh+nacat+L]ppanj*dpih. Table 3-1. Common Regular Expression Patterns Pattern What It Means ]; Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of ] ]& Matches 0 or more occurrences of ] ]' Matches 1 or more occurrences of ] ]x^ Matches ] or ^ $]^% A capturing group * Matches any single character W]^_Y Matches ], ^, or _ WZ]^_Y Matches any character except ], ^, or _ W])vY Matches ] through v X` Matches a digit [,–5] Xo Matches a whitespace character Xs Matches a word character X^ A word boundary Z Beginning of a line End of a line The second operator is the find operator (9z). It will create a I]p_dan object from the string on the left- hand side and the pattern on the right- hand side. For example: CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES52 eilknpf]r]*qpeh*nacat*I]p_dan `abi]p_dan9Cnkkru9z+C*&+ ]ooanpi]p_danejI]p_dan ]ooanpi]p_dan*i]p_dao$% The previous code is equivalent to the following in Java: eilknpf]r]*qpeh*nacat*& L]ppanjl]ppanj9L]ppanj*_kileha$C*&% I]p_dani]p_dan9l]ppanj*i]p_dan$Cnkkru% i]p_dan*i]p_dao$% You can treat a I]p_dan object as a two- dimensional array. The first dimension repre- sents each match of the string to the regular expression. The second dimension represents the capture groups within each match. The code in Listing 3-2 shows an example. Listing 3-2. Using Regexes Groups with I]p_dan `abpatp9 Hknai-6/,LIeloqi`khkn-.6,,LIoep]iap(_kjoa_papqan]`eleo_ejcahep*   `abDKQN9+-,x--x-.xW,)5Y+ `abIEJQPA9+W,)1YW,)5Y+ `ab=I[LI9+=IxLI+ `abpeia9+$ DKQN%6$ IEJQPA%$ =I[LI%+ `abi]p_dan9patp9zpeia ]ooanpi]p_danW,Y99W-6/,LI(-(/,(LIY++BenopI]p_d ]ooanpi]p_danW,YW,Y99-6/,LI++Benopi]p_dcnkqlejpdabenopi]p_d ]ooanpi]p_danW,YW-Y99-++Oa_kj`i]p_dcnkqlejpdabenopi]p_d$DKQN% ]ooanpi]p_danW,YW.Y99/,++Pden`i]p_dcnkqlejpdabenopi]p_d$IEJQPA% ]ooanpi]p_danW,YW/Y99LI++Bkqnpdi]p_dcnkqlejpdabenopi]p_d$=I[LI% ]ooanpi]p_danW-Y99W-.6,,LI(-.(,,(LIY++Oa_kj`I]p_d ]ooanpi]p_danW-YW,Y99-.6,,LI++Benopi]p_dcnkqlejpdaoa_kj`i]p_d ]ooanpi]p_danW-YW-Y99-.++Oa_kj`i]p_dcnkqlejpdaoa_kj`i]p_d$DKQN% ]ooanpi]p_danW-YW.Y99,,++Pden`i]p_dcnkqlejpdaoa_kj`i]p_d$IEJQPA% ]ooanpi]p_danW-YW/Y99LI++Bkqnpdi]p_dcnkqlejpdaoa_kj`i]p_d$=I[LI% CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 53 The last operator is the match operator (99z). The match operator will return a Boolean indicating whether the full string on the left- hand side matches the pattern on the right- hand side. For example: ]ooanpCnkkru99z+C*&+ ]ooanp-./99z+X`'+ ]ooanp-./99z+X@'+ Regexes can be used in conjunction with nalh]_a& methods on the Opnejc class. For example: ++Nalh]_aopdabenopk__qnnaj_akb]ju`ecepsepdpdaskn`pk ]ooanpSah_kiaPkCnkkru99Sah_kia.Cnkkru*nalh]_aBenop$+X`+(Pk% The GDK adds an additional nalh]_a method to the Opnejc class, which accepts a clo- sure that is applied on each captured group. For example: ++?kjranpo]hhk__qnaj_aokbpdaskn`Cnkkrupkqllan_]oa DahhkCNKKRU(CNKKRUnk_go99DahhkCnkkru(Cnkkrunk_go *nalh]_a=hh$Cnkkru%wK^fa_pWYep):epW,Y*pkQllan?]oa$%y 5SINGTHEcnal method, you can use regexes to filter a collection and return only the items that match the given filter. For example: ++Napqnjkjhupdaepaiopd]pop]npsepd]C ]ooanpWCnkkruY99WCnkkru(Nk_goY*cnal$z+C*&+% 3-3. How Are Numbers in Groovy Different from Those in Java? Numbers in Groovy are either integers or decimals. For decimal numbers, the default class is f]r]*i]pd*>ec@a_ei]h. This avoids a lot of the confusion that happens with division in Java. All integers are instances of either Ejpacan, Hkjc, or >ecEjpacan. Hkjc has a bigger maxi- mum value than Ejpacan, whereas >ecEjpacan has no maximum limit. When no type is specified, Groovy will always pick the smallest class that will accommodate the value. For example: ]ooanp-*_h]oo99Ejpacan ]ooanp-,,,,,,,,,,*_h]oo99Hkjc CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES54 You can also specify the number type by using suffixes. For example: ]ooanp-*_h]oo99Ejpacan ]ooanp-h*_h]oo99Hkjc ]ooanp-c*_h]oo99>ecEjpacan Decimals are written with a decimal part and/or exponent part, each with an optional ' or ). The leading zero is required. The following are examples of decimals: W1*,(1*,a'.(1*,a).()-*,A/()0A)2Y*a]_dw]ooanpep*_h]oo99f]r]*i]pd*>ec@a_ei]hy Decimals include Bhk]ps, @kq^has and >ec@a_ei]hs. Like integers, they can be specified by using suffixes (or constructors). For example: ]ooanp-*,*_h]oo99>ec@a_ei]h ]ooanp-b*_h]oo99Bhk]p ]ooanp-`*_h]oo99@kq^ha I won’t go into the details of numbers in this section because they can get daunting pretty quickly. However, it’s important to understand the few differences Groovy has as compared to Java when performing some arithmetic operations. The differences are described next with examples. Groovy performs floating- point division by default, even if both operands are inte- gers. For example: ]ooanp-+.99,*1 j9-,+1 ]ooanpj*_h]oo99>ec@a_ei]h In Java, -+. will return zero because Java performs integer division when both operands are integers. To perform integer division in Groovy, you have to cast the result to an ejp or use the ejp`er method. For example: j9$ejp%$-+.% ]ooanpj99, ]ooanpj*_h]oo99Ejpacan j9-*ejp`er$.% ]ooanpj99, ]ooanpj*_h]oo99Ejpacan If either operand is a Bhk]p or a @kq^ha, the result is always a @kq^ha. For example: j9-b&0` ]ooanpj*_h]oo99@kq^ha j9-b+.b CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 55 ]ooanpj99,*1 ]ooanpj*_h]oo99@kq^ha If either operand is >ec@a_ei]h, the result is >ec@a_ei]h. For example: j9-&0*, ]ooanpj*_h]oo99>ec@a_ei]h If either operand is >ecEjpacan, the result is >ecEjpacan. For example: j9-C&/ ]ooanpj*_h]oo99>ecEjpacan If either operand is Hkjc, the result is Hkjc. For example: j9-&/H ]ooanpj*_h]oo99Hkjc Otherwise, the result is an Ejpacan. For example: j9-&/ ]ooanpj*_h]oo99Ejpacan Notice that you can call methods directly on numbers. This might look strange at first to Java developers, but remember that everything in Groovy is an object, so these numbers are real objects and not primitives. The GDK also enhances numbers with a few useful methods, as shown in the following examples. To find the absolute value of a number: ]ooanp/*]^o$%99/ ]ooanp$)/%*]^o$%99/ To perform bitwise AND: ]ooanp3*]j`$/%99/++---=J@,--9,-- ]ooanp$3"/%99/ To perform bitwise OR: ]ooanp3*kn$/%993++---KN,--9--- ]ooanp$3x/%993 To perform bitwise XOR (the result in each position is 1 if the two bits are different, 0 if they are the same): CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES56 ]ooanp3*tkn$/%990++---TKN,--9-,, ]ooanp$3Z/%990 To perform bitwise NOT: ]ooanpz399)4 To perform left and right shifts: ]ooanp-88.990++habpodebp.lkoepekjo ]ooanp0::.99-++necdpodebp.lkoepekjo To negate a list of numbers: ]ooanp)W-(.(/Y99W)-().()/Y 5SE`ksjPk and qlPk to iterate a specific number of times, executing a closure with each iteration. For example: `abpkp]h9, 1*`ksjpk$,%w pkp]h'9ep y ]ooanppkp]h99-1 ,*qlpk$1%w pkp]h)9ep y ]ooanppkp]h99, `abop]np9#]# `abnaoqhp9## -,*peiaow naoqhp'9op]np'' y ]ooanpnaoqhp99jasOpnejc$#]#**#f#]o_d]nWY% To iterate from x to y by increments of z, performing a closure with each iteration: `abt9#&# .*opal$-,(.%w t'9#&# y ]ooanpt99#&&&&&# CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 57 Because operators are actually method calls in Groovy, each operator maps to a method that can be used in its place. For example, ]'^ can be written as ]*lhqo$^%. This means that if an operand is jqhh, Groovy will throw a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj (except for comparison operators, which handle nulls gracefully). The following code will throw a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj: ]ooanp/'jqhh99/ The following code won’t: ]ooanp/:jqhh One operator I haven’t talked about yet is the safe navigation operator (;*). By pre- ceding a dot with a question mark, you can safely navigate to methods or properties of an object even if that object is null. The safe navigation operator will return jqhh instead of throwing a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj. Here is an example: ]9jqhh ]ooanp];*lhqo$/%99jqhh Notice that the safe navigation operator can’t precede another operator, so the fol- lowing code is invalid: ]ooanp];'/99jqhh 3-4. How Do I Use Lists in Groovy? A list is an ordered collection of objects. Lists in Groovy are instances of f]r]*qpeh* =nn]uHeop by default. You can still create instances of f]r]*qpeh*Hejga`Heop, as in the following example: ]9W-(.(/Y ]ooanp]*_h]oo99=nn]uHeop ^9jasHejga`Heop$W-(.(/Y% ]ooanp^*_h]oo99Hejga`Heop Objects in a list don’t need to be of the same type, and duplicates are allowed. Lists can also be nested. For example: ]9W#Dahhk#(-(.(W.(/(0YY ]ooanp]W/Y99W.(/(0Y CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES58 Lists can be accessed by using the subscript operator, a call to cap or cap=p. A negative index can be used to access elements starting at the end. For example: ]9W-(.(/(0Y ]ooanp]W,Y99]*cap$,%""]W,Y99]*cap=p$,% ]ooanp]W)0Y99- ]ooanp]W)-Y990 Because everything in Groovy is an object, you don’t need to wrap numbers with their wrapper classes before adding them to lists. You can add elements to a list by using the '9 operator, using the 88 operator, or making a call to ]``ˆAPOWERFULEXAMPLEOF operator overloading. For example: ]9W-(.Y ]'9/ ]880 ]*]``$1% ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1Y Lists can be used in a Boolean condition. An empty list always evaluates to b]hoa. For example: ]ooanp$WY% ]ooanp$W-Y% Lists can be added together in many ways: via the '9 operator, a call to ]``, or a call to ]``=hh. For example: `ab]9W-(.Y'W/Y ]'9W0(1(2Y ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1(2Y ]*]``$W3(4Y%7 ]ooanp]*bh]ppaj$%99W-(.(/(0(1(2(3(4Y ]*]``=hh$W5(-,(--Y% ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0(1(2(W3(4Y(5(-,(--Y ]``=hh is useful when adding a list to another list because it will flatten all the ele- ments in the added list. Flattening a list will create a new list in which all the nested lists are merged together. You can directly flatten a list by calling bh]ppaj on it. For example: ]9W-(.(/Y ^9W-(W.(/YY ]ooanp]9^ ]ooanp]99^*bh]ppaj$% CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 59 You can also add elements to a list by using the ' operator or a call to lhqo, but you have to remember to assign the result of the operation back to the list. For example: ]9W-(.(/Y ]9]'0 ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0Y ]*lhqo$1% ]ooanp]99W-(.(/(0Y You can just as easily remove elements from a list by using the decrement operator ( )9), the minus operator ( )), or a call to iejqo. For example: ]9W-(.(/Y ])9W/Y ]ooanp]99W-(.Y ]9]*iejqo$.% ]ooanp]99W-Y You can also call naikra on a list, which takes either an index or the element itself. For example: ]9W-(.(/(0Y ]ooanp]*naikra$,%99-++Napqnjopdanaikra`ahaiajp ]9W#]#(#^#(#_#Y ]ooanp]*naikra$#]#%99pnqa++Napqnjopnqaebpdaahaiajpeonaikra` ]ooanp]*naikra$#`#%99b]hoa++Napqnjob]hoaebpdaahaiajpeojkpbkqj` You can easily iterate over all the elements of a list. For example: pkp]h9, ]9W-(.(/Y ^9WY ]*a]_dwpkp]h'9epy ]ooanppkp]h992 ]*a]_dSepdEj`atwep(ej`at):^Wej`atY9]Wej`atYy ]ooanp]99^ You can iterate over a list and perform a closure on each item creating a new list. For example: ]9W-(.(/Y ^9]*_khha_pwep&-,y ]ooanp^99W-,(.,(/,Y CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES60 As with strings, you can use bej`, bej`=hh, aranu, and ]ju to find elements in a list that satisfy a given condition. For example: ]9$#]#**#v#%*pkHeop$% ]ooanp]*bej`wep:#t#y99#u# ]ooanp]*bej`=hhwep:#t#y99W#u#(#v#Y ]ooanp]*aranuwep:#=#y ]ooanp]*]juwep:#_#y You can easily sum all the elements in a list. If the list contains strings or characters, they will be concatenated together instead. For example: ]ooanpW-(.(/Y*oqi$%992 ]ooanpW-(.(/Y*oqi$-,%99-2 ]ooanpW#]#(-(.(/Y*oqi$%99#]-./# ]ooanpW#Dahhk#(#Sknh`#Y*oqi$%99DahhkSknh` To reverse a list: ]9W-(.(/(0Y ]ooanp]*naranoa$%99W0(/(.(-Y An often useful method is fkej, which will join all the elements of the list by using the specified character or string. For example: ]ooanpW-(.(/Y*fkej$#)#%99-).)/ ]ooanpW-(.(/Y*fkej$#]j`#%99-]j`.]j`/ Groovy also makes it trivial to find the maximum and minimum elements in a list. For example: ]9W-(.(/(-,(0Y ]ooanp]*i]t$%99-, ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*i]t$]%99-,++=jkpdans]upkbej`i]t ]ooanp]*iej$%99- ]ooanp?khha_pekjo*iej$]%99-++=jkpdans]upkbej`iej ]9W#]#(#^#(#_#(#Dahhk#Y ]ooanp]*iej$%99#Dahhk#++?kil]naqoejc=O?EEnalnaoajp]pekj ]ooanp]*i]t$%99#_# You can supply your own logic for finding the maximum and minimum elements in a list. For example: `ab]9W#F]jq]nu#(#Ba^qn]nu#(#I]n_d#(#=lneh#Y ]ooanp]*iejw CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 61 osep_d$ep%w _]oa#F]jq]nu#6napqnj- ^na]g _]oa#Ba^qn]nu#6napqnj. ^na]g _]oa#I]n_d#6napqnj/ ^na]g _]oa#=lneh#6napqnj0 ^na]g `ab]qhp6napqnj- y y99#F]jq]nu# The preceding example also illustrates the power of the osep_d statement in Groovy. 5NLIKEIN*AVA osep_d can operate on any type of value. You will learn more about the osep_d statement in Recipe 3- 9. Finally, Groovy makes it easy to sort a list, and as with finding the max and min ele- ment in a list, you can supply your own sorting logic. For example: ]9W5(.(1(2(/Y ]ooanp]*oknp$%99W.(/(1(2(5Y ikjpdo9WI]n_d(=lneh(F]jq]nu(Ba^qn]nuY ]ooanpikjpdo*oknpw osep_d$ep%w _]oa#F]jq]nu#6napqnj- ^na]g _]oa#Ba^qn]nu#6napqnj. ^na]g _]oa#I]n_d#6napqnj/ ^na]g _]oa#=lneh#6napqnj0 ^na]g `ab]qhp6napqnj- y y99WF]jq]nu(Ba^qn]nu(I]n_d(=lnehY Believe it or not, I haven’t yet covered even half of what you can do with lists in Groovy. Can you imagine yourself going back to using lists in Java? I know I can’t! The next recipe shows you how to put all those list techniques into action and presents a solid example of using lists to implement a merge sort. CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES62 3-5. How Do I Implement a Merge Sort in Groovy? A merge sort is a divide-and- conquer sorting algorithm with a time complexity of K$jhkcj%.1 The basic idea is to divide the list to be sorted into two smaller sequences, sort them recursively, and merge them to produce the sorted answer. The recursion bottoms out when the sequence reaches a length of 1, because it’s already sorted. The code in Listing 3-3 shows how to implement a merge sort algorithm in Groovy. Listing 3-3. Merge Sort `abiancaOknp$heop%w iancaOknp$heop(,(heop*oeva$%)-% y `abiancaOknp$heop(op]np(aj`%w eb$op]np8aj`%w `abie``ha9$ejp%$$op]np'aj`%+.% iancaOknp$heop(op]np(ie``ha% iancaOknp$heop(ie``ha'-(aj`% `kIanca$heop(op]np(ie``ha(aj`% y napqnjheop y `ab`kIanca$heop(op]np(ie``ha(aj`%w `abh9heopWop]np**ie``haY `abn9heopWie``ha'-**aj`Y h'9-,,,,,,, n'9-,,,,,,, `abe9, `abf9, bkn$gejop]np**aj`%w eb$hWeY89nWfY%w heopWgY9hWeY e'9- y 1. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+Ianca[oknp CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 63 ahoaw heopWgY9nWfY f'9- y y y ]ooanpiancaOknp$W.(3(0(1(-,(/(1(5(0(-Y%99W-(.(/(0(0(1(1(3(5(-,Y Thanks to Groovy’s excellent support for lists, the code for a merge sort looks almost like pseudocode and is self- explanatory to anyone reading it. The `kIanca method will declare two temporary lists, one that contains the left half of the passed- in list and one that contains the right half. A special sentinel value is inserted at the end of the two temporary lists to indicate the end of the list. I then start comparing elements from both temporary lists, placing them in the right order back into the original list. iancaOknp is called recursively on the supplied list, dividing the list in each step by half until the list reaches a length of 1. 3-6. How Do I Use Maps in Groovy? A map is a structure that associates keys with values. The syntax to define maps in Groovy looks like the following: Wgau-6r]hqa(gau.6r]hqa(gau/6r]hqaY* Keys and values can be of any type. Maps in Groovy are instances of f]r]*qpeh* Hejga`D]odI]l by default. The following is an example of declaring maps in Groovy. Note that you can’t use *_h]oo to get the class name of a map because the dot field syntax is reserved for retriev- INGKEYVALUES5SETHEcap?h]oo method instead: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY ]ooanpi]l*cap?h]oo$%99Hejga`D]odI]l ]ooanpi]l*_h]oo99jqhh Keys in a map are always unique. For example: i]l9W-6#-#(.6#.#(-6#/#Y ]ooanpi]l99W.6#.#(-6#/#Y CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES64 You can retrieve values from a map in various ways. For example: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY ]ooanpi]l*j]ia99#>]od]n# ]ooanpi]lW#j]ia#Y99#>]od]n# ]ooanpi]l*cap$#j]ia#%99#>]od]n# ]ooanpi]l*cap=p$#j]ia#%99#>]od]n# If a key doesn’t exist, jqhh is returned. You can, however, return a default value. For example: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY ]ooanpi]l*pepha99jqhh ]ooanpi]l*cap$#pepha#(#Okbps]naAjcejaan#%99#Okbps]naAjcejaan# You can easily add key/value pairs to a map. For example: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY i]lWpephaY9#Okbps]naAjcejaan# i]l*lqp$_epu(Pq_okj% i]l*lqp=p$op]pa(=V% ]ooanpi]l99Wj]ia6>]od]n(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqa( pepha6Okbps]naAjcejaan(_epu6Pq_okj(op]pa6=VY Removing key/value pairs is as easy. For example: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY i]l*naikra$#j]ia#% ]ooanpi]l99W]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY Changing key values in a map is trivial. For example: `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY i]l*]_pera9b]hoa i]l*e`9i]l*e`)-,,, ]ooanpi]l99Wj]ia6>]od]n(]ca6.2(e`6-,,,(]_pera6b]hoaY You can use the value of a string in a map by surrounding it with parentheses. For example: `abh]jcq]ca9Cnkkru `ab`ao_nelpekj9Nk_go `abi]l9W$h]jcq]ca%6$`ao_nelpekj%Y ]ooanpi]l99WCnkkru6Nk_goY CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 65 As with lists and strings, you can use a]_d and a]_dSepdEj`at to access keys and values in a map. For example: Opnejc>qbbano^9jasOpnejc>qbban$% `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqaY i]l*a]_dwo^'9ep*gau'6'ep*r]hqa'(y ]ooanpo^*pkOpnejc$%99j]ia6>]od]n(]ca6.2(e`6.,,,(]_pera6pnqa( You can easily check for the existence of a key or value. For example: `abi]l9W#]#6-(#^#6.(#_#6/Y ]ooanpi]l*_kjp]ejoGau$#]#% ]ooanpi]l*_kjp]ejoR]hqa$-% 5SEajpnuOap to return a collection view of the map. For example: `abi]l9W#]#6-(#^#6.(#_#6/Y i]l*ajpnuOap$%*_khha_pw ]ooanpep*gauejW#]#(#^#(#_#Y ep*r]hqa'9. y ]ooanpi]l99W]6/(^60(_61Y 5SEgauOap to return a set of all the keys, and r]hqao to return a collection view of all the values. For example: `abi]l9W#]#6-(#^#6.(#_#6/Y ]ooanpi]l*gauOap$%*pkHeop$%99W#]#(#^#(#_#Y ]ooanpi]l*r]hqao$%*pkHeop$%99W-(.(/Y As with lists and strings, you can easily find keys/values in a map that satisfy a condi- tion by using a call to bej`, bej`=hh, aranu, or a]_d. For example: `abi]l9W#]#6-(#^#6.(#_#6/Y ]ooanpi]l*bej`=hhwep*gau99#]#y99W]6-Y A common task when dealing with maps is to get all the keys associated with a par- ticular value. The following example will return all the keys associated with the value 26: `abgauo9WY `abi]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(pepha6#Okbps]naAjcejaan#(`al]npiajp6.2Y i]l*bej`=hhwep*r]hqa99#.2#y*a]_dwgauo'9ep;*gauy ]ooanpgauo99W`al]npiajp(]caY CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES66 3-7. What Are Ranges and How Do I Use Them in Groovy? A range is a sequence with a start and an end. The sequence can be a list of integers, char- acters, or strings with a sequential value. A range can be declared as follows: ]ooanp-**-,99W-(.(/(0(1(2(3(4(5(-,Y ]ooanp#]#**#_#99W#]#(#^#(#_#Y To exclude the end value from the sequence, use the 8 character. For example: ]ooanp-**8-,99W-(.(/(0(1(2(3(4(5Y You can define a range inside a list, a technique known as slicing. For example: ]ooanpW-**/Y99WW-(.(/YY ]ooanpW&-**/Y99W-(.(/Y++Pda&klan]pkneoqoa`pkbh]ppajpdaheop You can even use ranges as list subscripts. For example: ]9W-(.(/(0(1Y ]ooanp]W,**.Y99W-(.(/Y ^9#]#**#v# ]ooanp^W,**/Y99W#]#(#^#(#_#(#`#Y You can use ranges to construct lists and to subscript them. For example: `abheop9$#]#**#v#%*pkHeop$% heopWheop*ej`atKb$#]#%**heop*ej`atKb$#u#%Y9#]# ]ooanpheop99W#]#(#v#Y Ranges also are useful with a]_d and a]_dSepdEj`at methods. For example: `abheop9WY $#]#**#v#%*a]_dw heop'9ep y ]ooanpheop99$#]#**#v#%*pkHeop$% CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 67 3-8. What Is the Groovy Truth? In Groovy, any expression can be used as a Boolean test. Groovy decides whether the expression will evaluate to pnqa or b]hoa based on certain rules. The rules are summarized in Table 3-2. Table 3-2. Rules Used to Evaluate a Boolean Test Type Rule >kkha]j Value of Boolean expression ?khha_pekj True if nonempty, false otherwise Opnejc and COpnejc True if nonempty, false otherwise Jqi^an and ?d]n]_pan True if nonzero, false otherwise I]p_dan True if a match was found, false otherwise Other objects True if the object reference is not null, false otherwise Listing 3-4 shows the rules in action. Listing 3-4. The Groovy Truth ]ooanppnqa++>kkha]j ]ooanpb]hoa ]ooanp#DahhkSknh`#99+DahhkSknh`+++=i]p_daniqopbej`]i]p_d ]ooanp$#dahhkSknh`#99+DahhkSknh`+% ]ooanpDahhk++=opnejciqop^ajkjailpu ]ooanp ]ooanp-++=jqi^aniqop^ajkjvank ]ooanp, ]ooanpjasK^fa_p$%++=jk^fa_piqop^ajkj)jqhh ]ooanpjqhh CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES68 3-9. How Is the switch Statement in Groovy Different from Java? Groovy has three conditional operators: the eb statement, the ternary operator (;6), and the osep_d statement. The first two operators are identical to the way they are in Java. The osep_d statement is more powerful than it is in Java in two ways. First, unlike Java, which can switch only on ejp (and primitive types that can be coerced to ejp such as ^upa, _d]n, and odknp), osep_d in Groovy accepts any kind of object. Second, the _]oa labels can accept any object that implements the eo?]oa method. The GDK injects an implementation of eo?]oa into numerous classes to enable them to be used as classifiers inside a osep_d statement. Table 3-3 shows a few classes from the GDK that implement the eo?]oa method. Table 3-3. Implementation of eo?]oa in the GDK Class Implementation of eo?]oa ?h]oo Is the osep_d operand an instance of the _]oa class? ?khha_pekj Is the osep_d operand contained in the _]oa collection? N]jca Is the osep_d operand contained in the _]oa range? L]ppanj Does the osep_d operand match the _]oa pattern? Opnejc Is the osep_d operand equal to the _]oa string? The osep_d operand might match more than one _]oa value. You can use a ^na]g state- ment to exit the osep_d block and not fall through the rest of the _]oa statements. Listing 3-5 shows an example of using the osep_d statement in Groovy. Listing 3-5. osep_d Statement in Groovy t9#Cnkkru# `abnaoqhp9## osep_d$t%w _]oaW#-#(#.#(#/#Y6naoqhp9#Heop# _]oaEjpacan6naoqhp9#Ejpacan# _]oa#Cnkkru#6naoqhp9#Opnejc#++B]hhpdnkqcd _]oa#C#**#U#6naoqhp9#N]jca# _]oaz+C*&+6naoqhp9#L]ppanj#7^na]g `ab]qhp6naoqhp9#@ab]qhp# y ]ooanpnaoqhp99#L]ppanj# CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES 69 3-10. How Do I Perform Looping in Groovy? You can loop in Groovy by using sdeha and bkn. The sdeha loop in Groovy is identical to its counterpart in Java, except that you can use any Groovy conditional as a Boolean expres- sion. Groovy added support to the classical bkn loop in Java, so the following expression in Groovy is valid: bkn$ejpe9,7e8-,7e''% lnejphj#De# Groovy also introduces a simpler bkn syntax that works on any iterable object such as a list, a range, an array, a string, or a map. The syntax looks like the following: bkn$r]nejepan]^ha%w^k`uy Listing 3-6 shows how to iterate over different iterable objects. Listing 3-6. Looping in Groovy with bkn bkn$eej,**-,%++Epan]pakran]n]jca lnejphje bkn$eejW-(.(/(0Y%++Epan]pakran]heop lnejphje t9jasEjpacanW/Y tW,Y9,7tW-Y9-7tW.Y9. bkn$eejt%++Epan]pakran]j]nn]u lnejphje  i]l9Wj]ia6#>]od]n#(]ca6.2(_epu6#Pq_okj#(op]pa6#=V#Y bkn$ajpnueji]l%++Epan]pakran]i]l lnejphjajpnu*gau'##'ajpnu*r]hqa bkn$eej#Dahhk#%++Epan]pakran]opnejc lnejphje It should be noted that many times in Groovy you will not need to use any looping structure to iterate over a collection. Thanks to the use of closures, many Groovy classes have methods that accept a closure as an argument that will be called on each item in CHAPTER 3 N GROOVY DATA TYPES AND CONTROL STRUCTURES70 the collection. The programmer doesn’t need to write the code to iterate over the col- lection because the method will take care of that. Examples of such methods are a]_d, a]_dSepdEj`at, and _khha_p. For example, to print all the items in a list, you can write the following: W-(.(/(0Y*a]_dwlnejphjepy Summary This chapter was dedicated to showing you the real power of data types and control struc- tures in Groovy. After reading it, you may find it hard to go back to using regular data types in Java. Groovy has excellent support for simple and collective data types and makes work- ing with them convenient, flexible, and powerful. Data types are one of Groovy’s strongest points and one of the reasons why developers can become very productive with it. Simple data types include strings (both regular strings and GStrings), numbers, and regular expressions. Groovy is very flexible with strings and offers many ways of declaring them to suit your different needs. Numbers behave as you expect them to, and the results are always as you would predict. Regular expressions are convenient to work with, and Groovy dedicates three special operators just for them. Groovy’s support for collective data types is superb, and collections are first- class citizens. Groovy offers native literal declaration, special operators, and enhanced GDK classes for working with collections. Groovy supports all of Java’s conditional and looping structures. In addition, Groovy enhances the osep_d statement from Java and makes it much more usable. Many times in Groovy you won’t even need to use any looping constructs to iterate over an iterable object, thanks to the use of closures. You may have noticed that there is almost always more than one way of doing the same thing in Groovy. This is an indication of Groovy’s flexibility and is a real strength of the language. Many times choosing one style over the other is merely a matter of choice (for example, some programmers will prefer to use operators over method calls). So far, most of my code has been written in scripts. Although this is a great way to learn the language, it’s not very reusable and can easily get out of hand when the num- ber of scripts grows large. Because Java developers are used to organizing their code in classes and packages, the next chapter is dedicated to showing you how to program Groovy in a more object- oriented way. 71 CHAPTER 4 Object-Oriented Groovy Groovy is a fully fledged object- oriented (OO) language supporting all of the OO pro- gramming concepts that are familiar to Java developers: classes, objects, interfaces, inheritance, polymorphism, and others. Groovy is a pure OO language in which every- thing is an object. Don’t let the fact that you can write scripts in Groovy fool you; the Groovy compiler will convert such scripts into Java classes of type cnkkru*h]jc*O_nelp. I don’t like to label Groovy as a scripting language, because the term scripting is often associated with unwieldy, unstructured, and hard-to- read code that doesn’t scale. This is absolutely not the case in Groovy. You can fully organize your code into classes and pack- ages and at the same time still have scripts living alongside your classes. The real power of Groovy lies in its flexibility: you can mix scripts with classes in any way you wish. 4-1. What Are the Differences Between Classes and Scripts? Classes should be very familiar to Java developers; after all, you can’t have any Java code outside of a class. In Java, you can have only one public class in a single file, and the name of that class must match the name of its containing file. Groovy is much more flexible than Java in how you can organize your code. In addi- tion to classes, Groovy allows you to have scripts. Any code that is not inside a class is called a script. You can mix classes with scripts in any way you wish, and the same file can include one or more classes in addition to scripting code. Unlike Java, Groovy also allows you to have more than one public class in the same file, and none of them need to match the name of the containing file. The following sections show all the possible ways you can organize your code in Groovy. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY72 One Public Class per File A Groovy file can contain exactly one public class. This is no different from Java, except that when compiling your file with cnkkru_, the name of the file doesn’t need to match the name of the class, as shown in Listing 4-1. Listing 4-1. A Groovy File with One Public Class ++DahhkSknh`*cnkkru6 _h]ooDahhkPdanaw `abo]uDahhk$%w lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# y y If you compile this file by using cnkkru_, the compiler will generate one file called DahhkPdana*_h]oo. Multiple Classes per File A Groovy file can contain more than one class with any visibility (lq^he_, lnkpa_pa`, l]_g]ca, or lner]pa). Again, if compiling with cnkkru_, none of the class names need to match the filename, as shown in Listing 4-2. Listing 4-2. A Groovy File with Two Public Classes ++DahhkPdana*cnkkru6 _h]ooDahhkSknh`w `abo]uDahhk$%w A_dkana_dkan9jasA_dkan$% a_dkan*a_dk$% y y _h]ooA_dkanw `aba_dk$%w lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# y y If you compile this file by using cnkkru_, you will end up with two files: DahhkSknh`* _h]oo and A_dkan*_h]oo. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 73 Scripting Code Only A Groovy file can contain only scripting code (no classes). You can compile it via cnkkru_, just like a normal Java class. You can also run the file by using the cnkkru command. Listing 4-3 shows an example. Listing 4-3. A Groovy Script ++O_nelp*cnkkru6 lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# If you compile this script by using cnkkru_, the compiler will generate one file called O_nelp*_h]oo. Classes and Scripting Code in the Same File A Groovy file can contain one or more classes of any visibility plus scripting code, as shown in Listing 4-4. Listing 4-4. A Groovy File with Two Classes and Scripting Code ++DahhkSknh`*cnkkru6 _h]ooDahhkPdanaw Opnejco]uDahhk$%w A_dkana_dkan9jasA_dkan$% a_dkan*a_dk$% y y _h]ooA_dkanw Opnejca_dk$%w napqnj#DahhkSknh`# y y `abdahhkPdana9jasDahhkPdana$% ]ooanpdahhkPdana*o]uDahhk$%99#DahhkSknh`# Compiling this file via cnkkru_ will generate a total of three classes: DahhkPdana*_h]oo, A_dkan*_h]oo, and DahhkSknh`*_h]oo. As you may have noticed, public classes don’t need to be declared lq^he_ because that is the default visibility for classes in Groovy. Groovy also supports all the modifier keywords that exist in Java: lner]pa, lq^he_, lnkpa_pa`, op]pe_, pn]joeajp, bej]h, ]^opn]_p, j]pera, pdna]`o]ba, ouj_dnkjeva`, rkh]peha, and opne_pbl. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY74 Notice that if you name the preceding file DahhkPdana*cnkkru, the compiler will throw an error about duplicate class definitions. This is because the file contains scripting code. Therefore, by default the compiler will generate a class for the scripting code based on the filename (DahhkPdana), and because you already have defined a class with that name, the compiler will throw an exception. Choosing a Strategy The strategy you use to organize your code depends largely on your preferences and the requirements of the project. Most Java developers will prefer the first strategy to begin with, declaring only one public class in a Groovy file. I prefer to have one public class in a file with a few helper classes in the same file that are used only by that class. I try to avoid mixing scripting code with classes unless there is an absolute need for it. Scripts are a great way to learn the language and can be useful in certain applications (for example, writing stand- alone scripts or embedding Groovy as a scripting language in certain applications to achieve plug- in functionality). But I gener- ally advise against including too many scripts in your application, because they are not as reusable as classes and the logical flow of the application can be hard to follow when the number of scripts grows large. 4-2. How Do I Use Packages? It is always recommended to organize your code inside packages. Groovy follows Java’s approach when it comes to packages: they are declared by using the keyword l]_g]ca as the first line of your code, as shown in Listing 4-5. Listing 4-5. Packages in Groovy l]_g]caiu_h]ooao _h]ooDahhkPdanaw Opnejco]uDahhk$%w lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# y y When compiling this file with cnkkru_, the compiler will generate DahhkPdana*_h]oo inside the iu_h]ooao folder. You can even organize scripts inside packages: ++O_nelp*cnkkru l]_g]caiuo_nelpo lnejphj#DahhkSknh`# CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 75 Compiling with cnkkru_ will generate O_nelp*_h]oo inside the iuo_nelpo folder. When you compile a file with cnkkru_, the Groovy compiler will look for both &*_h]oo and &*cnkkru files by using Java’s _h]ool]pd variable as a starting point. If the class has already been compiled, the compiler will recompile it only if the *cnkkru file is newer than the compiled *_h]oo file. 4-3. What Is Type Aliasing and How Do I Use It? In Java, if you want to use two classes with the same name in your class, you have to fully qualify at least one of them with its package name to avoid naming conflicts. An example of this is f]r]*qpeh*@]pa and f]r]*omh*@]pa. In Groovy, you can avoid doing so by using the ]o keyword, which enables you to alias any class when you first import it with a differ- ent name, as shown in Listing 4-6. Listing 4-6. Type Aliasing in Groovy eilknpf]r]*omh*@]pa]oOMH@]pa `ab`]pa9jas@]pa$% `abomh@]pa9jasOMH@]pa$`]pa*peia% ]ooanp`]pa99omh@]pa Another cool use of aliasing is to change the behavior of classes that exist in other libraries. You can write a class that will extend another class from another library and over- ride one of its methods. When importing the superclass, however, your subclass will alias the imported superclass with a different name, and the subclass will have the same name as the superclass, thus pretending to be the superclass itself but with a different behavior. If you have any code that was using the superclass before, it will be using the new subclass now without requiring any changes to your code. This is best explained with an example. Suppose you have a class called DahhkSknh` in a third- party library and you don’t have access to its source code. The class outputs Hello World in English, as shown in Listing 4-7. Listing 4-7. Original DahhkSknh` Class in an External Library l]_g]cahe^n]nu lq^he__h]ooDahhkSknh`w lq^he_Opnejco]uDahhk$%w napqnj#DahhkSknh`# y y Sample code that uses the class in Listing 4-7 will look as follows: CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY76 DahhkSknh`dahhkSknh`9jasDahhkSknh`$% ]ooanpdahhkSknh`*o]uDahhk$%99#DahhkSknh`# Now suppose you want to change the behavior of this class to output Hello World in Spanish (Hola Mundo) without changing the original class or the code that uses it. Listing 4-8 shows how to do it by using the ]o keyword. Listing 4-8. New DahhkSknh` in Groovy Using Aliasing eilknphe^n]nu*DahhkSknh`]oDahhkSknh`Ajcheod _h]ooDahhkSknh`atpaj`oDahhkSknh`Ajcheodw lq^he_Opnejco]uDahhk$%w napqnj#Dkh]Iqj`k# y y DahhkSknh`dahhkSknh`9jasDahhkSknh`$% ]ooanpdahhkSknh`*o]uDahhk$%99#Dkh]Iqj`k# 4-4. How Do I Use Inheritance in Groovy? Inheritance in Groovy works the same way as in Java and uses the atpaj`o keyword to denote that a class inherits from another class. Just like Java, Groovy doesn’t support multiple inheritance; you can extend from one class only. Groovy classes can extend Java classes and vice versa. The next two examples show how to do so. Listing 4-9 shows a Groovy class extending f]r]*qpeh*=nn]uHeop. Listing 4-9. A Groovy Class Extending f]r]*qpeh*=nn]uHeop ++CnkkruHeop?h]oo*cnkkru l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao _h]ooCnkkruHeopatpaj`o=nn]uHeopw lq^he_CnkkruHeop$%w y OpnejcjasCnkkruIapdk`$%w napqnj#JasCnkkruIapdk`# y y CnkkruHeopheop9jasCnkkruHeop$% ]ooanpheop*jasCnkkruIapdk`$%99#JasCnkkruIapdk`# Listing 4-10 shows a Java class extending CnkkruHeop. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 77 Listing 4-10. A Java Class Extending the CnkkruHeop Class l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao7 lq^he__h]ooF]r]Heopatpaj`oCnkkruHeopw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco%w F]r]Heopf]r]Heop9jasF]r]Heop$%7 ]ooanpf]r]Heop*jasF]r]Iapdk`$%*amq]ho $JasCnkkruIapdk`_]hha`bnkijasF]r]Iapdk`%7 y lq^he_OpnejcjasF]r]Iapdk`$%w napqnjoqlan*jasCnkkruIapdk`$%'?]hha`bnkijasF]r]Iapdk`7 y y 4-5. How Do I Use Interfaces in Groovy? Interfaces are generally recommended by object- oriented advocates, because they define relationships between classes and enable you to use objects without knowing their type of classes. Groovy fully supports interfaces with syntax identical to Java. A Java interface can be implemented with Groovy classes, and a Groovy interface can be implemented with Java classes. Furthermore, you can have Groovy and Java implementations of the same interface, and your client code will be oblivious to which language the implementa- tion is in, as shown in Listing 4-11. Listing 4-11. A Simple Java Interface ++DahhkSknh`*f]r] lq^he_ejpanb]_aDahhkSknh`w Opnejco]uDahhk$%7 y Listing 4-12 shows an implementation in Java. Listing 4-12. Java Implementation ++DahhkSknh`Ajcheod*f]r] l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao7 lq^he__h]ooDahhkSknh`AjcheodeilhaiajpoDahhkSknh`w lq^he_Opnejco]uDahhk$%w napqnjDahhkSknh`7 y y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY78 Listing 4-13 shows an implementation in Groovy. Listing 4-13. Groovy Implementation ++DahhkSknh`Ol]jeod*cnkkru l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao _h]ooDahhkSknh`Ol]jeodeilhaiajpoDahhkSknh`w Opnejco]uDahhk$%w #Dkh]Iqj`k# y y Listing 4-14 shows a Java client that uses both implementations. Listing 4-14. Java Client That Uses Both Implementations ++DahhkSknh`Paop*g]r] l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao7 lq^he__h]ooDahhkSknh`Paopw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco%w DahhkSknh`dahhkSknh`Ajcheod9jasDahhkSknh`Ajcheod$%7 DahhkSknh`dahhkSknh`Ol]jeod9jasDahhkSknh`Ol]jeod$%7 ]ooanpdahhkSknh`Ajcheod*o]uDahhk$%*amq]ho$DahhkSknh`%7 ]ooanpdahhkSknh`Ol]jeod*o]uDahhk$%*amq]ho$Dkh]Iqj`k%7 y y If you are writing a Groovy implementation of an interface, you can write your imple- mentation in a groovier way by using a closure or even a map. Listing 4-15 shows how to implement an interface with a single method by using a closure. Listing 4-15. Implementing a Single- Method Interface with a Closure ejpanb]_aO]uOkiapdejc wOpnejcokiapdejc$%7y _h]ooKqplqppanw O]uOkiapdejco]uOkiapdejc lq^he_Kqplqppan$O]uOkiapdejco]uOkiapdejc%w pdeo*o]uOkiapdejc9o]uOkiapdejc y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 79 lq^he_Opnejckqplqp$%w napqnjo]uOkiapdejc*okiapdejc$% y y jasKqplqppan$wlnejphjDahhkSknh`y]oO]uOkiapdejc%*kqplqp$% The ]o keyword will try to coerce the object to the specified class or interface. A Cnkkru?]opAt_alpekj will be thrown if the coercion fails. An interface with more than one method is easier to implement with a map than a closure, as shown in Listing 4-16. Listing 4-16. Implementing a Multimethod Interface with a Map ejpanb]_aO]ilhaEjpanb]_a wrke`iapdk`-$%7rke`iapdk`.$ejpe%7Opnejciapdk`/$ejpe(ejpf%7y t9Wiapdk`-6wlnejphj#iapdk`-#y( iapdk`.6we):lnejphj#iapdk`.sepd#'ey( iapdk`/6we(f):lnejphjiapdk`/sepd e]j` f7 napqnjnapqnja`bnkiiapdk`/y Y]oO]ilhaEjpanb]_a t*iapdk`-$% t*iapdk`.$-% ]ooanpt*iapdk`/$-(.%99#napqnja`bnkiiapdk`/# And the output is as follows: iapdk`- iapdk`.sepd- iapdk`/sepd-]j`. Notice that you don’t need to implement all the methods in an interface—only those that you are going to call. If you try to call a method that is not implemented, Groovy will throw a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj. Because Groovy is a dynamic language that supports dynamic typing, most of the time you will not need to use interfaces at all, because the semantics of an object are determined by its methods and properties rather than by the interfaces it implements. This style of typing is called duck typing. Listing 4-17 shows how to rewrite the example in Listing 4-15 by using dynamic typing—no interfaces are required. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY80 Listing 4-17. Duck Typing _h]ooKqplqppanw `abo]uOkiapdejc lq^he_Kqplqppan$`abo]uOkiapdejc%w pdeo*o]uOkiapdejc9o]uOkiapdejc y lq^he_Opnejckqplqp$%w napqnjo]uOkiapdejc*okiapdejc$% y y jasKqplqppan$Wokiapdejc6wlnejphjDahhkSknh`yY%*kqplqp$% 4-6. What Are Multimethods and How Do I Use Them? Multimethods is the term used to refer to looking up a method to call based on the argu- ment’s dynamic type rather than static type. Remember that in Groovy an object can have a dynamic type during runtime that is different from the declared static type. For example: K^fa_pt9#OkiaPatp# Variable t refers to an object of type f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p, but it has a dynamic type of f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc. This means that you can treat t as a string, calling all of the string methods on it and passing it to methods that expect a string parameter without requiring explicit casting. For example, you can do the following: K^fa_pt9#OkiaPatp# =ooanpt*pkHksan?]oa$%99#okiapatp# K^fa_pu9#/# =ooanpEjpacan*l]noaEjp$u%99/ The preceding code will throw a compile error in Java and will require explicit casting in order to work. Notice that if you are using Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA, they are both smart enough to treat an object according to its dynamic rather than static type. This is impor- tant because code completion will be based on the object’s dynamic type, as in Figures 4- 1 and 4- 2. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 81 Figure 4-1. Code completion based on the object’s dynamic type in Eclipse Figure 4-2. Code completion based on the object’s dynamic type in IntelliJ IDEA Multimethods are very useful in practice because they lead to less coding; the pro- grammer doesn’t need to write the code for dynamic type resolution. As an example, consider how you would override the amq]ho method in Java. Listing 4-18 shows a typical implementation. Listing 4-18. Implementing amq]ho in Java lq^he__h]ooPdejc lq^he_^kkha]jamq]ho$K^fa_pk%w eb$k99jqhh%napqnjb]hoa7 eb$$kejop]j_akbPdejc%%napqnjb]hoa7 Pdejcpdejc9$Pdejc%k7 napqnjpnqa++_qopkihkce_dana7 y y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY82 Notice how every time you override amq]ho, you will have to duplicate the code neces- sary for looking up the object’s dynamic type. If you rewrite the example in Groovy, the code is much shorter, as shown in Listing 4-19. Listing 4-19. Implementing amq]ho in Groovy _h]ooPdejcw ^kkha]jamq]ho$Pdejcpdejc%w napqnjpnqa++_qopkihkce_dana y y To test it: K^fa_ppdejc9jasPdejc$% K^fa_pk^fa_p9jasK^fa_p$% ]ooanpjasPdejc$%*amq]ho$pdejc% ]ooanpjasPdejc$%*amq]ho$k^fa_p% In the Groovy implementation, when you call amq]ho with an object of dynamic type Pdejc, Groovy will call the amq]ho method defined in class Pdejc. When calling amq]ho with an object of dynamic type K^fa_p, Groovy will dispatch the call to oqlan*amq]ho$K^fa_p%. Method dispatching based on dynamic object types is one way that Groovy can lead to shorter and more- robust implementations. 4-7. What Are Categories and How Do I Use Them? Categories are used to enhance existing classes by adding additional methods to them. Categories are how the GDK works, by dynamically injecting helper methods into existing JDK classes. Categories are especially helpful when you want to add additional functional- ities to final classes that can’t be extended. Listing 4-20 shows how you can add a method to the Opnejc class (which is final). Listing 4-20. Using Categories in Groovy _h]ooOpnejcAtpaj`a`w op]pe_OpnejccapBenopD]hb$Opnejcopnejc%w napqnjopnejc*oq^opnejc$,($ejp%$opnejc*oeva$%+.%% y y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 83 qoa$OpnejcAtpaj`a`%w ]ooanpNapqnjpdabenopd]hbkbpdeoopnejc *capBenopD]hb$%99Napqnjpdabenopd y Category methods must be declared static. The qoa keyword will make all of the category methods available on all objects of the same type as the category method’s first argument. 4-8. How Are Groovy Fields and Local Variables Different from Those in Java? A variable is a name that refers to a location in memory that can store a value. Just as in Java, variables can be local to the method they are declared in or made global (associated with a class), in which case they are called fields. Variables in Groovy can be typed or untyped. An untyped variable is defined by using the `ab keyword and is given the static type K^fa_p and a dynamic type depending on the value it’s assigned to. When used inside classes, all variables must be declared first. They don’t have to be declared if used inside scripts, in which case they will be associated with the script’s binding object (a binding is a data store that enables transfer of data from and to the script). Declaring a variable means that you either give it a type (either explicit or implicit by using the `ab keyword) or a modifier (lq^he_, lner]pa, lnkpa_pa`, op]pe_, bej]h, pn]joeajp, and so forth) or a combination of both. Listing 4-21 shows an example of defining fields and variables in Groovy. Listing 4-21. Fields and Local Variables in Groovy _h]oo=w Opnejcpula`Beah`-(pula`Beah`.(pula`Beah`/ lq^he_lq^he_Beah`-(lq^he_Beah`.(lq^he_Beah`/ `abqjpula`Beah` op]pe_op]pe_Beah` bej]hA9#bej]hbeah`# `abiapdk`$%w `abqjpula`Hk_]h ejppula`Hk_]h y y ^kqj`R]n9#de# `abiapdk`EjO_nelp$%w ^kqj`R]n9- y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY84 Notice how Groovy allows you to define more than one variable on the same line by using only one modifier or type for all of them. The following code is illegal in Groovy. Can you tell why? _h]oo=w t9- y To fix it, you have to declare t first. The following script, however, is perfectly valid: ++t*cnkkru t9- ]ooanpt99- Groovy is a type- safe language, meaning that you can’t assign a value to a variable of the wrong type. Any such attempt will result in a ?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj, as in the following example: ejpt9- jasCnkkruPaop?]oa$%*odkqh`B]eh$?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj*_h]oo%w t9#de# y And the result is as follows: Naoqhp6?]jjkp_]opk^fa_p#de#sepd_h]oo#f]r]*h]jc*Opnejc# pk_h]oo#f]r]*h]jc*Ejpacan# Groovy offers more than one way to reference fields. Given the following class: _h]oo=w `ab_kqjp9, y you can reference its field in either of the following ways: s 5SINGTHE field’s name =]9jas=$% ]*_kqjp9- ]ooanp]*_kqjp99- CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 85 s 5SINGTHE subscript operator =]9jas=$% ]W#_kqjp#Y9- ]ooanp]W#_kqjp#Y99- 4-9. How Are Groovy Methods Different from Java Methods? Methods in Groovy differ from their Java equivalents in a few ways. First, the napqnj key- word is optional. Second, the return type is optional too and can be substituted with the `ab keyword. Third, declaring parameter types is optional too. Finally, the default visibil- ity of all methods is lq^he_. Listing 4-22 shows a few examples of method declarations in Groovy. Listing 4-22. Method Declarations in Groovy _h]ooIapdk`oAt]ilhaw lq^he_OpnejcnapqnjEoKlpekj]h$%w napqnjgauskn`eoklpekj]h y `abnapqnjPulaeoKlpekj]h$%w napqnjnapqnjpulaeoklpekj]h y `abl]n]iapanPulao=naKlpekj]h$t(u%w napqnjbenop]ncqiajpeo t(oa_kj`]ncqiajpeo u y Opnejc`ab]qhpEoLq^he_$%w lnejphj`ab]qhpeolq^he_ y y `abiapdk`o9jasIapdk`oAt]ilha$% ]ooanpiapdk`o*napqnjEoKlpekj]h$%99napqnjgauskn`eoklpekj]h ]ooanpiapdk`o*napqnjPulaeoKlpekj]h$%99napqnjpulaeoklpekj]h ]ooanpiapdk`o*l]n]iapanPulao=naKlpekj]h$-(.%99 benop]ncqiajpeo-(oa_kj`]ncqiajpeo. iapdk`o*`ab]qhpEoLq^he_$% CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY86 Groovy is also flexible with method parameters, enabling you to write methods that accept parameters in different ways. The following sections provide examples of the vari- ous options. Using Positional Parameters A method can accept positional parameters and assign a default value to a parameter if it doesn’t exist, as shown in Listing 4-23. Listing 4-23. A Method with Positional Parameters and a Default Value _h]ooIapdk`oAt]ilhaow `aboqi$]nc-(]nc.(]nc/9-%w napqnj]nc/&$]nc-']nc.% y y `ab]9jasIapdk`oAt]ilhao$% ]ooanp]*oqi$-(.()-%99)/ ]ooanp]*oqi$-(.%99/ Using a List as a Single Argument A method can take a list as a single argument. You can place as many elements as you wish in that list, as shown in Listing 4-24. Listing 4-24. A Method with a List as a Single Argument _h]ooIapdk`oAt]ilhaow `aboqi$Heop]nco%w `ab_kqjp9, ]nco*a]_dw_kqjp'9epy napqnj_kqjp y y Iapdk`oAt]ilhao]9jasIapdk`oAt]ilhao$% ]ooanp]*oqi$W-(.(/Y%992 ]ooanp]*oqi$W-(.Y%99/ CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 87 Using an Array for Optional Parameters A method can take one or more required parameters and an array of optional parameters, as shown in Listing 4-25. Listing 4-25. A Method with an Array of Optional Parameters _h]ooIapdk`oAt]ilhaow `aboqi$`ab]nc-(]nc.(K^fa_pWYklpekj]ho%w eb$klpekj]ho% napqnj]nc-']nc.'klpekj]ho*pkHeop$%*oqi$% ahoa napqnj]nc-']nc. y y Iapdk`oAt]ilhao]9jasIapdk`oAt]ilhao$% ]ooanp]*oqi$-(-%99. ]ooanp]*oqi$-(-(-%99/ ]ooanp]*oqi$-(-(-(-%990 Using Mapped Parameters A method can accept named parameters represented by a map. Listing 4-26 shows an example. Listing 4-26. A Method with Mapped Parameters _h]ooIapdk`oAt]ilhaow `aboqi$I]l]nco%w `ab_kqjp9, ]nco*a]_dw _kqjp'9ep*r]hqa y napqnj_kqjp y y Iapdk`oAt]ilhao]9jasIapdk`oAt]ilhao$% ]ooanp]*oqi$]6-(^6.%99/ ]ooanp]*oqi$]6-(^6.(_6/%992 ]ooanp]*oqi$]6-%99- CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY88 4-10. How Are Groovy Constructors Different from Those in Java? As in Java, if no constructor is defined, you will get a default no- argument constructor. Unlike in Java, in Groovy you can call constructors in various ways, as in the next example. Say you are given the following class definition: _h]ooAilhkuaaw OpnejcbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia Ailhkuaa$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia%w pdeo*benopJ]ia9benopJ]ia pdeo*h]opJ]ia9h]opJ]ia y y You can call the Ailhkuaa class constructor in various ways: s 5SINGTHEnormal Java way `abailhkuaa9jasAilhkuaa$#>]od]n#(#=^`qhF]s]`#% s 5SINGEXPLICITtype coercion `abailhkuaa9W#>]od]n#(#=^`qhF]s]`#Y]oAilhkuaa s 5SINGIMPLICIT type coercion Ailhkuaaailhkuaa9W#>]od]n#(#=^`qhF]s]`#Y s 5SINGIMPLICITconstructors Ailhkuaaailhkuaa ailhkuaa9W#>]od]n#(#=^`qh#Y You can also call constructors by using named parameters. Given the following class: _h]ooAilhkuaaw OpnejcbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia y you can call any of the following constructors: jasAilhkuaa$% jasAilhkuaa$benopJ]ia6#>]od]n#% jasAilhkuaa$h]opJ]ia6#=^`qhF]s]`#% jasAilhkuaa$benopJ]ia6#>]od]n#(h]opJ]ia6#=^`qhF]s]`#% CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 89 Calling constructors by using named parameters can be very useful because you don’t have to explicitly define a separate constructor for each possible combination. Groovy automatically makes all those combinations available for you. 4-11. What Are GroovyBeans? GroovyBeans are regular JavaBeans, but with the added advantage that public accessor methods (getters and setters) are generated dynamically for you. Listing 4-27 shows an example. Listing 4-27. Ailhkuaa GroovyBean _h]ooAilhkuaaw OpnejcbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia `abe` Opnejc`alp OpnejccapJ]ia$%w napqnjbenopJ]ia'##'h]opJ]ia y y Ailhkuaaailhkuaa9jasAilhkuaa$% ailhkuaa*benopJ]ia9#>]od]n# ailhkuaa*h]opJ]ia9#=^`qh# ]ooanpailhkuaa*capBenopJ]ia$%99#>]od]n# ]ooanpailhkuaa*h]opJ]ia99#=^`qh# ]ooanpailhkuaa*j]ia99#>]od]n=^`qh# If you want to override the default behavior of a getter or a setter, simply redefine that method in your class by following the Java naming convention: capLnklanpuJ]ia or oapLnklanpuJ]ia. Groovy also has a special operator to access fields directly without using accessor methods. You can even use it to access private fields directly. To do so, use the *< operator as shown in Listing 4-28. Listing 4-28. Accessing Fields Directly by Using the *< Operator _h]ooAilhkuaaw lner]paOpnejcj]ia `aboapJ]ia$j]ia%w pdeo*j]ia9j]ia y CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY90 `abcapJ]ia$%w napqnjj]ia*pkQllan?]oa$% y y `abailhkuaa9jasAilhkuaa$j]ia6#>]od]n#% ]ooanpailhkuaa*j]ia99#>=OD=N# ]ooanpailhkuaa*]od]n# You can get a map of all the bean’s properties by using the lnklanpeao property, as shown in Listing 4-29. Listing 4-29. Retreiving All of Bean’s Properties _h]ooAilhkuaaw OpnejcbenopJ]ia9#>]od]n# Opnejch]opJ]ia lner]pae` `abpepha y Ailhkuaaailhkuaa9jasAilhkuaa$% ]ooanpailhkuaa*lnklanpeao*_kjp]ejoGau$#benopJ]ia#% ]ooanpailhkuaa*lnklanpeao*_kjp]ejoR]hqa$#>]od]n#% ]ooanpailhkuaa*lnklanpeao*_kjp]ejoGau$#h]opJ]ia#% ]ooanpailhkuaa*lnklanpeao*_kjp]ejoGau$#pepha#% ]ooanpailhkuaa*lnklanpeao*_kjp]ejoGau$#e`#%99b]hoa 4-12. What Are GPaths? A GPath is an expression that identifies parts of structured data. A GPath for Groovy is what XPath is for XML; it enables you to traverse the structure of any Plain Old Java Object (POJO) or an XML file. The real power of GPaths is that they enable you to query complex class hierarchies by using minimal code. As a simple example, you can use GPaths to print all the methods of the Opnejc class: *_h]oo*iapdk`o*j]ia*oknp$% And the result is as follows: CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 91 W_d]n=p(_k`aLkejp=p(_k`aLkejp>abkna(_k`aLkejp?kqjp( _kil]naPk(_kil]naPk(_kil]naPkEcjkna?]oa(_kj_]p( _kjp]ejo(_kjpajpAmq]ho(_kjpajpAmq]ho(_kluR]hqaKb( _kluR]hqaKb(aj`oSepd(amq]ho(amq]hoEcjkna?]oa(bkni]p( bkni]p(cap>upao(cap>upao(cap>upao(cap>upao(cap?d]no( cap?h]oo(d]od?k`a(ej`atKb(ej`atKb(ej`atKb(ej`atKb( ejpanj(eoAilpu(h]opEj`atKb(h]opEj`atKb(h]opEj`atKb( h]opEj`atKb(hajcpd(i]p_dao(jkpebu(jkpebu=hh( kbboap>u?k`aLkejpo(nacekjI]p_dao(nacekjI]p_dao(nalh]_a( nalh]_a(nalh]_a=hh(nalh]_aBenop(olhep(olhep( op]npoSepd(op]npoSepd(oq^Oamqaj_a(oq^opnejc(oq^opnejc( pk?d]n=nn]u(pkHksan?]oa(pkHksan?]oa(pkOpnejc( pkQllan?]oa(pkQllan?]oa(pnei(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb( r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb(r]hqaKb( s]ep(s]ep(s]epY I will present a more extensive example. Suppose you have a >kkg class and a >kkgO]hao class with a one-to- one relationship between them, as shown in Listing 4-30. Listing 4-30. >kkgO]hao and >kkg Classes _h]oo>kkgO]haow ejpjqiOkh` >kkg^kkg ejpo]hao$%w napqnj^kkg*lne_a&jqiOkh` y y _h]oo>kkgw ejplne_a bhk]p]qpdknNku]hpuBaa Opnejcpepha y Also suppose you have an =qpdkn class with a one-to- many relationship to >kkgO]hao, as shown in Listing 4-31. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY92 Listing 4-31. =qpdkn Class _h]oo=qpdknw Opnejcj]ia Heop^kkgO]hao ejppkp]hA]njejco$%w `abpkp]h9, ^kkgO]hao*a]_dw pkp]h'9ep*o]hao$%&ep*^kkg*]qpdknNku]hpuBaa y napqnjpkp]h y y I will now create some books and book sales, and assign books to authors: `ab^kkg-9jas>kkg$pepha6CnkkruCn]ehoNa_elao(lne_a600(]qpdknNku]hpuBaa6,*-% `ab^kkg.9jas>kkg$pepha6Cnkkru]j`Cn]ehoNk_g(lne_a6/1(]qpdknNku]hpuBaa6,*.% `ab^kkgO]hao-9jas>kkgO]hao$jqiOkh`61,,,(^kkg6^kkg-% `ab^kkgO]hao.9jas>kkgO]hao$jqiOkh`6-,,,(^kkg6^kkg.% `ab]qpdkno9W jas=qpdkn$j]ia6>]od]n(^kkgO]hao6W^kkgO]hao-(^kkgO]hao.Y%( jas=qpdkn$j]ia6O]ie(^kkgO]hao6W^kkgO]hao.Y%Y Thanks to GPaths, it’s easy to query the objects’ graph. To find the total earnings of each author, you use the following: ]ooanp]qpdkno&*pkp]hA]njejco$%99W.5,,,(3,,,Y Notice the use of the spread operator (&*). It’s used to call a method on each element of the list rather than the list itself. To find which titles generated more than $200,000 in sales for each author, you use the following: ]qpdkno*^kkgo*a]_dw lnejphjep*cnalwep*o]hao$%:.,,,,,y*^kkg*pepha y Notice how short the Groovy code is. It will take you several lines of code in Java to navigate the objects’ graph in a similar way. CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 93 4-13. How Do I Use the Expando Class? The Atl]j`k class is basically a dynamic bean that enables you to attach closures as prop- erties during runtime. It is best illustrated by an example, as shown in Listing 4-32. Listing 4-32. Atl]j`k Class `ab]qpdkn9jasAtl]j`k$% ]ooanp]qpdkn*^kkgo99jqhh ]qpdkn*^kkgo9W#>kkg-#Y ]ooanp]qpdkn*^kkgo99W#>kkg-#Y ]qpdkn*snepa>kkg9w):napqnj]qpdkn*^kkgo'9#>kkg#'$]qpdkn*^kkgo*oeva$%'-%y ]qpdkn*snepa>kkg$% ]ooanp]qpdkn*^kkgo99W#>kkg-#(#>kkg.#Y ]qpdkn*snepa>kkg$% ]ooanp]qpdkn*^kkgo99W#>kkg-#(#>kkg.#(#>kkg/#Y In this example, the closure can access all the properties of the Atl]j`k object, and calling the closure will cause it to execute immediately. Think of attaching a closure to an Atl]j`k object as attaching a dynamic method to an object. 4-14. What Is Metaclass and How Do I Use It? All Groovy objects implement the cnkkru*h]jc*CnkkruK^fa_p interface. If you want a Java class to be treated as a Groovy class, you will have to implement this interface. You can optionally extend cnkkru*h]jc*CnkkruK^fa_pOqllknp, which serves as a base class and pro- vides default implementations. Every Groovy object has a metaclass that can be returned via a call to capIap]?h]oo in the CnkkruK^fa_p interface. A metaclass provides all the meta- data about a class, such as its methods, properties, and attributes, and can be also used to invoke any methods on the class with the given arguments. The CnkkruK^fa_p interface relays most of its methods to its metaclass by default, such as ejrkgaIapdk`, capLnklanpu, and oapLnklanpu. Metaclasses are stored in a central store called Iap]?h]ooNaceopnu, which is responsible for caching all metaclass instances. When you a call a method on a Groovy object, the method will be called via one of three ways: s 5SINGTHEOBJECTSejrkgaIapdk` implementation defined in the CnkkruK^fa_p interface s 2ELAYINGTOejrkgaIapdk` in the object’s metaclass: capIap]?h]oo$%*ejrkgaIapdk`$% s 5SINGTHEMETACLASSTHATISREGISTEREDFORTHISCLASSINTHEIap]?h]ooNaceopnu Metaclasses are part of Groovy’s implementation of Meta Object Protocol (MOP), which enables you to change the system’s behavior during runtime. MOP enables you to CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY94 intercept method calls and facilitates aspect- oriented programming (AOP). It also enables you to relay method calls to other objects (such as with closures that relay their method calls to their delegate) and pretend to execute a method while another logic is performed (such as with builders). Listing 4-33 shows how you can use an object’s metaclass to obtain all of its methods and properties. Furthermore, it shows you how to use naolkj`oPk and d]oLnklanpu to find out whether the object supports a particular method/property. Listing 4-33. Using a Metaclass lnejphjK^fa_p*iap]?h]oo*iapdk`o++Napqnjo]hhiapdk`oejf]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p `ab]9W-(.(/Y lnejphj]*iap]?h]oo*iapdk`o++Napqnjo]hhiapdk`oejf]r]*qpeh*Heop lnejphj]*iap]?h]oo*iap]Iapdk`o++Napqnjo]hhiapdk`oejfa_pa`^upda ++CG@Gejf]r]*qpeh*Heop lnejphjf]r]*ek*Beha*iap]?h]oo*lnklanpeao++Napqnjo]hhiap] ++lnklanpeaoejpdaf]r]*ek*Beha_h]oo _h]ooIap]w Opnejclnklanpu `abjk=nco$%wiapdk`-y `ablnejpIa$Opnejc]nc-%wlnejphjiapdk`.sepd ]nc-y `ab]^o$Ejpacan]nc-%w]nc-*]^o$%y y `abiap]9jasIap]$% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*naolkj`oPk$iap](jk=nco% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*naolkj`oPk$iap](lnejpIa% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*naolkj`oPk$iap](lnejpIa(Opnejc% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*naolkj`oPk$iap](lnejpIa(Ejpacan% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*naolkj`oPk$iap](]^o(Ejpacan% ]ooanpiap]*iap]?h]oo*d]oLnklanpu$iap](lnklanpu% 4-15. How Do I Intercept All Method Calls on an Object? Listing 4-34 shows how you can intercept all methods and property access on a Groovy class by overriding ejrkgaIapdk`, capLnklanpu, and oapLnklanpu in the CnkkruK^fa_p interface. This example shows how you can add a dynamic finder to a class called CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY 95 bej`=hhOp]npoSepdT that will return all the items in the list that start with T. For example, when you pass the list WCnkkru(eo(Cna]p(eoj#pY, bej`=hhOp]npoSepdC is going to return WCnkkru(Cna]pY while bej`=hhOp]npoSepde is going to return Weo(eoj#pY. Listing 4-34. Intercepting Method Calls on an Object _h]ooIKLw `abheop `abcapLnklanpu$Opnejcj]ia%wlnejphjPdaheopeo heopy `abejrkgaIapdk`$Opnejcj]ia(]nco%w eb$j]ia*op]npoSepd$bej`=hhOp]npoSepd%%w Opnejcop]npoSepd9j]iaW)-Y napqnjheop*bej`=hhwep*op]npoSepd$op]npoSepd%y y y y `abikl9jasIKL$heop6WCnkkru(eo(Cna]p(eoj#pY% ]ooanpikl*bej`=hhOp]npoSepdC$%99WCnkkru(Cna]pY ]ooanpikl*bej`=hhOp]npoSepde$%99Weo(eoj#pY ]ooanpikl*bej`=hhOp]npoSepdV$%99WY lnejphjikl*heop++Lnejpo6PdaheopeoWCnkkru(eo(Cna]p(eoj#pY 4-16. How Do I Intercept Methods That Don’t Exist on a Class? You can intercept calls to methods that don’t exist on a class by overriding iapdk`Ieooejc, as shown in Listing 4-35. Listing 4-35. Intercepting Methods That Don’t Exist _h]ooIKLw `abiapdk`Ieooejc$Opnejcj]ia(]nco%w  j]iaiapdk``kaoj#pateop(]naukqoqnaukqolahha`epnecdp; y y IKLikl9jasIKL$% ]ooanpikl*jkja$%99jkjaiapdk``kaoj#pateop(]naukqoqnaukqolahha`epnecdp; CHAPTER 4 N OBJECT-ORIENTED GROOVY96 4-17. How Do I Add Additional Behavior to a Class by Using ExpandoMetaClass? Groovy has a special metaclass called Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo that enables you to add additional methods and properties to a class on the fly. All instances of that class will acquire those added methods and properties. Listing 4-36 shows how you can add an additional method to the Opnejc class that will capitalize a string. Listing 4-36. Adding Additional Methods to a Class Opnejc*iap]?h]oo*_]lep]heva9w): eb$`ahac]pa*oeva$%99,%napqnj eb$`ahac]pa*oeva$%99-%napqnj`ahac]pa*pkQllan?]oa$% napqnj`ahac]paW,Y*pkQllan?]oa$%'`ahac]paW-**`ahac]pa*hajcpd$%)-Y y ]ooanpdahhkpdana*_]lep]heva$%99Dahhkpdana ]ooanp*_]lep]heva$%99 ]ooanpo*_]lep]heva$%99O Please note that for performance reasons, Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo doesn’t support inheri- tance by default. You will have to call Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo*aj]^haChk^]hhu$% if you want that feature. Summary I hope in this chapter I was able to convince you that Groovy is a complete OO language that supports all of the OO features found in Java and other OO languages. In addition, because Groovy is a dynamic language, it also offers a few dynamic OO features that make the language more powerful and flexible to work with. This chapter showed you how to organize your Groovy code inside classes, packages, and scripts. It also demonstrated Groovy’s OO features such as inheritance and interfaces, as well as some unique dynamic features such as multimethods, categories, Iap]?h]oo, and Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo. This chapter also spelled out the similarities and differences between methods, variables, and constructors in Groovy and Java. The next chapter talks about one of the most powerful features of Groovy, although often the hardest to master for Java developers: closures. 97 CHAPTER 5 Closures You have already seen some examples of closures in previous chapters. The concept of closures is new to most Java developers, and closures might seem a bit foreign when you see them for the first time. By working your way through the examples in this chap- ter, you will get a much better understanding of closures, how they work, and how to use them efficiently. Closures are important in Groovy; almost any real- life example in Groovy will use closures, and a good understanding of them is essential if you want to get the most out of the language. 5-1. What Is a Closure? A closure is simply an anonymous block of code. The most important thing you need to know about closures is that they are objects of type cnkkru*h]jc*?hkoqna: you can assign them to variables and can pass them around as method arguments. They can also refer- ence variables within their scope. Furthermore, closures can act as methods by accepting arguments (which can be closures themselves) and returning values (which can also be closures). A closure is executed only when it’s called—not when it’s defined. Closures are differ- ent from methods in the following ways: s #LOSURESDONTNEEDTOBEDECLAREDINSIDECLASSES s 4HEYCANBEASSIGNEDTOVARIABLESANDTREATEDASOBJECTS Closures are similar to Java’s anonymous inner classes but without all the restrictions imposed on the latter: closures are reusable, can access any variable in their scope, and have a much clearer and briefer syntax. The name closure comes from the formal definition that a function (or block of code) becomes closed when all the free variables inside it are bound (given a meaning). If this doesn’t happen, the block of code is partially closed. However, Groovy makes no dis- tinction between the two; a closure is still called a closure even if it contains unbound variables. CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES98 5-2. Why Do I Need Closures? In functional languages, functions are first- class citizens: they can be passed as argu- ments to other functions, returned from other functions, and bound to variables within their scope. In other words, functions are treated as objects, like strings or numbers. In Groovy, closures are treated the same way. Treating closures as objects has several advantages. First, it gives you plenty of power and flexibility in designing your application without the need for interfaces. For example, you can easily create a sort method that accepts a closure as an argument. The closure will implement a specific sorting algorithm—for example, quick sort or merge sort. Second, closures can greatly simplify control structures such as branching and looping. For exam- ple, the GDK makes available on f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p plenty of methods that accept a closure as their only argument. The closure is applied to each item in the object (which can be an aggregate data type). For example, to print out all the elements of a list, you simply write the following: W-(.(/Y*a]_dwlnejphjepy If you were to do the same in Java 1.4 and below, you would have to write the follow- ing loop: bkn$ejpe9,7e8heop*oeva$%7e''%w Ouopai*kqp*lnejphj$$Ejpacan%heop*cap$e%%7 y Alternatively, you could use an epan]pkn: bkn$Epan]pknep9heop*epan]pkn$%7ep*d]oJatp$%7%w Ouopai*kqp*lnejphj$ep*jatp$%%7 y Java 5.0 makes the process slightly simpler with the new bkn loop and generics: bkn$Ejpacane6heop%w Ouopai*kqp*lnejphj$e%7 y In all of the Java examples, the programmer is responsible for writing both the code to iterate over the collection and the logic to be performed on each item of the collection. By using methods that accept closures, Groovy relieves the programmer from writing the code necessary to iterate over the collection, because the method will take care of that. CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 99 A third use of closures is in handling resources. Because, in Groovy, methods can accept closures as arguments, such methods can internally take care of any logic neces- sary to acquire and release resources. The closure is required only to act on the resource and not to worry about obtaining or closing it, because this is all handled by the method. As an example, the GDK makes available plenty of methods on f]r]*ek*Beha that accept a closure that is invoked on each directory, file, or line. Consider how you would read from a file in Groovy: Behab9jasBeha$#paop*ptp#% b*a]_dHejawlnejphjepy The a]_dHeja method will take care of opening and closing the Beha input stream without the programmer having to write any boilerplate code for opening and closing resources and catching exceptions. This centralized way of handling resources leads to more- robust (and shorter) code. 5-3. How Do Closures Compare with Anonymous Inner Classes? I mentioned before the serious restrictions on anonymous inner classes in regard to their ability to reference variables; they can reference only class variables and local final variables. In addition, their syntax is confusing and verbose. Furthermore, they are not reusable and can be used only once, where they are declared. Closures, on the other hand, have no restrictions on their ability to reference variables within their scope, are usually short and have a simple syntax, and are reusable and can be assigned to variables. Because they are an instance of cnkkru*h]jc*?hkoqna, closures have extra functionalities not available to anonymous inner classes. To illustrate the differences, consider how you would add an event to a button in Java by using an anonymous inner class: F>qppkj^qppkj9jasF>qppkj$?he_gia%7 ^qppkj*]``=_pekjHeopajan$jas=_pekjHeopajan$%w lq^he_rke`]_pekjLanbknia`$=_pekjArajpa%w++@kokiapdejc y y%7 Written in Groovy, the code is much simpler and easier to read: F>qppkj^qppkj9jasF>qppkj$?he_gia% ^qppkj*]_pekjLanbknia`9w+&ukqnhkce_dana&+y CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES100 5-4. How Do I Create a Closure? A closure has the following syntax: wWklpekj]h]nco):Yvankkniknaop]paiajpoy A closure must be enclosed by curly braces (wy). A closure may take a list of optional arguments, in which case the arguments are separated by commas. The symbol ): separates the list of arguments from the closure’s body. The arguments can be typed or untyped. The closure’s body is a sequence of zero or more statements that can access the closure arguments and any variables within its scope. Listing 5-1 shows a few examples of closure definitions. Listing 5-1. Examples of Closure Definitions w):y++=jailpu_hkoqnasepdvank]ncqiajpo w):lnejphjDahhkSknh`y++=_hkoqnasepdvank]ncqiajpo wOpnejciao]ca):lnejphjiaoo]cay++=_hkoqnasepdkjapula`]ncqiajp wiaoo]ca):lnejphjiaoo]cay++=_hkoqnasepdkjaqjpula`]ncqiajp w]nc-(]nc.):napqnj]nc-']nc.y++=_hkoqnasepdpskqjpula`]ncqiajpo If only one argument is passed to the closure, the arguments list and the ): symbol can be omitted and the closure will have access to an implicit variable called ep that rep- resents that one argument, as in the following example: wlnejphjepy If a closure is invoked with zero arguments, the variable ep will be null. 5-5. How Do I Call a Closure? Remember that a closure is executed only when called, not when defined. Therefore, when you define a closure, it makes sense to assign it to a variable so you can call the clo- sure by using that variable later. The following closure takes a single argument and simply prints it out to the console: `ablnejp9wlnejphjepy You can now call this closure by using the reference variable lnejp in three different ways: lnejp$DahhkSknh`% lnejp*_]hh$DahhkSknh`% lnejp*`k?]hh$DahhkSknh`% CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 101 Remember that parentheses in Groovy are optional, so you can omit them if you like. In line 1, you call the closure by using the special syntax $%. In line 2, you use the _]hh method from the class cnkkru*h]jc*?hkoqna to call the closure. Remember that all closures are objects of type cnkkru*h]jc*?hkoqna. In line 3, you use the implicit dynamic method `k?]hh that is available on all ?hkoqna objects, which—in this example—works the same way as _]hh. 5-6. How Do I Return a Value from a Closure? Closures always have a return value. Remember that the napqnj keyword is optional in Groovy. Therefore, even if a closure doesn’t explicitly use the napqnj keyword, it still returns the value of the last executed statement, as in the following example: `aboqiHeop9wheop):heop*oqi$%y ]ooanpoqiHeop$W-(.(/(0Y%99-, The preceding code is equivalent to the following: `aboqiHeop9wheop):napqnjheop*oqi$%y ]ooanpoqiHeop$W-(.(/(0Y%99-, Notice that there is no way of declaring the return type of a closure. 5-7. How Do I Reuse a Method as a Closure? Because methods have a lot of similarities to closures, Groovy allows you to reuse a method as a closure. To refer to a method by using a closure, use the *" operator, as in Listing 5-2. Listing 5-2. Reusing a Method as a Closure _h]ooIapdk`o=o?hkoqnaow `abpkHksan?]oa$patp%w patp*pkHksan?]oa$%7 y y `abiapdk`o=o?hkoqnao9jasIapdk`o=o?hkoqnao$% `abpkHksan?]oa9iapdk`o=o?hkoqnao*"pkHksan?]oa ]ooanppkHksan?]oa$Cnkkru%99cnkkru ]ooanppkHksan?]oa$Cnkkru%99iapdk`o=o?hkoqnao*pkHksan?]oa$Cnkkru% CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES102 5-8. How Do I Pass a Closure as an Argument to Another Method? A method can be made to accept a parameter of type cnkkru*h]jc*?hkoqna. The method can then simply call the closure in its body. A good example is the a]_d method, which the GDK makes available on all instances of f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p. The a]_d method takes a single argument of type ?hkoqna that is called on each item of the object (which can be an aggre- gate data type or structure). For example: W-(.(/Y*a]_dwlnejphjepy Here wlnejphjepy is the closure passed to the a]_d method. The closure is called on each item of the list, where it can access the item by using the implicit variable ep. You might wonder why I didn’t surround the closure with parentheses if it was an argument to a method. Remember that parentheses in Groovy are optional, so the previous code is equivalent to the following: W-(.(/Y*a]_d$wlnejphjepy% Let me present a more practical example. Listing 5-3 creates a class that extends f]r]* qpeh*=nn]uHeop and introduces a new method called ik`ebu that accepts a single argument of type ?hkoqna. The closure will be called on each item in the list, modifying the list in place. Listing 5-3. Using Closures as Method Arguments lq^he__h]ooIk`ebuHeopatpaj`o=nn]uHeopw lq^he_Ik`ebuHeop$`ab_khha_pekj%w oqlan$_khha_pekj% y lq^he_rke`ik`ebu$_hkoqna%w bkn$eej,**8pdeo*oeva$%%w pdeoWeY9_hkoqna$pdeoWeY% y y y `abheop9jasIk`ebuHeop$W-(.(/Y% heop*ik`ebu$wep&epy% ]ooanpheop99W-(0(5Y heop*ik`ebu$wI]pd*omnp$ep%y% ]ooanpheop99W-(.(/Y CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 103 The GDK offers a similar method to the one I just implemented, called _khha_p, which is injected in f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p. The _khha_p method will accept a closure that will be called on each item in the object, returning a new modified list, as in Listing 5-4. Listing 5-4. Using _khha_p with Closures `abheop9W-(.(/Y heop9heop*_khha_pwep&epy ]ooanpheop99W-(0(5Y ]ooanpheop*_khha_pwI]pd*omnp$ep%y99W-(.(/Y 5-9. What Is the Scope of a Closure? If a closure is defined inside a class, the closure can access all the class variables, as shown in Listing 5-5. Listing 5-5. Accessing Class Variables Inside a Closure _h]oo?hkoqnaO_klaEj=?h]oow `abheiep `ab_hkoqna9wheiep&.y y ?hkoqnaO_klaEj=?h]ooat]ilha9jas?hkoqnaO_klaEj=?h]oo$heiep6-,% ]ooanpat]ilha*_hkoqnaej?hkoqna ]ooanpat]ilha*_hkoqna$%99., Similarly, if a closure is defined inside a method, the closure will get access to all the variables that the containing method itself can legally access: local variables, method arguments, class members, and other methods. Listing 5-6 illustrates the idea. Listing 5-6. Accessing Method Variables Inside a Closure _h]oo?hkoqnaO_klaw lner]pa_h]ooR]n9_h]oor]n lner]palner]paIapdk`$%w lner]paiapdk` y lq^he_lq^he_Iapdk`$Opnejc]nc%w `abhk_]hR]n9hk_]hr]n CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES104 napqnjw  w_h]ooR]ny( wlner]paIapdk`$%y( w]ncy( whk_]hR]ny y y y `ab_hkoqnaO_kla9jas?hkoqnaO_kla$% `ab_hkoqna9_hkoqnaO_kla*lq^he_Iapdk`$iapdk`]nc% ]ooanp_hkoqna$%99_h]oor]n(lner]paiapdk`(iapdk`]nc(hk_]hr]n This is where the real power of closures becomes clear. In this example, the closure returned from lq^he_Iapdk` can access all of the following: the class instance members, all private methods defined in the containing class, all local variables inside lq^he_Iapdk`, and all arguments passed to lq^he_Iapdk`. Compare this to Java’s anonymous inner classes, which can access only class and final local variables. Listing 5-7 presents another example of how closures can access variables within their scope. Listing 5-7. Accessing Variables Within a Closure’s Scope _h]oo=qpdknw `ab^kkgoLq^heoda` op]pe_lnkhebe_$]qpdkno%w `abpdnaodkh`91 napqnj]qpdkno*bej`=hhwep*^kkgoLq^heoda`:pdnaodkh`y y y `ab]qpdkno9W3(.(5Y*_khha_pwjas=qpdkn$^kkgoLq^heoda`6ep%y ]ooanp=qpdkn*lnkhebe_$]qpdkno%*oeva$%99. In this example, the static method lnkhebe_ in the =qpdkn class accepts a list of authors as an argument. The method will return a list of authors who have published more than five books. Notice how the closure defined inside bej`=hh can access the method’s local variable pdnaodkh` as well as the class variable ^kkgoLq^heoda`. If a closure is defined outside a class, the closure can access all the script variables (whether they are declared or not), as in Listing 5-8. Listing 5-8. Accessing Script Variables Inside a Closure t9- `abu9. `ab_hko9wnapqnjt'uy ]ooanp_hko$%99/ CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 105 5-10. What Do this, owner, and delegate Mean Inside a Closure? Inside a closure, the following keywords have special meanings: spdeo refers to the enclosing class where the closure is defined. sksjan refers to the enclosing object to which all method calls will go to. This is typically the outer class (or closure) where the closure is defined. s`ahac]pa is usually the same as ksjan but can be different inside a script, an Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo, or in builders. Listing 5-9 illustrates the differences. Listing 5-9. Differences Between pdeo, ksjan, and `ahac]pa _h]ooOla_e]hIa]jejcow `ab_hkoqna9w lnejphjpdeo*_h]oo*j]ia++Lnejpopda_h]ooj]ia ]ooanpksjan*_h]oo*j]ia9`ahac]pa*_h]oo*j]ia lnejphjksjan*_h]oo*j]ia++Lnejpopda_h]ooj]ia lnejphj`ahac]pa*_h]oo*j]ia++Lnejpopdao_nelpj]ia `abjaopa`9w lnejphjpdeo*_h]oo*j]ia++Lnejpopda_h]ooj]ia ]ooanpksjan*_h]oo*j]ia99`ahac]pa*_h]oo*j]ia lnejphjksjan*_h]oo*j]ia++Lnejpopdakqpan_hkoqnaj]ia y jaopa`$% y y `ab_hkoqna9jasOla_e]hIa]jejco$%*_hkoqna _hkoqna*`ahac]pa9pdeo _hkoqna$% And the output is as follows: Ola_e]hIa]jejco Ola_e]hIa]jejco O_nelp, Ola_e]hIa]jejco Ola_e]hIa]jejco [_hkoqna- CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES106 5-11. How Can I Return from a Closure? Closures usually return when the last statement in the closure body is executed; the use of the napqnj keyword as the last statement is optional. If, however, you wish to return from a closure at a different point, you can use the napqnj keyword to return from the closure prematurely, as in Listing 5-10. Listing 5-10. Returning from a Closure Prematurely `ab`ere`a9wjqi^an-(jqi^an.): eb$jqi^an.99,%napqnjQj`abeja` napqnjjqi^an-+jqi^an. y ]ooanp`ere`a$0(.%99. ]ooanp`ere`a$0(,%99Qj`abeja` Keep in mind that returning from a closure has a local effect. Returning from a clo- sure returns from the closure only, so if the closure is defined inside a method, returning from the closure will not return from the containing method, as shown in Listing 5-11. Listing 5-11. Returning from a Closure Has a Local Effect W-(.(/(0(1Y*a]_dw eb$ep99.%napqnj lnejpep'## y Here is the result: -/01 Notice how the napqnj keyword will cause the program to return from the closure only—not from the containing a]_d method, which still called the closure on the next item in the list. In this example, the use of napqnj in a closure has an effect similar to that of the _kjpejqa keyword in Java. CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 107 5-12. What Does It Mean to Curry Closures? In functional programming, currying a function means transforming it to another func- tion by fixing (or hard- coding) some of the arguments it takes. For a function that takes n arguments, you can transform into a function that accepts n – 1 arguments by fixing the first argument. You can further transform it into functions that take from n – 2 down to zero arguments by fixing arguments 2 to n. For example, suppose you have a function that takes three arguments and adds them together. You can transform this function into a function that takes two arguments by choosing an arbitrary value x and transforming your function into a function that takes two arguments, adds them together, and adds the value x to the result. Similarly, you can pick two arbitrary values, x and y, and transform your function into a function that accepts a single argument and adds it to x and y. Groovy makes it possible to curry closures by using the _qnnu method on the ?hkoqna class, as in Listing 5-12. Listing 5-12. Currying Closures `abknecej]h9wt(u(v):napqnjt'u'vy `ab]``Kja9knecej]h*_qnnu$-% ]ooanp]``Kja$-(-%99/ `ab]``Psk9]``Kja*_qnnu$-% ]ooanp]``Psk$-%99/ Currying closures can be a powerful technique because the closure arguments can themselves be closures. This technique is widely used in functional programming. A dis- cussion of functional programming is beyond the scope of this book, but for those of you interested, I recommend IBM’s developerWorks article on functional programming with curried closures at dppl6++sss)-.4*e^i*_ki+`arahklanskngo+f]r]+he^n]nu+f)lc,4./1+ej`at* dpih. I will present one more example in Listing 5-13 on currying closures that calculates how much an employee earns a year. In this example, the ailhkuaaPkp]h closure accepts three arguments: a closure that calculates the annual salary paid to the employee, a closure that calculates how much the employee makes from bonuses, and an object of type Ailhkuaa, which I will define. To illustrate currying, I will proceed to create two closures: o]h]nu?]h_qh]pkn, which calculates the annual salary of the employee, and ^kjqoao?]h_qh]pkn, which calculates how much an employee makes from bonuses. I will then curry the ailhkuaaPkp]h closure with the two closures I just defined and call it with an instance of Ailhkuaa. CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES108 Listing 5-13. Using Currying to Calculate How Much an Employee Makes a Year _h]ooAilhkuaaw Opnejcj]ia ejpdkqnhuN]pa ejpjqiDkqnoSknga`LanSaag ejpjqiKbO]haoLanUa]n y `abailhkuaaPkp]h9wo]h]nu?]h_qh]pkn(^kjqoao?]h_qh]pkn(ailhkuaa): o]h]nu?]h_qh]pkn$ailhkuaa%'^kjqoao?]h_qh]pkn$ailhkuaa% y `abo]h]nu?]h_qh]pkn9wailhkuaa):ailhkuaa*dkqnhuN]pa& ailhkuaa*jqiDkqnoSknga`LanSaag&1.y `ab^kjqoao?]h_qh]pkn9wailhkuaa):ailhkuaa*jqiKbO]haoLanUa]n&-,,y `abailhkuaa9jasAilhkuaa $j]ia6Fkdj(dkqnhuN]pa61,(jqiDkqnoSknga`LanSaag60,(jqiKbO]haoLanUa]n61,% `ab_]h_qh]paAilhkuaaPkp]h9 ailhkuaaPkp]h*_qnnu$o]h]nu?]h_qh]pkn(^kjqoao?]h_qh]pkn% ]ooanp_]h_qh]paAilhkuaaPkp]h$ailhkuaa%99-,5,,, 5-13. How Do I Use a Closure Inside a switch Statement? Closures are objects that implement the eo?]oa method in f]r]*h]jc*K^fa_p, which is injected by the GDK. This means that they can be used as classifiers in osep_d statements, as shown in Listing 5-14. Listing 5-14. Using Closures Inside a osep_d Statement `abk``9w osep_d$ep%w _]oawep!.99-y6napqnjpnqa7^na]g `ab]qhp6napqnjb]hoa y y ]ooanpk``$/%99pnqa ]ooanpk``$0%99b]hoa CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES 109 5-14. How Do I Get More Information About the Parameters Passed to a Closure? The ?hkoqna class makes available a few useful methods to get more information about the closure itself: how many parameters it can take and what their types are (if declared), as in Listing 5-15. Listing 5-15. Getting More Information About the Parameters Passed to a Closure `ab_hkoqna9wejp](^):]'^y _9_hkoqna ]ooanp_*capI]teiqiJqi^anKbL]n]iapano$%99. `abl]n]io9_hkoqna*capL]n]iapanPulao$% ]ooanpl]n]ioW,Yejejp ]ooanpl]n]ioW-Y]oK^fa_p 5-15. How Do I Use Closures Inside a Map? You can use a closure as a key in a map, as in Listing 5-16. Listing 5-16. Using Closures as Keys in a Map gau9wr]hqa):lnejphjr]hqay `abi9W$gau%61Y ]ooanpiWgauY991 ]ooanpi*cap$gau%991 ]ooanpi*gau99jqhh Notice how you need to surround the closure’s name with parentheses when using it inside a map. This is necessary because you don’t want the map to think that the closure is a string. Also notice that using dot (*) notation will give you back jqhh because the key is treated as a string (which in this example doesn’t exist). You can also use a closure as a value in a map, as shown in Listing 5-17. Listing 5-17. Using Closures as Values in a Map `abr]hqa9wlnejphj#r]hqa#y `abi.9Wgau6r]hqaY i.*gau*_]hh$% CHAPTER 5 N CLOSURES110 5-16. How Do I Use Closures with Files? The enhanced f]r]*ek*Beha class in the GDK has plenty of new methods that accept a closure as an argument. For example: sa]_dBeha accepts a closure that is invoked on each file in the given directory. sa]_dHeja accepts a closure that is invoked on each line of the given file. solhepA]_dHeja accepts a closure that is invoked on each line split by the given separator. I encourage you to check the API of the Beha class in the GDK at dppl6++cnkkru* _k`ad]qo*knc+cnkkru)f`g. Listing 5-18 illustrates some ways of using closures with files. Listing 5-18. Using Closures with Files `ena_pknu9jasBeha$?6XXpailXX% `ena_pknu*a]_d@enwlnejphjepy++Lnejpoa]_d`ena_pknuqj`anpdacerajhk_]pekj `ena_pknu*a]_d@enNa_qnoawlnejphjepy++Lnejpoa]_d`ena_pknuna_qnoerahu ++Lnejpoa]_d`ena_pknupd]pi]p_daopdacerajbehpan `ena_pknu*a]_d@enI]p_d$paop%wlnejphjepy beha9jasBeha$`ena_pknu*]^okhqpaL]pd'Beha*oal]n]pkn'paop*ptp% beha*a]_dHejawlnejphjepy++Lnejpoa]_dhejaejpdabeha Summary Closures are such important and powerful constructs in Groovy that I felt I had to dedicate a whole chapter to them. They may seem strange at first, but if you study the examples in this chapter, you will find using them extremely intuitive and easy. In this chapter, I defined what closures are, explained why you need them, and showed you the most common techniques you will need to know when dealing with them. The next chapter talks about builders, another extremely productive tool that Groovy makes available to programmers. 111 CHAPTER 6 Builders Builders are a fine example of Groovy’s dynamic capabilities. By using builders, you can build treelike structures, where your code resembles the structure you are trying to build. Treelike structures are common constructs in applications. File systems, HTML and XML documents, GUIs, and any other hierarchical structure that can be represented as a tree of connected nodes are examples of treelike structures. Groovy enables you to avoid any code duplication when building such structures, and by looking at the resulting code, you can easily visualize the structure you are trying to build. This chapter introduces you to the different kinds of builders that Groovy offers and shows you how to write your own builder. 6-1. What Are Builders? Builders are helper classes of type cnkkru*qpeh*>qeh`anOqllknp. Groovy offers a few build- ers to help you write treelike structures. The ones I cover in this chapter are as follows: sI]ngql>qeh`an: Helps you create HTML and XML documents sJk`a>qeh`an: Helps you write trees of nodes that handle arbitrary data sK^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an: Helps you write graphs of beans that follow the JavaBean convention s=jp>qeh`an: Helps you write Ant tasks sOsejc>qeh`an: Helps you write Swing widgets In addition to covering the built- in Groovy builders, I will show you how to write your own builder for building JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) objects. Builders can be used to create domain- specific languages (DSLs). For example, Osejc>qeh`an is in the domain of UIs, I]ngql>qeh`an is in the domain of text structures, and =jp>qeh`an is in the domain of task automation. You can use Groovy builders to create DSLs in other domains such as data persistence, mathematics, physics, chemistry, or geography. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS112 6-2. Why Do I Need Builders? It’s important to understand that there is nothing you can do with builders that you can’t do with Java. It’s also true, however, that there is nothing you can do with Java or any other language that you can’t do with assembly language or machine code. Using higher- level languages and features makes it much easier, faster, and less error- prone to perform common tasks—such as building objects. Builders make the common task of building treelike structures a whole lot easier and faster. Builders have a few more advantages too. For a start, they enable you to avoid the massive code duplication associated with building treelike structures in Java. If you cre- ate such structures in Java, you usually end up with many repetitive calls to methods such as _na]paJk`a, ]llaj`?deh`, and oapL]najp. Second, builders enable you to easily visualize the structure you are trying to build by simply looking at your code. By using Groovy’s excellent dynamic capabilities, you can give your code the same hierarchical structure as the data it generates. Such resemblance is usually lost in Java because the code hierarchy doesn’t necessarily map to the resulting tree, which makes it easier to make mistakes when creating complex structures. To illustrate the previous two points, I will present the code necessary to create a sim- ple XML document and output it to the screen in both Java and Groovy. Listing 6-1 shows the XML document I am trying to create. Listing 6-1. Sample XML Document 8]qpdkno: 8]qpdknj]ia9#>]od]n=^`qhF]s]`#: 8^kkgpepha9#Cnkkru]j`Cn]ehoNa_elao#a`epekj9#-#+: 8+]qpdkn: 8]qpdknj]ia9#Cn]aiaNk_dan#: 8^kkgpepha9#Pda@abejeperaCqe`apkCn]eho#a`epekj9#.#+: 8+]qpdkn: 8+]qpdkno: I’ll start with the Java code necessary to create this document. I’ll be using the Docu- ment Object Model (DOM) API, as shown in Listing 6-2. Listing 6-2. Creating XML by Using DOM in Java l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,27 eilknpf]r]t*tih*l]noano*@k_qiajp>qeh`an7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*l]noano*@k_qiajp>qeh`anB]_pknu7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*l]noano*L]noan?kjbecqn]pekjAt_alpekj7 CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 113 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*Naoqhp7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*Okqn_a7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*Pn]jobknian7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*Pn]jobknianB]_pknu7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*`ki*@KIOkqn_a7 eilknpf]r]t*tih*pn]jobkni*opna]i*Opna]iNaoqhp7 eilknpknc*s/_*`ki*@k_qiajp7 eilknpknc*s/_*`ki*Ahaiajp7 lq^he__h]ooTIH>qeh`anw lq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco%w pnuw @k_qiajp>qeh`anB]_pknub]_pknu9@k_qiajp>qeh`anB]_pknu*jasEjop]j_a$%7 @k_qiajp>qeh`anl]noan9b]_pknu*jas@k_qiajp>qeh`an$%7 @k_qiajp`k_9l]noan*jas@k_qiajp$%7 Ahaiajpnkkp9`k_*_na]paAhaiajp$]qpdkno%7 `k_*]llaj`?deh`$nkkp%7 Ahaiajp]qpdkn9`k_*_na]paAhaiajp$]qpdkn%7 ]qpdkn*oap=ppne^qpa$j]ia(>]od]n=^`qhF]s]`%7 Ahaiajp^kkg9`k_*_na]paAhaiajp$^kkg%7 ^kkg*oap=ppne^qpa$pepha(Cnkkru]j`Cn]ehoNa_elao%7 ^kkg*oap=ppne^qpa$a`epekj(-%7 ]qpdkn*]llaj`?deh`$^kkg%7 nkkp*]llaj`?deh`$]qpdkn%7 ]qpdkn9`k_*_na]paAhaiajp$]qpdkn%7 ]qpdkn*oap=ppne^qpa$j]ia(Cn]aiaNk_dan%7 ^kkg9`k_*_na]paAhaiajp$^kkg%7 ^kkg*oap=ppne^qpa$pepha(Pda@abejeperaCqe`apkCn]eho%7 ^kkg*oap=ppne^qpa$a`epekj(.%7 ]qpdkn*]llaj`?deh`$^kkg%7 nkkp*]llaj`?deh`$]qpdkn%7 Pn]jobknianB]_pknupn]jB]_pknu9Pn]jobknianB]_pknu*jasEjop]j_a$%7 Pn]jobknian]Pn]jobknian9pn]jB]_pknu*jasPn]jobknian$%7 Okqn_aon_9jas@KIOkqn_a$`k_%7 Naoqhp`aop9jasOpna]iNaoqhp$Ouopai*kqp%7 ]Pn]jobknian*pn]jobkni$on_(`aop%7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y y y CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS114 I think we can all agree that this isn’t very pretty. It’s definitely a lot of coding to create such a simple XML document. I prefer to use JDOM (dppl6++sss*f`ki*knc) rather than the DOM API because JDOM is easier to use and requires less coding. However, both libraries suffer from the two problems I discussed before: s 0LENTYOFCODEDUPLICATION.OTICETHEREPEATEDCALLSTO]llaj`?deh`, _na]paAhaiajp, and oap=ppne^qpa. There is also a lot of boilerplate code required to get an instance of @k_qiajp and to output the generated XML to the screen. s 4HECODEDOESNTREALLYREFLECTTHEHIERARCHICALSTRUCTUREOFTHERESULTING8-, It’s easy to make mistakes and attach nodes to the wrong parent or child. As your document gets more and more complex, it will be harder to keep track of the hierarchy in the code. Now let’s look at how Groovy avoids such problems by using I]ngql>qeh`an. Listing 6-3 shows the Groovy code required to generate the same XML document. Listing 6-3. Using I]ngql>qeh`an to Create XML `ab^qeh`an9jascnkkru*tih*I]ngql>qeh`an$% ^qeh`an*]qpdknow ]qpdkn$j]ia6#>]od]n=^`qhF]s]`#%w ^kkg$pepha6#Cnkkru]j`Cn]ehoNa_elao#(a`epekj6-% y ]qpdkn$j]ia6#Cn]aiaNk_dan#%w ^kkg$pepha6#Pda@abejeperaCqe`apkCn]eho#(a`epekj6.% y y That’s definitely a great improvement in the number of lines required! Furthermore, you can visualize how the resulting XML will look just by inspecting the code. The code is directly related to your data, and the order of the elements in the code is the same as their order in the generated XML. There is no repetitive code needed to append children to their parents or unnecessary boilerplate code for getting an instance of @k_qiajp. This example outputs the result to the screen by default, and directing the output elsewhere is trivial. 6-3. How Do I Use MarkupBuilder to Build XML? In the previous recipe, I presented an example of using I]ngql>qeh`an to create a simple XML document and output it to the screen. In this recipe, I will present a slightly more complicated example of generating an XML document and writing it to a file. Listing 6-4 shows the sample XML document I am trying to create, which was obtained from CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 115 dppl6++sss*]heop]l]np*_ki+`+qoejctih+tih[qoao[]*dpih. The document has been short- ened a bit for the sake of brevity. Listing 6-4. A More Complex XML Document 8jqpnepekj: 8`]ehu)r]hqao: 8pkp]h)b]pqjepo9c:218+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]pqjepo9c:.,8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankhqjepo9ic:/,,8+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqiqjepo9ic:.0,,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^qjepo9c:/,,8+_]n^: 8be^anqjepo9c:.18+be^an: 8lnkpaejqjepo9c:1,8+lnkpaej: 8+`]ehu)r]hqao: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:=rk_]`k@el8+j]ia: 8ibn:Oqjju`]ha8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:.58+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9--,b]p9-,,+: 8pkp]h)b]p:--8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:/8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:18+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:.-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:.8+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:,8+_]: 8ba:,8+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:>]caho(JasUkngOpuha8+j]ia: 8ibn:Pdkilokj8+ibn: CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS116 8oanrejcqjepo9c:-,08+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9/,,b]p9/1+: 8pkp]h)b]p:08+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:-8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:,8+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:1-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:108+_]n^: 8be^an:/8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:--8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:48+_]: 8ba:.,8+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:>aabBn]jgbqnpan(Mq]npanLkqj`8+j]ia: 8ibn:=niep]ca8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:--18+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9/3,b]p9.5,+: 8pkp]h)b]p:/.8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:-18+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:218+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:--,,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:48+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-/8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:.8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:-8+_]: 8ba:28+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8+jqpnepekj: CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 117 Listing 6-5 shows the Groovy code necessary to produce such a document. Listing 6-5. A More Involved Example of Using I]ngql>qeh`an to Create XML eilknpcnkkru*tih*I]ngql>qeh`an _h]ooBkk`w Opnejcj]ia(ibn I]loanrejc(_]hkneao(rep]iejo(iejan]ho ejppkp]hB]p(o]pqn]pa`B]p(_dkhaopankh(ok`eqi(_]n^(be^an(lnkpaej y `abbkk`>qeh`an$^qeh`an(bkk`%w ^qeh`an*#bkk`# wj]ia$bkk`*j]ia% ibn$bkk`*ibn% oanrejc$qjepo6bkk`*oanrejc*qjepo(bkk`*oanrejc*r]hqa% _]hkneao$pkp]h6bkk`*_]hkneao*pkp]h(b]p6bkk`*_]hkneao*b]p% #pkp]h)b]p#$bkk`*pkp]hB]p% #o]pqn]pa`)b]p#$bkk`*o]pqn]pa`B]p% _dkhaopankh$bkk`*_dkhaopankh% ok`eqi$bkk`*ok`eqi% _]n^$bkk`*_]n^% be^an$bkk`*be^an% lnkpaej$bkk`*lnkpaej% rep]iejow bkk`*rep]iejo*a]_dw ep*gau$ep*r]hqa%y y iejan]how bkk`*iejan]ho*a]_dw ep*gau$ep*r]hqa%y y y y Bkk`bkk`-9jasBkk`$j]ia6#=rk_]`k@el#(ibn6#Oqjju`]ha#( oanrejc6W#qjepo#6#c#(#r]hqa#6.5Y( _]hkneao6W#pkp]h#6--,(#b]p#6-,,Y( pkp]hB]p6--(o]pqn]pa`B]p6/(_dkhaopankh61(ok`eqi6.-,(_]n^6.( be^an6,(lnkpaej6-( rep]iejo6W#]#6,(#_#6,Y( iejan]ho6W#_]#6,(#ba#6,Y% CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS118 Bkk`bkk`.9jasBkk`$j]ia6#>]caho(JasUkngOpuha#(ibn6#Pdkilokj#( oanrejc6W#qjepo#6#c#(#r]hqa#6-,0Y( _]hkneao6W#pkp]h#6/,,(#b]p#6/1Y( pkp]hB]p60(o]pqn]pa`B]p6-(_dkhaopankh6,(ok`eqi61-,(_]n^610( be^an6/(lnkpaej6--( rep]iejo6W#]#6,(#_#6,-Y( iejan]ho6W#_]#64(#ba#6.,Y% Bkk`bkk`/9jasBkk`$j]ia6#>aabBn]jgbqnpan(Mq]npanLkqj`#(ibn6#=niep]ca#( oanrejc6W#qjepo#6#c#(#r]hqa#6--1Y( _]hkneao6W#pkp]h#6/3,(#b]p#6.5,Y( pkp]hB]p6/.(o]pqn]pa`B]p6-1(_dkhaopankh621(ok`eqi6--,,(_]n^64( be^an6,(lnkpaej6-/( rep]iejo6W#]#6,(#_#6.Y( iejan]ho6W#_]#6-(#ba#62Y% `absnepan9jasBehaSnepan$#?6XXpailXXbkk`*tih#% `ab^qeh`an9jascnkkru*tih*I]ngql>qeh`an$snepan% ^qeh`an*jqpnepekjw #`]ehu)r]hqao#w #pkp]h)b]p#$qjepo6#c#(21% #o]pqn]pa`)b]p#$qjepo6#c#(.,% #_dkhaopankh#$qjepo6#ic#(/,,% #ok`eqi#$qjepo6#ic#(.0,,% #_]n^#$qjepo6#c#(/,,% #be^an#$qjepo6#c#(.1% #lnkpaej#$qjepo6#c#(1,% y bkk`>qeh`an$^qeh`an(bkk`-% bkk`>qeh`an$^qeh`an(bkk`.% bkk`>qeh`an$^qeh`an(bkk`/% y In Listing 6-5, I avoid duplicating the code necessary to create the different food ele- ments by creating a separate Bkk` class that will hold all of the food properties (which map to XML elements). I then create a closure that will build the food elements and call it three times inside the main builder, passing a different Bkk` instance to it each time. Notice how trivial it is to send the output to the file system instead of the console; you simply pass an instance of BehaSnepan to the constructor of I]ngql>qeh`an. Also note that I had to surround some method names with single quotes when they contained special characters, for example, the hyphen in #pkp]h)b]p#. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 119 6-4. How Do I Use MarkupBuilder to Build HTML? I]ngql>qeh`an can be used to build any text with tags; therefore, it can be easily used to create HTML documents. The HTML tags generated are always well balanced and nested. I]ngql>qeh`an also takes care of replacing certain characters with their HTML equivalent, such as replacing " with the "]il7 entity. As an example, I use I]ngql>qeh`an to create the HTML document shown in Figure 6-1. Figure 6-1. Sample HTML document generated by I]ngql>qeh`an The HTML code is shown in Listing 6-6. Listing 6-6. Sample HTML Document 8dpih: 8da]`: 8pepha:I]ngql>qeh`anat]ilha8+pepha: 8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8d-:Cajan]npa`^uI]ngql>qeh`an8+d-: 8bknij]ia9ejlqp]_pekj9iapdk`9cap: I]ha6 8ejlqppula9n]`ekj]ia9Oatr]hqa9I]ha_da_ga`9_da_ga`+: 8^n+: CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS120 Bai]ha6 8ejlqppula9n]`ekj]ia9Oatr]hqa9Bai]ha+: 8^n+:8^n+: 8ejlqppula9oq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iep+: 8+bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Listing 6-7 shows the Groovy code necessary to generate this HTML document. Listing 6-7. Using I]ngql>qeh`anto Generate HTML `absnepan9jasBehaSnepan$#?6XXpailXXpaop*dpih#% `abdpih9jascnkkru*tih*I]ngql>qeh`an$snepan% dpih*dpihw da]`w pepha#I]ngql>qeh`anat]ilha# y ^k`uw d-#Cajan]pa`^uI]ngql>qeh`an# bkni$j]ia6#ejlqp#(]_pekj6##(iapdk`6#cap#%w #ol]j##I]ha6# ejlqp$pula6#n]`ek#(j]ia6#Oat#(r]hqa6#I]ha#(_da_ga`6#_da_ga`#% ^n$% #ol]j##Bai]ha6# ejlqp$pula6#n]`ek#(j]ia6#Oat#(r]hqa6#Bai]ha#% ^n$##% ejlqp$pula6#oq^iep#(r]hqa6#Oq^iep#% y y y 6-5. How Do I Use NodeBuilder to Build a Tree of Objects? Remember that builders can be used to create any kind of treelike structure. Groovy offers a helper class called Jk`a>qeh`an that enables you to create a tree of connected objects. Jk`a>qeh`an can be used in place of creating separate business entities because it can con- struct objects and their relationships dynamically during runtime. To illustrate the idea, I am going to build the runtime structure depicted in Figure 6-2. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 121 Figure 6-2. A runtime representation of connected objects The code is shown in Listing 6-8. Listing 6-8. Using Jk`a>qeh`an to Build a Graph of Connected Objects `ab^qeh`an9jasJk`a>qeh`an$% `ab_kil]ju9^qeh`an*_kil]juw `alp$j]ia6#EP#%w ailhkuaa$j]ia6#=h]j#% ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Opara#% y `alp$j]ia6#=__kqjpejc#%w ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Haohea#% ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Naja#% y y You can easily query the graph by using GPaths—for example, to print the names of all departments, you use this code: _kil]ju*`alp*a]_dw lnejphjep*#qeh`an is used to create graphs of beans that follow JavaBeans’ convention. It is important to understand the difference between K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an and Jk`a>qeh`an. When using K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an, unlike Jk`a>qeh`an, you statically define your business entities first. K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an can then be used to create instances of these classes dur- ing runtime, following the relationships you had defined in them. To illustrate the idea, I will statically create the classes I’ve built dynamically in Recipe 6- 5. The code is shown in Listing 6-9. Listing 6-9. GroovyBeans to Demonstrate K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an _h]oo?kil]juw Heop`alpo9WY y _h]oo@alpw `abj]ia Heopailhkuaao9WY y _h]ooAilhkuaaw `abj]ia y Using K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an, you can now reproduce the same structure as in Figure 6-2, as shown in Listing 6-10. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 123 Listing 6-10. Using K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an to Build a Tree of Connected Objects `ab^qeh`an9jasK^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an$_h]ooHk]`an6cap?h]oo$%*_h]ooHk]`an% `ab_kil]ju9^qeh`an*_kil]juw `alp$j]ia6#EP#%w ailhkuaa$j]ia6#=h]j#% ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Opara#% y `alp$j]ia6#=__kqjpejc#%w ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Haohea#% ailhkuaa$j]ia6#Naja#% y y As in Recipe 6- 5, you can query the graph by using GPaths. To print all the depart- ments in the company, you would use the following code: _kil]ju*`alpo*a]_dw lnejphjep*j]ia y Notice that _kil]ju is an instance of the ?kil]ju class and not of K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an. Therefore, you don’t need to use the map notation to access its properties. Here is the code to find all departments where Leslie works: `alp9_kil]ju*`alpo*cnalwep*ailhkuaao*]juwep*j]ia99#Haohea#yy*j]ia ]ooanp`alp99W#=__kqjpejc#Y 6-7. How Do I Use AntBuilder to Write Ant Tasks? Ant is a build tool from Apache that simplifies building Java projects and automates com- mon build tasks. A discussion of Ant is beyond the scope of this book, and this section assumes that you are already somewhat familiar with Ant. If you are not, I recommend reading Ant’s online documentation at dppl6++]jp*]l]_da*knc+i]jq]h+ej`at*dpih. Ant build files are typically written in XML. Groovy offers a helper class called =jp>qeh`an that enables you to write Ant build files by using Groovy instead of XML. Using Groovy instead of clumsy and long- winded XML enables you to easily include logic in your build scripts. When Ant parses an XML build file, Ant builds Java objects from the elements it iter- ates through and uses its Java API to execute the build tasks. It is important to understand that =jp>qeh`an works the same way. It doesn’t convert your Groovy code into an XML CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS124 build file and feed it to Ant. Instead, it maps your Groovy code into Ant’s Java objects and builds the same object structure that Ant builds. As an example of using =jp>qeh`an, consider the Ant build file in XML that is shown in Listing 6-11. The file simply outputs some code to a Java file, compiles it, and then runs it. Listing 6-11. Sample Ant Build File 8lnkfa_pj]ia9_kilehaF]r]?h]oo`ab]qhp9_kileha: 8p]ncapj]ia9_kileha: 8a_dkbeha9DahhkSknh`*f]r]: _h]ooDahhkSknh`wlq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco% wOuopai*kqp*lnejphj$DahhkSknh`%7yy 8+a_dk: 8f]r]_on_`en9*ej_hq`ao9DahhkSknh`*f]r]bkng9pnqa+: 8f]r]_h]ool]pd9*_h]ooj]ia9DahhkSknh`bkng9pnqa+: 8a_dk:@kja8+a_dk: 8+p]ncap: 8+lnkfa_p: You can achieve the same result by using Groovy’s =jp>qeh`an, as shown in Listing 6-12. Listing 6-12. Using =jp>qeh`an `ab]jp9jas=jp>qeh`an$% ]jp*a_dk$beha6#DahhkSknh`*f]r]#(### _h]ooDahhkSknh`wlq^he_op]pe_rke`i]ej$OpnejcWY]nco% wOuopai*kqp*lnejphj$DahhkSknh`%7yy ###% ]jp*f]r]_$on_`en6#*#(ej_hq`ao6#DahhkSknh`*f]r]#(bkng6#pnqa#% ]jp*f]r]$_h]ool]pd6#*#(_h]ooj]ia6#DahhkSknh`#(bkng6#pnqa#% ]jp*a_dk$#@kja#% Groovy comes with a bundled version of Ant, so you don’t need any external depen- dencies to make the example in Listing 6-12 work. It is fairly straightforward to convert an Ant XML build file to Groovy’s =jp>qeh`an: 1. Ant tasks map to =jp>qeh`an method names (for example, a_dk maps to ]jp*a_dk). 2. Ant task attributes are passed as a map to =jp>qeh`an methods (for example, 8f]r]_on_`en9*: is mapped to ]jp*f]r]_$on_`en6#*#%). 3. Nested tasks are defined as closures. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 125 There are other ways you can use Ant with Groovy. You can use the 8cnkkru: Ant task inside your Ant build files to directly embed Groovy code and classes. You can also com- pile your Groovy files as part of the build process by using the 8cnkkru_: task. Furthermore, there is a Groovy module called Gant (dppl6++c]jp*_k`ad]qo*knc) that enables you to write Ant tasks in Groovy without using =jp>qeh`an and with an even simpler syntax. 6-8. How Do I Use SwingBuilder to Create Swing Widgets? Swing is an API from Sun that helps you write GUIs for the desktop. A discussion of Swing is beyond the scope of this book, and the next few recipes on Osejc>qeh`an assume that you are somewhat familiar with Swing. If you are not, there are plenty of resources on the subject—for example, check out Sun’s Swing tutorial at dppl6++f]r]*oqj*_ki+`k_o+^kkgo+ pqpkne]h+qeosejc. You are going to truly appreciate how much code builders save you from writing when working with Osejc>qeh`an. Osejc>qeh`an is a helper class for developing Swing applications. Swing is a complex beast and can be a bit intimidating at first. Osejc>qeh`an helps remove a lot of the complexity from Swing, and the resulting code is much shorter and closer to the hierarchy of the widgets in the container. Suppose, for example, that you want to create the GUI in Figure 6-3. Figure 6-3. A Swing GUI showing a color picker Listing 6-13 shows the required code. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS126 Listing 6-13. Building a Simple GUI with Osejc>qeh`an eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#>qehpsepdOsejc>qeh`an#%w iajq>]nw iajq$#Dahl#%w iajqEpai#=^kqp# y y l]jahw h]^ah#Oaha_p]_khkn# _khkn?dkkoan$% y y bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% Osejc>qeh`an can be used to create views, actions, models, layout managers, and con- straints. The previous example shows how to create a Swing view (the plain widgets that represent the view). In the next four recipes, I show you how to create the rest of Swing components. Osejc>qeh`an creates widgets by using a call to factory methods. For example, a call to h]^ah will create an instance of FH]^ah. Properties are set by using a map passed to the fac- tory methods. For example, h]^ah#Oaha_p]_khkn# will set the patp attribute by default on the FH]^ah instance. It is equivalent to h]^ah$patp6#Oaha_p]_khkn#% or to h]^ah$#Oaha_p ]_khkn#%. The closure’s nesting structure determines the inclusion of widgets on its parent con- tainer. For example: l]jahw h]^ah#Oaha_p]_khkn# y The h]^ah is now a child of the l]jah. You don’t have to add the h]^ah to the l]jah explicitly as you do in Java. Similarly, to create a menu bar with one menu that includes one item, you use the following: iajq>]nw iajq$#Dahl#%w iajqEpai#=^kqp# y y CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 127 Table 6-1 lists all the factory methods in Osejc>qeh`an for creating Swing widgets and their equivalent Java classes. Please refer to Swing’s API documentation at dppl6++f]r]* oqj*_ki+f.oa+-*0*.+`k_o+]le+f]r]t+osejc+l]_g]ca)oqii]nu*dpih for the list of supported properties you can pass to each widget. Table 6-1. Osejc>qeh`an’s Factory Methods for Creating Swing Widgets Osejc>qeh`an Factory Method Java Class Root Windows and Stand- Alone Containers `e]hkc F@e]hkc bn]ia FBn]ia sej`ks FSej`ks Embeddable Windows _khkn?dkkoan F?khkn?dkkoan beha?dkkoan FBeha?dkkoan klpekjL]ja FKlpekjL]ja Containers `aogpklL]ja F@aogpklL]ja ejpanj]hBn]ia FEjpanj]hBn]ia h]uana`L]ja FH]uana`L]ja l]jah FL]jah o_nkhhL]ja FO_nkhhL]ja olhepL]ja FOlhepL]ja p]^^a`L]ja FP]^^a`L]ja pkkh^]n FPkkh>]n reaslknp FReasLknp Menus _da_g^ktIajqEpai F?da_g>ktIajqEpai iajq FIajq iajq>]n FIajq>]n iajqEpai FIajqEpai lklqlIajq FLklqlIajq n]`ek>qppkjIajqEpai FN]`ek>qppkjIajqEpai continued CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS128 Table 6-1. Continued Osejc>qeh`an Factory Method Java Class Widgets ^qppkj F>qppkj _da_g^kt F?da_g>kt _ki^k>kt F?ki^k>kt a`epknL]ja FA`epknL]ja bkni]ppa`PatpBeah` FBkni]ppa`PatpBeah` h]^ah FH]^ah heop FHeop l]ooskn`Beah` FL]ooskn`Beah` lnkcnaoo>]n FLnkcnaoo>]n n]`ek>qppkj FN]`ek>qppkj o_nkhh>]n FO_nkhh>]n oal]n]pkn FOal]n]pkn ohe`an FOhe`an olejjan FOlejjan p]^ha FP]^ha patp=na] FPatp=na] patpL]ja FPatpL]ja patpBeah` FPatpBeah` pkccha>qppkj FPkccha>qppkj pnaa FPnaa 6-9. How Do I Use Layout Managers with SwingBuilder? You can use layout managers with Osejc>qeh`an in two ways: either by setting the h]ukqp and _kjopn]ejpo properties on the widgets themselves or by using nested method calls. In this recipe, I demonstrate both ways with examples. Suppose you want to create the GUI in Figure 6-4 that uses the Cne`>]cH]ukqp manager. Listing 6-14 shows how to use h]ukqp and _kjopn]ejpo properties on Swing widgets to create the GUI in Figure 6-4. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 129 Figure 6-4. A GUI that uses the Cne`>]cH]ukqp manager Listing 6-14. Using Layout Managers with Osejc>qeh`an eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an eilknpf]r]t*osejc*Osejc?kjop]jpo eilknpf]r]*]sp*& osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#Cne`H]ukqp@aik#%w l]jah$h]ukqp6cne`>]cH]ukqp$%%w h]^ah$patp6H]^ah(dknevkjp]h=hecjiajp6Osejc?kjop]jpo*?AJPAN( _kjopn]ejpo6c^_$cne`t6,(cne`u6,(cne`se`pd6Cne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo*NAI=EJ@AN( behh6Cne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo*DKNEVKJP=H(ejoapo6W,(-,(-,(-,Y%% ^qppkj$patp6>qppkj(_kjopn]ejpo6c^_$cne`t6,(cne`u6-%% y y bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% In Listing 6-14, I simply set the h]ukqp property on the l]jah to use the Cne`>]cH]ukqp manager. Similar to creating widgets, cne`>]cH]ukqp is a factory method in Osejc>qeh`an that creates an instance of Cne`>]cH]ukqp. The c^_ method is another factory method that creates an instance of Cne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo, which specifies the constraints on the component. Another way of using layout managers is using nested method calls, so instead of set- ting the h]ukqp property on the panel, you could have simply called cne`>]cH]ukqp inside the panel’s closure: l]jah$%w cne`>]cH]ukqp$% *** y CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS130 Similarly, you could have set the constraints on the button as follows: ^qppkj$patp6>qppkj% c^_w cne`t, cne`u- y Each factory method accepts a closure in which you can specify the created object’s properties. Table 6-2 lists all the factory methods on Osejc>qeh`an for laying out components along with their Java class/method equivalents. Table 6-2. Osejc>qeh`an’s Factory Methods for Laying Out Components Osejc>qeh`an Factory Method Java Class or Method ^kn`anH]ukqp >kn`anH]ukqp ^ktH]ukqp >ktH]ukqp _]n`H]ukqp ?]n`H]ukqp bhksH]ukqp BhksH]ukqp cne`>]cH]ukqp Cne`>]cH]ukqp cne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo Cne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo c^_ ]he]obknCne`>]c?kjopn]ejpo cne`H]ukqp Cne`H]ukqp kranh]uH]ukqp Kranh]uH]ukqp olnejcH]ukqp OlnejcH]ukqp ^kt >kt d^kt >kt*_na]paDknevkjp]h>kt dchqa >kt*_na]paDknevkjp]hChqa dopnqp >kt*_na]paDknevkjp]hOpnqp chqa >kt*_na]paChqa nece`=na] >kt*_na]paNece`=na] r^kt >kt*_na]paRanpe_]h>kt rchqa >kt*_na]paRanpe_]hChqa ropnqp >kt*_na]paRanpe_]hOpnqp CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 131 6-10. How Do I Add an Action to a Swing Widget? You can add an action to any Swing widget by passing a closure to the ]_pekjLanbknia` property of that widget. Figure 6-5 shows an example of a button that will print the con- tents of a text field to the output console when clicked. The code is shown in Listing 6-15. Figure 6-5. The button will output the text field’s content to the console when clicked. Listing 6-15. Adding an Action to a Swing Widget eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#=_pekj@aik#%w l]jah$%w iaoo]ca9patpBeah`$_khqijo6-,% ^qppkj$#Lnejppatp#(]_pekjLanbknia`6warajp):lnejphjiaoo]ca*patpy% y y bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% Notice how I assigned the patpBeah` instance to a variable in order to be able to call its capPatp method later, inside the button action. Suppose that instead of printing the text field’s content to the console, I want to dis- play it inside a FKlpekjL]ja. Your first attempt to do so will probably look like Listing 6-16. Listing 6-16. A Failed Attempt to Reference the Frame Inside the Button’s Action osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#=_pekj@aik#%w l]jah$%w iaoo]ca9patpBeah`$_khqijo6-,% ^qppkj$#Lnejppatp#(]_pekjLanbknia`6warajp):klpekjL]ja$bn]ia(iaoo]ca*patp%y% y y CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS132 bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% The code will not work, and nothing will happen when you click the button. The reason is that you are trying to reference the frame while it’s still being constructed, so it’s not avail- able yet. The solution is to move the button code outside the frame closure and call the se`cap method in its place, passing the button as an argument, as shown in Listing 6-17. Listing 6-17. Referencing the Frame in the Button Action Outside the Frame’s Closure eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an eilknpf]r]t*osejc*FKlpekjL]ja osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% ^qppkj9osejc*^qppkj$patp6#OdksPatp#(]_pekjLanbknia`6w FKlpekjL]ja*odksIaoo]ca@e]hkc$bn]ia(iaoo]ca*patp% y% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#=_pekj@aik#%w l]jah$%w iaoo]ca9patpBeah`$_khqijo6-,% se`cap$^qppkj% y y bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% 6-11. How Do I Share Actions Among Widgets? Suppose you have an action that you want to share among more than one widget. A good example is an action that can be triggered from a button or a menu item. Osejc>qeh`an uses the ]_pekj method to create an =_pekj object that can then be used inside the ]_pekj property of the widget. The following example creates a GUI with a text field, a button, and a menu with one menu item. Clicking either the button or the menu item will show the contents of the text field in a FKlpekjL]ja dialog box. Figure 6-6 shows the GUI, and Listing 6-18 shows the code. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 133 Figure 6-6. An action that is shared between a button and a menu item Listing 6-18. Sharing an Action Among More Than One Swing Widget eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an eilknpf]r]t*osejc*FKlpekjL]ja osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% odksPatp9osejc*]_pekj$j]ia6#OdksPatp#(_hkoqna6w FKlpekjL]ja*odksIaoo]ca@e]hkc$bn]ia(iaoo]ca*patp% y% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#=_pekj@aik#%w iajq>]nw iajq$#Pkkho#%w iajqEpai$#Odkspatp#(]_pekj6odksPatp% y y l]jah$%w iaoo]ca9patpBeah`$_khqijo6-,% se`cap$^qppkj% y y ^qppkj9osejc*^qppkj$patp6#OdksPatp#(]_pekj6odksPatp% bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% 6-12. How Do I Use Swing Models? Models are used to populate Swing widgets with data. An example of a model is P]^haIk`ah, which is used to supply a FP]^ha with its data. Just as with widgets and layout managers, Osejc>qeh`an provides factory methods for creating models. These methods are listed in Table 6-3. CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS134 Table 6-3. Osejc>qeh`an’s Factory Methods for Creating Models Osejc>qeh`an Factory Method Java Class ^kqj`a`N]jcaIk`ah >kqj`a`N]jcaIk`ah olejjan@]paIk`ah Olejjan@]paIk`ah olejjanHeopIk`ah OlejjanHeopIk`ah olejjanJqi^anIk`ah OlejjanJqi^anIk`ah p]^haIk`ah P]^haIk`ah p]^ha?khqij P]^ha?khqij lnklanpu?khqij P]^ha?khqij _hkoqna?khqij P]^ha?khqij Suppose you want to create the date spinner shown in Figure 6-7. Figure 6-7. A date spinner Listing 6-19 shows how simple it is to do so. Listing 6-19. Using @]paIk`ah with Osejc>qeh`an eilknpcnkkru*osejc*Osejc>qeh`an eilknpf]r]t*osejc*FKlpekjL]ja osejc9jasOsejc>qeh`an$% bn]ia9osejc*bn]ia$pepha6#@]paOlejjan#%w l]jah$%w h]^ah#@]pa# olejjan$ik`ah6olejjan@]paIk`ah$%% y y bn]ia*l]_g$% bn]ia*odks$% CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 135 6-13. How Do I Create My Own Builder? You can create your own builder in Groovy by extending the class cnkkru*qpeh* >qeh`anOqllknp. There are six abstract methods that you will need to implement: s_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(K^fa_pr]hqa(I]l]ppno%: Called when the builder hits a builder method with a name, value, and attributes. An example is bkk$#paopr]hqa#(]ppn-6r]hqa-(]ppno.6r]hqa.%. Here bkk is the method (or node) name, #paopr]hqa# is the value, and W]ppn-6r]hqa-(]ppn.6r]hqa.Y is the map of attributes. s_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(K^fa_pr]hqa%: Called when the builder hits a builder method with a name and value but with no attributes. An example is bkk$#paopr]hqa#%. s_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(I]l]ppno%: Called when the builder hits a builder method with a name and attributes but with no value. An example is bkk$]ppn-6r]hqa-( ]ppn.6r]hqa.%. s_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia%: Called when the builder hits a builder method with a name only. An example is bkk$%. soapL]najp$K^fa_pl]najp(K^fa_pjk`a%: Called when _na]paJk`a finishes. jk`a refers to the node that has just been returned from _na]paJk`a, and l]najp refers to its par- ent node. sjk`a?kilhapa`$K^fa_pl]najp(K^fa_pjk`a%: Called after oapL]najp completes and when all the nested nodes inside jk`a have completed. This is better explained with an example. In this example, I create a builder that will help build JSON objects. JSON is an interchange format similar to XML and is used to transmit data over a network.1 The syntax for JSON is pretty simple. Listing 6-20 shows an example. Listing 6-20. An Example of a JSON Representation w benopJ]ia6>]od]n( h]opJ]ia6=^`qhF]s]`( ]``naoo6w opnaap=``naoo61-1-A>nk]`s]u>hr`( _epu6Pq_okj( op]pa6=V( 1. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+FOKJ CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS136 _kil]ju6w j]ia6RIO( ailhkuaao6-,,,( ldkjaJqi^ano6W$1.,%.,.)/-,,($1.,%.,.)/-31Y y y y Even without knowing anything about JSON, you can still easily read the example in Listing 6-20. JSON data types can be a number, a string, a Boolean, an array, or an object. In Listing 6-20, benopJ]ia and h]opJ]ia are strings, ]``naoo is an object containing another object (_kil]ju), and ldkjaJqi^ano is an array of numbers. Before writing the builder, I first write the code that will use the builder to get a better understanding of how I want the builder to work. Listing 6-21 provides the testing code. Listing 6-21. Testing JSON Builder `abfOKJ^qeh`an9jasFOKJ>qeh`an$% fOKJ^qeh`anw benopJ]ia#>]od]n# h]opJ]ia#=^`qhF]s]`# ]``naoow opnaap=``naoo#1-1-A>nk]`s]u>hr`# _epu#Pq_okj# op]pa#=V# _kil]juw j]ia#RIO# ailhkuaao-,,, ldkjaJqi^ano$jqi^an-6$1.,%.,.)/-,,(jqi^an.6$1.,%.,.)/-31% y y y ]ooanpfOKJ^qeh`an*kqplqp*pkOpnejc$%*pnei$%99 w benopJ]ia6>]od]n( h]opJ]ia6=^`qhF]s]`( ]``naoo6w opnaap=``naoo61-1-A>nk]`s]u>hr`( _epu6Pq_okj( op]pa6=V( CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS 137 _kil]ju6w j]ia6RIO( ailhkuaao6-,,,( ldkjaJqi^ano6W$1.,%.,.)/-,,$1.,%.,.)/-31Yy y y*pnei$% Notice that in order to keep things simple, the builder will not properly indent the output. I leave it as an exercise for you to modify the builder to beautify the output. Listing 6-22 shows the code for the JSON builder. Listing 6-22. Creating a JSON Builder _h]ooJk`aw Opnejcr]hqa ^kkha]jeo?kjp]ejan ^kkha]jeoNkkp `abOpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjr]hqa y y _h]ooFOKJ>qeh`anatpaj`o>qeh`anOqllknpw `abkqplqp9jasOpnejc>qbban$wXj% `ab_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia%w napqnj_na]paJk`a$j]ia(jqhh(jqhh% y `ab_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(K^fa_pr]hqa%w napqnj_na]paJk`a$j]ia(jqhh(r]hqa% y `ab_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(I]l]ppno%w napqnj_na]paJk`a$j]ia(]ppno(jqhh% y `ab_na]paJk`a$K^fa_pj]ia(I]l]ppno(K^fa_pr]hqa%w `abjk`a9jasJk`a$% eb$_qnnajp%jk`a*eoNkkp9pnqa eb$jk`a*eoNkkp%w eb$jk`a*eoNkkp""r]hqa9jqhh%w kqplqp88 j]ia6 r]hqa(Xj y CHAPTER 6 N BUILDERS138 ahoaeb$jk`a*eoNkkp""r]hqa99jqhh""]ppno9jqhh%w kqplqp88 j]ia6W ]ppno*a]_dwgau(r]hqao): kqplqp88 r]hqao(y kqplqp88Y kqplqp*`ahapa?d]n=p$kqplqp*h]opEj`atKb$#(#%% y ahoaw jk`a*eo?kjp]ejan9pnqa kqplqp88 j]ia6wXj y y jk`a*r]hqa9j]ia napqnjjk`a y rke`oapL]najp$l]najp(jk`a%w y rke`jk`a?kilhapa`$l]najp(jk`a%w eb$jk`a*eo?kjp]ejan%w kqplqp*`ahapa?d]n=p$kqplqp*h]opEj`atKb$#(#%% kqplqp88y(Xj y eb$jk`a*eoNkkp%w kqplqp*`ahapa?d]n=p$kqplqp*h]opEj`atKb$#(#%% kqplqp88y y y y Summary Builders make the common tasks of building things easy and straightforward. I have demonstrated how much code they can save you from writing and how closely your code can resemble the hierarchy of the structure you are trying to build. Groovy comes with a few helper classes that help you create common structures: HTML, XML, Swing, Ant tasks, and object trees. If none of these classes satisfy your needs, you can easily create your own builder. The next chapter demonstrates how you can use Groovy to work with databases and SQL. 139 CHAPTER 7 Working with Databases Databases are used in many applications. Java enables developers to connect to and use a database via its Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API. But JDBC is not simple and requires a lot of coding to achieve the simplest of tasks such as connecting to a database, querying tables, and displaying results. Furthermore, the user is always responsible for managing resources, catching exceptions, and closing connections. Groovy makes working with databases simpler and more efficient by introducing the cnkkru*omh library package built on top of JDBC. The cnkkru*omh library also relieves the user of the burden of managing resources and connections, thanks to closures. In this chapter, I show you how to use Groovy to connect to a database, and how to perform create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operations on it, along with many other techniques. This chapter assumes basic knowledge of databases and JDBC. 7-1. How Do I Connect to a Database? Clearly, the first thing you need to do before working with a database is to connect to it. Groovy doesn’t come with a database but can connect to any database with a JDBC driver. If you already have the database installed and running, you will need to make sure that you have the JDBC driver on Groovy’s classpath. To make the JAR file available to Groovy, you have to place it inside the 8CNKKRU[DKIA:+he^ folder, where CNKKRU[DKIA points to your Groovy installation directory. Regardless of what database you choose to go with, you will always need to know four things before you can connect to it: s 4HEDATABASE52, s 4HEDATABASEUSERNAME s 4HEDATABASEPASSWORD s 4HEDATABASEDRIVERCLASSNAME All the examples in this chapter connect to a -Y31,DATABASEMySQL is the most pop- ULAROPENSOURCEDATABASEANDRUNSONAWIDERANGEOFPLATFORMS7INDOWS ,INUX CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES140 AND-AC -Y31,S#OMMUNITY3ERVERcan be downloaded for free from dppl6++`ar* iuomh*_ki+`ksjhk]`o+iuomh+1*,*dpih)ALSORECOMMENDDOWNLOADING-Y31,'5)4OOLS from dppl6++`ar*iuomh*_ki+`ksjhk]`o+cqe)pkkho+1*,*dpml. They include graphical tools for ADMINISTERINGYOURDATABASEANDBROWSINGYOURSCHEMA0LEASEREFERTO-Y31,SDOCU- mentation page at dppl6++`ar*iuomh*_ki+`k_+nabi]j+1*,+aj+ejop]hhejc*dpih if you need HELPINSTALLINGANDRUNNING-Y31, !SSUMINGYOUHAVE-Y31,RUNNINGSUCCESSFULLYANDTHE*$"#DRIVERISONYOUR classpath, I will show you how simple it is to connect to the database. In this example, I assume that you are trying to connect to a schema called _kil]ju with the username nkkp and with no password (please note that this is highly insecure and is shown here for learning purposes only).,ISTING SHOWSTHECODE Listing 7-1. Connecting to a Database in Groovy eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju(nkkp( (knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% 4HATSIT4HENAMEOFTHEDRIVERYOUUSETOCONNECTTO-Y31,ISknc*cfp*ii*iuomh* @neran. The jasEjop]j_a method will return an instance of cnkkru*omh*Omh, which is similar to a f]r]*omh*?kjja_pekj object in JDBC but with more methods. If you don’t pass the driver class name, the example will still work because Groovy CANGUESSTHEDRIVERCLASSNAMEFROMTHE52, eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju(nkkp(% The Omh class overloads the jasEjop]j_a method to allow you to pass additional prop- ERTIESUPONCONNECTIONIFNEEDED-Y31,OFFERSPLENTYOFCONFIGURATIONPROPERTIESSEE the reference manual online at dppl6++`ar*iuomh*_ki+`k_+nabi]j+1*,+aj+_kjja_pkn)f) nabanaj_a)_kjbecqn]pekj)lnklanpeao*dpih for a list of supported properties. 7-2. How Do I Use Connection Pooling? Using Omh’s jasEjop]j_a will connect to the database via JDBC’s @neranI]j]can. @neranI]j]can always creates a new connection to the database for each user without reusing any existing open connections—a time- and resource- consuming operation. This approach becomes impractical in applications with a large number of concurrent users. A preferable way to obtain a connection is to use a connection pool in which CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 141 open connections are stored for later use when no longer needed. Groovy automatically handles connection pooling for you and passes connections to and from the pool when needed. To use connection pooling, you will need to work with f]r]t*omh*@]p]Okqn_a instead of @neranI]j]can. Each database vendor provides its own implementation of @]p]Okqn_a. -Y31, FOREXAMPLE provides the class Iuomh?kjja_pekjLkkh@]p]Okqn_a inside the pack- age _ki*iuomh*f`^_*f`^_.*klpekj]h. ,ISTING SHOWSHOWYOUCANCONNECTTOTHE_kil]ju schema by using @]p]Okqn_a. Listing 7-2. Using Connection Pooling eilknp_ki*iuomh*f`^_*f`^_.*klpekj]h*& `ab`]p]Okqn_a9jasIuomh?kjja_pekjLkkh@]p]Okqn_a$% `]p]Okqn_a*QNH9#f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju# `]p]Okqn_a*qoan9#nkkp# `]p]Okqn_a*l]ooskn`9## _kjja_pekj9jascnkkru*omh*Omh$`]p]Okqn_a% A more common way of creating @]p]Okqn_as (especially when using application serv- ers such as Tomcat) is to look them up by using the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). This approach enables your program to easily migrate from one database to another, because developers don’t need to hard- code any database parameters. 7-3. How Do I Create a New Table? After you establish a connection to the database and have a reference to a cnkkru*omh*Omh INSTANCE EXECUTING31,STATEMENTSAGAINSTTHEDATABASEISJUSTAMATTEROFCALLING ata_qpa$#ukqnOMHdana#%. ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTOCREATEANailhkuaao table in the _kil]ju schema. Listing 7-3. Creating a New Table eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju(nkkp( (knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa### @NKLP=>HAEBATEOPOailhkuaao7 CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES142 ?NA=PAP=>HAailhkuaao$ e`>ECEJP$.,%JKPJQHH=QPK[EJ?NAIAJP( benopJ]iaR=N?D=N$20%( h]opJ]iaR=N?D=N$20%( LNEI=NUGAU$#e`#% %7 ### 4HE31,CODEWILLCHECKFIRSTWHETHERTHEailhkuaaoTABLEALREADYEXISTSIFSO THE code will drop it. The code will then create a new table with three columns: benopJ]ia, h]opJ]ia, and an e` column that will be the primary key. 0LEASENOTETHAT-Y31,BYDEFAULTDOESNTALLOWYOUTOEXECUTEMORETHANONE31, STATEMENTINASINGLEQUERYINORDERTOPROTECTTHEDATABASEFROM31,INJECTIONATTACKS To make the code in,ISTING WORK YOUWILLHAVETOSETTHE]hhksIqhpeMqaneao property to pnqa. You can do that in two ways: s 0ASSTHEPROPERTYINTHECONNECTION52, _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% s 3ETTHEPROPERTYINSIDEANINSTANCEOFf]r]*qpeh*lnklanpeao and pass that instance to an overloaded jasEjop]j_a method that accepts a lnklanpeao object, as shown in ,ISTING  Listing 7-4. Allowing Multiple SQL Queries in MySQL eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh `ablnklo9jasLnklanpeao$% lnklo*oapLnklanpu$qoan(nkkp% lnklo*oapLnklanpu$l]ooskn`(% lnklo*oapLnklanpu$]hhksIqhpeMqaneao(pnqa% _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju( lnklo(knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 143 7-4. How Do I Insert, Update, and Delete Data? Groovy enables you to easily perform CRUD operations on your data. This recipe shows you how to perform three of those operations: create, update, and delete. The fourth operation, read, is covered in the next recipe, because it is a little bit more involved. After you have created your tables, you will want to insert some data into them. Again, THISISJUSTAMATTEROFCALLINGTHEPROPER31,STATEMENTSINSIDETHEata_qpa method. For EXAMPLE THECODEIN,ISTING SHOWSHOWTO insert three employees in the ailhkuaao table. Listing 7-5. Inserting Data eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa### EJOANPEJPKailhkuaao$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia% R=HQAO$#>]od]n#(#=^`qh#%7 EJOANPEJPKailhkuaao$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia% R=HQAO$#Haohea#(#R]hajvqah]#%7 EJOANPEJPKailhkuaao$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia% R=HQAO$#O_kpp#(#Oac]h#%7 ### When you need to insert large amounts of data in your tables, this approach is not practical for two reasons: First, the code contains a lot of duplication. And second, it is not efficient because the JDBC driver needs to process each statement separately (parse it, optimize it, and create an execution plan). A better way is to use prepared statements, where values are replaced with placeholders (question marks). Using prepared statements ISMOREEFFICIENTBECAUSETHE*$"#DRIVERNEEDSTODOITSWORKONLYONCE,ISTING SHOWS HOWTOREWRITETHECODEIN,ISTING BYUSINGPREPAREDSTATEMENTS Listing 7-6. Using Prepared Statements eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% Opnejcopip9#EJOANPEJPKailhkuaao$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia%R=HQAO$;(;%7# _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(W#>]od]n#(#=^`qh#Y7 _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(W#Haohea#(#R]hajvqah]#Y7 _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(W#O_kpp#(#Oac]h#Y7 CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES144 You can also rewrite the example in a groovier way to avoid code duplication, as SHOWNIN,ISTING  Listing 7-7. Avoiding Code Duplication with Prepared Statements eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `abailhkuaao9 WW#>]od]n#(#=^`qh#Y(W#Haohea#(#R]hajvqah]#Y(W#O_kpp#(#Oac]h#YY Opnejcopip9#EJOANPEJPKailhkuaao$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia%R=HQAO$;(;%7# ailhkuaao*a]_dwailhkuaa): _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(ailhkuaa7 y Updating and deleting worksTHESAMEWAYASINSERTING,ISTING SHOWSHOWTO update one of the employee items I created earlier and then delete it. Listing 7-8. Updating and Deleting eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa QL@=PAailhkuaaoOAPh]opJ]ia9#Oa]cqhh#SDANAh]opJ]ia9#Oac]h#7 @AHAPAbnkiailhkuaaoSDANAh]opJ]ia9#Oa]cqhh#7  The ata_qpa method returns a Boolean indicating whether the statement has returned a NaoqhpOap. Omh also offers a method called ata_qpaQl`]pa, which returns the number of rows affected by the update. CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 145 7-5. How Do I Read Data from My Tables? Because reading from a database is SUCHACOMMONOPERATION 31,OFFERSPLENTYOFEASY and powerful ways of doing it. The following list presents some of the available methods: sa]_dNks: Accepts a 31,STRINGANDACLOSURETHATISCALLEDONEACHRETURNEDROWIN the result set smqanu!CCEPTSA31,string and a closure that is called only once on the returned result set snkso: ExecutesTHEGIVEN31,ANDRETURNSALLTHEROWSOFTHERESULTSETASALIST All the previous methods are overloaded to accept additional parameters. Please check the API docs at dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+c]le+cnkkru+omh+Omh*dpih for a com- plete list of supported methods. ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTRIVIALITISTOreturn all employees in the ailhkuaao table. Listing 7-9. Returning All Employees eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*nkso$oaha_pbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]iabnkiailhkuaao%*a]_dw lnejphj wep*benopJ]iay wep*h]opJ]iay y The nkso method will return a list of cnkkru*omh*NaoqhpOap objects. Cnkkru*omh*NaoqhpOap is a decorator around f]r]*omh*NaoqhpOap and enables you to call column names on the object as if they were properties. You can also refer to columns by using indices: _kjja_pekj*nkso$oaha_pbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]iabnkiailhkuaao%*a]_dw lnejphj wepW,Yy wepW-Yy y If for some reason you wish to work directly with Java’s NaoqhpOap, you can use the mqanuMETHODASSHOWNIN,ISTING  CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES146 Listing 7-10. Working with NaoqhpOap Directly eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*mqanu$#OAHA?P&bnkiailhkuaao#%wnaoqhpOap): sdeha$naoqhpOap*jatp$%%w lnejphj wnaoqhpOap*capOpnejc$#benopJ]ia#%y wnaoqhpOap*capOpnejc$#h]opJ]ia#%y y y Printing the rows to the console output is not that useful. Suppose you want to gener- ATETHE(4-,REPORTIN&IGURE FROMTHEailhkuaao table. Figure 7-1. Employees report You can use a]_dNks and Groovy’s I]ngql>qeh`an to achieve this task, as shown in ,ISTING  Listing 7-11. Creating an Employees Report eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 147 `absnepan9jasBehaSnepan$#?6XXpailXXailhkuaao*dpih#% `abdpih9jascnkkru*tih*I]ngql>qeh`an$snepan% dpih*dpih w da]`w pepha#AilhkuaaoP]^ha# y ^k`u w d-#Ailhkuaao# p]^ha$^kn`an6-%w pd$#benopj]ia#% pd$#h]opj]ia#% _kjja_pekj*a]_dNks$#oaha_pbenopJ]ia(h]opJ]iabnkiailhkuaao#% w ailhkuaa): pnw p`$ailhkuaa*benopJ]ia% p`$ailhkuaa*h]opJ]ia% y y y y y 7-6. How Do I Retrieve a Table’s Metadata? Metadata is data about data. A table’s metadata includes its name and information about its columns and their types. NaoqhpOap offers a method called capIap]@]p] that returns an instance of NaoqhpOapIap]@]p]. NaoqhpOapIap]@]p] can be used to obtain a table’s metadata, ASIN,ISTING  WHICHSHOWSINFORMATIONABOUTTHEailhkuaao table. Listing 7-12. Obtaining a Table’s Metadata eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh eilknpf]r]*omh*NaoqhpOapIap]@]p] _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa(nkkp( (knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES148 _kjja_pekj*mqanu$#OAHA?P&bnkiailhkuaao#%wnaoqhpOap): NaoqhpOapIap]@]p]iap]@]p]9naoqhpOap*iap]@]p] lnejphjP]^haj]iaeo'iap]@]p]*capP]^haJ]ia$-% bkn$eej,**8iap]@]p]*_khqij?kqjp%w lnejphj we'-y)' iap]@]p]*cap?khqijH]^ah$e'-%'6' iap]@]p]*cap?khqijPulaJ]ia$e'-% y y The preceding code will print the following: P]^haj]iaeoailhkuaao -)e`6>ECEJP .)benopJ]ia6R=N?D=N /)h]opJ]ia6R=N?D=N 7-7. How Do I Use DataSet? The class cnkkru*omh*@]p]Oap extends cnkkru*omh*Omh to enable you to perform some DATABASEOPERATIONSWITHOUTWRITINGANY31,CODE@]p]Oap supports inserting data into tables, retrieving rows, and creating views. You can obtain an instance of @]p]Oap in two ways: s 0ASSANINSTANCEOFckkru*omh*Omh and the table name you wish to work on to the @]p]Oap constructor: `]p]Oap9jas@]p]Oap$_kjja_pekj(#ailhkuaao#% s #ALL`]p]Oap$p]^haJ]ia% on a an instance of cnkkru*omh*Omh: `]p]oap9_kjja_pekj*`]p]Oap$#ailhkuaao#% ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTOadd a new employee to the ailhkuaao table. Listing 7-13. Using @]p]Oap for Insertion eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh eilknpcnkkru*omh*@]p]Oap CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 149 _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa (nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `]p]Oap9jas@]p]Oap$_kjja_pekj(#ailhkuaao#% `]p]Oap*]``$benopJ]ia6#=h]j#(h]opJ]ia6#Iep_dahh#% ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTOPRINT out all the employees in the ailhkuaao table. Listing 7-14. Using @]p]Oap for Retrieving Rows eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh eilknpcnkkru*omh*@]p]Oap _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `]p]Oap9jas@]p]Oap$_kjja_pekj(#ailhkuaao#% `]p]Oap*a]_dw lnejphj wep*benopJ]iay wep*h]opJ]iay y To see how many rows are in the @]p]Oap, you use the following6 `]p]Oap*nkso$%*oeva$% @]p]Oap offers a powerful bej`=hh method that accepts a closure specifying a filter to use. The bej`=hh method will return a new @]p]OapWITHANEW31,STATEMENTREFLECTING the filter passed. It is important to understand that calling bej`=hh will not execute any 31,ITWILLSIMPLYCREATEANEW@]p]OapWITHANEW31,QUERY4HIS31,ISEXECUTEDONLY when you call a]_d on the new @]p]Oap. ,ISTING SHOWSANEXAMPLEOFFINDINGALLEMPLOYEESWHOSEFIRSTNAMEISLeslie. NCaution Notice that if you try to run this example ( Listing 7-15) inside the Groovy console or Groovy shell, it will fail.1 In order for the example to work, you have to save this class on your file system and compile/run it with the cnkkru command, as shown in Figure 7-2. The filename must match the name of the class—in this case, it’s @]p]OapBehpan.  dppl6++fen]*_k`ad]qo*knc+^nksoa+CNKKRU).01, CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES150 Figure 7-2. Compiling and running the @]p]Oap bej`=hh example Listing 7-15. Using bej`=hh with @]p]Oap eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh eilknpcnkkru*omh*@]p]Oap lq^he__h]oo@]p]OapBehpanw op]pe_i]ej$]nco%w `ab_kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `ab`]p]Oap9jas@]p]Oap$_kjja_pekj(#ailhkuaao#% `abnaoqhpo9`]p]Oap*bej`=hh$wep*benopJ]ia99#Haohea#y% lnejphjnaoqhpo*omh naoqhpo*a]_dwlnejphjep*benopJ]iay y y You can also combine filters by using logical operators. For example: `abnaoqhpo9`]p]Oap*bej`=hh$ wep*benopJ]ia99#Haohea#xxep*benopJ]ia99#>]od]n#y% 4HISWILLRESULTINTHEFOLLOWING31,GENERATED oaha_p&bnkiailhkuaaosdana$benopJ]ia9;knbenopJ]ia9;% Because the closure you pass to bej`=hhWILLBEMAPPEDTO31,CODE YOUARELIMITED to what you can pass in. For example, the following code will fail because it doesn’t gen- ERATEVALID31, `abnaoqhpo9`]p]Oap*bej`=hh$wep*benopJ]ia*_d]n=p$,%99#H#y% CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 151 7-8. How Do I Use DataSet with Joined Tables? So far I have shown only examples of how to work with a single table. This is of course not practical, because in real life tables are usually related through foreign keys. Indeed, this is where the name relational database comes from! Continuing with the _kil]ju schema example, I will create a table that lists all the DEPARTMENTSINTHECOMPANY,ISTING SHOWSHOW to create the `alpo table. Listing 7-16. Creating a Departments Table eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa### @NKLP=>HAEBATEOPO`alpo7 ?NA=PAP=>HA`alpo$ `alpE`>ECEJP$.,%JKPJQHH=QPK[EJ?NAIAJP( j]iaR=N?D=N$20%( LNEI=NUGAU$#`alpE`#% %7 ### ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTO insert two departments in the `alpo table. Listing 7-17. Inserting a Couple of Departments eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% Opnejcopip9#EJOANPEJPK`alpo$j]ia%R=HQAO$;%7# _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(W#=__kqjpejc#Y7 _kjja_pekj*ata_qpaopip(W#EP#Y7 Each employee works in exactly one department, while a department can of course have more than one employee. Therefore, we have a many-to- one relationship from ailhkuaao to `alpo ASSHOWNIN&IGURE  CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES152 Figure 7-3. Relationship between employees and departments You will need to modify the ailhkuaao table to add `alpE` as a foreign key, as shown in ,ISTING  Listing 7-18. Adding a Foreign Key from `alpo to ailhkuaao eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa### =HPANP=>HAailhkuaao =@@`alpE`>ECEJP$.,%( =@@BKNAECJGAU$`alpE`%NABANAJ?AO`alpo$`alpE`% ### The employees still have no departments assigned to them.4HECODEIN,ISTING  will assign each employee to the correct department. Listing 7-19. Assigning Employees to Departments eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `ab]ooecjPk@alp$benopJ]ia(h]opJ]ia(`alpJ]ia% w _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa QL@=PAailhkuaaoOAP`alpE`9$OAHA?P`alpE`bnki`alpoSDANAj]ia9 `alpJ]ia% SDANAbenopJ]ia9 benopJ]ia=J@h]opJ]ia9 h]opJ]ia7  y CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES 153 ]ooecjPk@alp$#Haohea#(#R]hajvqah]#(#=__kqjpejc#% ]ooecjPk@alp$#O_kpp#(#Oac]h#(#EP#% ]ooecjPk@alp$#>]od]n#(#=^`qh#(#EP#% Suppose that I want to list all the departments with all their employees. I can read BOTHTABLESANDWRITETHE31,CODENECESSARYTOJOINTHEM BUTTHISCANBECUMBERSOME and won’t allow me to treat the generated result as a table. A better approach is to join BOTHTABLESINAVIEW ASSHOWNIN,ISTING  Listing 7-20. Creating a View from Joining Two Tables eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% _kjja_pekj*ata_qpa### @NKLREASEBATEOPO@alpAilhkuaao7 ?NA=PAREAS@alpAilhkuaao=O OAHA?P`alpo*`alpE@(`alpo*j]ia(ailhkuaao*benopJ]ia(ailhkuaao*h]opJ]ia( ailhkuaao*e`#AilhkuaaE`#BNKI`alpoEJJANFKEJailhkuaaoKJ `alpo*`alpE`9ailhkuaao*`alpE` ### I can now treat the @alpAilhkuaao view as if it were a table and query it with @]p]Oap. ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTOLISTALLTHEEMPLOYEESINTHE)4DEPARTMENT Listing 7-21. Using @]p]Oap with a View eilknpcnkkru*omh*Omh eilknpcnkkru*omh*@]p]Oap _kjja_pekj9Omh*jasEjop]j_a$ f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+_kil]ju;]hhksIqhpeMqaneao9pnqa( nkkp((knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran% `]p]Oap9_kjja_pekj*`]p]Oap$#@alpAilhkuaao#% `]p]Oap*a]_dw eb$ep*j]ia99#EP#% lnejphj ep y CHAPTER 7 N WORKING WITH DATABASES154 Summary Groovy deals easily and efficiently with everyday database tasks. It offers the cnkkru*omh package, which is built on top of JDBC and offers plenty of convenience methods for connecting to a database and performing CRUD operations. Furthermore, you no longer need to worry about writing boilerplate code for managing connections and catching exceptions. This leads to more- robust and shorter code. The next chapter shows you groovy ways of testing your code and of leveraging Groovy’s dynamic capabilities to make testing easier and more powerful. 155 CHAPTER 8 Testing with Groovy Testing your code is important, very important. It is hard to imagine releasing code to production nowadays if it hasn’t been adequately tested. Testing your application involves testing it at different levels: unit testing, integration testing, and systems test- ing. The most common way of unit testing Java code is to write JUnit tests. JUnit is the de facto Java testing framework and can be obtained for free from dppl6++sss*fqjep*knc. Almost all Java IDEs have integrated support for running JUnit tests. Given the importance of testing, Groovy already comes with a bundled version of JUnit, and assertions are a core part of the language. In addition, Groovy offers some helper classes built on top of JUnit that make writing tests even easier. You can easily run Groovy test suites from your favorite IDE or build tool such as Maven or Ant. Groovy also offers support for advanced testing techniques such as mocking and stubbing that enable you to easily test classes with many external dependencies in isolation. In this chapter, I present recipes that illustrate the different testing facilities offered by Groovy, with a focus on unit testing because it’s the most common form of testing. 8-1. How Do I Write an Inline Test in Groovy? If you have read any of the previous chapters in this book, you already know how to write an inline test in Groovy by using the ]ooanp keyword. Assertions in Groovy are a built- in feature of the language and are used to ensure that the code works as you expect and will throw an exception if the code behaves otherwise. An example of using ]ooanp is given in Listing 8-1 to test an implementation of the Fibonacci number1 algorithm. 1. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+Be^kj]__e[jqi^an CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY156 Listing 8-1. Writing an Inline Test in Groovy `abbe^kj]__e$`abj%w eb$j89-%napqnjj7 napqnjbe^kj]__e$j)-%'be^kj]__e$j).% y ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$,%99,(be^kj]__e$,%eoamq]hpk, ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$-%99-(be^kj]__e$-%eoamq]hpk- ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$.%99- ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$/%99. ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$0%99/ ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$1%991 ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$2%994 ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$-,%9911 ]ooanpbe^kj]__e$.,%992321 Running tests inline is useful, especially when learning Groovy or when performance is not a strict requirement. In some situations, however, embedding tests in your main code is not practical (for performance reasons), and it’s better to move the tests into a separate test class that doesn’t go to production. The next recipe shows how to do that. 8-2. How Do I Write a Test Class in Groovy? Groovy offers a subclass of fqjep*bn]iaskng*Paop?]oa called CnkkrPaop?]oa inside the cnkkru*qpeh package that is imported by default. CnkkrPaop?]oa adds additional ]ooanp methods that cover some common testing conditions. The full listing of assertions offered by this class can be found at dppl6++cnkkru*_k`ad]qo*knc+]le+cnkkru+qpeh+CnkkruPaop?]oa* dpih. You are not required to extend this class when writing unit tests in Groovy; you can still extend JUnit’s Paop?]oa if you wish to. Most Java IDEs offer support for writing and running Groovy unit tests. For example, to create a new Groovy unit test in Eclipse, click File ¢ New ¢ Other and type Groovy Unit Test in the wizard’s search box, as shown in Figure 8-1. Suppose I want to test a Groovy class that implements the bubble sort algorithm.2 The class will not sort a list that contains a null value and will throw an exception if passed one. To make things interesting, I have deliberately placed a tricky bug in the code and hope that my tests will catch it. Listing 8-2 shows the Groovy test class and the class under test. Notice that both classes can be in the same file, or (recommended) each class can reside in a separate file. 2. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+>q^^ha[oknp CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 157 Figure 8-1. Creating a new Groovy unit test in Eclipse Listing 8-2. Bubble Sort ++>q^^haOknpPaop*cnkkru _h]oo>q^^haOknpPaopatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`oapQl$%w ++=jupdejcdanasehhnqjkj_a^abknaa]_dpaop y rke`paopOknpHeop$%w ]ooanpAmq]ho$W-(-(.(/Y(>q^^haOknp*oknp$W/(-(.(-Y%% y rke`paopOknp>ecHeop$%w `abknecHeop9W1(0(.(0(-(00(--(.(4(3(1(/(.(-(0(3(1Y `aboknpa`Heop9W-(-(.(.(.(/(0(0(0(1(1(1(3(3(4(--(00Y ]ooanpAmq]ho$oknpa`Heop(>q^^haOknp*oknp$knecHeop%% y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY158 rke`paopOknpHeopKbOpnejco$%w `abknecHeop9WDahhk(Sknh`*(E(Ejpnk`q_a(Ukq(Pk(Cnkkru*Y `aboknpa`Heop9WCnkkru*(Dahhk(E(Ejpnk`q_a(Pk(Sknh`*(UkqY ]ooanpAmq]ho$oknpa`Heop(>q^^haOknp*oknp$knecHeop%% y rke`paopOknpHeopSepdJqhh$%w odkqh`B]eh$NqjpeiaAt_alpekj%w >q^^haOknp*oknp$W-(0(jqhh(.Y% y y y ++>q^^haOknp*cnkkru _h]oo>q^^haOknpw op]pe_Heopoknp$`abheop%w bkn$l]ooej-**8heop*oeva$%%w bkn$fej,**8heop*oeva$%)l]oo%w eb$heopWfY99jqhh% pdnksjasNqjpeiaAt_alpekj$?]j#poknp]heopsepdjqhhr]hqa% eb$heopWfY:heopWf'-Y%w `abpail9heopWfY heopWfY9heopWf'-Y heopWf'-Y9pail y y y napqnjheop y y You can run the test in Eclipse by right- clicking in the editor window and choosing Run As ¢ Groovy. The test results will be displayed in the console output window, as shown in Figure 8-2. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 159 Figure 8-2. Running a Groovy test in Eclipse Notice that you can’t run unit tests inside the Groovy console or Groovy shell. If you are not using an IDE, you can save the file(s) somewhere on your machine and run the test class with the cnkkru command as follows: cnkkru>q^^haOknpPaop **** Peia6,*-,2 KG$0paopo% The output looks identical to JUnit’s output. Remember that this is what Groovy uses to run the tests under the cover. So far all the tests have passed, so where is the bug that I was talking about? I failed to catch the bug because my tests didn’t cover all the boundary conditions (which are the ones most likely to cause bugs). The following test will fail and give us a hint where the bug might be: rke`paopOknpHeopSepdJqhh=pAj`$%w odkqh`B]eh$NqjpeiaAt_alpekj%w >q^^haOknp*oknp$W-(0(.(jqhhY% y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY160 And the result: Peia6,*,25 Pdanas]o-b]ehqna6 -%paopOknpHeopSepdJqhh=pAj`$>q^^haOknpPaop%fqjep*bn]iaskng*=ooanpekjB]eha`Annkn6 ?hkoqna>q^^haOknpPaop [paopOknpHeopSepdJqhh=pAj`[_hkoqna.<4.`/3 odkqh`d]rab]eha`sepd]jat_alpekjkbpulaf]r]*h]jc*NqjpeiaAt_alpekj I mentioned earlier that I want the bubble sort algorithm to fail when there is a null value in the list being sorted. Notice how, in the test I just added, jqhh is the last item in the list. The bug in my code is that if jqhh is the last value in the list being sorted, the sort- ing method will not fail and will not throw a NqjpeiaAt_alpekj. Because no exception is thrown, my paopOknpHeopSepdJqhh=pAj` test will fail. To fix the class, I simply add an additional kn statement inside the eb condition: ** eb$heopWfY99jqhhxxheopWf'-Y99jqhh% pdnksjasNqjpeiaAt_alpekj$?]j#poknp]heopsepdjqhhr]hqa% ** 8-3. How Do I Use Groovy to Test Java Code? One of the best ways to introduce Groovy to Java developers is to ask them to write Groovy unit tests for their Java code. You can write a Groovy test for any Java class that is in your classpath. Listing 8-3 shows how to write a test in Groovy to test the ^ej]nuOa]n_d method in the f]r]*qpeh*=nn]uo Java class. Listing 8-3. Testing a Java Class with Groovy _h]oo=nn]uoPaopatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw `abpaopHeop rke`oapQl$%w paopHeop9W1(/(0(-Y y rke`paop>ej]nuOa]n_d$%w ]ooanpAmq]ho$-(=nn]uo*^ej]nuOa]n_d$paopHeop*pk=nn]u$%(/%% y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 161 rke`paopOdkqh`Pdnks?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj$%w odkqh`B]eh$?h]oo?]opAt_alpekj%w =nn]uo*^ej]nuOa]n_d$paopHeop*pk=nn]u$%(/% y y y 8-4. How Do I Organize Tests into Suites and Run Them from My IDE? Tests are rarely run individually and are usually grouped together into suites. JUnit enables you to create test suites and add Java classes to them. Because Groovy files compile to Java bytecode, you can easily add your Groovy classes to JUnit’s test suites—as long as you are willing to compile them first with cnkkru_. If you are using Eclipse, you can create a test suite by choosing File ¢ New and typing JUnit Test Suite in the wizard search box. Listing 8-4 shows how to add >q^^haOknpPaop* _h]oo and =nn]uoPaop*_h]oo from Recipes 8- 2 and 8- 3, respectively, to a test suite. Listing 8-4. Adding Groovy Classes to a Test Suite l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,47 eilknpfqjep*bn]iaskng*Paop7 eilknpfqjep*bn]iaskng*PaopOqepa7 lq^he__h]oo=hhPaopow lq^he_op]pe_Paopoqepa$%w PaopOqepaoqepa9jasPaopOqepa$%7 oqepa*]``PaopOqepa$>q^^haOknpPaop*_h]oo%7 oqepa*]``PaopOqepa$=nn]uoPaop*_h]oo%7 napqnjoqepa7 y y You can run this suite by right- clicking inside the editor window and choosing Run As ¢ JUnit Test. One helpful thing about running test suites inside an IDE is that you will get visual feedback about the status of your tests, as shown in Figure 8-3. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY162 Figure 8-3. Running a test suite in Eclipse It’s still possible to add your Groovy test files into suites before compiling them by using cnkkru*qpeh*CnkkruPaopOqepa, which extends fqjep*bn]iaskng*PaopOqepa. The CnkkruPaopOqepa class can compile your Groovy files to ._h]oo files and add them to the suite you are building. Listing 8-5 shows how to do that. Listing 8-5. Adding Groovy Files to a Test Suite by Using CnkkruPaopOqepa l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,47 eilknpcnkkru*qpeh*CnkkruPaopOqepa7 eilknpfqjep*bn]iaskng*Paop7 eilknpfqjep*bn]iaskng*PaopOqepa7 lq^he__h]oo=hhPaopow lq^he_op]pe_Paopoqepa$%w PaopOqepaoqepa9jasPaopOqepa$%7 CnkkruPaopOqepacoqepa9jasCnkkruPaopOqepa$%7 pnuw oqepa*]``PaopOqepa$coqepa*_kileha$ on_XX_kiXX]lnaooXXcnkkrucn]ehona_elaoXX _d]l,4XX>q^^haOknpPaop*cnkkru%%7 oqepa*]``PaopOqepa$coqepa*_kileha$ CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 163 on_XX_kiXX]lnaooXXcnkkrucn]ehona_elaoXX _d]l,4XX=nn]uoPaop*cnkkru%%7 napqnjoqepa7 y_]p_d$At_alpekja%w a*lnejpOp]_gPn]_a$%7 y napqnjoqepa7 y y You can run this example in a similar way to running the test suite in Listing 8-4. If this wasn’t already easy enough, Groovy offers a helper class called cnkkru*qpeh* =hhPaopOqepa, which can scan a directory for all files with a given pattern and construct a test suite from the matched files. The files are assumed to be Groovy files, and each of them is either a Paop?]oa or a script that can be wrapped into a Paop?]oa. The base direc- tory and the pattern can be set as system properties. To use =hhPaopOqepa in IntelliJ IDEA, choose Run ¢ Edit Configurations. Click the plus icon (+) and select JUnit. Fill in the required fields as shown in Figure 8-4. Running the JUnit configuration now will run all of the Groovy tests inside on_+paop. Please note that you need to have Ant’s JAR file in your class path in order to use Groovy’s =hhPaopOqepa. Figure 8-4. Using =hhPaopOqepa inside IntelliJ IDEA 8-5. How Do I Use Ant to Run My Tests? Tests are usually run as a part of the project’s build. Ant (dppl6++]jp*]l]_da*knc) is a build automation tool from Apache that can easily run all of your Groovy tests. You can use Ant to compile Groovy files to Java bytecode by using the cnkkru_ Ant task and then run the tests by using the fqjep Ant task. The sample build file in Listing 8-6 shows an example. The file assumes that your Groovy JAR file is located inside ?6Xcnkkru)-*1*0. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY164 Listing 8-6. Sample ^qeh`*tih File to Compile and Run Groovy Tests 8lnkfa_pj]ia9_kilehaF]r]?h]oo`ab]qhp9paop: 8l]pde`9_kileha*_h]ool]pd: 8behaoap`en9?6Xcnkkru)-*1*0Xhe^: 8ej_hq`aj]ia9&&+&*f]n+: 8+behaoap: 8+l]pd: 8l]pde`9paop*_h]ool]pd: 8behaoap`en9?6Xcnkkru)-*1*0Xhe^: 8ej_hq`aj]ia9&&+&*f]n+: 8+behaoap: 8behaoap`en9*: 8ej_hq`aj]ia9he^+]ll*f]n+: 8+behaoap: 8+l]pd: 8p]og`abj]ia9cnkkru_ _h]ooj]ia9knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*]jp*Cnkkru_ _h]ool]pdnab9_kileha*_h]ool]pd+: 8p]ncapj]ia9_kileha: 8f]r]_on_`en9on__h]ool]pdnab9_kileha*_h]ool]pd`aop`en9on_+: 8cnkkru_on_`en9on_`aop`en9on_op]_gpn]_a9pnqa+: 8f]n`aopbeha9he^+]ll*f]n^]oa`en9on_+: 8+p]ncap: 8p]ncapj]ia9paop`alaj`o9_kileha: 8fqjeplnejpoqii]nu9uaod]hpkjannkn9jkd]hpkjb]ehqna9jkbkng9jk: 8bkni]ppanpula9lh]ejqoabeha9b]hoa+: 8^]p_dpaop: 8behaoap`en9on_ej_hq`ao9&&+&Paop*_h]oo+: 8+^]p_dpaop: 8_h]ool]pdnabe`9paop*_h]ool]pd+: 8+fqjep: 8+p]ncap: 8+lnkfa_p: 8-6. How Do I Use Maven to Run My Tests? Maven (dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc) is a sophisticated open source software project man- agement and comprehension tool from Apache. Maven uses plug- ins to perform many of its various project management activities such as compilation, testing, reporting, and CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 165 packaging. Maven can be downloaded for free from dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+`ksjhk]`* dpih. In this recipe I cover Maven 2, which is a complete rewrite of the original Maven. Groovy offers support for Maven through the GMaven module (dppl6++cnkkru* _k`ad]qo*knc+CI]raj), which enables you to build Groovy projects, compile and execute Groovy code, run Groovy tests, and implement Maven plug- ins in Groovy. In this recipe, I show you how to use GMaven to run your Groovy tests. Because Groovy files compile to Java bytecode, you can run your Groovy tests in Maven as you would normally run Java tests, by using Maven’s Surefire plug- in $dppl6++ i]raj*]l]_da*knc+lhqcejo+i]raj)oqnabena)lhqcej). In this recipe, I assume you are already familiar with Maven 2 and already have it installed and running on your machine. The Project Object Model (POM) file in Listing 8-7 (which should reside in the root of your project) shows how to use GMaven to compile your Groovy files into bytecode and run Groovy tests. Listing 8-7. Using Maven to Compile Groovy Files and Run Groovy Tests 8lnkfa_ptihjo9dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+LKI+0*,*, tihjo6toe9dppl6++sss*s/*knc+.,,-+TIHO_dai])ejop]j_a toe6o_dai]Hk_]pekj9dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+LKI+0*,*, dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+to`+i]raj)0*,*,*to`: 8ik`ahRanoekj:0*,*,8+ik`ahRanoekj: 8cnkqlE`:_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:iu)]ll8+]npeb]_pE`: 8l]_g]cejc:f]n8+l]_g]cejc: 8ranoekj:-*,)OJ=LODKP8+ranoekj: 8`alaj`aj_eao: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*i]raj*nqjpeia8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:ci]raj)nqjpeia)`ab]qhp8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:-*,)n_)/8+ranoekj: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:fqjep8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:fqjep8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:/*4*.8+ranoekj: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8+`alaj`aj_eao: 8^qeh`: 8lhqcejo: 8lhqcej: 8cnkqlE`:knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*i]raj8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:ci]raj)lhqcej8+]npeb]_pE`: CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY166 8ata_qpekjo: 8ata_qpekj: 8ck]ho: 8ck]h:cajan]paOpq^o8+ck]h: 8ck]h:_kileha8+ck]h: 8ck]h:cajan]paPaopOpq^o8+ck]h: 8ck]h:paop?kileha8+ck]h: 8+ck]ho: 8_kjbecqn]pekj: 8okqn_ao: 8behaoap: 8`ena_pknu: wlki*^]oa`eny+on_8+`ena_pknu: 8ej_hq`ao: 8ej_hq`a:&&+&*cnkkru8+ej_hq`a: 8+ej_hq`ao: 8+behaoap: 8+okqn_ao: 8+_kjbecqn]pekj: 8+ata_qpekj: 8+ata_qpekjo: 8+lhqcej: 8+lhqcejo: 8+^qeh`: 8+lnkfa_p: 8-7. What Are the Advanced Testing Techniques Offered by Groovy? The recipes introduced so far are most useful if you are writing your tests while you are developing your application, because you will typically strive to design your application for testability. In many scenarios, however, you will have to write tests for existing code that wasn’t designed with testing in mind. Such code usually has a lot of dependencies on many classes, making testing a single class in isolation very difficult. Fortunately, Groovy offers testing techniques that enable you to overcome these difficulties. Before I intro- duce these techniques, I am going to define some terms that will be widely used in the next few recipes: sClass under test (CUT): The class you are trying to test in isolation without having to worry about its dependencies. sCollaborators: The dependencies in your CUT. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 167 sStub: An object used to create a fake instance of a collaborator. Stubs demand or expect methods to be called on them but use loose expectations to verify that the demanded methods were called: the order in which the methods are called is irrel- evant. Stubs are used mainly to enable a CUT to run in isolation and to verify its internal state. sMock: Similar to a stub, but use strict expectations: the order in which the demanded methods are called does matter. Any call that is out of order will cause the expectation to fail. Mocks are used mainly to test the interaction of a CUT with its collaborators. Advanced testing techniques in Groovy include testing by using maps, Atl]j`k objects, Opq^Bkn, Ik_gBkn, and CnkkruHkcPaop?]oa. I cover all of these techniques in the next few recipes. 8-8. How Do I Use Maps to Test My Code? In this recipe, I present the system under test, which will be reused and expanded throughout the next few recipes. Suppose in a banking application you have a class that is responsible for checking a user’s credit card application. The class will have a method that accepts a Qoan object and uses the user’s social security number (SSN) to pull up his credit score. Based on the user’s credit score, the class will decide whether to approve his application. The class is displayed in Listing 8-8. Listing 8-8. Class Under Test and Its Collaborators _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan%w `abo_kna9_na`epDeopknu*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y _h]oo?na`epDeopknuw `abcap?na`epO_kna$ejpOOJ%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY168 To test the eo=llnkra` method, you will need a ?na`epDeopknu and a Qoan object, but you don’t really care about testing those objects. You wish to test the ??=ll class in isolation. By using maps and duck typing, it’s fairly easy to fake those objects. Any object that you can call ooj on is a Qoan object; similarly, any object you can call cap?na`epO_kna method on is a ?na`epDeopknu object. Maps can be used to create such objects, especially because you can use closures as values in a map. Listing 8-9 shows an example. Listing 8-9. Using Maps to Test the ??=ll Class _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan%w `abo_kna9_na`epDeopknu*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y _h]oo?na`epDeopknuw `abcap?na`epO_kna$ejpOOJ%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y y `ab_na`epDeopknu9Wcap?na`epO_kna6wooj): eb$ooj99-./% napqnj0,, eb$ooj99-.% napqnj3,, napqnj1,, yY `abqoan-9Wooj6-./Y `abqoan.9Wooj6-.Y `abqoan/9Wooj6-Y  `ab]ll9jas??=ll$% ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan-%99b]hoa ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan.%99pnqa ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan/%99b]hoa CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 169 8-9. How Do I Use an Expando Object to Test My Code? Atl]j`k objects were covered in Chapter 4. They enable you to dynamically attach closures as properties to an object. You can rewrite the testing code in Listing 8-9 in a groovier way by using Atl]j`k objects and duck typing, as shown in Listing 8-10. Listing 8-10. Using Atl]j`k Objects to Test the ??=ll Class `ab_na`epDeopknu9jasAtl]j`k$% _na`epDeopknu*cap?na`epO_kna9wooj): eb$ooj99-./%napqnj0,, eb$ooj99-.%napqnj3,, napqnj1,, y `abqoan-9Wooj6-./Y `abqoan.9Wooj6-.Y `abqoan/9Wooj6-Y `ab]ll9jas??=ll$% ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan-%99b]hoa ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan.%99pnqa ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$_na`epDeopknu(qoan/%99b]hoa 8-10. How Do I Use Stubs and Mocks in Groovy? Stubs and mocks are useful when the CUT uses collaborators that can’t be set from the outside. For example, in Recipes 8- 8 and 8- 9, ?na`epDeopknu is an argument to the eo=llnkra` method, so it was fairly easy to feed a fake instance of it to the method from our tests. This is not always the case, however. Consider the class in Listing 8-11. Listing 8-11. An Example of a Class That Can Be Tested Only with Mocks _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$qoan%w `abo_kna9jas?na`epDeopknu$%*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY170 You clearly can’t test this code by using Atl]j`ks or maps. The solution is to use Groovy stubs to intercept all the calls on a ?na`epDeopknu object. The code in Listing 8-12 shows an example. Listing 8-12. Using Opq^Bkn to Mock an Object eilknpcnkkru*ik_g*ejpan_alpkn*Opq^Bkn _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$qoan%w `abo_kna9jas?na`epDeopknu$%*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y _h]oo?na`epDeopknuw `abcap?na`epO_kna$ejpooj%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y y `ab_na`epDeopknuOpq^9jasOpq^Bkn$?na`epDeopknu% _na`epDeopknuOpq^*`ai]j`*cap?na`epO_knawooj): eb$ooj99-./%napqnj0,, eb$ooj99-.%napqnj3,, napqnj1,, y `abqoan-9Wooj6-./Y `ab]ll9jas??=ll$% _na`epDeopknuOpq^*qoaw ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$qoan-% y In Listing 8-12, I demand that the cap?na`epO_kna method is called at most once by my stubbed ?na`epDeopknu object. The stub will intercept the call to cap?na`epO_kna and return my dummy implementation. Finally, I call the eo=llnkra` method inside the stub’s qoa method to indicate that the stub should be used in this context. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 171 NNote You can stub any Groovy or Java class, but the CUT must be a Groovy class. Listing 8-13 shows how you can demand additional methods on the collaborators more than once. Listing 8-13. Demanding More Than One Method on the Stub More Than Once eilknpcnkkru*ik_g*ejpan_alpkn*Opq^Bkn _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$qoan%w ?na`epDeopknu_na`epDeopknu9jas?na`epDeopknu$% `abo_kna9_na`epDeopknu*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% `abjqi^anKb>]`=__kqjpo9_na`epDeopknu*cap>]`=__kqjpo$qoan*ooj%*oeva$% eb$jqi^anKb>]`=__kqjpo:-%napqnjb]hoa eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y _h]oo?na`epDeopknuw `abcap?na`epO_kna$ejpooj%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y `abcap>]`=__kqjpo$ejpooj%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y y `ab_na`epDeopknuOpq^9jasOpq^Bkn$?na`epDeopknu% ++cap>]`=__kqjpo_]j^a_]hha`]pikoppse_a _na`epDeopknuOpq^*`ai]j`*cap>]`=__kqjpo$-**.%wooj): eb$ooj99-./%napqnjW=__kqjp-(=__kqjp.Y eb$ooj99-.%napqnjW=__kqjp-Y napqnjW-(.Y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY172 ++cap?na`epO_kna_]j^a_]hha`]pikoppse_a _na`epDeopknuOpq^*`ai]j`*cap?na`epO_kna$-**.%wooj): eb$ooj99-./%napqnj0,, eb$ooj99-.%napqnj3,, napqnj1,, y `abqoan-9Wooj6-./Y `abqoan.9Wooj6-.Y `ab]ll9jas??=ll$% _na`epDeopknuOpq^*qoaw ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$qoan-% ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$qoan.% y Notice that the order in which the methods are called on the stub is not important. In Listing 8-13, as long as both demanded methods are called at most the specified number of times, it doesn’t matter which one is called first. So whether I demand cap>]`=__kqjp first or cap?na`epO_kna doesn’t really matter. This is how stubs differ from mocks. With mocks, the methods must be called in the same order as they were demanded, and any method that is called out of order will cause an assertion error. Mocks are therefore mainly used to test the CUT’s interactions with its collaborators and whether the CUT follows a particular protocol when communicating with them. This is in contrast to stubs, which are used to test the internal state of a CUT. The syntax for mocks is identical to stubs; all you have to do is to replace the word Opq^Bkn with Ik_gBkn, import cnkkru*ik_g*ejpan_alpkn*Ik_gBkn, and you are finished. Listing 8-14 shows how you can test the ??=ll class by using mocks. Listing 8-14. Using Ik_gBkn to Define Tight Expectations eilknpcnkkru*ik_g*ejpan_alpkn*Ik_gBkn _h]oo??=llw `abeo=llnkra`$qoan%w ?na`epDeopknu_na`epDeopknu9jas?na`epDeopknu$% `abo_kna9_na`epDeopknu*cap?na`epO_kna$qoan*ooj% `abjqi^anKb>]`=__kqjpo9_na`epDeopknu*cap>]`=__kqjpo$qoan*ooj%*oeva$% eb$jqi^anKb>]`=__kqjpo:-%napqnjb]hoa eb$o_kna:2,,% napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 173 _h]oo?na`epDeopknuw `abcap?na`epO_kna$ejpooj%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y `abcap>]`=__kqjpo$ejpooj%w ++okiaatlajoera_k`a y y `ab_na`epDeopknuIk_g9jasIk_gBkn$?na`epDeopknu% _na`epDeopknuIk_g*`ai]j`*cap?na`epO_knawooj): eb$ooj99-./%napqnj0,, eb$ooj99-.%napqnj3,, napqnj1,, y _na`epDeopknuIk_g*`ai]j`*cap>]`=__kqjpowooj): napqnjW-(.Y y `abqoan-9Wooj6-./Y `ab]ll9jas??=ll$% _na`epDeopknuIk_g*qoaw ]ooanp]ll*eo=llnkra`$qoan-% y As I mentioned earlier, the order in which you define your demands on the mock object is important when using Ik_gBkn. 8-11. How Do I Use GroovyLogTestCase? If all else fails, you can insert logging statements into your code and use Groovy’s HkcPaop?]oa to inspect the generated log and verify that it contains the expected mes- sages. Suppose I want to test the class in Listing 8-15. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY174 Listing 8-15. A Class That Finds Whether a Number Is Even or Odd eilknpf]r]*qpeh*hkccejc*& _h]ooArajK``w op]pe_bej]hHKCCAN9Hkccan*capHkccan$#ArajK``#% `abeoAraj$jqi^an%w eb$jqi^an!.99,%w HKCCAN*bejan jqi^aneoaraj napqnjpnqa y HKCCAN*bejan jqi^aneok`` napqnjb]hoa y y The code in Listing 8-16 shows how I can use logging to facilitate testing this class. Listing 8-16. Using CnkkruHkcPaop?]oa eilknpf]r]*qpeh*hkccejc*& _h]ooArajK``Paopatpaj`oCnkkruHkcPaop?]oaw lner]paarajK`` lner]pajqi^ano rke`oapQl$%w arajK``9jasArajK``$% jqi^ano9W.(/(0(1(2(3(4Y y rke`paopArajK``Hkc$%w `abhkc9opnejcHkc$Harah*BEJAN(#ArajK``#%w jqi^ano*a]_dwarajK``*eoAraj$ep%y y lnejphjhkc y y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 175 The code in Listing 8-16 will print the following output: Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN6.eoaraj Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN6/eok`` Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN60eoaraj Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN61eok`` Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN62eoaraj Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN63eok`` Fqh.4(.,,4/6/,6.0LIoqj*nabha_p*J]peraIapdk`=__aooknEilhejrkga, BEJAN64eoaraj 8-12. How Can I Measure My Code Coverage by Using Cobertura? One my favorite testing tools is Cobertura (dppl6++_k^anpqn]*okqn_abknca*jap), which measures the percentage of your code that is covered by testing. Cobertura, which means coverage in Spanish, can show you which lines in your Groovy source files are covered by unit tests. The code in Listing 8-17 is for a class that calculates whether a number is perfect.3 Listing 8-17. A Class That Calculates Whether a Number Is Perfect l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,4 _h]ooLanba_pJqi^anw 3. A perfect number is a positive number that is equal to the sum of all its divisors (minus the number itself). 6, 28, and 496 are examples of perfect numbers. Check the Wikipedia article at dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+ sege+Lanba_p[jqi^an for more information. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY176 `abeoLanba_p$jqi^an%w `aboqi9, bkn$`ereoknej-**8jqi^an%w eb$jqi^an!`ereokn99,% oqi'9`ereokn y eb$oqi99jqi^an%napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y Listing 8-18 shows the test class that tests the Lanba_pJqi^an class. Listing 8-18. Test Class for Lanba_pJqi^an l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,4 eilknp_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,4*Lanba_pJqi^an _h]ooLanba_pJqi^anPaopatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw `ablanba_pJqi^an rke`oapQl$%w lanba_pJqi^an9jasLanba_pJqi^an$% y rke`paopEoLanba_p$%w ]ooanpB]hoalanba_pJqi^an*eoLanba_p$0% y y In this example, I use IntelliJ IDEA as an IDE. To run the test in IntelliJ, you either press Ctrl+Shift+F10 on your keyboard, or right- click on the file and choose Run “Perfect- NumberTest,” as shown in Figure 8-5. You can run Cobertura by using either Ant or Maven. In this recipe, I show you how to run Cobertura by using Maven 2. I am using the same POM file from Recipe 8- 6 but this time I add the _k^anpqn])i]raj)lhqcej in the nalknpejc section. The full POM is shown in Listing 8-19. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 177 Figure 8-5. Running a test class inside IntelliJ Listing 8-19. Using Maven 2 to Run Cobertura 8;tihranoekj9-*,aj_k`ejc9QPB)4;:8lnkfa_p: 8ik`ahRanoekj:0*,*,8+ik`ahRanoekj: 8cnkqlE`:CnkkruCn]ehoNa_elao8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:CnkkruCn]ehoNa_elao8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:,*,*-)OJ=LODKP8+ranoekj: 8`ao_nelpekj:8+`ao_nelpekj: 8`alaj`aj_eao: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*i]raj*nqjpeia8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:ci]raj)nqjpeia)`ab]qhp8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:-*,)n_).8+ranoekj: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:fqjep8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:fqjep8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:/*4*.8+ranoekj: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8+`alaj`aj_eao: 8^qeh`: 8lhqcejo: 8lhqcej: 8cnkqlE`:knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*i]raj8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:ci]raj)lhqcej8+]npeb]_pE`: CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY178 8ata_qpekjo: 8ata_qpekj: 8ck]ho: 8ck]h:cajan]paOpq^o8+ck]h: 8ck]h:_kileha8+ck]h: 8ck]h:cajan]paPaopOpq^o8+ck]h: 8ck]h:paop?kileha8+ck]h: 8+ck]ho: 8_kjbecqn]pekj: 8okqn_ao: 8behaoap: 8`ena_pknu: wlki*^]oa`eny+on_8+`ena_pknu: 8ej_hq`ao: 8ej_hq`a:&&+&*cnkkru8+ej_hq`a: 8+ej_hq`ao: 8+behaoap: 8+okqn_ao: 8+_kjbecqn]pekj: 8+ata_qpekj: 8+ata_qpekjo: 8+lhqcej: 8+lhqcejo: 8+^qeh`: 8nalknpejc: 8lhqcejo: 8lhqcej: 8cnkqlE`:knc*_k`ad]qo*ikfk8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:_k^anpqn])i]raj)lhqcej8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+lhqcej: 8+lhqcejo: 8+nalknpejc: 8+lnkfa_p: For the Cobertura Maven plug- in to work, it is important that your project follows the Maven standard directory structure. Your Lanba_pJqi^an*cnkkru should be inside on_+i]ej+f]r]+8l]pd[pk[ukqn[l]_g]ca:, while Lanba_pJqi^anPaop*cnkkru should be inside on_+paop+f]r]+8l]pd[pk[ukqn[l]_g]ca:. To run Cobertura and generate the coverage reports, type the following command at the root of your application: irj_k^anpqn]6_k^anpqn] CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 179 Your test should pass fine, and the reports will be generated by default inside 8lnkfa_p[nkkp:+p]ncap+oepa+?k^anpqn]+ej`at*dpih. Figure 8-6 shows the generated report. Figure 8-6. Cobertura report The report shows a line coverage of 100 percent for Lanba_pJqi^an, but a branch coverage of 83 percent (branch coverage covers the different paths you can take inside a method). If you click on the Lanba_pJqi^an class, Cobertura will show you the path you forgot to test, as shown in Figure 8-7. Figure 8-7. Displaying Groovy source inside a Cobertura report It looks as if I forgot to test the case when a number is indeed a perfect number and the method eoLanba_p returns pnqa. Let’s add the following test to the Lanba_pJqi^anPaop: rke`paopEoLanba_p.$%w ]ooanpPnqalanba_pJqi^an*eoLanba_p$2% y CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY180 Run the following command: irj_ha]j_k^anpqn]6?k^anpqn] I run the _ha]j command first to make sure no reports are cached. The report will now show 100 percent line and branch coverage, as shown in Figure 8-8. Figure 8-8. Cobertura report showing 100 percent line and branch coverage Now that I have 100 percent coverage, does this mean that my method is free of bugs? Not at all. Let’s add the following test: rke`paopEoLanba_p/$%w ]ooanpPnqalanba_pJqi^an*eoLanba_p$)-% y If I run my test now, I will get the following exception: f]r]*h]jc*=nepdiape_At_alpekj6+^uvank Remember that a perfect number is always positive, so I need to add that check to the eoLanba_p method. Listing 8-20 shows the final version of the Lanba_pJqi^an class. CHAPTER 8 N TESTING WITH GROOVY 181 Listing 8-20. Lanba_pJqi^an Perfected! l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*_d]l,4 _h]ooLanba_pJqi^anw `abeoLanba_p$jqi^an%w eb$jqi^an89,%napqnjb]hoa `aboqi9, bkn$`ereoknej-**8jqi^an%w eb$jqi^an!`ereokn99,% oqi'9`ereokn y eb$oqi99jqi^an%napqnjpnqa napqnjb]hoa y y All of the tests will pass now. Summary Groovy offers excellent testing facilities, and its dynamic nature makes it easy to test classes with many dependencies that can’t be easily tested in isolation in Java. Because Groovy compiles to Java bytecode, you can still use all your favorite Java- based testing frameworks. One of the best ways to introduce Groovy to your development team is to ask them to write unit tests in Groovy, because testing code rarely goes into production. This will give them a great chance to learn the language and get more comfortable with it. The next chapter covers miscellaneous recipes that are too varied to include in one category. 183 CHAPTER 9 Miscellaneous Recipes In this chapter, I present miscellaneous recipes from different topics. Templating, working with XML, working with files, using regular expressions, using Groovy from the command line, downloading files, writing configuration files in Groovy, and using Groovy to run exter- nal processes are some of the examples I present in this chapter. 9-1. How Do I Use Groovy Templates to Generate Dynamic and Reusable Content? In Recipe 3- 1, I showed you how to use GStrings to generate dynamic content that can be useful in templating scenarios. Groovy also has a powerful dedicated template frame- work with several template engines that can be used to create templates with embedded JSP- like scriptlets and variables (JSP stands for JavaServer Pages). Groovy has the follow- ing three template engines, which all implement the Pailh]paAjceja abstract class: sOeilhaPailh]paAjceja: For creating simple templates sCOpnejcPailh]paAjceja: For creating more- complex templates, where the template is stored as a writable closure sTihPailh]paAjceja: For creating XML templates, where the template and the out- put are valid XML Using templates involves two steps: first, creating the template; and second, mapping your variables to it during runtime. Listing 9-1 shows how to use OeilhaPailh]paAjceja to create and use a template in which you can embed JSP- like scriptlets and GStrings in order to generate dynamic content. CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES184 Listing 9-1. Simple Templating Example eilknpcnkkru*patp*OeilhaPailh]paAjceja `abpatp9### Bnki6 bnkiAi]eh Pk6 pkAi]eh @a]n j]ia( Lha]oa_he_gkjpdabkhhksejcQNHpk]_per]paukqn]__kqjp6 whejgy Pd]jgo( oecj]pqna 8!9jasf]r]*patp*Oeilha@]paBkni]p$IIXXXX``XXXXuuuu%*bkni]p$jas@]pa$%%!: ### `ab^ej`ejc9WbnkiAi]eh6naceopn]pekj)EJB and place the deployment descriptor file (sa^*tih) shown in Listing 9-4 inside. CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES188 Listing 9-4. sa^*tih File 8;tihranoekj9-*,aj_k`ejc9QPB)4;: 8@K?PULAsa^)]ll LQ>HE?)++OqjIe_nkouopaio(Ej_*++@P@Sa^=llhe_]pekj.*/++AJ dppl6++f]r]*oqj*_ki+`p`+sa^)]ll[.[0*`p`: 8sa^)]ll: 8oanrhap: 8oanrhap)j]ia:Cnkkru8+oanrhap)j]ia: 8oanrhap)_h]oo:cnkkru*oanrhap*CnkkruOanrhap8+oanrhap)_h]oo: 8+oanrhap: 8oanrhap)i]llejc: 8oanrhap)j]ia:Cnkkru8+oanrhap)j]ia: 8qnh)l]ppanj:&*cnkkru8+qnh)l]ppanj: 8+oanrhap)i]llejc: 8+sa^)]ll: This file tells Tomcat to map all your &*cnkkru files to the cnkkru*oanrhap*CnkkruOanrhap servlet, which will be responsible for handling all *cnkkru files. CnkkruOanrhap extends f]r]t* oanrhap*dppl*DpplOanrhap and makes all the following implicit objects available inside your Groovy scripts: snamqaop: The OanrhapNamqaop snaolkjoa: The OanrhapNaolkjoa s]llhe_]pekj and _kjpatp: The Oanrhap?kjpatp associated with the servlet soaooekj: The DpplOaooekj skqp: A LnejpSnepan object sda]`ano: A map of the HTTP request headers sl]n]io: A map of the HTTP request parameters sdpih: An HTML I]ngql>qeh`an initialized to the kqp stream The last step in configuring your application is to create a subdirectory inside the SA>)EJB directory and call it he^. Place the cnkkru)]hh)t*t*t*f]n file inside (where t*t*t is the Groovy version you are using). Placing the JAR file there will put it on Tomcat’s class path, which is necessary for running your application. Now that you are finished with the setup part, it’s time to write the logic of the appli- cation. Create a file called _kqjpan*cnkkru inside the root directory of Cnkkru?kqjpan. The code for the file is shown in Listing 9-5. CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 189 Listing 9-5. _kqjpan*cnkkru `aboaooekj9namqaop*oaooekj eb$oaooekj*_kqjpan99jqhhxxl]n]io*naoap%w oaooekj*_kqjpan9, y eb$l]n]io*ej_naiajp% oaooekj*_kqjpan'9- dpih*dpihw da]`w pepha#?kqjpan# y ^k`uw d-#Cnkkrhapo?kqjpanAt]ilha# `erPda_qnnajpr]hqaeo oaooekj*_kqjpan y ]$dnab6_kqjpan*cnkkru;ej_naiajp9pnqa%wigl*ueah`ej_naiajpy ^nwy ]$dnab6_kqjpan*cnkkru;naoap9pnqa%wigl*ueah`naoapy y Browse to dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Cnkkru?kqjpan+_kqjpan*cnkkru. You should see the web page in Figure 9-1. Try to increment or reset the counter, and it should work correctly. 9-3. How Do I Read and Process XML with XmlParser? Groovy offers plenty of ways to read and process XML documents: you can use the classic tree- based Java Document Object Model (DOM) parser; the classic event- based Java Sim- ple API for XML (SAX) parser; a third- party library such as JDOM (dppl6++sss*f`ki*knc) or dom4j (dppl6++sss*`ki0f*knc); or Groovy’s own solutions, TihL]noan and TihOhqnlan. In Chapter 6, I showed you recipes for creating XML with I]ngql>qeh`an. In this recipe, I demonstrate how you can read and modify the XML document I created in Listing 6-4, which is displayed again in Listing 9-6 for convenience. I use TihL]noan, a Groovy class inside the cnkkru*qpeh package that is imported by default. The code in Listing 9-7 shows how to do so. Listing 9-6. bkk`*tih 8;tihranoekj9-*,;: 8jqpnepekj: CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES190 8`]ehu)r]hqao: 8pkp]h)b]pqjepo9c:218+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]pqjepo9c:.,8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankhqjepo9ic:/,,8+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqiqjepo9ic:.0,,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^qjepo9c:/,,8+_]n^: 8be^anqjepo9c:.18+be^an: 8lnkpaejqjepo9c:1,8+lnkpaej: 8+`]ehu)r]hqao: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:=rk_]`k@el8+j]ia: 8ibn:Oqjju`]ha8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:.58+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9--,b]p9-,,+: 8pkp]h)b]p:--8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:/8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:18+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:.-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:.8+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:,8+_]: 8ba:,8+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:>]caho(JasUkngOpuha8+j]ia: 8ibn:Pdkilokj8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:-,08+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9/,,b]p9/1+: 8pkp]h)b]p:08+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:-8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:,8+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:1-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:108+_]n^: 8be^an:/8+be^an: CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 191 8lnkpaej:--8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:48+_]: 8ba:.,8+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8bkk`: 8j]ia:>aabBn]jgbqnpan(Mq]npanLkqj`8+j]ia: 8ibn:=niep]ca8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:--18+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9/3,b]p9.5,+: 8pkp]h)b]p:/.8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:-18+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:218+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:--,,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:48+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-/8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:.8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:-8+_]: 8ba:28+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: 8+jqpnepekj: Listing 9-7. Reading and Processing XML with TihL]noan `abjqpnepekj9jasTihL]noan$%*l]noa$ jasBeha$#+dkia+^f]s]`+@aogpkl+bkk`*tih#%%++L]pdpkTIHbeha `ab`]ehuR]hqao9jqpnepekj*#`]ehu)r]hqao# ]ooanp`]ehuR]hqao*#pkp]h)b]p#*patp$%99#21# ]ooanp`]ehuR]hqao*#pkp]h)b]p#*#]caho(JasUkngOpuha# ]ooanpoa_kj`Bkk`*oanrejc*#aabBn]jgbqnpan#Y++Ik`ebupdapden`bkk`ahaiajpj]ia ]ooanppden`Bkk`*j]ia*patp$%99#>aabBn]jgbqnpan# ]ooanppden`Bkk`*oanrejc*#]caho(JasUkngOpuha#(#>aabBn]jgbqnpan#Y99 jqpnepekj*bkk`*bej`=hhwEjpacan*l]noaEjp$ep*iejan]ho*_]*patp$%%:,y *j]ia&*patp$%++Bkk`sepd_]h_eqi ]ooanpW#Oqjju`]ha#(#Pdkilokj#(#=niep]ca#Y99 jqpnepekj*`alpdBenop$%*cnalwep*ibny*ibn&*patp$%++Heopkb]hhibno All the l]noa methods of TihL]noan return objects of type cnkkru*qpeh*Jk`a. A Jk`a object can access all of its child elements and attributes as if they were properties of that object. An < symbol distinguishes an attribute name from a child or nested element. You can use GPath expressions to traverse and walk through the parsed tree. Because GPath CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 193 expressions return lists of elements, you can use all the list methods when parsing the tree. For example: jqpnepekj*bkk`*rep]iejo*_ This expression will create a temporary list of foods (three items), a temporary list of vitamins (three items), and a temporary list of vitamin C values (three items). This approach might be slow when processing large XML documents. In the next recipe, I talk about TihOhqnlan, which avoids the extra memory consumption by using iterators instead of collections when evaluating a GPath expression. TihL]noan uses in- place processing to process XML. The tree of nodes is saved in memory and modified there. 9-4. How Do I Read and Process XML with XmlSlurper? TihOhqnlan is different from TihL]noan, which I introduced in the previous recipe. The main differences between the two are as follows: sTihOhqnlan l]noa methods return objects of type CL]pdNaoqhp instead of Jk`a. s 7HENPROCESSINGA'0ATHEXPRESSION TihOhqnlan doesn’t store intermediate results and instead uses iterators internally to defer processing until needed. All evaluations are done lazily. For this reason, TihOhqnlan is more efficient for reading larger XML documents. sTihOhqnlan uses streaming instead of in- place processing when modifying an XML document. sTihOhqnlan is mainly intended for read- only operations. Listing 9-8 shows an XML document that I will read and process using TihOhqnlan as shown in Listing 9-9. I use TIHQjep (dppl6++tihqjep*okqn_abknca*jap) to verify that the resulting XML matches my expectation. Make sure you have the TIHQjep*f]n file in your class path prior to running the example. Listing 9-8. oejchaBkk`*tih ++oejchaBkk`*tih 8bkk`: 8j]ia:=rk_]`k@el8+j]ia: 8ibn:Oqjju`]ha8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9c:.58+oanrejc: CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES194 8_]hkneaopkp]h9--,b]p9-,,+: 8pkp]h)b]p:--8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:/8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:18+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:.-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:.8+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: 8iejan]ho: 8_]:,8+_]: 8ba:,8+ba: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: Listing 9-9. Using TihOhqnlan to Read and Process XML eilknpknc*_qopkiikjgau*tihqjep*@ebb eilknpknc*_qopkiikjgau*tihqjep*TIHQjep eilknpcnkkru*tih*Opna]iejcI]ngql>qeh`an `abatla_pa`Naoqhp9### 8bkk`: 8j]ia:=rk_]`kOhe_ao8+j]ia: 8ibn:Oqjju`]ha8+ibn: 8oanrejcqjepo9#c#:.58+oanrejc: 8_]hkneaopkp]h9#--,#b]p9#-,,#:8+_]hkneao: 8pkp]h)b]p:--8+pkp]h)b]p: 8o]pqn]pa`)b]p:/8+o]pqn]pa`)b]p: 8_dkhaopankh:18+_dkhaopankh: 8ok`eqi:.-,8+ok`eqi: 8_]n^:.8+_]n^: 8be^an:,8+be^an: 8lnkpaej:-8+lnkpaej: 8rep]iejo: 8]:,8+]: 8_:,8+_: 8+rep]iejo: CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 195 8iejan]ho: 8_]:,8+_]: 8ba:,8+ba: 8vj:.8+vj: 8+iejan]ho: 8+bkk`: ### `abbkk`9jasTihOhqnlan$%*l]noa$ jasBeha$#+dkia+^f]s]`+@aogpkl+oejchaBkk`*tih#%%++L]pdpkoejchaBkk`*tih ]ooanpbkk`*j]ia99#=rk_]`k@el# ++Ik`ebupdapden`bkk`ahaiajpj]ia bkk`*j]ia*nalh]_aJk`awjk`a):j]ia$=rk_]`kOhe_ao%y ++QjhegaTihL]noan(TihOhqnlan`ah]uolnk_aooejcqjpehjaa`a` ]ooanpbkk`*j]ia99#=rk_]`k@el# bkk`*iejan]ho*]llaj`Jk`awjk`a):vj$.%y `abkqplqp>qeh`an9jascnkkru*tih*Opna]iejcI]ngql>qeh`an$% Opnejcnaoqhp9kqplqp>qeh`an*^ej`wigl*ueah`bkk`y TIHQjep*oapEcjknaSdepaol]_a$pnqa% `abtih@ebb9jas@ebb$naoqhp(atla_pa`Naoqhp% ]ooanptih@ebb*oeieh]n$% 9-5. How Do I Use XPath? XPath is a query language for XML that enables you to select parts of an XML document. XPath is to XML what SQL is to relational databases or what a regex is to plain text. For more information about XPath, please see dppl6++sss*s/o_dkkho*_ki+TL]pd+`ab]qhp*]ol. You can use any Java implementation of XPath with Groovy, such as Xalan $dppl6++ tih*]l]_da*knc+t]h]j) j) or Jaxen (dppl6++f]taj*knc). If you are using Java 5 or above, you can use Java’s built- in support for XPath, as shown in Listing 9-10. The example uses the XML document from Listing 9-6 to find all the names of foods that contain vitamins. Listing 9-10. Using XPath eilknpf]r]t*tih*l]noano*@k_qiajp>qeh`anB]_pknu eilknpf]r]t*tih*tl]pd*& tl]pd9### +jqpnepekj+bkk`Wrep]iejo+&:,Y+j]ia ###++Oaha_pobkk`ahaiajpoj]iaopd]p_kjp]ejrep]iejo CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES196 ^qeh`an9@k_qiajp>qeh`anB]_pknu*jasEjop]j_a$%*jas@k_qiajp>qeh`an$% `k_9^qeh`an*l]noa$jasBeha$+dkia+^f]s]`+@aogpkl+bkk`*tih%%++L]pdpkTIH`k_qiajp atln9TL]pdB]_pknu*jasEjop]j_a$%*jasTL]pd$%*_kileha$tl]pd% jk`ao9atln*ar]hq]pa$`k_(TL]pd?kjop]jpo*JK@AOAP% `abheop9WY jk`ao*a]_dwheop'9ep*patp?kjpajpy ]ooanpW>aabBn]jgbqnpan(Mq]npanLkqj`Y99heop 9-6. How Do I Read an XML RSS Feed? RSS1 is a web feed format that is used to publish frequently updated content on the Inter- net. Reading an XML RSS feed is fairly easy when using Groovy’s TihL]noan, as shown in Listing 9-11. Listing 9-11. Reading an XML RSS Feed `abqnh9#dppl6++noo*jaso*u]dkk*_ki+noo+pa_d#++U]dkkpa_dbaa` `ab_d]jjah9jasTihL]noan$%*l]noa$qnh%*_d]jjahW,Y lnejphj_d]jjah*pepha*patp$% lnejphj_d]jjah*hejg*patp$% lnejphj_d]jjah*`ao_nelpekj*patp$% lnejphj#XjOpkneao6Xj)))))))))# `abepaio9_d]jjah*epai bkn$epaiejepaioW,**.Y%w lnejphjepai*pepha*patp$% lnejphjepai*hejg*patp$% lnejphjepai*`ao_nelpekj*patp$% lnejphj#))))))))# y 9-7. How Do I Use Groovy on the Command Line? In addition to using the cnkkru tool to compile and execute Groovy scripts and classes, you can use it on the command line to evaluate expressions, process files, and set up simple servers. For example, to sum two numbers, you use the following: 1. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+NOO[$beha[bkni]p% CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 197 cnkkru)alnejphj-'- This will output .. The )a option enables you to specify an inline script. You can also pass arguments on the command line. For example: cnkkru)alnejphj]ncoW,Y*pkQllan?]oa$%dahhk This will print DAHHK. You can use the )l or )j option to process all lines in a file. The two options are quite similar except that the )l option will print the result of processing each line. When using either option, you will get a reference to an implicit variable called heja that represents each line being read. For example, suppose you have the following text inside a file called patp*ptp: benopheja oa_kj`heja pden`heja The following command will process the file line by line, converting each line to uppercase. The result will be written to a new file called patpQllan*ptp: cnkkru)laheja*pkQllan?]oa$%patp*ptp:patpQllan*ptp You can also change the file directly by using the )e option: cnkkru)l)e*^]g)aheja*pkQllan?]oa$%patp*ptp You can use Groovy for client- server programming by using the )h option, which runs Groovy in client- server mode. For example, the following command will start Groovy lis- tening on port 9999 and will convert any text it receives to uppercase: cnkkru)h5555)alnejphjheja*pkQllan?]oa$% To test it: z pahjaphk_]hdkop5555 Pnuejc-.3*,*,*-*** ?kjja_pa`pkhk_]hdkop* Ao_]la_d]n]_paneo#ZY#* dahhksknh` DAHHKSKNH@ dks]naukq DKS=NAUKQ For a list of all of Groovy’s supported options, type cnkkruÌd at the command line. CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES198 9-8. How Do I Use ConfigSlurper to Write Configuration Files? You can avoid writing configuration files in XML and write them in Groovy instead with the help of the cnkkru*qpeh*?kjbecOhqnlan class (which is imported by default). Listing 9-12 shows an example of how Grails configures logging by using hkc0f (dppl6++hkccejc*]l]_da* knc+hkc0f) inside the file ?kjbec*cnkkru. Listing 9-12. Using ?kjbecOhqnlan to Configure hkc0f hkc0fw ]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp#9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*L]ppanjH]ukqp ]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# ]llaj`an*op]_gpn]_aHkc9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*Beha=llaj`an ]llaj`an*#op]_gpn]_aHkc*h]ukqp#9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*L]ppanjH]ukqp ]llaj`an*#op]_gpn]_aHkc*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# ]llaj`an*#op]_gpn]_aHkc*Beha#9op]_gpn]_a*hkc nkkpHkccan9annkn(op`kqp hkccanw cn]eho9annkn Op]_gPn]_a9annkn(op]_gpn]_aHkc kncw _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*sa^*oanrhap9annkn++_kjpnkhhano _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*sa^*l]cao9annkn++COL _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*sa^*oepaiaod9annkn++h]ukqpo _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*sa^*i]llejc*behpan9annkn++QNHi]llejc _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*sa^*i]llejc9annkn++QNHi]llejc _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*_kiikjo9ejbk++_kna+_h]oohk]`ejc _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*lhqcejo9annkn++lhqcejo _k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*kni*de^anj]pa9annkn++de^anj]paejpacn]pekj olnejcbn]iaskng9kbb de^anj]pa9kbb y y ]``eperepu*Op]_gPn]_a9b]hoa y CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 199 To read the configuration: `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$jasBeha$#?kjbec*cnkkru#%*pkQNH$%% ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp#99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*L]ppanjH]ukqp To convert it to Java Lnklanpeao: `ablnklo9_kjbec*pkLnklanpeao$% ]ooanplnkloejop]j_akbf]r]*qpeh*Lnklanpeao To write it to disk: `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$jasBeha$#?kjbec*cnkkru#%*pkQNH$%% jasBeha$_kjbecqn]pekj*cnkkru%*sepdSnepanwsnepan): _kjbec*snepaPk$snepan% y Keep in mind that ?kjbecOhqnlan is pseudo- hierarchical and not fully hierarchical, and it’s easy to override a property by accident. Consider this example: `abohqnlan9 hkc0fw ]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# ]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an y  `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$ohqnlan% ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ++Pdeohejasehhpdnks]IeooejcLnklanpuAt_alpej ++]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj99W!nY!_w.y!i!j Here ]llaj`an*op`kqp will override ]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj. To go over this problem, enclose a property name with single quotes as follows: `abohqnlan9 hkc0fw ]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# ]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an y  `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$ohqnlan% ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#99W!nY!_w.y!i!j ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES200 Also be aware that because the hierarchy is Groovy code, each property in the hier- archy is a Groovy property in scope—so, for example, the following code will throw a IeooejcLnklanpuAt_alpekj exception: `abohqnlan9 hkc0fw ]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an lnejphj]llaj`an*op`kqp++Sehhlnejpknc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# y  `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$ohqnlan% ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an The code fails because when I define ]llaj`an*op`kqp first, I will have a property called ]llaj`an*op`kqp that returns a string (this is verified by the call to lnejphj]llaj`an*op`kqp). Trying to call *h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj on ]llaj`an*op`kqp will now of course fail because a string has no h]ukqp property. To overcome this problem, you can use single quotes around the property name as follows: `abohqnlan9 hkc0fw ]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an lnejphj]llaj`an*op`kqp++Sehhlnejpknc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# y  `ab_kjbec9jas?kjbecOhqnlan$%*l]noa$ohqnlan% ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp99knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an ]ooanp_kjbec*hkc0f*]llaj`an*#op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#99W!nY!_w.y!i!j 9-9. How Do I Use Groovy to Run External Processes? You can use Groovy to execute any external process by using the ata_qpa method, which returns an instance of f]r]*h]jc*Lnk_aoo. For example, on Unix or Linux you can list all the files in a given directory as follows: `ablnk_aoo9ho)h*ata_qpa$% lnejphj wlnk_aoo*patpy CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 201 On Windows, you use the following: `ablnk_aoo9_i`*ata+?`en*ata_qpa$% lnejphj wlnk_aoo*patpy You can even execute this script inside the Groovy console! You can process the returned stream line by line. For example, you can convert each line to uppercase: `ablnk_aoo9ho)h*ata_qpa$% lnejphj wlnk_aoo*patp*pkQllan?]oa$%y On Windows: `ablnk_aoo9_i`*ata+?`en*ata_qpa$% lnejphj wlnk_aoo*patp*pkQllan?]oa$%y 9-10. How Do I Download a File in Groovy? Listing 9-13 shows how simple it is to download a file in Groovy. Listing 9-13. Downloading a File in Groovy `ab`ksjhk]`$]``naoo% w `abbeha9jasBehaKqplqpOpna]i$]``naoo*pkgajeva$+%W)-Y% `abkqp9jas>qbbana`KqplqpOpna]i$beha% kqp88jasQNH$]``naoo%*klajOpna]i$% kqp*_hkoa$% y `ksjhk]`$dppl6++sss*]lnaoo*_ki+naokqn_a+^kkgbeha+/.3-% 9-11. How Do I Process All Files in a Directory? Groovy enhances the f]r]*ek*Beha class with many additional methods that make working with files more pleasant than in Java. In this recipe, I want to scan a directory recursively to find all Groovy files that were modified more than a week ago. All such files should be moved to an archive folder. I also want to output the total number of Groovy lines that were not archived. Listing 9-14 shows how to do so. CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES202 Listing 9-14. Processing Files in Groovy `abh]opSaag9?]haj`]n*capEjop]j_a$% h]opSaag*]``$?]haj`]n*@=PA()3% `ab]n_dera9#+dkia+^f]s]`+Skngol]_a+Kh`+]n_dera#++=n_derahk_]pekj eb$jasBeha$]n_dera%*ateopo$%% jasBeha$]n_dera%*ig`en$% `abjqi^anKbHejao9, jasBeha$#+dkia+^f]s]`+Skngol]_a+Kh`%*a]_dBehaNa_qnoaw++@ena_pknupko_]j b): eb$b*j]ia*ej`atKb$#*#%9)-""++Lnk_aoo*cnkkrubehao b*j]ia*oq^opnejc$b*j]ia*ej`atKb$#*#%(b*j]ia*hajcpd$%%99#*cnkkru#%w eb$b*h]opIk`ebea`$%89h]opSaag*peiaEjIehheo%w b*naj]iaPk$jasBeha$]n_dera'Beha*oal]n]pkn'b*j]ia%% y ahoaw b*a]_dHejaw jqi^anKbHejao'' y y y y lnejphj jqi^anKbHejaohejaosanajkp]n_dera` 9-12. How Do I Count All Occurrences of a Word in a String? In this recipe, I present an example of using regular expressions and maps to count all occurrences of a word in a string. The example is shown in Listing 9-15. Listing 9-15. Counting All Occurrences of a Word in a String patp9### HknaiEloqieooeilhu`qiiupatpkbpdalnejpejc]j`pulaoappejcej`qopnu* HknaiEloqid]o^aajpdaej`qopnu#oop]j`]n``qiiupatparanoej_apda-1,,o( sdaj]jqjgjksjlnejpanpkkg]c]hhaukbpula]j`o_n]i^ha` eppki]ga]pulaola_eiaj^kkg* Epd]ooqnrera`jkpkjhubera_ajpqneao(^qp]hokpdaha]lejpkaha_pnkje_ pulaoappejc(nai]ejejcaooajpe]hhuqj_d]jca`* CHAPTER 9 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 203 Eps]olklqh]neva`ejpda-52,osepdpdanaha]oakbHapn]oapodaapo _kjp]ejejcHknaiEloqil]oo]cao( ]j`iknana_ajphusepd`aogpkllq^heodejcokbps]nahega =h`qoL]caI]ganej_hq`ejcranoekjokbHknaiEloqi* ### bej`an9patp9z+X^WXsY'X^+ `abk__qnnaj_ao9W6Y bej`an*a]_dwskn`): eb$k__qnnaj_ao*_kjp]ejoGau$skn`%%w k__qnnaj_aoWskn`Y'9- y ahoaw k__qnnaj_aoWskn`Y9- y y k__qnnaj_ao*a]_dwgau(r]hqa): lnejphj gau6 r]hqapeiao y Summary In this chapter, I presented miscellaneous recipes that show how versatile Groovy is and how it can easily enhance programmers’ productivity in many ways. Groovy is the perfect tool for processing text and XML and for working with files. There is really no reason not to use Groovy in at least one area or two to maximize productivity and reduce time and effort. This chapter concludes my coverage of Groovy. The second part of the book is dedi- cated to covering Grails, a very productive and agile web framework built using Groovy. PART 2 Grails by Example 207 CHAPTER 10 Getting Started with Grails These are happy times for Java developers. Not only do they get a dynamic and produc- tive language that runs on the JVM (Groovy), but they also get a dynamic and productive web framework that runs in any Java servlet container. Gone are the days of overen- gineered, overarchitected, complex frameworks such as Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) or Struts. Grails takes the KISS (keep it simple, stupid) principle to heart: simplicity is a key goal, and any unnecessary complexity is avoided. The second part of this book is dedicated to showing you recipes for achieving common web tasks with Grails, from authentication to scaffolding to domain modeling to validation. 10-1. What Is Grails? Grails is a full- stack web framework built on mature and established technologies such as Hibernate (for object- relational mapping), Spring (for dependency injection), SiteMesh (for templating), Quartz (for job scheduling), and JavaServer Pages (for the view tier). Grails applications are packaged as traditional Java WAR files and can be deployed to any Java application server such as Tomcat, Jetty, JBoss, or WebLogic. Not only does Grails use mature technologies under the covers, but it also builds on top of them to make them even simpler and more powerful for the end user. For example, Grails introduces Grails’ object- relational mapping (GORM) implementation, which is built on top of Hibernate, and Groovy Server Pages (GSPs), which are built on top of JSPs. Grails also ships with useful tools for development such as Hyperthreaded Structured Query Lan- guage Database, or HSQLDB (an in- memory database for development and testing), and Jetty (a Java application server for rapid development and automatic reloading). NNote GORM is covered further in Chapter 12, and GSP is covered in Chapter 11. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS208 Grails has been influenced by other dynamic frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, Django, and TurboGears. Unlike these frameworks, however, Grails is native to the JVM and allows you to use any Java library or API you wish. Grails uses Groovy, making it agile and dynamic and enabling it to do things that are difficult in other Java- based frameworks. Grails can be extended through plug- ins, which can do almost anything from search- ing to securing your application to adding rich UI components. At the time of this writing, there are about 50 Grails plug- ins, and the list just keeps growing. For a complete list of available Grails plug- ins, check out dppl6++cn]eho*knc+Lhqcejo. A Grails application is partitioned into separate tiers following the Model-View- Controller (MVC) pattern: the model, which is implemented by GORM domain classes (or Hibernate classes, if you wish); the view, which is implemented by GSP and JSP pages; and the controllers, which are Groovy classes. Grails also has an additional service layer, which can be used when your application contains sophisticated business logic. 10-2. Why Another Framework? Before you yell in frustration, “No! Not another Java web framework!” let me assure you that Grails really stands out from the hundred or so Java web frameworks out there. So what makes Grails so different, you may ask. The answer lies in its original design goals. Grails was designed mainly with the following in mind: sConvention over configuration: By using convention, you no longer need to config- ure your application by using XML, annotations, or properties files. For example, if you want to use a servlet as a filter in a traditional Java web application, you have to declare it and map it in your sa^*tih file as follows: 8behpan: 8behpan)j]ia:IuBehpan8+behpan)j]ia: 8behpan)_h]oo:IuBehpan8+behpan)_h]oo: 8+behpan: 8behpan)i]llejc: 8behpan)j]ia:IuBehpan8+behpan)j]ia: 8qnh)l]ppanj:+behpana`+&8+qnh)l]ppanj: 8+behpan)i]llejc: In Grails, you can avoid the XML configuration by creating a class that ends with the convention word Behpano inside the cn]eho)]ll+_kjb directory. In that class, you define a code block called behpano that contains the filter definitions. For example: CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS 209 _h]oo=llhe_]pekjBehpanow `abbehpano9w IuBehpan$qne6#+behpana`+&&#%w ++Behpan`abejepekj y y y By using convention, you no longer need to struggle with XML and maintain separate configuration files in your application. This leads to simpler and faster development. sCommon tasks should be simple to do; advanced tasks should still be possible: Grails follows this principle in all its tiers: models, views, and controllers. For example, when working with scaffolding in Grails (a feature I talk about extensively in Chap- ter 13), the default behavior and look is simple to create, and common changes are easy to add, but if you have advanced special needs, Grails enables you to go under the covers and customize the scaffolding templates themselves. sDon’t reinvent the wheel but improve on it: As I mentioned previously, Grails doesn’t try to reinvent good and mature technologies but rather seeks to improve on them whenever there is room for improvement. Hibernate, for example, is a great object- relational mapping (ORM) tool with many powerful and advanced features, and it would be foolish to try to come up with a new ORM solution. Instead, Grails takes the complexity out of Hibernate and builds a simple domain- specific language (DSL) on top of it that simplifies working with Hibernate and does away with the need for external configurations (whether in XML files or with annotations). 10-3. How Do I Download and Install Grails? Grails can be downloaded (for free, of course) from dppl6++cn]eho*knc. To install Grails, follow these simple steps: 1. Download a binary distribution in VEL or P]n/CV format from the Grails web site. If you are using Windows, you can download an ATA installer. 2. Extract the compressed file to a location on your machine and set the CN=EHO[DKIA environment variable to that location. 3. Add the CN=EHO[DKIA+^ej variable to your L=PD variable. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS210 4. To test whether Grails has installed successfully, open a new command window or terminal and type cn]eho. If the installation was successful, you should see the fol- lowing message: Sah_kiapkCn]eho-*,*/)dppl6++cn]eho*knc+ He_ajoa`qj`an=l]_daOp]j`]n`He_ajoa.*, Cn]ehodkiaeooappk6+dkia+^f]s]`+cn]eho Jko_nelpj]iaola_ebea`*Qoa#cn]ehodahl#bkniknaejbkkn #cn]ehoejpan]_pera#pkajpanejpan]_peraik`a Congratulations! You now have Grails installed successfully on your machine. 10-4. How Do I Create My First Application in Grails? Before switching to Grails, I worked a lot with the Tapestry framework (dppl6++ p]laopnu*]l]_da*knc). Although Tapestry is a good component- oriented framework, it is pretty complex. Just starting a simple DahhkSknh` application in Tapestry takes a sub- stantial amount of time and effort. One of my favorite things about Grails is how easy it is to get started with. The cn]eho command (which is built using Groovy’s Gant, a wrapper around Apache’s Ant) enables you to execute scripts that will perform many useful auto- mated tasks—one of which is to create a skeleton Grails application. Let’s go ahead and create an Internet forum application called Forum. This application will be reused and expanded on throughout the rest of this book to illustrate Grails features. To create the skeleton application, type the following command: cn]eho_na]pa)]llbknqi Grails will create a directory called Bknqi at the location where you executed the com- mand; this directory will contain all of the generated files and subdirectories. Figure 10-1 shows the generated files and folders structure. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS 211 Figure 10-1. A typical Grails application directory structure Let’s go over the generated files and folders in the root directory: s*_h]ool]pd: Contains class path information for Eclipse. s*lnkfa_p: Eclipse project file. s]llhe_]pekj*lnklanpeao: Contains information about your project, such as its name, version, Grails version, and servlet version. s^qeh`*tih: Ant build file. sbknqi*h]qj_d and bknqi*pilnkf: Eclipse project files. ssa^)]ll: The directory where you place static resources: images, style sheets, JavaScript files, and so forth. This is where the SA>)EJB folder is located too. scn]eho)]ll: The main directory of your application. This is where most of your Grails artifacts are created: controllers, domain classes, views, services, configura- tion files, tag libs, and so forth. she^: Any additional JARs required by your application. so_nelpo: Directory that contains any *cnkkru scripts to be executed by the cn]eho command. son_: Directory that contains any helper Groovy or Java source files. spaop: Directory to hold test classes (whether integration or unit tests). Now let’s create the mandatory DahhkSknh` application. Navigate to the Bknqi direc- tory that Grails created and issue the following command: cn]eho_na]pa)_kjpnkhhandahhkSknh` CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS212 This will generate a file called DahhkSknh`?kjpnkhhan*cnkkru inside cn]eho)]ll+ _kjpnkhhano (more about controllers in the next chapter). Open the file in any text editor you wish, and you will see the following code: _h]ooDahhkSknh`?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wy y Modify the controller to return the text DahhkSknh`: _h]ooDahhkSknh`?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wnaj`anDahhkSknh`y y Start up the application by typing the following command: cn]ehonqj)]ll Remember to run the command from the root of the Bknqi directory. This will start an instance of Jetty on port 8080 by default. If you wish to start Jetty on a different port, use the Ì@oanran*lknp98lknpjqi^an: option. Navigate to the following URL: dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+bknqi+dahhkSknh`. You should see the DahhkSknh` page as shown in Figure 10-2. I told you this was going to be easy! Figure 10-2. Hello World in Grails CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS 213 10-5. How Do I Use Grails with Eclipse? As you saw in the previous recipe, the _na]pa)]ll command automatically creates Eclipse project and class path files when you create a Grails application. To import the project into Eclipse, click File ¢ Import and then choose General ¢ Existing Projects into Work- space. Browse to the directory created by Grails to import the project into Eclipse. Grails will also create a runtime configuration to run your application in Jetty. Before you can use it, however, you will have to add the CN=EHO[DKIA environment variable to Eclipse. To do so, click Window ¢ Preferences ¢ Java ¢ Build Path ¢ Classpath Variables and then click New. Create the CN=EHO[DKIA variable and point it to your Grails installation directory. To run your application, open the Run dialog box (Run ¢ Open Run Dialog). Select your application name under Java Application and click Run. Any changes to your Grails application inside Eclipse will be automatically reloaded. You can also use the cn]eho command inside Eclipse as an external tool. To do so, fol- low these steps: 1. Click Run ¢ External Tools ¢ Open External Tools Dialog. 2. Select Program and click the New Launch Configuration icon (the first icon on the left). 3. Enter a name for your new configuration (for example, Cn]eho). Under Location, browse to cn]eho*^]p or cn]eho inside the Grails ^ej directory. Under Working Directory, type wlnkfa_p[hk_y. Under Arguments, type wopnejc[lnkilpy. See Figure 10-3 for how your settings should look. 4. Click the Refresh tab, select the Refresh Resource upon Completion option, and select the radio button labeled The Project Containing the Selected Resources. 5. Click the Common tab and select the check box to display the configuration in the Favorites menu. Now you can execute any Grails command by launching the Cn]eho configuration and entering a command in the variable input dialog—for example, _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan. The Grails console will prompt you for the name of the controller to create. To edit GSP files, associate them with the JSP editor. To do so, click Window ¢ Prefer- ences and choose General ¢ Editors ¢ File Associations. Add &*col files to the list of file types and associate that type with the JSP editor. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS214 Figure 10-3. Using the cn]eho command inside Eclipse 10-6. How Do I Use Grails with IntelliJ IDEA? IntelliJ IDEA has excellent support for Groovy and Grails through the JetGroovy plug- in. Please refer back to Recipe 1- 11 in Chapter 1 for instructions on how to download and install this plug- in. To create a new Grails project, choose File ¢ New Project and select Create Project from Scratch. Click the Next button and select Grails Application from the list on the left. After your project is created, you can create any Grails artifact (controllers, domain classes, services, and so forth) by right- clicking your project node and choosing New ¢ Grails, as shown in Figure 10-4. You can run your application in Jetty by choosing Run ¢ Edit Configuration. Click the plus icon (+) and choose Grails Application. You can specify which port to launch Jetty on in the VM Parameters field if you wish to change the default port (8080), as shown in Figure 10-5. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS 215 Figure 10-4. Creating Grails artifacts in IntelliJ IDEA Figure 10-5. Running your project in Jetty using IntelliJ IDEA CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS216 10-7. What Are the Different Grails Commands? As I mentioned earlier, Grails uses Gant (dppl6++c]jp*_k`ad]qo*knc) for scripting Ant tasks that perform many tasks—from generating a skeleton application to packaging your project as a WAR file to scaffolding. You can type cn]ehodahl to list all the available commands. For more information on a specific command, you can type cn]ehodahl8_kii]j`j]ia:. For example, to learn about the s]n command, type cn]ehodahls]n. The result is shown here: Qo]ca$klpekj]hoi]nga`sepd&%6 cn]ehoWajrenkjiajpY& cn]ehos]n)) ?na]pao]S=N]n_derabkn`alhkuiajpkjpk]F]r]AA]llhe_]pekjoanran* At]ilhao6 cn]ehos]n cn]eholnk`s]n I review most of the available commands in detail later in the book, but here is a quick summary of the most common ones: s_ha]j: Deletes all compiled resources from the project. s_kileha: Compiles the project. s_kjokha: Starts an instance of the Grails console with an initialized Grails runtime. The Grails console is an extension of the Groovy console with a couple of new implicit variables: s_pt: The Spring =llhe_]pekj?kjpatp instance scn]eho=llhe_]pekj: The Cn]eho=llhe_]pekj instance s_na]pa)_kjpnkhhan, _na]pa)`ki]ej)_h]oo, _na]pa)ejpacn]pekj)paop, _na]pa)lhqcej, _na]pa)o_nelp, _na]pa)oanre_a, _na]pa)p]che^, _na]pa)qjep)paop: Create a skel- eton artifact in the appropriate directory with the given name. For example, _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan will create a controller with the given name in the cn]eho)]ll+ _kjpnkhhano directory. Please note that all these commands are for convenience only; you can still manually create the artifact yourself in the right directory. scajan]pa)]hh: Generates a controller and views for the given domain class. Used for static scaffolding, which I talk about in Chapter 13. CHAPTER 10 N GETTING STARTED WITH GRAILS 217 sejop]hh)lhqcej: Allows you to install a plug- in from a URL, a file, or a Subversion (SVN) repository. sejop]hh)pailh]pao: Installs all the templates used by Grails for code generation. snqj)]ll: Runs your application by using an instance of Jetty on port 8080 by default. ss]n: Packages your application as a WAR file. Please note that most Grails commands need to be run inside the root directory of your Grails application. The only commands that can be run from anywhere are as follows: s_na]pa)]ll s_na]pa)lhqcej sdahl sheop)lhqcejo sl]_g]ca)lhqcej slhqcej)ejbk soap)lnktu It is possible to create your own script as well via the _na]pa)o_nelp command. Summary This chapter serves as a quick introduction to Grails to help you get started with the framework. In this chapter, I showed you why we need a new web framework and how Grails is different from the other hundred or so Java- based web frameworks. I also showed you how to download and install a copy of Grails and walked you through the creation of a simple DahhkSknh` application. Finally, I demonstrated how to add Grails support to Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA and went over some of the most common Grails commands. In the next chapter, I will show you recipes for the web layer— controllers and GSPs—that expand on the Forum application started in this chapter. 219 CHAPTER 11 The Web Layer Grails implements the MVC pattern, in which your business logic is separated from the application’s presentation. This enables you to easily change the look of your appli- cation without accidently modifying its behavior. The web layer consists of two major parts: views and controllers. Views are responsible for rendering the user interface and are implemented by using GSPs, which are an extension of JSPs and can include Groovy code. Controllers manage and coordinate your application by receiving user actions from the view and acting on them—for example, by interacting directly with the domain model, delegating actions to a different controller or a different layer, or redirecting to a different view. Figure 11-1 shows one possible architecture of a Grails application and where the web layer fits in. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER220 Figure 11-1. Grails application architecture 11-1. How Do I Create a Controller? Controllers manage and coordinate the logical flow of your application. They receive user requests and act on them. For example, they can interact directly with a domain class to perform a CRUD operation, redirect the user to a different page, delegate an action to a different actor (another controller or a service class), and prepare and send the response back to the view. A new controller is created for each request. I already showed you in the previous chapter how simple it is to create a controller with Grails’ _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan command. Let’s go ahead and create a controller called I]ej?kjpnkhhan that will be the main controller of our Forum application. I]ej?kjpnkhhan will handle the index page, the first page the user will see when visiting the application: cn]eho_na]pa)_kjpnkhhani]ej CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 221 Start up your application with cn]ehonqj)]ll. Navigate to dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+ i]ej. You will see the message DPPLANNKN60,0. This is because the I]ej?kjpnkhhan index action neither has any view associated with it nor sends any response back to the user. Open the I]ej?kjpnkhhan class (inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjpnkhhano) and change it to the following: _h]ooI]ej?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wnaj`anI]ejl]cay y Your page should appear now, and you will see the Main Page text, as shown in Figure 11-2. Figure 11-2. Main page If you go to dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi, however, you will see the page in Figure 11-3. Figure 11-3. Index page CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER222 This page lists all the controllers you created in your application. This is ideally not what you want to show to the user. Instead, you will want to take the user to the I]ej?kjpnkhhan page. One solution is to edit the file ej`at*col inside the sa^)]ll folder and add the following tag inside the 8da]`: section: 8iap]dppl)amqer9nabnaod_kjpajp9,7QNH9i]ej+: The index page now will redirect the user to the I]ej?kjpnkhhan page. Another solution is to modify the file QNHI]llejco*cnkkru inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb (more on URL mappings later) and add the following mapping: +$_kjpnkhhan6#i]ej#(]_pekj6#ej`at#% 11-2. What Are Groovy Server Pages? Groovy Server Pages (GSPs) are Grails’ view technology and an extension of JSPs. GSPs, however, are more flexible and convenient to work with than JSPs. GSPs end with the extension .col and live inside the cn]eho)]ll+reaso directory. A GSP page can contain both GSP tags and Groovy code. Mixing Groovy code with your GSP tags, however, is strongly discouraged. With a judicious combination of GSP tags and expressions, you can avoid embedding any code inside your GSP page. The built- in GSP tags start with the prefix c6. You don’t need to import any tag librar- ies to use the built- in tags. Grails comes with more than 50 built- in tags, and it’s fairly easy to create your own. In Recipe 11- 17, I will show you how to create your own tags. A GSP expression is similar to a JSP expression that uses the 8!9!: syntax. A GSP expression, however, uses the wy notation and can include any Groovy expression. If you created the I]ej?kjpnkhhan class in your Forum application as shown in the pre- ceding recipe, you will now see an empty folder called i]ej under cn]eho)]ll+reaso. This is where the GSP pages for your I]ej?kjpnkhhan class will live. Go ahead and create a page called ej`at*col inside that folder. The code for ej`at*col is provided in Listing 11-1. Listing 11-1. I]ej?kjpnkhhan Index Page 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqio8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Make sure the ej`at action in your I]ej?kjpnkhhan is empty: `abej`at9wy CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 223 Using convention, Grails will map the ej`at action in the I]ej?kjpnkhhan to ej`at*col (or ej`at*fol) inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej. You can use 8!!: to embed Groovy code inside a GSP page. You can also use 8!9!: to evaluate expressions and output values. GSPs also support eilknp and _kjpajpPula JSP directives. The code in Listing 11-2 shows an example. Listing 11-2. Using Scriptlets Inside a GSP 8!<l]ca_kjpajpPula9patp+dpih!: 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqio(pda`]papk`]ueo8!9jas@]pa$%!: 8`er: Bknqio6 8qh: 8!W8]dnab9##:Cnkkru8+]:(8]dnab9##:Cn]eho8+]:Y*a]_dwkqp888he: ep8+ he:y!: 8+qh: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: As I mentioned before, this usage is discouraged, and almost any embedded code can be replaced with GSP tags and expressions. Listing 11-3 shows the same example, using a cleaner approach. Listing 11-3. Using GSP Tags and Expressions 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqio(pda`]papk`]ueo wjas@]pa$%y 8`er: Bknqio6 8qh: 8c6oapr]n9bknqio r]hqa9 wW#8]dnab9X#X#:Cnkkru8+]:#(#8]dnab9X#X#:Cn]eho8+]:#Yy+: 8c6a]_dej9 wbknqioy: 8he: wepy8+he: 8+c6a]_d: 8+qh: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER224 11-3. What Is the Relationship Between Controllers and GSPs? A GSP page is associated with a controller and is rendered by default using Grails con- vention. It is important to understand the relationship between controllers and GSPs. By default, when you request a Grails page by using the URL +Bknqi+i]ej+iu]_pekj, Grails will do the following: s 'RAILSWILLLOOKINSIDEI]ej?kjpnkhhan for an action called iu]_pekj. Unless the action changes the default behavior, the GSP page associated by default with this action will be rendered. In this example, the default page is cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+ iu]_pekj*col. s 4HEACTIONCANBYPASSTHERENDERINGOFTHEDEFAULT'30BYRENDERINGADIFFERENT view, redirecting to a different controller or a different action, or rendering the response directly to the user. For example, if your action looks like the following: iu]_pekjw naj`an8d-:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqio8+d-: y then the user will always see the message Welcome to Groovy and Grails forums when navigating to the URL +Bknqi+i]ej+iu]_pekj, regardless of what’s inside the view at cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+iu]_pekj*col. This makes it possible to design your application by using controllers only. This approach, however, is strongly discouraged. Controllers are normally not supposed to render any response directly to the user (except for Ajax response); instead they should use GSPs for rendering. NNote GSPs are not the only view- rendering technology that you can use with Grails. You can use JSPs if you prefer. In addition, plug- ins exist for using Apache Wicket, Apache Struts 1, and the ZK framework as alternate view options. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 225 11-4. How Can I Pass Variables from a Controller to a GSP? Because each GSP is associated with a controller, you can easily pass variables from your controller to the associated view. Each GSP page has access to a model, which is basically a map of keys and values passed from the controller and used for rendering. Here is an example: _h]ooI]ej?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9w W`]pa6jas@]pa$%Y++L]oopdaik`ahpkpdareas y y The `]pa variable is now accessible in the ej`at view at cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+ ej`at*col: 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:Sah_kiapkiukjhejabknqi(pda`]papk`]ueo w`]pay 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: If your action doesn’t explicitly return a model, all the controller’s properties will be available inside the view. Remember that a controller is created for each request, so this approach is thread- safe. Here is an example: _h]ooI]ej?kjpnkhhanw Opnejciaoo]ca `abej`at9w iaoo]ca9Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqio y y The variable iaoo]ca is now accessible inside gr]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+ej`at*col as follows: 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: wiaoo]cay8+^k`u: 8+dpih: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER226 11-5. How Do I Use Tags as Method Calls? As I mentioned before, Grails comes with more than 50 built- in GSP tags. Those tags can be grouped according to their functionality: s 4AGSFORdefining variables: c6oap s 4AGSFORlogic: c6eb, c6ahoa, and c6ahoaeb s 4AGSFOR iteration: c6a]_d, c6sdeha, and c6_khha_p s 4AGSFORSEARCHING and filtering: c6bej`=hh and c6cnal s 4AGSFORCREATINGLINKSand resources: c6_na]paHejg, c6_na]paHejgPk, c6hejg, and c6f]r]o_nelp s 4AGSFORCREATINGFORMSANDFORM fields: c6bkni, c6patpBeah`, c6_da_g>kt, c6n]`ek, c6de``ajBeah`, c6oaha_p, and c6]_pekjOq^iep There are also other tags for Ajax, layout, templating, pagination, display errors, and more. GSP tags can have a body and attributes, and can accept expressions as attribute values. In addition, GSP tags can be called as methods from inside controllers, tag libraries, or GSP views. This approach avoids having to nest tags inside themselves. For example, take a look at the default Grails layout file inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo+i]ej*col, and you will see the following link to a Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) file: 8hejgnah9opuhaodaapdnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#_oo#(beha6#i]ej*_oo#%y+: The _na]paHejgPk$`en6#_oo#(beha6#i]ej*_oo#% method call is equivalent to the tag: 8c6_na]paHejgPk`en9#_oo#beha9#i]ej*_oo#+:, so you don’t need to write code like this: 8hejgnah9opuhaodaapdnab98c6_na]paHejgPk`en9_oobeha9i]ej*_oo+:+: which is messy and is not well formed. You can also call tags as methods from inside controllers, as in the following example: _h]ooI]ej?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9w `ab`]pa9c*bkni]p@]pa$bkni]p6Ïuuuu)II)``Ï(`]pa6jas@]pa$%% W`]pa6`]paY y y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 227 11-6. How Can I Have Multiple Actions Inside a Controller? An action is a closure that maps to a URI. For example, the I]ej?kjpnkhhan ej`at action maps to +i]ej+ej`at or just +i]ej by default. Create a new action inside your I]ej?kjpnkhhan called heopCnkkruPkle_o as follows: `abheopCnkkruPkle_o9w `abpkle_o9WDkspkejop]hhCnkkru( =juCnkkru^kkgokqppdana;(Ckk`fk^***Y Wpkle_o6pkle_oY y Create a new page called heopCnkkruPkle_o*col inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej as follows: 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:OeilhaCOLl]ca8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8qh: 8c6a]_dej9 wpkle_oy: 8he: wepy8+he: 8+c6a]_d: 8+qh: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Navigate to Bknqi+i]ej+heopCnkkruPkle_o and you should see the list of topics passed from the controller. Now go ahead and remove the ej`at action from your I]ej?kjpnkhhan and navigate to Bknqi+i]ej. Can you guess what you will see? If you guessed the heopCnkkruPkle_o action, you are correct, because if you have only one action in your controller, Grails will choose it by default. The following list defines the rules for choosing the default action when navigating to the root of your controller (for example, Bknqi+i]ej): s )FONLYONEACTIONISDEFINED THEDEFAULT52)WILLMAPTOTHATACTION s )FANej`at action is defined, the default URI will map to it. s 4HEDEFAULT52)WILLMAPTOTHEACTIONspecified in the `ab]qhp=_pekj property. For example: `ab`ab]qhp=_pekj9heopCnkkruPkle_o CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER228 11-7. What Are the Available Implicit Objects Inside a Controller and a GSP? Controllers and GSPs have implicit access to various objects that are hashlike and enable you to store variables and values. The objects are accessed using the implicit object name. The following objects are all accessible inside a controller or a GSP: soanrhap?kjpatp: An instance of f]r]t*oanrhap*Oanrhap?kjpatp that enables you to share variables across the entire web application. soaooekj: An instance of f]r]t*oanrhap*dppl*DpplOaooekj that enables you to store variables per user using cookies or URL rewriting. snamqaop: An instance of f]r]t*oanrhap*dppl*DpplOanrhapNamqaop. It stores variables for the current request only.  s l]n]io: A map of incoming request parameters that associates parameter names with their values. sbh]od: Stores objects in the session for the duration of the current request and the next request only. After the next request completes, the objects are removed from the session. bh]od scope is useful for displaying messages to the user (for example, validation error messages, success messages, failure messages, and so forth) because you want the user to view the messages only once and not every time the user accesses the page. Listing 11-4 illustrates how to access the namqaop and oaooekj objects inside a control- ler and a GSP. Listing 11-4. Accessing oaooekj and namqaop Objects Inside a Controller and a GSP _h]ooNamqaopOaooekj?kjpnkhhanw `abnamqaopK^fa_p9w eb$namqaop*_kqjpan%w namqaop*_kqjpan9, y namqaop*_kqjpan9''namqaop*_kqjpan y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 229 `aboaooekjK^fa_p9w eb$oaooekj*_kqjpan%w oaooekj*_kqjpan9, y oaooekj*_kqjpan9''oaooekj*_kqjpan y y cn]eho)]ll+reaso+namqaopOaooekj+namqaopK^fa_p*col6 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:namqaopk^fa_p8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: wnamqaop*_kqjpany8+^k`u: 8+dpih: cn]eho)]ll+reaso+namqaopOaooekj+oaooekjK^fa_p*col 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:oaooekjk^fa_p8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: woaooekj*_kqjpany8+^k`u: 8+dpih: If you navigate to Bknqi+namqaopOaooekj+namqaopK^fa_p and refresh the page a few times, you will always see the counter at 1. This is because a new namqaop instance is cre- ated for each request, clearing all the variables stored inside it. If you navigate to Bknqi+ namqaopOaooekj+oaooekjK^fa_p, however, and refresh the page a few times, you will see the counter being incremented for each request. This is because the variable is now stored inside the session. To reset the counter to 0, you will have to clear out your cookies. Notice how you can treat the implicit objects as maps and use the dereference operator (*) to access the stored values. You can also use the array index syntax if you prefer, like this: namqaopW_kqjpanY9, Because I haven’t talked about persisting data in the database yet (the topic of the next chapter), I will be using the oaooekj object to save some data in the Forum application for the duration of the user’s session. Let’s go ahead and modify the Forum application to enable the user to view topics and create new ones. When the user clicks on a forum name in the main page, the application will list all the topic subjects under that forum, as shown in Figure 11-4. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER230 Figure 11-4. List of topics page Clicking on a topic subject will show the user the topic message and subject, as shown in Figure 11-5. Figure 11-5. Main topic page The first step is to modify the I]ej?kjpnkhhan’s ej`at action to return a list of forums: _h]ooI]ej?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9w `abbknqio9WCnkkru(Cn]ehoY Wbknqio6bknqioY y y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 231 You will then need to modify the cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+ej`at*col page to pass the forum name as a parameter to the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan (which you will create shortly). The ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan is responsible for displaying a forum’s list of topics: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+i]ej+ej`at*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:I]ej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehobknqi 8`er: 8qh: 8c6a]_dej9 wbknqioyr]n9bknqi: 8he:8c6hejg_kjpnkhhan9reasBknqil]n]io9#WbknqiJ]ia6 wbknqiyY#:  wbknqiy8+c6hejg:8+he: 8+c6a]_d: 8+qh: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Now create ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan with the cn]eho_na]pa)_kjpnkhhanreasBknqi command. Create the ej`at*col view inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi. The code for ej`at*col is shown in Listing 11-5. Listing 11-5. ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan’s Index Page 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:OeilhaCOLl]ca8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayPkle_o68l+: 8c6ebpaop9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#: Jkpkle_o 8+c6eb: 8c6a]_dej9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#reasPkle_#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]ia( oq^fa_p6ep*oq^fa_pY%y: wep*oq^fa_py8+]:8^n+: 8+c6a]_d: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER232 8`er: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#_kilkoa#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY%y:?kilkoa8+]: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$_kjpnkhhan6#i]ej#%y:>]_gpkbknqio8+]: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: The page retrieves the forum name request parameter by using wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay. The page will then look for a property in the oaooekj object called oaooekj* wl]n]io* bknqiJ]iay. For this example we have two forums, Groovy and Grails, so the application will look for either oaooekj*Cnkkru or oaooekj*Cn]eho. Notice how I use Groovy’s power- ful feature of constructing variable names dynamically. If the attribute is found, the page will iterate through it (using c6a]_d), displaying the oq^fa_p entry. (The attribute is a list of maps, and each map contains a oq^fa_p and a iaoo]ca as keys.) The page constructs a link to view the topic by using the _na]paHejg GSP tag (refer- enced as a method call), which will invoke the reasPkle_ action in the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan. The link passes the forum name and the topic’s subject as parameters. The reasPkle_ action is listed next: `abreasPkle_9w `abpkle_o9oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay pkle_o*a]_dw eb$ep*oq^fa_p99l]n]io*oq^fa_p%w naj`an oq^fa_p6 l]n]io*oq^fa_p8^n+:8^n+:  ep*iaoo]ca  y y y The reasPkle_ action will iterate through the oaooekj*w l]n]io*bknqiJ]iay attribute. (Remember that the attribute is a list of maps, and each map has two entries: a oq^fa_p and a iaoo]ca.) If the action finds a oq^fa_p key that matches the passed- in oq^fa_p param- eter, it will render the oq^fa_p and the iaoo]ca back to the user, as in Figure 11-5. The ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan’s index page also enables the user to compose a new topic as shown here: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#_kilkoa#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY%y:?kilkoa8+]: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 233 The link will call the _kilkoa action inside the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan, passing the forum name as a parameter. The _kilkoa action is simply a blank action that renders the cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col page: `ab_kilkoa9w y Here is the_kilkoa view: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8c6bkni: 8c6de``ajBeah`j]ia9bknqiJ]iar]hqa9 wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay+: ?kilkoa] wl]n]io*j]iaypkle_8^n+: Oq^fa_p68c6patpBeah`j]ia9oq^fa_pr]hqa9 woq^fa_py+: 8^n+: Pkle_68c6patp=na]j]ia9iaoo]car]hqa9 wiaoo]caynkso91_kho90,+: 8c6]_pekjOq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iep+: 8+c6bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: The _kilkoa*col page contains a text field (created by using the c6patpBeah` tag), a text area (created by using the c6patp=na] tag), and a hidden field that holds the forum name value (created by using c6de``ajBeah`%. When the user clicks the Submit button, that triggers the oq^iep action inside ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan, which looks as follows: `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9 Woq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY na`ena_p$]_pekj6ej`at(l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y The oq^iep action will create the oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay attribute if it doesn’t exist. The action will then redirect back to the ej`at action in the same controller, pass- ing the forum name as a parameter by using the na`ena_p method. The na`ena_p method accepts the following arguments: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER234 sqne: The full URI to redirect to. sqnh: The absolute URL to redirect to.  s _kjpnkhhan: The name of the controller to redirect to. This defaults to the current controller if not specified.  s ]_pekj: The action to redirect to.  s e`: An ID to be used in redirecting.  s l]n]io: Optional parameters to be passed along.  ¡bn]ciajp: The name of the anchor to jump to—for example, +reasBknqibkkpan. It shouldn’t include the  character. The full code for the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan is listed in Listing 11-6. Listing 11-6. ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wy `abreasPkle_9w `abpkle_o9oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay pkle_o*a]_dw eb$ep*oq^fa_p99l]n]io*oq^fa_p%w naj`an oq^fa_p6 l]n]io*oq^fa_p8^n+:8^n+:  ep*iaoo]ca  y y y `ab_kilkoa9w y `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9 Woq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY na`ena_p$]_pekj6ej`at(l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 235 11-8. How Can I Render a Different View for the User? Sometimes you don’t want to render the default GSP associated with a controller and you would prefer to render a different page instead. Remember how the oq^iep action inside ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan redirected the user back to the ej`at action (which is associated with ej`at*col). Because the ej`at action is an empty action, I could have rendered the ej`at view directly by using the naj`an method as follows: `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9Woq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY naj`an$reas6ej`at(ik`ah6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y The naj`an method is very flexible. As you saw before, you can use it to render a response directly for the user. This is useful with Ajax responses or if you want to return a different content type for the user. Suppose that I want to return the topic subject and message as XML. The code in Listing 11-7 shows how to do so. Listing 11-7. Rendering a Response as XML `abreasPkle_9w `abpkle_o9oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay pkle_o*a]_dw eb$ep*oq^fa_p99l]n]io*oq^fa_p%w naj`an$patp6 8bknqi:8oq^fa_p: l]n]io*oq^fa_p8+oq^fa_p: 8iaoo]ca: ep*iaoo]ca8+iaoo]ca:8+bknqi:  (_kjpajpPula6Ïpatp+tihÏ(aj_k`ejc6ÏQPB)4Ï% y y y Figure 11-6 shows the result. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER236 Figure 11-6. Rendering XML to the user The naj`an method accepts the following optional arguments: spatp: The text to render s^qeh`an: The builder to be used when rendering markup sreas: The view to render spailh]pa: The template to render sr]n: The variable to pass to the template s^a]j: The bean to be used in rendering sik`ah: The model to be used in rendering s_khha_pekj: The collection to pass to the template s_kjpajpPula: The content type of the response saj_k`ejc: The encoding of the response s_kjranpan: A converter to be rendered as a response slhqcej: A plug- in to look for the template in CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 237 11-9. How Do I Chain Actions? Actions in a controller can be chained (called in a sequence), and the model will be retained between each call. You can also optionally pass parameters between actions. Suppose I want to add a success message when the user posts a new topic to a forum. I will use chaining actions to demonstrate the idea. Modify the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan oq^iep action and add a new oq__aoo action as follows: `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9Woq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY _d]ej$]_pekj6oq__aoo(ik`ah6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y `aboq__aoo9w `abiaoo]ca9Ukqniaoo]caej _d]ejIk`ah*bknqiJ]iad]o^aajlkopa` _d]ej$]_pekj6ej`at(ik`ah6W6Y( l]n]io6Wiaoo]ca6iaoo]ca(bknqiJ]ia6_d]ejIk`ah*bknqiJ]iaY% y Add the following line to cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col right after the 8^k`u: tag to display the success message: wl]n]io;*iaoo]cay Any action in the chain has an implicit access to the variable _d]ejIk`ah that repre- sents the model being passed between actions. The _d]ej method uses the bh]od object to retain the model between action redirects. The _d]ej method accepts the following arguments: sqne: The full URI to redirect to. s]_pekj: The action to redirect to—either the qne or the ]_pekj are required. sik`ah: The model to pass to the next action—required. se`: An ID to be used in redirecting—optional. sl]n]io: Parameters to pass to the next action—optional.  s _kjpnkhhan: The controller to redirect to. This defaults to the current controller if not specified—optional. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER238 11-10. How Do I Intercept Actions in a Controller? Actions in a controller can be intercepted before or after they are executed. By default, an interceptor will apply to all actions in your controller, but you can specify which actions are to be included or excluded. Interceptors are similar to filters except that they apply to one controller only. If you want your interceptor to apply to more than one controller, you should use filters (see Recipe 11- 18). In the Forum application, suppose I require that only authenticated users can post messages to the forums. Listing 11-8 shows how to do so. Listing 11-8. Intercepting Actions in a Controller Before They Happen `ab^abknaEjpan_alpkn9W]_pekj6pdeo*"]qpdajpe_]pa( kjhu6W#_kilkoa#(#oq^iep#(#oq__aoo#YY `ab]qpdajpe_]pa9w eb$oaooekj*qoan%w na`ena_p$]_pekj6#hkcej#% napqnjb]hoa y y `abhkcej9w naj`anLha]oahkcejbenop++Kn`eolh]uhkcejl]ca y Using convention, Grails expects a property called ^abknaEjpan_alpkn to intercept actions in a controller. The ]_pekj parameter accepts the name of the action that will be invoked before intercepting the action(s). By default, ^abknaEjpan_alpkn will apply to all actions in your controller; however, you can use the kjhu property to limit the actions that will be intercepted. You can also use at_alp, which works in a similar fashion but will cause all actions to be intercepted except the ones you specify. Suppose I want to log every topic the user submits to the output console. I can define an ]bpanEjpan_alpkn inside ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan that will be called after the oq^iep action is invoked but before the view is rendered, as in Listing 11-9. Listing 11-9. Intercepting Actions in a Controller After They Happen `ab]bpanEjpan_alpkn9W]_pekj6pdeo*"hkc(kjhu6W#oq^iep#YY `abhkc$ik`ah%w lnejphjik`ah*oq^fa_p''ik`ah*iaoo]ca y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 239 `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9 Woq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY naj`an$reas6ej`at(ik`ah6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]ia( oq^fa_p6l]n]io*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6l]n]io*iaoo]caY% y The action invoked by ]bpanEjpan_alpkn accepts the model as the first argument and therefore can perform any post- manipulations on it. Remember that the model is a map of key/value pairs passed from the controller to the view. 11-11. How Do I Bind Incoming Parameters? As I showed before, you can access incoming request parameters by using the l]n]io implicit object, which is a multidimensional map of request parameters and their values. Grails can also automatically bind all request parameters as properties of your class if their names match. You can do so by using the class implicit constructor and passing the l]n]io object as an argument. Grails will handle all the necessary type conversion from strings to the data types of your class properties. To demonstrate the idea in the Forum application, I will create a new class called Lkop?kii]j` that represents a new post to the forum. The post contains two fields: oq^fa_p and iaoo]ca. The class is defined inside the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan file, and outside the con- troller class definition as follows: _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw***y _h]ooLkop?kii]j`w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca y This kind of class is called a command object class. A command object class is similar to a domain class except that it’s not persisted in the database. Command objects are useful for data binding and validation. Let’s modify the oq^iep action inside ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan to use the command object: `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER240 Lkop?kii]j`lkop9jasLkop?kii]j`$l]n]ioW#lkop#Y% oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9lkop _d]ej$]_pekj6oq__aoo(ik`ah6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y You also need to modify cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col to send the correct parameter names prefixed with the word lkop: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8c6bkni: 8c6de``ajBeah`j]ia9bknqiJ]iar]hqa9 wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay+: ?kilkoa] wl]n]io*j]iaypkle_8^n+: Oq^fa_p68c6patpBeah`j]ia9lkop*oq^fa_pr]hqa9 woq^fa_py+: 8^n+: Pkle_68c6patp=na]j]ia9lkop*iaoo]car]hqa9 wiaoo]caynkso91_kho90,+: 8c6]_pekjOq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iepj]ia9+: 8+c6bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Notice how I passed l]n]ioW#lkop#Y as an argument to the Lkop?kii]j` constructor to accept only the parameters that start with the prefix lkop. If I had passed l]n]io only, Grails would try to bind all the incoming request parameters, including the bknqiJ]ia hidden field and the Oq^iep button—neither of which exist in the command object class. Binding data by using implicit constructors can represent a security concern because malicious users can submit URLs like this: +]__kqjp+pn]joban;bnki9tttpk9ttt]ikqjp9-,,,,, One solution is to use the ^ej`@]p] method to limit the properties that can be bound: `abp_9jasPn]joban?kii]j`$% ^ej`@]p]$o_(l]n]io(W#bnki#(#pk#(#]ikqjp#Y% This will bind all of Pn]joban?kii]j` properties except bnki, pk, and ]ikqjp. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 241 11-12. How Do I Output JSON? You can use the highly flexible naj`an method to output content in different formats. Listing 11-10 shows the modified reasPkle_ action inside ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan that will output a JSON response instead of XML. Listing 11-10. Outputting a JSON Response `abreasPkle_9w `abpkle_o9oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay pkle_o*a]_dw eb$ep*oq^fa_p99l]n]io*oq^fa_p%w `aboq^fa_p9ep*oq^fa_p `abiaoo]ca9ep*iaoo]ca naj`an$_kjpajpPula6patp+fokj%w bknqiw lkop$oq^fa_p6oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6iaoo]ca% y y y y y The output is as follows: wbknqi6Wwoq^fa_p6iuoq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6iuiaoo]cayYy 11-13. How Do I Render Domain Classes as XML or JSON (Marshalling)? You can easily render domain classes (or command objects) as XML or JSON by using converters and the naj`an method. Listing 11-11 shows how to modify the reasPkle_ action to return the Lkop?kii]j` object as XML. Returning it as JSON is as easy: just replace ]oTIH with ]oFOKJ. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER242 Listing 11-11. Marshalling a Command Object Class as XML eilknpcn]eho*_kjranpano*& _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw Å `abreasPkle_9w `abpkle_o9oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay pkle_o*a]_dw eb$ep*oq^fa_p99l]n]io*oq^fa_p%w `ablkop9jasLkop?kii]j`$oq^fa_p6ep*oq^fa_p(iaoo]ca6ep*iaoo]ca% naj`anlkop]oTIH y y y Alternatively, you can call the dynamic encoding methods: aj_k`a=oTIH and aj_k) `a=oFOKJ. Check Recipe 14- 3 for more information on encoders. 11-14. How Do I Upload and Download Files? Let’s modify the Forum application to allow a user to upload a file when posting a new topic. The first step is to add a property to the Lkop?kii]j` command object called iuBeha, as follows: _h]ooLkop?kii]j`w `abiuBeha Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca y Add a file upload input field to cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col and change the form encoding type to iqhpel]np+bkni)`]ta: 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8c6bkni]_pekj9oq^iepiapdk`9lkopaj_pula9iqhpel]np+bkni)`]p]: 8c6de``ajBeah`j]ia9bknqiJ]iar]hqa9 wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay+: ?kilkoa] wl]n]io*j]iaypkle_8^n+: Oq^fa_p68c6patpBeah`j]ia9lkop*oq^fa_pr]hqa9 woq^fa_py+: 8^n+: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 243 Pkle_68c6patp=na]j]ia9lkop*iaoo]car]hqa9 wiaoo]caynkso91_kho90,+: Qlhk]`beha68ejlqppula9behaj]ia9lkop*iuBeha+: 8c6]_pekjOq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iepj]ia9+: 8+c6bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Modify the oq^iep action inside the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan as follows: `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y Lkop?kii]j`lkop9jasLkop?kii]j`$l]n]ioW#lkop#Y% eb$lkop*iuBeha*ailpu%w lkop*iuBeha*pn]jobanPk$ jasBeha$#?6XXpailXXqlhk]`oXX#'lkop*iuBeha*knecej]hBehaj]ia%% y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9lkop _d]ej$]_pekj6oq__aoo(ik`ah6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY% y Downloading files is as easy. Here is how to download a PDF file located at ?6Xpail: `ab`ksjhk]`9w `abbeha9jasBeha$?6XXpailXX>]oe_*l`b% ^upaWY^upao9beha*na]`>upao$% naolkjoa*_kjpajpPula9]llhe_]pekj+l`b naolkjoa*kqplqpOpna]i88^upao y 11-15. What Are Templates and How Do I Use Them? A template is a reusable block of code that can be included in views. By convention, a template name starts with an underscore ([). Let’s modify the Forum application to separate the display of topic subjects into a template. Create a template called [`eolh]uPkle_o*col and place it inside cn]eho)]ll+ reaso+reasBknqi: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER244 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+[`eolh]uPkle_o*col)): 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#reasPkle_#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]ia(oq^fa_p6pkle_*oq^fa_pY%y: wpkle_*oq^fa_py8+]: 8^n+: Modify cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col to use the template: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:OeilhaCOLl]ca8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: wl]n]io;*iaoo]cay8^n+: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayPkle_o68l+: 8c6ebpaop9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#: Jkpkle_o 8+c6eb: 8c6naj`anpailh]pa9`eolh]uPkle_or]n9pkle_ _khha_pekj9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#+: 8`er: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#_kilkoa#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY%y:?kilkoa8+]: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$_kjpnkhhan6#i]ej#%y:>]_gpkbknqio8+]: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: A template is rendered by using the c6naj`an tag. The tag can accept a ik`ah attribute, in which case the model will be passed to the template for rendering. It can also accept a _khha_pekj attribute, in which case all the items in the collection will be rendered using the template. A template can also be shared across all views of your application. To do so, you will have to place it in the root reaso directory at cn]eho)]ll+reaso. When referencing the tem- plate, you will have to precede the template name with a forward slash (+). For example, you can move [`eolh]uPkle_o*col into cn]eho)]ll+reaso+pailh]pao and reference it as follows: 8c6naj`anpailh]pa9+pailh]pao+`eolh]uPkle_o r]n9pkle__khha_pekj9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#+: A template can also be rendered from a controller by using the naj`an method, which is useful for Ajax applications. For example, you can modify the ej`at action inside Reas) Bknqi?kjpnkhhan to render the `eolh]uPkle_o template directly: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 245 `abej`at9w naj`an$pailh]pa6`eolh]uPkle_o(r]n6pkle_( _khha_pekj6oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay% y 11-16. How Do I Change the Application’s Layout and Look? Grails uses SiteMesh (dppl6++sss*klajouildkju*_ki+oepaiaod) for layout. All layouts are located inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo. By default, Grails comes with the i]ej layout listed in Listing 11-12. Listing 11-12. i]ej Layout in Grails 8dpih: 8da]`: 8pepha:8c6h]ukqpPepha`ab]qhp9Cn]eho+:8+pepha: 8hejgnah9opuhaodaapdnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#_oo#(beha6#i]ej*_oo#%y+: 8hejgnah9odknp_qpe_kjdnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#ei]cao#(beha6#b]re_kj*e_k#%y pula9Ïei]ca+t)e_kjÏ+: 8c6h]ukqpDa]`+: 8c6f]r]o_nelphe^n]nu9]llhe_]pekj+: 8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8`ere`9olejjan_h]oo9olejjanopuha9`eolh]u6jkja7: 8eicon_9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#ei]cao#(beha6#olejjan*ceb#%y]hp9Olejjan+: 8+`er: 8`er_h]oo9hkck: 8eicon_9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#ei]cao#(beha6#cn]eho[hkck*flc#%y ]hp9Cn]eho+: 8+`er: 8c6h]ukqp>k`u+: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: The most important tags in the layout are as follows: sh]ukqpPepha: Outputs the target page pepha section, 8pepha:8+pepha:  s h]ukqpDa]`: Outputs the target page da]` section, 8da]`:8+da]`: sh]ukqp>k`u: Outputs the target page ^k`u section, 8^k`u:8+^k`u: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER246 Layouts are used by including the h]ukqp iap] tag: 8iap]j]ia9h]ukqp_kjpajp9i]ej+: The _kjpajp attribute refers to the name of the layout to use. The previous example will use the layout cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo+i]ej*col. Layouts can also be used by convention. In the Forum application, if you create a lay- out called cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo+reasBknqi*col, it will be applied to all views of the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan. If you create a layout called cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo+reasBknqi+ ej`at*col, it will be applied to the ej`at view of the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan only. You can use inline layouts as well by using the ]llhuH]ukqp tag. This can apply a layout to a template, a URL, or a block of content. The ]llhuH]ukqp tag is useful for developing portal applications or mashups. For example: 8c6]llhuH]ukqpj]ia9lknp]h: lknphap_kjpajp 8+c6]llhuH]ukqp: Let’s go ahead and modify the reasBknqi view to look like Figure 11-7. Figure 11-7. New Forum look CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 247 The view uses a free template from dppl6++sss*bnaa_oopailh]pao*knc called supplementary. The template is distributed under the Creative Commons license and can be downloaded directly from the link dppl6++sss*bnaa_oopailh]pao*knc+`ksjhk]`+vel+ oqllhaiajp]nu. After you download the template in ZIP format, extract it somewhere on your file system and copy the file `ab]qhp*_oo into sa^)]ll+_ss. Rename it to oqllhaiajp]nu*_oo. Create a new directory called oqllhaiajp]nu under sa^)]ll+ei]cao and copy all the template images into that directory. Modify oqllhaiajp]nu*_oo to point to the new images directory. This can be done by doing a global search and replacing the word ei]cao+ with **+ei]cao+oqllhaiajp]nu+. Create a new file called oqllhaiajp]nu*col inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo. This layout file will link to the template CSS file and will contain the header and top menu (which will be shared among all pages). The code is listed in Listing 11-13. Listing 11-13. Oqllhaiajp]nu*col Layout File 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+h]ukqpo+Oqllhaiajp]nu*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`: 8pepha:8c6h]ukqpPepha`ab]qhp9Cn]eho+:8+pepha: 8hejgnah9opuhaodaap dnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#_oo#(beha6#oqllhaiajp]nu*_oo#%y+: 8hejgnah9odknp_qpe_kj dnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6#ei]cao#(beha6#b]re_kj*e_k#%y pula9ei]ca+t)e_kj+: 8c6h]ukqpDa]`+: 8c6f]r]o_nelphe^n]nu9]llhe_]pekj+: 8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8`ere`9da]`an: 8`ere`9iajq: 8qh: 8he_h]oo9_qnnajp[l]ca[epai:8]dnab9:Dkial]ca8+]:8+he: 8he:8]dnab9:Jaso8+]:8+he: 8he:8]dnab9:>hkc8+]:8+he: 8he:8]dnab9:=^kqp8+]:8+he: 8he_h]oo9h]op:8]dnab9:?kjp]_p8+]:8+he: 8+qh: 8+`er: 8+`er: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER248 8`ere`9hkck: 8d-:8]dnab9:Sah_kiapkCnkkru]j`Cn]ehoBknqio8+]:8+d-: 8d.:@aoecj^uBnaa?ooPailh]pao8+d.: 8+`er: 8c6h]ukqp>k`u+: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Now modify cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col and the cn]eho)]ll+reaso+ reasBknqi+[`eolh]uPkle_o*col template to use the new layout: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+ej`at*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`: 8iap]j]ia9h]ukqp_kjpajp9oqllhaiajp]nu+: 8pepha:OeilhaCOLl]ca8+pepha: 8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8`ere`9l]ca: 8`ere`9_kjpajp:  wl]n]io;*iaoo]cay8^n+:  wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayPkle_o68l+: 8c6ebpaop9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#: Jkpkle_o 8+c6eb: 8c6naj`anpailh]pa9`eolh]uPkle_or]n9pkle_ _khha_pekj9# woaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iayy#+: 8`er: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#_kilkoa#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]iaY%y:?kilkoa8+]: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$_kjpnkhhan6#i]ej#%y:>]_gpkbknqio8+]: 8+`er: 8+`er: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+[`eolh]uPkle_o*col)): 8`er_h]oo9lkop: 8]dnab9 w_na]paHejg$]_pekj6#reasPkle_#( l]n]io6WbknqiJ]ia6l]n]io*bknqiJ]ia(oq^fa_p6pkle_*oq^fa_pY%y:  wpkle_*oq^fa_py 8+]: 8+`er: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 249 11-17. How Do I Write My Own Custom Tags? It is fairly easy to write your own tags in Grails. To do so, you need to create a Groovy class that ends with the convention P]cHe^ and place it in the cn]eho)]ll+p]cHe^ directory. You can use the command cn]eho_na]pa)p]c)he^ to help you with that. For example: _h]ooBknqiP]cHe^w y To create a tag, create a closure that takes two arguments: the tag’s attributes, which are represented by a map, and the tag’s body, which is an invokable closure. Let’s create a tag that will render the editor used for posting messages to a forum. The code is shown in Listing 11-14. Listing 11-14. A Custom Tag That Renders a Text Editor _h]ooA`epknP]cHe^w `aba`epkn9w]ppno(^k`u): kqp88naj`an$pailh]pa6+a`epkn( ik`ah6Woq^fa_pBeah`J]ia6]ppno*oq^fa_pBeah`J]ia( iaoo]caBeah`J]ia6]ppno*iaoo]caBeah`J]iaY%7 y y Create a new template called [a`epkn*col under cn]eho)]ll+reaso as follows: Oq^fa_p68c6patpBeah`j]ia9 woq^fa_pBeah`J]iayr]hqa9 woq^fa_pBeah`J]iay+: 8^n+: Pkle_68c6patp=na]j]ia9 wiaoo]caBeah`J]iay r]hqa9 wiaoo]caBeah`J]iaynkso91_kho90,+: 8c6]_pekjOq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iepj]ia9+: Use the tag in the gn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col page as follows: 8))cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col)): 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8c6bkni: 8c6de``ajBeah`j]ia9bknqiJ]iar]hqa9 wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay+: ?kilkoa] wl]n]io*j]iaypkle_8^n+: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER250 8c6a`epknoq^fa_pBeah`J]ia9lkop*oq^fa_piaoo]caBeah`J]ia9lkop*iaoo]ca+: 8+c6bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Tags are created in the default c namespace. To use a different namespace, add a static j]iaol]_a property to your P]cHe^ class. The code in Listing 11-15 creates a custom tag that converts between Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees. The tag is in the _qopki namespace. Listing 11-15. A Custom Tag That Converts Between Fahrenheit and Celsius Degrees _h]ooBknqiP]cHe^w op]pe_j]iaol]_a9_qopki `ab_kjranpPailan]pqna9w]ppno(^k`u): `abnaoqhp `abknecej]hPail9Ejpacan*l]noaEjp$]ppno*pailan]pqna% eb$]ppno*bnki99#b#%w naoqhp9$knecej]hPail)/.%&1+5 y ahoaw naoqhp9$5+1&knecej]hPail%'/. y kqp88naoqhp y y To use it: 8_qopki6_kjranpPailan]pqnapailan]pqna9-.,bnki9b+: 8_qopki6_kjranpPailan]pqnapailan]pqna9/,bnki9_+: 11-18. How Do I Use Filters? Filters can be applied to a whole set of URIs, controllers, or actions. Filters can be used for cross- cutting concerns such as authentication and logging. To create a filter, create a class that ends with the convention Behpano inside the cn]eho)]ll+_kjb directory. In that class, define a block called behpano that will contain the filter definitions as follows: _h]ooBknqiBehpanow `abbehpano9w CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 251 ++behpan`abejepekjo y y Each filter has a name and a scope. The scope of the filter can be a set of controllers, actions, or URIs. Filters can access all implicit objects that are available for controllers and views such as namqaop, l]n]io, oaooekj, and so forth. Inside the filter body you can specify one of three interceptors: s^abkna: Will be executed before the filter’s scope s]bpan: Will be executed after the filter’s scope s]bpanReas: Will be executed after the rendering of the view Listing 11-16 shows an example of adding a filter to the Forum application that will allow only authenticated users to post messages to the forum. Listing 11-16. Using Filters _h]ooBknqiBehpanow `abbehpano9w _kilkoa$_kjpnkhhan6#&#(]_pekj6#_kilkoa#%w ^abkna9w eb$oaooekj*qoan%w na`ena_p$]_pekj6#hkcej#% napqnjb]hoa y y y y y Recipe 14- 4 shows you a more thorough example of using filters to secure your appli- cation. 11-19. How Do I Use Ajax? Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, the term coined for the set of tech- nologies enabling development of rich web applications that mimic desktop applications’ behavior. Grails has excellent support for Ajax and makes working with it easy and convenient. CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER252 Grails uses the Prototype (dppl6++sss*lnkpkpulafo*knc) and (dppl6++ o_nelp*]_qhk*qo) JavaScript libraries and can be extended via plug- ins to use any other library such as the Yahoo User Interface Library (YUI), at dppl6++`arahklan*u]dkk*_ki+ uqe), Dojo (dppl6++`kfkpkkhgep*knc), or Google Web Toolkit (dppl6++_k`a*ckkcha*_ki+ sa^pkkhgep). To add Prototype support for Grails, add the following tag to your page inside the 8da]`: tag: 8c6f]r]o_nelphe^n]nu9lnkpkpula+: To add support, add this tag: 8c6f]r]o_nelphe^n]nu9o_nelp]_qhkqo+: Let’s modify the Forum application so users can post a message to the forums asyn- chronously without refreshing the page. The user should receive a message indicating whether the post was successful. To modify the application, modify cn]eho)]ll+reaso+reasBknqi+_kilkoa*col to use the bkniNaikpa GSP tag: 8dpih: 8da]`: 8c6f]r]o_nelphe^n]nu9lnkpkpula+: 8pepha: wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8`ere`9iaoo]ca:8+`er: 8`ere`9annkn:8+`er: 8c6bkniNaikpaj]ia9iuBkniqnh9W]_pekj6#oq^iep#Y aj_pula9iqhpel]np+bkni)`]p] ql`]pa9Woq__aoo6#iaoo]ca#(b]ehqna6#annkn#Y: 8c6de``ajBeah`j]ia9bknqiJ]iar]hqa9 wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay+: ?kilkoa] wl]n]io*j]iaypkle_8^n+: Oq^fa_p68c6patpBeah`j]ia9lkop*oq^fa_pr]hqa9 woq^fa_py+: 8^n+: Pkle_68c6patp=na]j]ia9lkop*iaoo]car]hqa9 wiaoo]caynkso91_kho90,+: Qlhk]`beha68ejlqppula9behaj]ia9lkop*iuBeha+: 8ejlqppula9oq^iepr]hqa9Oq^iep+: 8+c6bkniNaikpa: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: Modify the oq^iep action inside the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan to send an asynchronous success message back to the user: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER 253 `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay%w oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay9WY y Lkop?kii]j`lkop9jasLkop?kii]j`$l]n]ioW#lkop#Y% eb$lkop*iuBeha*ailpu%w lkop*iuBeha*pn]jobanPk$jasBeha$#?6XXpailXXqlhk]`oXX#' lkop*iuBeha*knecej]hBehaj]ia%% y oaooekj* wl]n]io*bknqiJ]iay'9lkop naj`anUkqniaoo]cas]olkopa`oq__aoobqhhu y The c6bkniNaikpa tag will submit the form asynchronously to the oq^iep action. On success, the message returned from the oq^iep action will be displayed in the iaoo]ca div. On failure, the error message will be displayed in the annkn div. Grails has other tags for working with Ajax, such as the following: sc6naikpaHejg: Will create a link that calls an action asynchronously sc6oq^iepPkNaikpa: Will create a submit button that calls an action asynchronously Grails also enables you to call JavaScript functions when specific events occur—for example, to show a progress bar while the action is being executed. The events are attri- butes of c6naikpaHejg, c6oq^iepPkNaikpa, and c6bkniNaikpa. The list of events is as follows:  s kjOq__aoo: The JavaScript function to call if the action is successful  s kjB]ehqna: The JavaScript function to call if the call failed  s kj[ANNKN[?K@A: The JavaScript function to call to handle specific error codes—for example, kj0,09]hanp$#jkpbkqj`#% skjQjejepe]heva`: The JavaScript function to call if the Ajax engine fails to initialize  s kjHk]`ejc: The JavaScript function to call when the remote function is loading the response skjHk]`a`: The JavaScript function to call when the remote function completed loading the response skj?kilhapa: The JavaScript function to call when the remote function is complete, including any updates Finally, if you need a direct reference to the TihDpplNamqaop JavaScript object, you can use the implicit variable a: CHAPTER 11 N THE WEB LAYER254 8c6f]r]o_nelp: bqj_pekjodksLnkcnaoo>]n$a%w ]hanp$TihDpplNamqaop9'a% y 8+c6f]r]o_nelp: 8c6naikpaHejg]_pekj9sd]paran ql`]pa9oq__aoo kjHk]`ejc9odksLnkcnaoo>]n$a%:Hejg8+c6naikpaHejg: Summary The Grails web layer can be divided into two major parts: controller and views. Controllers are Groovy classes that receive user actions from the view and act on them. Views are imple- mented by using GSPs or JSPs and are responsible for rendering the response to the user. GSPs are an extension of JSPs and offer many advanced and powerful features. Grails ships with more than 50 built- in tags, and it’s fairly easy to add your own. Controllers are typically associated with GSPs, and passing objects back and forth between the two is straightforward. Controllers are composed of one or more actions. An action can choose to render the default GSP page linked to it or can choose to render a different response or to delegate work to another action. Controllers have implicit access to objects. Most of these objects are instances of interfaces in the f]r]t*oanrhap package. Implicit objects can be treated as maps for stor- ing key/value pairs. There are many things you can do with controllers, from intercepting user actions to rendering responses in different formats. Controllers are the backbone of your web appli- cation, and Grails ensures that you have all the tools you need to work with them. In the next chapter, I will show you recipes for the data layer—domain classes that use Grails’ object- relational mapping technology (GORM). 255 CHAPTER 12 The Data Layer Most applications that store data use a database. Object- relational mapping (ORM) libraries relieve programmers from having to work directly with SQL and tables and enable them to work with objects instead. ORM libraries take care of mapping objects, their properties, and relationships to tables and columns and generate the required SQL for querying and performing CRUD operations on them. Grails uses Hibernate (dppl6++sss*de^anj]pa*knc), the most popular ORM library for Java, under the covers as an ORM tool. Given the dynamic nature of Grails and its adoption of convention over configuration, it builds on top of Hibernate a new imple- mentation called Grails’ object- relational mapping (GORM) that simplifies working with Hibernate and does away with any external configurations. You don’t need to know Hibernate to use GORM, but some knowledge of Hibernate may be useful if you want to make the most of GORM’s advanced features. In this chapter, I will show you recipes for configuring your application to use a data- base and using GORM to perform common database tasks. I will be using the Forum application I started in Chapter 10 as an example. 12-1. How Do I Configure My Application to Use a Database? Grails already comes with an in- memory database for development (HSQLDB, available at dppl6++domh`^*knc), so you don’t need to configure anything to start programming against a database right away. But running HSQLDB in memory is not suitable for production. Grails can work with any database with a JDBC driver. Let’s configure the Forum applica- tion to use a MySQL database for production while staying with HSQLDB for development and testing. Grails database configurations are located inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+@]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru. The default file is provided in Listing 12-1. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER256 Listing 12-1. @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru `]p]Okqn_aw lkkha`9b]hoa `neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*domh`^*f`^_@neran qoanj]ia9o] l]ooskn`9 y de^anj]paw _]_da*qoa[oa_kj`[harah[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*qoa[mqanu[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*lnkre`an[_h]oo9#knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da*Ad?]_daLnkre`an# y ++ajrenkjiajpola_ebe_oappejco ajrenkjiajpow `arahkliajpw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9_na]pa)`nkl++kjakb#_na]pa#(#_na]pa)`nkl#(#ql`]pa# qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6`ar@> y y paopw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9ql`]pa qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6paop@^ y y lnk`q_pekjw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9ql`]pa qnh9f`^_6domh`^6beha6lnk`@^7odqp`ksj9pnqa y y y @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru is a pure Groovy file that uses Groovy’s ?kjbecOhqnlan for configu- ration (refer to Recipe 9- 8 for more information on ?kjbecOhqnlan). @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru contains environments; you can specify a different set of options for each environment. Grails supports three environments by default: `arahkliajp, paop, and lnk`q_pekj. You can easily add your own environment by defining its own block. Any common set of options is listed inside the `]p]Okqn_a block and will be used for all environments unless overrid- den by that environment. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 257 Listing 12-2 shows the modified @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru file that uses MySQL for produc- tion. In Recipe 16- 3, I will show you how to externalize your database configurations. Listing 12-2. Configuring the Application to Use MySQL for Production `]p]Okqn_aw lkkha`9b]hoa `neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*domh`^*f`^_@neran qoanj]ia9o] l]ooskn`9 de^anj]paw _]_da*qoa[oa_kj`[harah[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*qoa[mqanu[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*lnkre`an[_h]oo9#knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da*Ad?]_daLnkre`an# y ++ajrenkjiajpola_ebe_oappejco ajrenkjiajpow `arahkliajpw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9_na]pa)`nkl++kjakb#_na]pa#(#_na]pa)`nkl#(#ql`]pa# qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6`ar@> y y paopw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9ql`]pa qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6paop@^ y y lnk`q_pekjw `]p]Okqn_aw qoanj]ia9nkkp++Ukqn`]p]^]oaqoanj]ia l]ooskn`9++Ukqn`]p]^]oal]ooskn` `^?na]pa9ql`]pa qnh9f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+bknqi++Ukqn`]p]^]oaQNH `neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran y y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER258 Don’t forget to place the MySQL JAR file inside the +he^ directory. All Grails commands accept an environment as an argument. The three supported environment values are lnk` (for production), `ar (for development), and paop (for test). For example, to run the Forum application in production mode and point it to MySQL, type this command: cn]eholnk`nqj)]ll To package it as a WAR using production settings, use this command: cn]eholnk`s]n The default environment is development. You can also add your own environment if you prefer and use it by passing it as a value to the cn]eho*ajr argument as follows: cn]ehoÌ@cn]eho*ajr9op]cejcnqj)]ll The following settings are supported inside `]p]Okqn_a or an environment block. A setting in an environment block will override the setting with the same name defined inside the `]p]Okqn_a block: s`neran?h]ooJ]ia: The name of the JDBC driver class. sqoanj]ia: The username to connect to the database. sl]ooskn`: The password to connect to the database. sqnh: The database URL. s`^?na]pa: How Grails should treat the database when starting up. The three sup- ported options are as follows: s_na]pa)`nkl: Will drop the schema if it exists and re- create it. s_na]pa: Will create the schema only if it doesn’t exist but doesn’t modify it if it does. Deletes all existing data. sql`]pa: Will create the schema only if it doesn’t exist and modifies it if it does. Doesn’t delete any data. slkkha`: Whether to use connection pooling or not—defaults to pnqa. shkcOmh: Enables or disables SQL logging. s`e]ha_p: The Hibernate dialect to use when working with the database. sfj`eJ]ia: The name of the JNDI resource to look up. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 259 NCaution Be careful not to set `^?na]pa to _na]pa)`nkl or _na]pa when running in production mode because doing so will delete all existing data. NCaution Make sure you don’t declare the settings in @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru (precede them with `ab or give them a type) because Grails will then treat them as local variables and they will have no effect. You can programmatically find out which environment you are running in by using the Cn]ehoQpeh class: lnejphjcn]eho*qpeh*Cn]ehoQpeh*ajrenkjiajp 12-2. How Do I Create a Domain Class? A domain class can be created with the convenience command _na]pa)`ki]ej)_h]oo: cn]eho_na]pa)`ki]ej)_h]oo8_h]ooJ]ia: You can of course still create a domain class manually by placing it inside cn]eho)]ll+ `ki]ej. Let’s start modeling our Forum application. I will be using MySQL for development instead of HSQLDB because you can’t browse an HSQLDB database when running in memory. I’ll start by creating four classes, Bknqi, Pkle_, Lkop, and Qoan: sBknqi: Represents the forum where users post messages—for example, Groovy forum or Grails forum sPkle_: Represents a new topic posted to the forum sLkop: Represents a reply to a topic sQoan: Represents the user who submitted a topic or a post After your classes are created, start up your application with cn]ehonqj)]ll. The screenshot in Figure 12-1 shows the four tables Grails will create in the database: bknqi, lkop, pkle_, and qoan (all lowercase by default, and I will show you how you can change that shortly). If you are using MySQL, you can use the MySQL Query Browser tool $dppl6++sss*iuomh*_ki+lnk`q_po+pkkho+mqanu)^nksoan) to navigate the database visually. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER260 Figure 12-1. Tables created in the database Notice that by default each table will have an e` and a ranoekj column. An e` is used as an identifier, and a ranoekj is used for optimistic locking (see Recipe 12- 7). Let’s add a few properties to the domain classes. The code is shown in Listing 12-3. Listing 12-3. Forum Application Domain Classes _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop y _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa y _h]ooLkopw Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa y _h]ooQoanw OpnejcbenopJ]ia Opnejch]opJ]ia Opnejcai]eh y Restart the application if the database doesn’t show the newly added columns. Figure 12-2 shows the updated tables. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 261 Figure 12-2. Tables showing the added properties Each property maps to a column in the database of the appropriate type. In MySQL, a property of type Opnejc will map to R=N?D=N$..1%, and a property of type @]pa will map to @=PAPEIA. This mapping can be customized by using GORM’s object- relational mapping domain- specific language (ORM DSL). To change the default mapping behavior, define a static i]llejc block inside your domain class as follows: _h]ooBknqiw Å op]pe_i]llejc9w y y Listing 12-4 shows how to use ORM DSL to customize the table name, column names, and column types for the Bknqi class. Listing 12-4. Customizing Mapping by Using GORM’s ORM DSL _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER262 op]pe_i]llejc9w p]^ha#bknqio#++?d]jcapdap]^ha#oj]ia j]ia_khqij6#Bknqi[J]ia#++?d]jcapdaj]ialnklanpu_khqijj]ia h]opLkoppula6#peiaop]il#++?d]jcapdah]opLkoplnklanpu_khqijpula y y Notice that any class created inside cn]eho)]ll+`ki]ej will be automatically persisted in the database. If you wish not to persist your class in the database, you can create it inside a controller (as a command object) or inside the on_+cnkkru or on_+f]r] folders. You can organize domain classes in packages if you wish under the cn]eho)]ll+`ki]ej folder. By default, all properties of your domain class are required (set to JKPJQHH in the database). If you wish a property to be nullable, you will have to use the jqhh]^ha con- straint. Constraints are another way you can affect the schema generation. Listing 12-5 shows how to declare the `ao_nelpekj property of the Bknqi class to be nullable. Listing 12-5. Allowing JQHH Values _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w `ao_nelpekj$jqhh]^ha6pnqa% y y To exclude a property from being persisted in the database altogether, define a static property called pn]joeajpo that accepts a list of properties to exclude from persisting, as in the following example: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop `abcapJ]ia=j`@ao_nelpekj$%w napqnj j]ia6 j]ia `ao_nelpekj6 `ao_nelpekj  y op]pe_pn]joeajpo9W#j]ia=j`@ao_nelpekj#Y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 263 12-3. How Do I Model Relationships? In a good database model, every table should have at least one relationship to another table. The types of relationships that Grails supports are as follows: s /NE TO ONE s /NE TO MANY s -ANY TO ONE s -ANY TO MANY Let’s modify the four domain classes in the Forum application to add the appropriate relationships between them. The relationships are illustrated in Figure 12-3. The code is shown in Listing 12-6. Figure 12-3. Relationships between the Forum application domain classes Listing 12-6. Forum Application Domain Classes Showing Relationships _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER264 _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY y _h]ooLkopw Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa y _h]ooQoanw OpnejcbenopJ]ia Opnejch]opJ]ia Opnejcai]eh op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_(lkopo6LkopY y As illustrated in Figure 12-3, a Bknqi may have zero or more Pkle_s. A Pkle_ may have zero or more Lkops, and a Qoan may have zero or more Pkle_s and Lkops. This kind of a rela- tionship is called a unidirectional one-to- many relationship. Restart your application and take a look at the database. You will now see four new tables: bknqi[pkle_, pkle_[lkop, qoan[pkle_, and qoan[lkop, as shown in Figure 12-4. Figure 12-4. Relationships modeled in the database By default, Grails will use a join table to map a unidirectional one-to- many relation- ship (which is considered a good practice). If you wish to use a foreign key association instead (not recommended), you can do so by using custom mapping. Listing 12-7 shows how to use a foreign key to join Bknqi and Pkle_. Listing 12-7. Using a Foreign Key to Map a Unidirectional One-to- Many Relationship _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 265 op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe_i]llejc9w pkle_ofkejP]^ha6b]hoa(_khqij6#Bknqi[E@# y y Bknqi and Pkle_ will now be joined by using the Bknqi[E@ foreign key in the pkle_ table, as shown in Figure 12-5. Figure 12-5. Mapping a unidirectional one-to- many relationship by using a foreign key association To specify a bidirectional one-to- many relationship, add a ^ahkjcoPk property to the many side of the relationship: _h]ooPkle_w Å op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY y A bidirectional one-to- many relationship is mapped, by default, by using a foreign key association. In a unidirectional relationship, only saves and updates are cascaded (not deletions). In a bidirectional relationship, deletes are also cascaded. This means that if you have a bidirectional one-to- many relationship between Bknqi and Pkle_ and you delete a forum, all the topics that belong to that forum will be also deleted. If the relationship is unidi- rectional, deletes will not be cascaded and you will have to delete the orphaned topics yourself. The default cascading behavior can be changed by using the ORM DSL. The valid cascading values are as follows: s_na]pa: Cascades creations of new instances to associations sianca: Merges a detached association so]ra)ql`]pa: Cascades only saves and updates to associations s`ahapa: Cascades only deletes to associations CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER266 shk_g: Indicates whether a pessimistic lock should be cascaded to associations snabnaod: Cascades refreshes to associations sare_p: Cascades evictions (or discards) to associations s]hh: Cascades all operations to associations s`ahapa)knld]j: Applies to one-to- many relationships and indicates that if a child is removed from an association, the child should be automatically deleted Listing 12-8 shows how to change the default cascading behavior for the Bknqi class and its pkle_o collection property. Listing 12-8. Changing the Default Cascading Behavior by Using the ORM DSL _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe_i]llejc9w pkle_o_]o_]`a6]hh(`ahapa)knld]j y y GORM uses f]r]*qpeh*Oap by default to represent a one-to- many relationship; for example, the pkle_o property inside the Bknqi class is represented as a set. Remember that sets have no order and do not allow duplicates. If you want your set to have an order, you must use a Oknpa`Oap, in which case you have to implement the ?kil]n]^ha interface in the Pkle_ class, as shown in Listing 12-9. Listing 12-9. Using Oknpa`Oap to Represent a Relationship _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop Oknpa`Oappkle_o op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y y _h]ooPkle_eilhaiajpo?kil]n]^haw Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 267 @]pa`]pa op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY ejp_kil]naPk$k^f%w `]pa*_kil]naPk$k^f*`]pa% y y You may also use f]r]*qpeh*Heop instead of Oap, as shown in Listing 12-10. Listing 12-10. Using Heop to Represent a Relationship _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop Heoppkle_o op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y y All associations in GORM are lazy by default. This means that items in the collection are retrieved only when needed and not all at once. This approach is usually faster when the size of the collection is large or when the association is not frequently visited. For example, if a Bknqi instance has n Pkle_s, the following code will generate n+1 queries: one query to get the Bknqi instance by using its ID, and one query for each iteration over the pkle_o association: `abbknqi9Bknqi*cap$-%++napneara]Bknqiqoejcepoe` bknqi*a]_d*pkle_ow lnejphjep*j]ia++=jasmqanusehh^acajan]pa`]j`ata_qpa`bkna]_depan]pekj y The other kind of fetch strategy is eager fetching, which loads all the items in the col- lection into memory at once. This approach requires fewer queries but can be memory intensive for large collections. To enable eager fetching, define a property called bap_dIk`a in your domain class as follows: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe_bap_dIk`a9Wpkle_o6#a]can#Y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER268 You can also customize fetching strategy by using ORM DSL: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe_i]llejc9w pkle_oh]vu6b]hoa y y The two other kinds of supported relationships are one-to- one and many-to- many. A one-to- one relationship is the simplest kind of relationship. An example of a unidirectional one-to- one relationship is that between a Qoan and an =r]p]n, as shown in Listing 12-11. Listing 12-11. One-to- One Relationship _h]ooQoanw =r]p]n]r]p]n op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w]r]p]n$qjemqa6pnqa%y y _h]oo=r]p]nw y To make the relationship bidirectional, add the Qoan property to the =r]p]n: _h]ooQoanw =r]p]n]r]p]n op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w]r]p]n$qjemqa6pnqa%y y _h]oo=r]p]nw Qoanqoan y Even though this relationship is bidirectional, inserts, updates, and deletes are not cascaded by default. To cascade them, you will have to add the ^ahkjcoPk static property to the =r]p]n class: _h]ooQoanw =r]p]n]r]p]n op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w]r]p]n$qjemqa6pnqa%y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 269 _h]oo=r]p]nw op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wqoan6QoanY y What this basically says is that an =r]p]n belongs to a Qoan, so an =r]p]n cannot exist independent of a Qoan. Now if you create a Qoan and add an =r]p]n to it, both objects will be inserted into the database. Similarly, when you delete a Qoan, its =r]p]n will be deleted as well. The last kind of supported relationship is many-to- many. Suppose I modify the Forum application to allow a topic to appear in more than one forum. The kind of rela- tionship now between a Bknqi and a Pkle_ is many-to- many, as shown in Listing 12-12. Listing 12-12. Many-to- Many Relationship _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y y _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wbknqio6Bknqi(lkopo6LkopY op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Bknqi y A many-to- many relationship is defined by adding the d]oI]ju static property to both sides of the relationship and adding ^ahkjcoPk to the owned side of the relationship. In Listing 12-12, Bknqi is the owner side and is responsible for cascading saves, updates, and deletes. Pkle_ is the owned side and can’t exist independent of the owner. Only one side can own a many-to- many relationship. Grails will map a many-to- many relationship by using a join table. If you inspect the underlying database, you should see a new table called bknqi[pkle_ with two columns: pkle_o[e` and bknqio[e`. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER270 12-4. How Do I Use Composition? Just as in Hibernate, Grails allows you to embed classes in other classes. The embedded class will not have its own table, and instead its properties will be added as columns to the table of the container class. Listing 12-13 shows how to add an =``naoo class to the Qoan class by using composition. Listing 12-13. Using Composition _h]ooQoanw OpnejcbenopJ]ia Opnejch]opJ]ia Opnejcai]eh =``naoo]``naoo op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_(lkopo6LkopY op]pe_ai^a``a`9W#]``naoo#Y y _h]oo=``naoow Opnejc]``naoo- Opnejc]``naoo. ejpvel ejpldkja y NNote The =``naoo class should be in the same file as the Qoan class. If you define the =``naoo class in a separate file (for example, inside cn]eho)]ll+`ki]ej+=``naoo*cnkkru), it will have its own table instead. 12-5. How Do I Perform CRUD Operations on My Domain Classes? In Hibernate, any work with the database must be performed within a session. A session is basically a unit of work. You open a session to begin the unit of work, execute SQL operations (OAHA?P, QL@=PA, EJOANP, @AHAPA), and close the session to close the unit of work. Usually you flush the session prior to closing it to synchronize the in- memory session state with the database. CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 271 With GORM, you don’t need to manage your Hibernate session explicitly. Grails will automatically bind a Hibernate session object to the currently executing request so you can transparently call dynamic methods on your domain classes to persist them. GORM injects into your domain classes various methods for performing CRUD oper- ations. The methods I am going to cover here are o]ra, `ahapa, ]``Pk&, and naikraBnki&, which are available on all domain classes. (Refer to Recipe 12- 6 for information on how to query domain classes.) To test the examples in this recipe and in the next recipes, start up an instance of the Groovy console by typing cn]eho_kjokha at the command line inside the Forum root directory. Type the code in the console and press Ctrl+R to execute it, or from the menu choose Script ¢ Run. If you are using a file- based database (such as MySQL), you can simultaneously run your application and have an instance of the Groovy console running. If you want to see the SQL generated by GORM, add hkcOmh9pnqa to cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+ @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru. The generated SQL will be output to the Groovy console output pane. To save your class, simply call o]ra on it: `abbknqi9jasBknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru(`ao_nelpekj6Cajan]hCnkkru@eo_qooekj( h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% bknqi*o]ra$% If you examine the bknqi table in the database, you should see a new row inserted there. Using the Groovy console to perform CRUD operations on your domain classes is a great way to learn GORM and to verify the mapping of your domain classes. One thing to be aware of is that validation errors will not throw an exception and thus will not be reported by the console. For example, try running the following code: `abbknqi9jasBknqi$j]ia6Paop(`ao_nelpekj6Paop% bknqi*o]ra$% Running the example will not throw any errors, so you might assume that the record was successfully inserted into the database. However, when you select all records from the bknqi table, you will not see your record there. Remember that all properties of your domain class are required by default, so h]opLkop is mapped to the database as a JKPJQHH column. Trying to create a new Bknqi without this property will result in a constraint error. One solution is to iterate over the domain class annkno property and print out the errors as follows: `abbknqi9jasBknqi$j]ia6Paop(`ao_nelpekj6Paop% eb$bknqi*o]ra$%%w bknqi*annkno*a]_dwlnejphjepy y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER272 Notice that Grails flushes the Hibernate session before closing it, which may not nec- essarily be right after you call o]ra on your domain class. If you want to flush the session right away after a o]ra operation, you should pass the bhqod argument as pnqa to the o]ra method as follows: `abbknqi9jasBknqi$j]ia6Paop(`ao_nelpekj6Paop(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% bknqi*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa% The o]ra method will also take care of updating your object if it already exists, as follows: Bknqibknqi9Bknqi*cap$-%++Cap]bknqi^uE@ bknqi*oapH]opLkop$jas@]pa$%% bknqi*o]ra$% An often useful feature is to persist some domain classes when your application first starts up. To execute any code when your application starts up, place it inside the ejep closure in the file cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+>kkpOpn]l*cnkkru, which is shown in Listing 12-14. Listing 12-14. >kkpOpn]l*cnkkru _h]oo>kkpOpn]lw `abejep9woanrhap?kjpatp): ++=ju_k`adanasehh^aata_qpa`sdajpda]llhe_]pekjop]npoql y `ab`aopnku9w ++=ju_k`adanasehh^aata_qpa`sdajpda]llhe_]pejeoodqp`ksj y y Deletion works in a similar way to inserts and updates. For example: Bknqibknqi9Bknqi*cap$-%++Cap]bknqi^uE@ bknqi*`ahapa$% You can use the spread operator (&) to delete all instances in one statement, as follows: Bknqi*heop$%&*`ahapa$% CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 273 The `ahapa method also accepts the bhqod property as an argument. For example: bknqi*`ahapa$bhqod6pnqa% To add instances to an association, you can use the dynamic method ]``Pk8lnklanpu[j]ia:. The following code will create a new forum with two topics: jasBknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru(`ao_nelpekj6Cnkkru(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p-( iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca-(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p.( iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca.(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%% *o]ra$% To remove instances from an association, you can use the dynamic naikraBnki 8lnklanpu[j]ia: method. For example, to remove the two topics I just added in the previous example, you use the following: Bknqibknqi9Bknqi*cap$-%++Cap]bknqi^uE@ `abpkle_-9bknqi*pkle_o*bej`wep*oq^fa_p99#Oq^fa_p-#y `abpkle_.9bknqi*pkle_o*bej`wep*oq^fa_p99#Oq^fa_p.#y bknqi*naikraBnkiPkle_o$pkle_-% bknqi*naikraBnkiPkle_o$pkle_.% Notice that this will remove the Pkle_ instances from the pkle_o association but will not delete them from the database. It will result in a null value in the bknqi[e` column in the underlying pkle_ table; therefore, in order for the code to work, you will have to set the bknqi property in the Pkle_ class to be nullable as follows: _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w bknqi$jqhh]^ha6pnqa% y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER274 12-6. How Do I Query with GORM? There are many ways to query your data with GORM. For simple tasks, you can use the static heop, cap, cap=hh, and ateopo methods, which are injected into all domain classes. For more- advanced needs, you can use dynamic finders (Recipe 12- 7), Hibernate’s Criteria (Recipe 12- 8), or Hibernate Query Language (Recipe 12- 9). Combined with Groovy’s pow- erful abilities to manipulate collections with CL]pd, cnal, bej`=hh, and oknp, Grails offers very advanced features for querying. To get a list of all the forums, you can use the static heop method: `abbknqio9Bknqi*heop$% You can pass the following arguments to the heop method: si]t: Maximum number to list. skbboap: The index to start the results at. skn`an: The sorting order of the list, either `ao_ or ]o_. soknp: The property name to sort by. secjkna?]oa: Indicates whether sorting should be case sensitive. Defaults to pnqa. sbap_d: The fetching strategy for the object’s association, h]vu or a]can. Defaults to h]vu. The heop method can be used to perform pagination and sorting. For example: `abheop9Pkle_*heop$kbboap61(i]t6-,(oknp6`]pa(kn`an6`ao_% You can also use the dynamic heopKn`an>u& to return results in a particular order. For example: Bknqi*heopKn`an>uJ]ia$%++Sehhnapqnjnaoqhpokn`ana`^ubknqij]ia You can use cap=hh to get a list of all instances using a set of IDs. For example: `abpkle_o9Pkle_*cap=hh$W-(.(/Y%++Napqnjpkle_osepde`o-(.]j`/ You can use ateopo to check for the existence of an instance with the given ID. For example: Bknqi*ateopo$-% You can use _kqjp to count the number of instances in the database: Bknqi*_kqjp$% CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 275 12-7. How Do I Use Dynamic Finders? Dynamic finders may look like magic at first. Using Groovy’s dynamic capabilities, GORM is able to inject static dynamic methods in your domain class that help you query objects using their properties. The syntax is as follows: 8@ki]ej[_h]oo:*bej`>u8Lnklanpu-:8?kil]n]pkn:;8>kkha]j[Klan]pkn:8Lnklanpu.:£ 8?kil]n]pkn: 8@ki]ej[_h]oo:*bej`=hh>u8Lnklanpu-:8?kil]n]pkn:;8>kkha]j[Klan]pkn:8Lnklanpu.:£ 8?kil]n]pkn: The following is a list of the supported comparators you can use: sHaooPd]j: Equivalent to SQL 8 sHaooPd]jAmq]ho: Equivalent to SQL 89 sCna]panPd]j: Equivalent to SQL : sCna]panPd]jAmq]ho: Equivalent to SQL :9 s>apsaaj: Equivalent to SQL >APSAAJ sHega: Equivalent to SQL Hega sEhega: Equivalent to SQL Hega but case- insensitive sEoJkpJqhh: Equivalent to SQL EOJKPJQHH sEoJqhh: Equivalent to SQL EOJQHH sJkp: Equivalent to SQL JKP sAmq]h: Equivalent to SQL 9 sJkpAmq]h: Equivalent to SQL 8: or 9 The following are the Boolean operators you can use: s=j`: Equivalent to SQL =J@ sKn: Equivalent to SQL KN CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER276 For example, given the following two classes: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y y _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY y you will be able to call any of the following methods: ++Bej`]bknqisepdpdaj]iaCnkkru Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia$Cnkkru% ++Bej`]bknqisdanapdaj]iaop]nposepdC Bknqi*bej`>uJ]iaHega$C!% ++Bej`]hhbknqiosdanapdaj]iaop]nposepdCqoejcl]cej]pekj Bknqi*bej`=hh>uJ]iaHega$C!(Wi]t61(kbboap6,(oknp6j]ia(kn`an6`ao_Y% ++Bej`]hhbknqiosdanapdah]oplkop`]paeocna]panpd]j`]pa- Bknqi*bej`=hh>uH]opLkopCna]panPd]j$`]pa-% ++Bej`]hhbknqiosdanapdah]oplkop`]paeo^apsaaj`]pa-]j``]pa. Bknqi*bej`=hh>uH]opLkop>apsaaj$`]pa-(`]pa.% ++Bej`]bknqisdanapdaj]iaamq]hoCnkkru ++]j`pdah]oplkop`]paeohaoopd]j`]pa Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia=j`H]opLkopHaooPd]j$Cnkkru(`]pa% ++Bej`]hhpkle_oejpdabknqisepde`- Pkle_*bej`=hh>uBknqi$Bknqi*cap$-%% ++Bej`]hhpkle_oejpdabknqiCnkkru Pkle_*bej`=hh>uBknqi$Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia$Cnkkru%% ++Bej`]hhpkle_osdanapdaoq^fa_pknpdaiaoo]cabeah`_kjp]ejoF@>? Pkle_*bej`=hh>uOq^fa_pHegaKnIaoo]caHega$F@>?(F@>?% ++Bej`]hhpkle_osdanapdaoq^fa_peojqhh Pkle_*bej`=hh>uOq^fa_pEoJqhh$% ++Bej`]hhpkle_osdanapdaiaoo]caeojkpjqhh Pkle_*bej`=hh>uIaoo]caEoJkpJqhh$% ++Bej`]hhpkle_osdanapdaiaoo]ca_kjp]ejocnkkru_]oaejoajoepera ++]j`pdalkop`]paeocna]panpd]j`]pa Pkle_*bej`=hh>uIaoo]caEhega=j`@]paCna]panPd]j$!cnkkru!(`]pa% CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 277 Notice that you can join a maximum of only two query criteria by using one Boolean operator. Also notice that you can pass a map as the last parameter to bej`=hh>u for pagi- nation and sorting. You can also use the dynamic _kqjp>u& to count the number of rows returned: ++?kqjp]hhbknqiosdanapdaj]ia_kjp]ejopdaskn`Cnkkru Bknqi*_kqjp>uJ]iaHega$!Cnkkru!% ++?kqjp]hhbknqiosdanapdaj]iaeojkpjqhh Bknqi*_kqjp>uJ]iaEoJkpJqhh$% 12-8. How Do I Use Criteria? Criteria are a powerful way to construct complex queries. I recently worked on a project that involved writing very complex SQL queries in Java. The queries were constructed by using Java’s Opnejc>qbban and were hard to read and maintain. GORM solves this problem by introducing a new builder class called De^anj]pa?nepane]>qeh`an that wraps Hibernate’s Criteria API. De^anj]pa?nepane]>qeh`an can be obtained by calling the static method _na]pa?nepane] on a domain class. The nodes on De^anj]pa?nepane]>qeh`an map to method calls on the class knc*de^anj]pa*_nepanekj*Naopne_pekjo (dppl6++sss*de^anj]pa*knc+de^[`k_o+r/+]le+ knc+de^anj]pa+_nepanekj+Naopne_pekjo*dpih). Table 12-1 lists the nodes available inside the criteria builder, what each node means, and a usage example. Table 12-1. De^anj]pa?nepane]>qeh`an Available Nodes Node Description Example ^apsaaj Whether the property is between two values ^apsaaj$`]pa(`]pa-(`]pa.% am Whether the property is equal to a par- ticular value am$j]ia(Cnkkru% amLnklanpu Whether the two properties are equal amLnklanpu$iaoo]ca(oq^fa_p% cp Whether the property is greater than a particular value cp$`]pa(`]pa-% cpLnklanpu Whether one property is greater than the other cpLnklanpu$lkop@]pa(`]pa-% ca Whether the property is greater than or equal to a particular value ca$`]pa(`]pa-% continued CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER278 Table 12-1. Continued Node Description Example caLnklanpu Whether one property is greater than or equal to the other caLnklanpu$`]pa-(`]pa.% e`Am Whether the object ID is equal to the given value e`Am$-% ehega A SQL HEGA expression (case- insensitive) ehega$j]ia(C!% ej Whether the property is contained in the list of specified values. Must be enclosed in quotes. #ej#$j]ia(WCnkkru(Cn]ehoY% eoAilpu Whether the collection property is empty eoAilpu$pkle_o% eoJkpAilpu Whether the collection property is not empty eoJkpAilpu$pkle_o% eoJqhh Whether the property is null eoJqhh$j]ia% eoJkpJqhh Whether the property is not null eoJkpJqhh$j]ia% hp Whether the property is less than a particular value hp$`]pa(`]pa-% hpLnklanpu Whether one property is less than the other hpLnklanpu$`]pa-(`]pa.% ha Whether the property is less than or equal to a particular value ha$`]pa(`]pa-% haLnklanpu Whether one property is less than or equal to the other haLnklanpu$`]pa-(`]pa.% hega A SQL HEGA expression hega$j]ia(C!% ja Whether the property is not equal to a particular value ja$j]ia(Cnkkru% jaLnklanpu Whether the two properties are not equal jaLnklanpu$`]pa-(`]pa.% kn`an Sort the results by the given property in the specified sorting order kn`an$j]ia(`ao_% oevaAm Whether the collection property size is equal to the given value oevaAm$pkle_o(1% Criteria can be grouped together by using logical =J@ or KN. They can also be negated by using JKP. The following are a few examples. Find all forums where the `ao_nelpekj contains the word Groovy, case- insensitive, the h]opLkop date is in the past seven days, and the j]ia is not null. Return a maximum of ten results ordered by j]ia in descending order: CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 279 `ab_9Bknqi*_na]pa?nepane]$% `abnaoqhpo9_w ehega$`ao_nelpekj(!Cnkkru!% ]j`w ^apsaaj$h]opLkop(jas@]pa$%)3(jas@]pa$%% eoJkpJqhh$j]ia% y i]tNaoqhpo$-,% kn`an$j]ia(`ao_% y In the previous example, the call to i]tNaoqhpo and kn`an sets the properties on an instance of cn]eho*kni*De^anj]pa?nepane]>qeh`an. You can also call bap_dIk`a here to change the default fetching strategy from h]vu to a]can. To find all forums where the `ao_nelpekj contains the word Groovy (case- insensitive) or they contain pkle_o posted in the past ten days: `ab_9Bknqi*_na]pa?nepane]$% `abnaoqhpo9_*heop@eopej_pw knw ehega$`ao_nelpekj(!Cnkkru!% pkle_ow ^apsaaj$`]pa(jas@]pa$%)-,(jas@]pa$%% y y y The previous example shows how to query associations. You simply use the associa- tion name as a builder node. It also shows how you can use heop@eopej_p instead of heop to list distinct entities only. You can use projections to customize the returned results. Projections are useful for returning the average, count, maximum, minimum, distinct, or sum of results. Projections use the class knc*de^anj]pa*_nepanekj*Lnkfa_pekjo. The full API for the class can be found at dppl6++sss*de^anj]pa*knc+de^[`k_o+r/+]le+knc+de^anj]pa+_nepanekj+Lnkfa_pekjo*dpih. To use projections, simply define a lnkfa_pekjo node inside the criteria builder. Here is an example of returning the count of all forums that have a topic posted in the past ten days: `ab_9Bknqi*_na]pa?nepane]$% `abnaoqhpo9_*heopw lnkfa_pekjow _kqjp@eopej_p$#j]ia#% y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER280 pkle_ow ^apsaaj$`]pa(jas@]pa$%)-,(jas@]pa$%% y y Criteria also enable you to use O_nkhh]^haNaoqhpo, which lets you iterate over the returned result in a similar way you iterate over a JDBC NaoqhpOap. Here is an example that reuses the previous example but uses a O_nkhh]^haNaoqhp to get the first row in the result set (_kqjp). `ab_9Bknqi*_na]pa?nepane]$% `abnaoqhpo9_*o_nkhhw i]tNaoqhpo$-,% lnkfa_pekjow _kqjp@eopej_p$#j]ia#% y pkle_ow ^apsaaj$`]pa(jas@]pa$%)-,(jas@]pa$%% y y naoqhpo*benop$% ]ooanpnaoqhpo*cap$,%99- 12-9. How Do I Use HQL? Hibernate comes with a query language called Hibernate Query Language (HQL) that looks very much like SQL but is in fact completely object oriented. The complete refer- ence for HQL can be found at dppl6++sss*de^anj]pa*knc+de^[`k_o+nabanaj_a+aj+dpih+ mqanudmh*dpih. You can use HQL queries with bej`, bej`=hh, and ata_qpaMqanu. For example, to find all forums where the name starts with the letter G, you would use the following: `abnaoqhpo9Bknqi*bej`=hh$bnkiBknqi]obsdanab*j]iahega#C!#% To find all forums where a topic has been posted in the past seven days (using named parameters and pagination), the code is as follows: `abnaoqhpo9Bknqi*ata_qpaMqanu$ oaha_p`eopej_pbBnkiBknqibfkejb*pkle_opsdanap*`]pa:6`]pa( W`]pa6jas@]pa$%)3Y(Wi]t6-,(kbboap6,Y% CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 281 12-10. How Do I Use Inheritance? In GORM, there are two major inheritance strategies: s 4ABLEPERHIERARCHYDEFAULT /NETABLEwill be created for the entire class hier- archy with a discriminator column (called _h]oo by default) that specifies the subclass. This approach has a major limitation—properties cannot have a JKPJQHH constraint. s 4ABLEPERSUBCLASS!TABLEWILLbe created per subclass. All subclasses will have primary key associations to the superclass table. This kind of inheritance can be enabled by using ORM DSL. In the Forum application, you may notice that the Lkop and Pkle_ classes look almost identical. Let’s modify the application to use inheritance: _h]ooLkopw Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa y _h]ooPkle_atpaj`oLkopw Opnejcoq^fa_p op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY y If you examine the database, you will see one table created for both classes (called lkop) with a discriminator column called _h]oo that holds the subclass name as a value (either Pkle_ or Lkop). The following code will create a new topic and add two posts to it: jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6JasPkle_(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%* ]``PkLkopo$jasLkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%%* ]``PkLkopo$jasLkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%%*o]ra$% If you examine the lkop table, you will see three rows inserted, as shown in Figure 12-6. Figure 12-6. Using inheritance CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER282 Notice the values in the _h]oo column. Also notice that the oq^fa_p column is set to jqhh when the _h]oo value is Lkop. One advantage of inheritance is that it allows polymorphic queries: `ablkopo9Lkop*heop$%++Heopo]hhlkopo=J@pkle_o ++Oa]n_daolkopo=J@pkle_obkn]iaoo]capd]p_kjp]ejopdaskn`Cnkkru `ablkopo9Lkop*bej`=hh>uIaoo]caHega$!Cnkkru!% `abpkle_o9Pkle_*heop$%++Heopopkle_okjhu Listing 12-15 shows how to use a table per subclass inheritance strategy. Listing 12-15. Table per Subclass Inheritance _h]ooLkopw Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_i]llejc9w p]^haLanDean]n_dub]hoa y y _h]ooPkle_atpaj`oLkopw Opnejcoq^fa_p op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY y GORM will now create two tables in the database, lkop and pkle_. The lkop table will hold the `]pa and iaoo]ca columns, and the pkle_ table will hold the oq^fa_p column. This has the advantage that properties can have a JKPJQHH constraint. 12-11. What is Optimistic and Pessimistic Locking? There are two major ways to control concurrency in Hibernate: optimistic and pessimis- tic locking. Optimistic locking is the default strategy used by GORM. If you examine any table generated in the database by GORM, you will see a ranoekj column. The ranoekj column can be accessed by using the ranoekj property: `abbknqi9Bknqi*cap$-% lnejphjbknqi*ranoekj CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 283 The ranoekj property contains the current version of the persisted instance. The ranoekj property is used for optimistic locking. Anytime you try to perform an update on your domain class, Hibernate will check the ranoekj property against the ranoekj column in the database. If they are different, the object has been modified by someone else. In that case, Hibernate will throw an exception of type knc*de^anj]pa*Op]haK^fa_pOp]paAt_alpekj and the transaction will roll back. You will have to deal with the exception yourself, which might be inconvenient for highly concurrent applications. This approach, however, is rela- tively fast. If you wish to disable optimistic locking for your class, you can do so by using ORM DSL: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj @]pah]opLkop op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe_i]llejc9w ranoekjb]hoa y y In pessimistic locking, the database will be locked (even for read operations) until the lock is released through the locking mechanism of the database. Pessimistic locking is done by using a call to the hk_g method: `abbknqi9Bknqi*cap$-% bknqi*hk_g$% bknqi*j]ia9#Cn]eho# bknqi*o]ra$% The locking type will be of Hk_gIk`a*QLCN=@A, which is acquired by upgrading all SQL OAHA?P statements to OAHA?P***BKNQL@=PA in databases that support that syntax. The lock will be released automatically after the transaction is committed. Please note that HSQLDB doesn’t support pessimistic locking, so you will have to use a different database if you need that feature (for example, MySQL). 12-12. How Do I Use Events? Events look very much like database triggers, which are executed in response to certain events on a particular table or database. Events in GORM are closures that are added to your domain class and are executed when a specific event occurs. The supported events are as follows: CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER284 s^abknaEjoanp: Fired before an instance is saved in the database s^abknaQl`]pa: Fired before an instance is updated in the database s^abkna@ahapa: Fired before an instance is deleted from the database skjHk]`: Fired when an instance is loaded from the database For example, to update the `]pa property of the Pkle_ class automatically when a topic is created or updated, you use the following: _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY `ab^abknaEjoanp9w `]pa9jas@]pa$% y `ab^abknaQl`]pa9w `]pa9jas@]pa$% y y To test whether the event works, create a new forum and add a couple of topics to it: jasBknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru(`ao_nelpekj6Cnkkru(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p-(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca-%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p.(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca.%%*o]ra$% This code, however, will fail. The reason it fails is that the o]ra method will validate the Pkle_ class before the call to ^abknaEjoanp is executed. By default all properties of the Pkle_ class are required, so the validation will fail because the `]pa property has not been filled yet. One solution is to use ORM DSL to allow the `]pa property to be nullable. This way, the ^abknaEjoanp event will fire properly to fill in the property: _h]ooPkle_w Å op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w `]pa$jqhh]^ha6pnqa% y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 285 Another solution is to pass the r]he`]pa option as b]hoa to the o]ra method. This way, o]ra will not validate your domain classes before attempting to persist them: jasBknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru(`ao_nelpekj6Cnkkru(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p-(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca-%% *]``PkPkle_o$jasPkle_$oq^fa_p6Oq^fa_p.(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca.%% *o]ra$r]he`]pa6b]hoa% 12-13. How Do I Use Timestamps? Using convention, if you define a property called h]opQl`]pa` and a property called `]pa?na]pa` in your domain class, GORM will automatically update these two properties for you anytime you perform an insert or an update. Listing 12-16 shows an example. Listing 12-16. Using Timestamps _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa?na]pa` @]pah]opQl`]pa` op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wlkopo6LkopY y To disable this feature, use ORM DSL: _h]ooPkle_w Å op]pe_i]llejc9w ]qpkPeiaop]ilb]hoa y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER286 12-14. How Do I Use Caching? Hibernate comes with a second- level cache that enables you to configure caching on a class-by- class or collection-by- collection basis. It ships with a few built- in cache imple- mentations, as shown in Table 12-2. Table 12-2. Hibernate Built- in Cache Implementations Implementation Web Site Provider Class Ehcache dppl6++ad_]_da*okqn_abknca*jap knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da* Ad?]_daLnkre`an OSCache dppl6++sss*klajouildkju*_ki+ko_]_da knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da* KO?]_daLnkre`an SwarmCache dppl6++os]ni_]_da*okqn_abknca*jap knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da* Os]ni?]_daLnkre`an JBoss TreeCache dppl6++sss*f^koo*knc+beha)]__aoo+ `ab]qhp+iai^ano+f^koo_]_da+ bnaavkja+`k_o+-*.*,+Pqpkne]h*dpih knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da* Pnaa?]_daLnkre`an The configuration for caching in Grails is located inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+@]p]Okqn_a* cnkkru. Caching is enabled and uses Ehcache by default: de^anj]paw _]_da*qoa[oa_kj`[harah[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*qoa[mqanu[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*lnkre`an[_h]oo9#knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da*Ad?]_daLnkre`an# y To enable caching in a GORM class by using default settings, simply call the _]_da method with the pnqa argument: _h]ooBknqiw ** op]pe_i]llejc9w _]_dapnqa y y The default settings will use na]`)snepa cache strategy and will cache both h]vu and jkj)h]vu properties. Cache strategies can be any of the following: CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 287 sna]`)kjhu: The application will use the class for read- only operations (best performance). sna]`)snepa: Default. The application will need to update the class frequently. sjkjopne_p)na]`)snepa: The application will only occasionally need to update the class, and there is almost no chance of two transactions modifying the class at the same time. spn]jo]_pekj]h: Provides support for fully transactional cache providers such as JBoss TreeCache. This cache can be used only in a JTA environment. You can use ORM DSL to fully customize the caching strategy—including or exclud- ing associations. The following example uses na]`)kjhu cache strategy, includes only jkj)h]vu properties, and excludes the pkle_o collections property: _h]ooBknqiw ** op]pe_i]llejc9w _]_daqo]ca6#na]`)kjhu#(ej_hq`a6#jkj)h]vu# pkle_o_]_da6b]hoa y y 12-15. How Do I Use a Custom Database Identifier? Hibernate uses generators to generate unique identifiers for instances of the persisted class. Generators implement the interface knc*de^anj]pa*e`*E`ajpebeanCajan]pkn, and you can easily provide your own implementation if you wish to. GORM uses the j]pera generator by default (which picks the e`ajpepu, oamqaj_a, or dehk generator depending on the underlying database). You can specify a different generator by using ORM DSL. In this example, I use the qqe` generator, which generates string identifiers that are unique within a network: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejce` Å op]pe_i]llejc9w e`cajan]pkn6#qqe`# y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER288 You can print out a domain class identity (regardless of the name used for the iden- tity property) by using the method e`ajp. For example: lnejphjbknqi*e`ajp$% 12-16. How Do I Use a Composite Primary Key? In legacy databases, it’s common to have composite primary keys (a key made up of two or more columns). You can define a composite primary key by using ORM DSL. In the fol- lowing example, I define a Pkle_ primary key made up of its `]pa and bknqi[e`: _h]ooPkle_eilhaiajpoOane]hev]^haw Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY op]pe_i]llejc9w e`_kilkoepa6W#`]pa#(#bknqi#Y y y 12-17. How Do I Add an Index to a Column? A database index typically improves the speed of operations on a database table. Using ORM DSL, you can create an index on one or more columns of a table. In the following example, I add an index to the forum j]ia column: _h]ooBknqiw Å Opnejcj]ia op]pe_i]llejc9w j]iaej`at6#j]ia[ej`at# y y CHAPTER 12 N THE DATA LAYER 289 Summary Hibernate is a powerful and flexible ORM tool. Grails introduces GORM, which takes the complexity out of Hibernate and enables you to configure your domain classes by using conventions. In this chapter, I showed you how to use a database in your application and how to use GORM to perform common database tasks. It is fairly easy to use GORM to map your domain classes to a database. GORM sup- ports all four kinds of relationships between domain classes: one-to- one, one-to- many, many-to- one, and many-to- many. If you wish to change the default mapping behavior of GORM, you can do so by using GORM’s ORM DSL. This powerful feature is a fine example of using Groovy to create a domain- specific language that caters to a specific need (persistence). CRUD operations are easy with GORM. Saves, updates, and deletes can be done by using the dynamic o]ra and `ahapa methods. Querying in GORM is very flexible, and there at least four ways of querying objects: dynamic methods, dynamic finders, Hibernate Cri- teria, and HQL. In the next chapter, I will show you recipes for securing your application and adding authentication to it. 291 CHAPTER 13 Scaffolding In construction, scaffolding is a temporary framework that supports workers and their working materials while a building is under construction or repair. In Grails, the term has a slightly different meaning. Scaffolding in Grails means generating artifacts (controllers and views) that satisfy a set of requirements. An example of a common requirement is the ability to perform CRUD operations on a domain class. By using scaffolding, you can gen- erate the necessary controllers and views to perform such common tasks. Scaffolding can be either static or dynamic, and it’s important to understand the dif- ference between the two. Both types of scaffolding generate the exact same code. The main difference is that in static scaffolding, the generated code is available to the user prior to compile time and can be easily modified if necessary. In dynamic scaffolding, however, the code is generated in memory at runtime and is not visible to the user. Runtime genera- tion of code is made possible by using Groovy’s facilities for bytecode modification. By using reflection and metaprogramming, Groovy easily allows the injection of any method, property, or field into any class at runtime. Because in dynamic scaffolding the user has no access to the generated code, there is little scope for modifying it. As I’ll show you later in this chapter, users can affect some of the generated code by using code conventions. They can also override any action or view and provide their own implementations. And because both static and dynamic scaffold- ing use the same set of templates to generate the required code, users can always modify the original templates to match their needs. Generally speaking, scaffolding is not limited to CRUD operations and can be used to generate the necessary code for any common task that has a set of well- defined require- ments. Authentication, searching, and unit testing are all good candidates for scaffolding. This chapter focuses on CRUD scaffolding because it’s a feature needed in many applications. I show examples of both static and dynamic scaffolding and how you can extend scaffolding to add additional functionalities. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING292 13-1. How Do I Use Dynamic Scaffolding? To enable dynamic scaffolding in your application, simply add the o_]bbkh` property to your controller, specifying which domain class you want to scaffold. Listing 13-1 shows how to scaffold the Bknqi class (which contains two properties for this example: j]ia and `ao_nelpekj). Listing 13-1. Enabling Dynamic Scaffolding in Your Controller _h]ooBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `abo_]bbkh`9Bknqi y _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj y NNote The *_h]oo suffix in the scaffolded class name is optional. If the domain class you are trying to scaffold follows the same naming convention as its controller, you can get rid of the domain class name. So the controller in Listing 13-1 could be written as follows: _h]ooBknqi?kjpnkhhanw`abo_]bbkh`9pnqay The o_]bbkh` property will instruct Grails to generate at runtime a set of actions and views that enable the controller to perform CRUD operations on the scaffolded class. As I mentioned earlier, you will not see the generated code because I am using dynamic scaffolding and the code is all generated in memory at runtime. To see scaffolding in action, start your application by typing cn]ehonqj)]ll at the command line. Browse to the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+bknqi. You will see the page in Figure 13-1. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 293 Figure 13-1. Generated Forum List page Because you don’t have any Bknqi instances yet, the list of forums will be empty. Click the New Forum option to create a new forum. You will see the page in Figure 13-2. Figure 13-2. Generated Create Forum page CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING294 Fill in the required fields and click Create. Because I haven’t added any validation yet to the Bknqi class, you can get away with leaving fields blank or entering erroneous data. Later I will show you how to prevent this from happening by adding validation to your class. After your forum is created, it will be displayed in the Show Forum page, as shown in Figure 13-3. Figure 13-3. Generated Show Forum page The Edit button on the Show Forum page enables you to edit the forum you just cre- ated, whereas the Delete button will delete it. Clicking the Forum List link will take you back to the Forum List page, where you will see your newly created forum, as shown in Figure 13-4. Figure 13-4. Forum List page showing your newly created forum CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 295 The default scaffolding provided by Grails is quite impressive, considering how much you achieved with a few lines of code. However, it’s of little practical value because almost any real- life application will require heavy customization of the generated code. Although dynamic scaffolding is more convenient than static scaffolding because you don’t have to maintain the generated code, it offers less flexibility for customization because you can’t directly change the code after it’s generated and are limited to using code conventions to affect the way the code is produced. One solution to this problem is to change the code before it’s generated by directly modifying the code templates that are responsible for generating the code during runtime (as I’ll show you in Recipe 13- 7). 13-2. How Do I Dynamically Scaffold Relationships? The o_]bbkh` property you added in Recipe 13- 1 will take care of generating the required actions and views to manage your relationships. Let’s modify the Bknqi class to add a bidi- rectional, one-to- many relationship to the Pkle_ class: _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjj]ia y y _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjiaoo]ca y y Create a new Pkle_?kjpnkhhan if you don’t already have one and add the o_]bbkh` property: _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw `abo_]bbkh`9Pkle_ y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING296 Start up your application by typing cn]ehonqj)]ll_kii]j` at the command line and browse to the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+bknqi. Create a new forum. You won’t see the Topics field yet, but after you finish creating a forum, click Edit and you will see an Add Topic link, as shown in Figure 13-5. Figure 13-5. Scaffolding relationships Clicking Add Topic will take you to the Create Topic screen, as shown in Figure 13-6. Figure 13-6. Create Topic screen CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 297 The Forum drop- down box will display the names of the forums you created. The labels are retrieved by using a call to the Bknqi’s pkOpnejc method, which I overrode to return the Bknqi’s name. Create a new topic and type in a message and a subject. Again, because I haven’t added any validation to the Pkle_ class yet, you can get away with leaving any field blank. After you create a topic, you will be redirected to the Show Topic page. Now go back to the list of forums and click the forum you just assigned your topic to. You will see your topic displayed next to the Topics label, as shown in Figure 13-7. Figure 13-7. The Show Forum page displaying a list of topics As with the Bknqi class, the Pkle_’s pkOpnejc method is called to populate the Topics field in the Show Forum page. Scaffolding in Grails supports the following types of relationships: s /NE TO ONE s -ANY TO ONE s /NE TO MANY Grails doesn’t support scaffolding many-to- many relationships, so you will have to write the code to manage that kind of relationship yourself. However, it’s not hard to add that kind of support to Grails. In Recipe 13- 8, I will show you how you can customize scaf- folding to add additional features. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING298 13-3. How Do I Customize the Generated Views? Suppose you want to make the following changes to the Forum application: s #HANGETHEORDEROFTHEFIELDSDISPLAYEDONTHEBknqi views to display the j]ia field before the `ao_nelpekj field. s 5SEAPatp=na] instead of a PatpBeah` to edit the `ao_nelpekj property of the Bknqi class and the iaoo]ca property of the Pkle_ class. s -AKEALLPROPERTIESOFBOTHBknqi and Pkle_ classes required. s !DDACUSTOMVALIDATIONTOTHEPkle_ class, where the subject of a topic can’t match its message. As I mentioned earlier, dynamic scaffolding offers some degree of customization to the generated views by using code conventions. Listing 13-2 shows how to achieve the required customization. Listing 13-2. Customizing Generated Views by Using Conventions _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w j]ia$^h]jg6b]hoa% `ao_nelpekj$^h]jg6b]hoa(i]tOeva6-,,,% y OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjj]ia y y _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 299 op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w oq^fa_p$^h]jg6b]hoa% iaoo]ca$^h]jg6b]hoa(i]tOeva6-,,,(r]he`]pkn6w r]h(k^f):napqnjr]h9k^f*oq^fa_py% y OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjiaoo]ca y y The Create Forum screen will now look like Figure 13-8. Notice how the j]ia field comes before the `ao_nelpekj field, and the `ao_nelpekj field uses a Patp=na] instead of a PatpBeah` for editing. Figure 13-8. Customizing the generated view This time if you try to leave the forum name or description blank, you will get the error message in Figure 13-9. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING300 Figure 13-9. Validation errors I also added my own constraint to the Pkle_ class. If a topic subject matches its description, an error will occur, as shown in Figure 13-10. Figure 13-10. Custom validation CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 301 Because this is a pretty generic error message, let’s change it to display more- specific information. In your message’s bundle file located inside cn]eho)]ll+e-4j+iaoo]cao* lnklanpeao, define the following property: pkle_*iaoo]ca*r]he`]pkn*annkn9X Oknnu(pdapkle_iaoo]ca_]j#p^apdao]ia]oepooq^fa_p The result is shown in Figure 13-11. Figure 13-11. Custom error message Error messages defined inside the iaoo]cao*lnklanpeao file follow this form: 8?h]ooj]ia:*8LnklanpuJ]ia:*8?kjopn]ejpJ]ia: For example, to change the ^h]jg constraint message in the Bknqi class, add the following message: bknqi*j]ia*^h]jg9Bknqij]iaeonamqena` CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING302 Grails supports Hk_]has out of the box. A Hk_]ha object is an object that represents a user’s language and country code—for example, aj[QO for US English or bn[BN for France French. Inside the cn]eho)]ll+e-4j directory, you will see a few Java properties files that each end with a language code—for example, iaoo]cao[`a*lnklanpeao (for German prop- erties file) and iaoo]cao[bn*lnklanpeao (for French properties file). The file iaoo]cao* lnklanpeao is the default properties file and represents US English. You can easily create your own properties file by creating a file that ends with the desired language and country code—for example, iaoo]cao[]n[FK*lnklanpeao for Jordanian Arabic. The user’s Hk_]ha is determined from the value of the =??ALP)H=JCQ=CA request header. You can change your Hk_]ha by passing the h]jc request parameter as follows: dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+;h]jc9`a You need to pass the h]jc parameter only once because it will be saved for the duration of the user’s session. All subsequent requests will have the =??ALP)H=JCQ=CA header set to the new Hk_]ha. Remember that you can change any of the following in the generated views: s #HANGETHEORDEROFTHEFIELDSDISPLAYEDINTHEVIEW3IMPLYDEFINEASTATICPROPERTY called _kjopn]ejpo in your domain class and define the fields in the order you want them to appear in the view. s #HANGETHEWAYAFIELDISRENDEREDBYUSINGCONSTRAINTS3OMECONSTRAINTSWILL change the default editor used for editing a field, for example: sejHeop and n]jca: Renders the field as a drop- down list. si]tOeva: Renders the field as a Patp=na] with a maximum character limit of the size specified. The next recipe shows you all the built- in constraints you can use to validate your classes. Notice that by default, a property of type @]pa will be rendered by using Grail’s date picker. Later in this chapter, you will see how you can change that behavior. In Recipe 13- 8, you will learn how you can add your own custom editor for a specific property. 13-4. What Are the Built- in Constraints in Grails? I showed you in the previous recipe constraints that will change the way a field is ren- dered in the view. The following is a list of all constraints that you can use in Grails to validate your classes: CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 303 s^h]jg: The property value must be not blank. s_na`ep?]n`: The property value must be a valid credit card number. sai]eh: The property value must be a valid e-mail address. sejHeop: The property value must be contained in the supplied list. si]p_dao: The property value must be matched by the given regular expression. si]t: The property value must not exceed the given maximum value. si]tOeva: The property value’s size must not exceed the given maximum size. siej: The property value must not be less than the given minimum value. siejOeva: The property value’s size must not be less than the given minimum size. sjkpAmq]h: The property value must not equal the given value. sjqhh]^ha: The property value can’t be null when set to b]hoa. sn]jca: The property value must fall within the specified range. so_]ha: Sets the number of digits to the right of a decimal point for a floating- point property. soeva: Restricts the size of a collection, a number, or a string. sqjemqa: The property value must be unique (at the database level). sqnh: The property value must be a valid URL. sr]he`]pkn: Adds a custom validator to a field. You can call r]he`]pa on a domain class to see whether the class is valid against the constraints you defined. If a class fails validation, the class annkno property enables you to navigate the validation errors and handle them. The annkno property is an instance of Spring’s Annkno interface (dppl6++op]pe_*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+olnejc+`k_o+.*1*t+]le+knc+ olnejcbn]iaskng+r]he`]pekj+Annkno*dpih). NNote Calling o]ra on a domain class will call r]he`]pa first, so you can also use o]ra to validate your domain classes. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING304 Usually, you will want to display validation errors to the user. Grails comes with a few built- in GSP tags that help you with that task. The tags you can use are as follows: snaj`anAnnkno2ENDERSALLERRORSINTHEGIVENCLASSORMODELASAN(4-,LIST sd]oAnnkno: Checks whether the given class or model has any errors sa]_dAnnkn: Iterates over all errors in the given class or model Let’s change the Bknqi domain class and add the following constraints: s !FORUMj]ia must be unique and must be 4 to 30 characters long. s !FORUM`ao_nelpekj must be at least 20 characters long. Listing 13-3 shows the new Bknqi class with the additional constraints added. Listing 13-3. Adding Additional Constraints to the Bknqi Class _h]ooBknqiw Opnejcj]ia Opnejc`ao_nelpekj op]pe_d]oI]ju9Wpkle_o6Pkle_Y op]pe__kjopn]ejpo9w j]ia$^h]jg6b]hoa(qjemqa6pnqa(oeva60**/,% `ao_nelpekj$^h]jg6b]hoa(i]tOeva6-,,,(iejOeva6.,% y OpnejcpkOpnejc$%w napqnjj]ia y y Notice that the dynamically generated _na]pa*col page displays validation errors by default. In the next recipe, I will show you how you can override that page. In Recipe 13- 6, I will show you how you can statically generate it. For now, here is what the page uses to display errors: 8c6d]oAnnkno^a]j9 wbknqiy: 8`er_h]oo9annkno: 8c6naj`anAnnkno^a]j9 wbknqiy]o9heop+: 8+`er: 8+c6d]oAnnkno: CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 305 Also notice that when validation fails and the page is redisplayed to the user, the bad values are still displayed in the field(s) and are not wiped out. This is possible because the dynamically generated _na]pa*col page uses the beah`R]hqa GSP tag to retain the old val- ues. For example: 8ejlqppula9patpi]thajcpd9/,e`9j]iaj]ia9j]ia r]hqa9 wbeah`R]hqa$^a]j6bknqi(beah`6#j]ia#%y+: 13-5. How Do I Override Scaffolded Actions and Views? Suppose you want to modify the Pkle_’s `ahapa action so you can’t delete a topic with a subject that contains the word sticky. Listing 13-4 shows how to do so. Listing 13-4. Overriding the `ahapa Action _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw `abo_]bbkh`9Pkle_ `ab`ahapa9w Pkle_pkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_*oq^fa_p*pkHksan?]oa$%*_kjp]ejo$#ope_gu#%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#% napqnj y eb$pkle_%w pkle_*`ahapa$% bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`y`ahapa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop%y y y Create a topic with a subject that contains the word sticky. When you attempt to delete it, you will get the message shown in Figure 13-12. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING306 Figure 13-12. Trying to delete a “sticky” topic Notice how when I overrode the Pkle_’s `ahapa action, I was still able to call the heop action even though this action is not generated until runtime. This is one way in which dynamic scaffolding is more than just code generation; even though the action is not available until runtime, I am able to call it during compile time. There is a slight problem, however: the message doesn’t look like an error message but like an information message. One solution to this is to change the iaoo]ca CSS class to look like the annkno class, but that would affect all informational messages. A better solu- tion is to register the error with the annkno property of the the Pkle_ class as follows: `ab`ahapa9w Pkle_pkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_*oq^fa_p*pkHksan?]oa$%*_kjp]ejo$#ope_gu#%%w pkle_*annkno*nafa_p$pkle_*ope_gu*`ahapa% naj`an$reas6#heop#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_(pkle_Heop6Pkle_*heop$l]n]io%Y% napqnj y eb$pkle_%w pkle_*`ahapa$% bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`y`ahapa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 307 ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop%y y You will also need to add a pkle_*ope_gu*`ahapa message to your resource bundle inside cn]eho)]ll+e-4j+iaoo]cao*lnklanpeao: pkle_*ope_gu*`ahapa9Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o Because now I am using the naj`an method to render the heop view directly to the user (rather than using na`ena_p to redirect to the heop action as in Listing 13-4), I will need to statically create the heop view. Place a file named heop*col inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+pkle_. The bolded code in Listing 13-5 is the code responsible for showing error messages. Listing 13-5. Modifying the heop*col File to Display Error Messages 8dpih: 8da]`: 8iap]dppl)amqer9?kjpajp)Pula_kjpajp9patp+dpih7_d]noap9QPB)4+: 8iap]j]ia9h]ukqp_kjpajp9i]ej+: 8pepha:Pkle_Heop8+pepha: 8+da]`: 8^k`u: 8`er_h]oo9j]r: 8ol]j_h]oo9iajq>qppkj:8]_h]oo9dkia dnab9 w_na]paHejgPk$`en6##%y:Dkia8+]:8+ol]j: 8ol]j_h]oo9iajq>qppkj:8c6hejg_h]oo9_na]pa ]_pekj9_na]pa:JasPkle_8+c6hejg:8+ol]j: 8+`er: 8`er_h]oo9^k`u: 8d-:Pkle_Heop8+d-: 8c6ebpaop9 wbh]od*iaoo]cay: 8`er_h]oo9iaoo]ca: wbh]od*iaoo]cay8+`er: 8+c6eb: 8c6d]oAnnkno^a]j9 wpkle_y: 8`er_h]oo9annkno: 8c6naj`anAnnkno^a]j9 wpkle_y]o9heop+: 8+`er: 8+c6d]oAnnkno: CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING308 8`er_h]oo9heop: 8p]^ha: 8pda]`: 8pn: 8c6oknp]^ha?khqijlnklanpu9e`pepha9E`+: 8c6oknp]^ha?khqijlnklanpu9oq^fa_ppepha9Oq^fa_p+: 8c6oknp]^ha?khqijlnklanpu9iaoo]capepha9Iaoo]ca+: 8c6oknp]^ha?khqijlnklanpu9`]papepha9@]pa+: 8pd:Bknqi8+pd: 8+pn: 8+pda]`: 8p^k`u: 8c6a]_dej9 wpkle_Heopyop]pqo9er]n9pkle_: 8pn_h]oo9 w$e!.%99,;#k``#6#araj#y: 8p`:8c6hejg]_pekj9odkse`9 wpkle_*e`y:  wpkle_*e`;*aj_k`a=oDPIH$%y8+c6hejg:8+p`: 8p`: wpkle_*oq^fa_p;*aj_k`a=oDPIH$%y8+p`: 8p`: wpkle_*iaoo]ca;*aj_k`a=oDPIH$%y8+p`: 8p`: wpkle_*`]pa;*aj_k`a=oDPIH$%y8+p`: 8p`: wpkle_*bknqi;*aj_k`a=oDPIH$%y8+p`: 8+pn: 8+c6a]_d: 8+p^k`u: 8+p]^ha: 8+`er: 8`er_h]oo9l]cej]pa>qppkjo: 8c6l]cej]papkp]h9 wPkle_*_kqjp$%y+: 8+`er: 8+`er: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: If you try to delete the sticky topic now, you will get the error message in Figure 13-13. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 309 Figure 13-13. Displaying error messages If you read the next recipe on static scaffolding, you will notice that the code for the Pkle_’s heop*col file in Listing 13-5 looks almost identical to the code Grails will generate at runtime. In fact, I obtained the original code by using static scaffolding and then made my modifications to it. When you override actions or views, you have to keep in mind that those actions and views will no longer be under dynamic scaffolding. Therefore, if the underlying model changes, the actions and views may need to be manually updated to reflect the changes you made to the model. For example, suppose I add a new property to the Pkle_ class called n]pejc. You will have to remember to manually modify your heop*col file to add the code that will display the newly added n]pejc field or it won’t show up in the heop view. This is because Grails—wisely enough—won’t override anything you have already overridden. You can override the following actions in your controller. The procedure for overrid- ing is as I demonstrated earlier; just redefine the action in your controller with your own implementation: sheop: The default controller action. Lists all persisted instances of the scaffolded class. sodks: Displays the name and properties of the persisted class with the given ID. sa`ep: Displays the Edit view. s`ahapa: Deletes the class with the given ID. s_na]pa: Creates a new instance of the class and displays the Create view. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING310 so]ra: Persists a new instance of the class in the database. sql`]pa: Updates the properties of the persisted class with the given ID. Redirects to the Show view if no validation errors occur; otherwise, re- renders the Edit view. You can also override the following views. Similar to overriding actions, you can over- ride a view by placing a copy of the file with the given name in the right folder: s_na]pa*col: The Create page sa`ep*col: The Edit page sheop*col: The List page sodks*col: The Show page 13-6. How Do I Use Static Scaffolding? Static scaffolding is somewhat similar to code generation in which you can access the generated code before its compilation. It allows more customization than dynamic scaf- folding, because you can make direct changes to the generated code. You can use static scaffolding in your application to generate code for your control- lers and views. To generate a controller for the Pkle_ class, type the following command: cn]ehocajan]pa)_kjpnkhhanpkle_ If you have already created Pkle_?kjpnkhhan, Grails will ask whether you want to overwrite it. Grails will generate the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan class shown in Listing 13-6 inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjpnkhhano. Listing 13-6. Pkle_?kjpnkhhan Generated by the cajan]pa)_kjpnkhhan Command _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw  `abej`at9wna`ena_p$]_pekj6heop(l]n]io6l]n]io%y ++pda`ahapa(o]ra(]j`ql`]pa]_pekjokjhu]__alpLKOPnamqaopo `ab]hhksa`Iapdk`o9W`ahapa6#LKOP#(o]ra6#LKOP#(ql`]pa6#LKOP#Y `abheop9w eb$l]n]io*i]t%l]n]io*i]t9-, Wpkle_Heop6Pkle_*heop$l]n]io%Y y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 311 `abodks9w `abpkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y ahoawnapqnjWpkle_6pkle_Yy y `ab`ahapa9w `abpkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_%w pkle_*`ahapa$% bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`y`ahapa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y y `aba`ep9w `abpkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6heop% y ahoaw napqnjWpkle_6pkle_Y y y `abql`]pa9w `abpkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_%w pkle_*lnklanpeao9l]n]io eb$pkle_*d]oAnnkno$%""pkle_*o]ra$%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`yql`]pa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6odks(e`6pkle_*e`% y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING312 ahoaw naj`an$reas6#a`ep#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% y y ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6a`ep(e`6l]n]io*e`% y y `ab_na]pa9w `abpkle_9jasPkle_$% pkle_*lnklanpeao9l]n]io napqnjW#pkle_#6pkle_Y y `abo]ra9w `abpkle_9jasPkle_$l]n]io% eb$pkle_*d]oAnnkno$%""pkle_*o]ra$%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wpkle_*e`y_na]pa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6odks(e`6pkle_*e`% y ahoaw naj`an$reas6#_na]pa#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% y y y Notice how the cajan]pa)_kjpnkhhan command is different from the _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan command. The _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan command creates an empty controller that does noth- ing by default—unless you add the o_]bbkh` property. The cajan]pa)_kjpnkhhan command, on the other hand, creates a controller with all the code for the heop, odks, `ahapa, a`ep, ql`]pa, _na]pa, and o]ra actions. To generate views for your Pkle_ class, type the following command: cn]ehocajan]pa)reasopkle_ Again, Grails will warn you before overwriting any existing views. Grails will generate a total of four *col files inside the cn]eho)]ll+reaso+pkle_ folder. You can also generate both controllers and views in one command: cn]ehocajan]pa)]hhpkle_ CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 313 Looking at the code in Listing 13-6, you may notice that there is no longer a o_]bbkh` property in the generated controller. This is because the actions in the controller are no longer generated at runtime but rather are directly hard- coded in the controller itself. You might wonder what will happen if you put the o_]bbkh` property back in the controller. Nothing, really; Grails will use the actions defined in the controller instead. However, if you remove one of the actions from the controller (for example, the `ahapa action), Grails will use the dynamically scaffolded `ahapa action rather than complaining that the action doesn’t exist. The ej`at property defines the default action that will be executed if no action is specified in the controller URI. In Listing 13-6, the ej`at action redirects to the heop action, passing the request parameters to it. The ]hhksa`Iapdk`o property is used to restrict the HTTP methods that can be used to call an action. It will be discussed further in Chapter 14. The rest of the code is for performing CRUD operations. If you have read Chapters 11 and 12, you will already be familiar with the generated code. Remember that because you now have all the code in place, you are on your own when you update your domain class. It’s your responsibility to update the corresponding controllers and views to match the underlying model. 13-7. How Do I Change the Scaffolding Templates? In many situations, you will want to make changes to the scaffolding templates that you wish to appear in all generated artifacts (views and controllers). In Recipe 13- 5, I over- rode the heop*col view for the Pkle_ class to display error messages. It sounds like a good idea that I want all of my generated List views to include this block of code by default. To achieve this, you will have to modify the template that Grails uses to generate its views. To obtain this template, run the following command: cn]ehoejop]hh)pailh]pao -ODIFYTHEGENERATED heop*col template inside on_+pailh]pao+o_]bbkh`ejc and add the required block of code just below the block of code that displays bh]od messages (line 18): 8c6d]oAnnkno^a]j9X w wlnklanpuJ]iayy: 8`er_h]oo9annkno: 8c6naj`anAnnkno^a]j9X w wlnklanpuJ]iayy]o9heop+: 8+`er: 8+c6d]oAnnkno: To test it, generate the views for the Bknqi class with this command: cn]ehocajan]pa)reasobknqi CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING314 Now if you examine the generated heop*col file for the Bknqi class, you will see the block of code you just added to the template. The ejop]hh)pailh]pao command will generate a total of 14 files. The files will be gen- erated in the on_+pailh]pao directory in the following subdirectories: s]npeb]_po: Contains templates used by the _na]pa)& commands. The following files can be customized: s?kjpnkhhan*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan command. s@ki]ej?h]oo*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)`ki]ej)_h]oo command. sO_nelp*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)o_nelp command. sOanre_a*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)oanre_a command. sP]cHe^*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)p]c)he^ command. sPaopo*cnkkru: The template used by the _na]pa)qjep)paop and _na]pa)ejpacn]pekj)paop commands. so_]bbkh`ejc: Contains templates used by the cajan]pa)& commands. The following templates can be customized: s?kjpnkhhan*cnkkru: The template used by the cajan]pa)_kjpnkhhan command. s_na]pa*col, a`ep*col, heop*col, and odks*col: The templates used by the cajan]pa)reaso command. snaj`anA`epkn*pailh]pa: The template used to decide how the view is rendered according to data types and validation constraints. For example, as you saw earlier, a property of type @]pa will result in a c6`]pale_gan element, while adding a i]tOeva constraint will change the default editor from a PatpBeah` to a Patp=na]. ss]n: Contains the sa^*tih template used to generate the application’s deployment descriptor. 13-8. How Do I Add My Own Property Editor? Suppose you want to add your own editor for a n]pejc property. Anytime a class has a property named n]pejc, you will want to display a star rater in the view that looks like Figure 13-14. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 315 Figure 13-14. Star rater Follow these steps: 1. For this task, I am going to use the star rating component in the RichUI plug- in, which can be downloaded and installed with this command: cn]ehoejop]hh)lhqcejne_dqe 2. Install the project templates by using this command: cn]ehoejop]hh)pailh]pao. 3. Edit the generated file on_+pailh]pao+o_]bbkh`ejc+naj`anA`epkn*pailh]pa as follows: a. Add the following code toward the top of the file (after line 2): ahoaeb$lnklanpu*j]ia99#n]pejc#% kqp88naj`anN]pejcA`epkn$`ki]ej?h]oo(lnklanpu% b. Add the following method definition: lner]panaj`anN]pejcA`epkn$`ki]ej?h]oo(lnklanpu%w napqnj 8naokqn_a6n]pejc+: 8ne_dqe6n]pejc`uj]ie_9XpnqaXe`9Xn]pejcXqjepo9X1X n]pejc9XX wbeah`R]hqa$^a]j6 w`ki]ej?h]oo*lnklanpuJ]iay( beah`6# wlnklanpu*j]iay#%yX _kjpnkhhan9X w`ki]ej?h]oo*lnklanpuJ]iayX ]_pekj9Xn]paX+:  y 4. Add a n]pejc property to your domain class of type Ejpacan: _h]ooPkle_w ejpn]pejc y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING316 5. Create a new template inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso and name it [n]pa*col. Add the fol- lowing code to the file: 8ne_dqe6n]pejc`uj]ie_9pnqae`9n]pejcqjepo91 n]pejc9 wn]pejcy_kjpnkhhan9 w_kjpnkhhany]_pekj9n]pa+: 6. In your Pkle_?kjpnkhhan, define a n]pa action as follows: `abn]pa9w bh]od*n]pejc9l]n]io*n]pejc naj`an$pailh]pa6+n]pa(ik`ah6Wn]pejc6bh]od*n]pejc(_kjpnkhhan6pkle_Y% y 7. Override the o]ra and ql`]pa actions in the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan as follows: `abo]ra9w `abpkle_9jasPkle_$l]n]io% pkle_*n]pejc9Ejpacan*l]noaEjp$bh]od*n]pejc% eb$pkle_*d]oAnnkno$%""pkle_*o]ra$%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wpkle_*e`y_na]pa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6odks(e`6pkle_*e`% y ahoaw naj`an$reas6#_na]pa#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% y y `abql`]pa9w `abpkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% pkle_*n]pejc9Ejpacan*l]noaEjp$bh]od*n]pejc% eb$pkle_%w pkle_*lnklanpeao9l]n]io eb$pkle_*d]oAnnkno$%""pkle_*o]ra$%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`yql`]pa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6odks(e`6pkle_*e`% y ahoaw naj`an$reas6#a`ep#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% y y CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING 317 ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6a`ep(e`6l]n]io*e`% y y 8. Regenerate the views for the Pkle_ class with the command cn]ehocajan]pa)reaso pkle_. Start up your application and create a new forum. Edit the forum to add a new topic. You should see the star rater component as shown in Figure 13-15. Figure 13-15. Create Topic screen showing the star rater component Give your topic a rating (for example, four stars) and click Create. In the Show Topic view, notice that the rating is displayed as the number 4 (rather than four stars). Suppose you later realize that you were too generous in giving this topic four stars, so you click Edit and change the rating to three stars. The updated rating should show up in the Show Topic view. CHAPTER 13 N SCAFFOLDING318 This comprehensive example shows how you can add new default editors for a class property. The naj`anA`epkn*pailh]pa file is usually the starting place for changing the default behavior for Grails property editors. For example, you can change the default @]pa editor here by modifying the naj`an@]paA`epkn method. You can also add your own code to manage many-to- many relationships here. 13-9. How Do I Use Scaffolding with Hibernate Mapped Classes? An often asked question is how to use Grails scaffolding capabilities with Hibernate mapped classes. This recipe shows how you can dynamically generate a controller and views for a domain class mapped with Hibernate annotations. The same technique can BEADAPTEDTOCLASSESMAPPEDWITH(IBERNATES8-,CONFIGURATION&OLLOWTHESESTEPS 1. First you have to tell Grails that you are using Java 5.0 annotations. Set the _kjbec?h]oo property inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+@]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru to use the annotation configuration as follows: eilknpknc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*kni*de^anj]pa*_bc*£ Cn]eho=jjkp]pekj?kjbecqn]pekj `]p]Okqn_aw _kjbec?h]oo9Cn]eho=jjkp]pekj?kjbecqn]pekj*_h]oo ***++Naopkbbeha y 2. Create your annotated domain class inside on_+F]r] in the appropriate package. Listing 13-7 shows an example of a simple annotated domain class. Listing 13-7. Annotated Java Domain Class l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*ajpepeao7 eilknpf]r]t*lanoeopaj_a*Ajpepu7 eilknpf]r]t*lanoeopaj_a*Cajan]pa`R]hqa7 eilknpf]r]t*lanoeopaj_a*E`7 ]oa20?k`a_ aj_k`a=o>]oa20, `a_k`a>]oa20 Encodes and decodes string to and from Base64 representation F]r]O_nelp?k`a_ aj_k`a=oF]r]O_nelp, `a_k`aF]r]O_nelp Encodes and decodes strings to and from valid JavaScript strings To create your own codec, simply place a *cnkkru file that ends with the word ?k`a_ inside the cn]eho)]ll+qpeho directory. The class must have at least one of two closures: a op]pe_ aj_k`a block and/or a op]pe_ `a_k`a block. The closure accepts one argument: the string that the closure was called on. Listing 14-3 shows an example of creating a codec that will remove all vowels from a string. Make sure the file is named @eoairksahejc?k`a_* cnkkru and placed inside cn]eho)]ll+qpeho. Listing 14-3. Creating a Custom Codec _h]oo@eoairksahejc?k`a_w op]pe_aj_k`a9wopn): opn*nalh]_a=hh$#$;e%]xaxexkxq#(##% y y To use it, simply call aj_k`a=o@eoairksahejc on a string, for example: naj`anpkle_*iaoo]ca*aj_k`a=o@eoairksahejc$% 14-4. How Do I Restrict the HTTP Request Methods That Can Call an Action? Often you will want to prevent certain HTTP request methods from calling an action— for example, generally you don’t want users to be able to call a delete action by using an HTTP CAP. As an example, in the Forum application, the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan `ahapa action (see Listing 13-4) can be called by using an HTTP CAP method as follows: dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+pkle_+`ahapa+- CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 325 This will cause the topic with the ID of 1 to be deleted! Generally, you will want to restrict users from doing so. One way to do this is to inspect the namqaop*iapdk` value in your action and return an DPPL0,/ error code (Forbidden) if the request method is not allowed. For example: `ab`ahapa9w eb$namqaop*iapdk`99#CAP#%w naolkjoa*oaj`Annkn$0,/% y++Ahoa *** y The downside to this approach is that you will have to repeat this code in every action you want to protect. Fortunately, Grails offers a convenience property called ]hhksa`Iapdk`o that accepts a map of actions and the HTTP request methods that can call them. The previ- ous example can be rewritten as follows: _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw `ab]hhksa`Iapdk`o9W`ahapa6W#LKOP#(#@AHAPA#YY *** y The ]hhksa`Iapdk`o property will send an DPPL0,/ error response if an unauthorized request method tries to call the action. The default 0,/ error page can be customized in the QnhI]llejco*cnkkru file. 14-5. How Do I Implement Authentication in My Application? It is fairly straightforward to implement authentication in a Grails application by using interceptors or filters (see Recipes 11- 10 and 11- 18). Let’s modify the Forum application so that only logged- in users can post messages to the forums, while anyone can view the posted topics. First create a filter under cn]eho)]ll+_kjb that will apply only to the _kilkoa and oq^iep actions of the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan. The filter is listed in Listing 14-4. Listing 14-4. Authentication Filter _h]oo=qpdajpe_]pekjBehpanow `abbehpano9w hkcej?da_g$_kjpnkhhan6#reasBknqi#(]_pekj6#&#%w CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY326 ^abkna9w ++]_pekjJ]ianapqnjopdaj]iakbpda_qnnajp]_pekj eb$oaooekj*qoan""$]_pekjJ]ia99_kilkoaxx]_pekjJ]ia99oq^iep%%w na`ena_p$_kjpnkhhan6qoan(]_pekj6ej`at% napqnjb]hoa y y y y y Next, create a new Qoan?kjpnkhhan that will handle authentication. The code is listed in Listing 14-5. Listing 14-5. Qoan?kjpnkhhan _h]ooQoan?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9w naj`an$reas6hkcej% y `abhkcej9w `abqoan9Qoan*bej`>uJ]ia$l]n]io*j]ia% `abiaoo]ca eb$qoan%w eb$qoan*l]ooskn`99l]n]io*l]ooskn`%w oaooekj*qoan9qoan na`ena_p$_kjpnkhhan6reasBknqi% y ahoaw iaoo]ca9Snkjcl]ooskn` y y ahoaw iaoo]ca9Qoanjkpbkqj` y naj`an$reas6hkcej(ik`ah6Wiaoo]ca6iaoo]caY% y y CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 327 The Qoan domain class has two properties, j]ia and l]ooskn`: _h]ooQoanw Opnejcj]ia Opnejcl]ooskn` y Finally, create a hkcej*col page inside cn]eho)]ll+reaso+qoan. The code is provided in Listing 14-6. Listing 14-6. hkcej*col Page 8dpih: 8da]`:8pepha:Lha]oahkcej8+pepha:8+da]`: 8^k`u:  wiaoo]cay 8c6bknij]ia9iuBkni]_pekj9hkcej: Qoanj]ia68c6patpBeah`j]ia9j]iar]hqa9 wqoanj]iay+:8^n+: L]ooskn`68c6l]ooskn`Beah`j]ia9l]ooskn`r]hqa9 wl]ooskn`y+: 8ejlqppula9oq^iepr]hqa9Hkcej+: 8+c6bkni: 8+^k`u: 8+dpih: That’s all! Now if you try to create a new topic in the Forum application, the user will be redirected to the login page. Upon a successful login, the user will be able to post topics. A failed login will take the user back to the login page with an error message explaining why the authentication failed. The authentication implemented in this recipe is pretty basic. It doesn’t address issues such as authorization, roles, encoding passwords, remembering users, and so forth. For such features, you are better off using a security framework such as Spring Security or JSecurity, both of which are available as Grails plug- ins. The next recipe shows you how to use Spring Security with the Grails AcegiSecurity plug- in. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY328 14-6. How Do I Use the AcegiSecurity Plug- In? The AcegiSecurity plug- in (referred to as the Acegi plug- in in this recipe) integrates Spring Security $dppl6++op]pe_*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+olnejc)oa_qnepu+oepa—formerly known as Acegi Security) into your Grails project. Spring Security is a complex framework with many advanced security features. The Acegi plug- in aims to take the complexity out of Spring Security and simplifies its integration with your Grails project. Installing the Acegi plug- in configures your application by using a best practice configuration and installs all the required domain classes, configuration files, JAR files, controllers, taglibs, services, and GSPs. The plug- in still allows you to make any customization you wish to the security of your application without having to deal directly with the complexity of Spring Security. Let’s modify the Forum application to add authentication and authorization by using the Acegi plug- in. There will be three roles in the application: s !DMINROLE(ASALLPRIVILEGES s -ODERATORROLE#ANMODIFYORDELETEUSER SUBMITTEDPOSTS-ODERATORSARE assigned by admins. s 5SERROLE#ANSUBMITTOPICSANDPOSTS Unauthenticated users will still be able to view all topics but will not be able to post anything. I also want to add a Remember Me feature to the application that will store the username in a cookie so that users won’t have to enter their usernames every time on their own computers. Also, I want all passwords to be encrypted in the database and I want to add a CAPTCHA2 feature. The first step is to download and install the Acegi plug- in. This can be done by issuing the following command from the root of the Forum application: cn]ehoejop]hh)lhqcej]_ace Delete the Qoan domain class, controller, and views from your application if they already exist. Install the Qoan, Nkha, and Namqaopi]l domain classes with this command: cn]eho_na]pa)]qpd)`ki]ejoQoanNkha This command will create three domain classes in the cn]eho)]ll+`ki]ej folder: sQoan: Represents an application user. A user by default has a username, a pass- word, a real name, an e-mail, an enabled Boolean flag, and a flag to show or hide the user e-mail address. You can add any further properties you want. A user has a many-to- many relationship to the Nkha class, where the Nkha class is the owner side of the relationship. 2. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+?]lp_d] CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 329 sNkha: Represents a user role, such as admin, moderator, or user. sNamqaopi]l: Maps URLs to roles. For example, you can specify that the set of URLs matched by +]`iejo+&& is accessible by users in the admin role only or that the set of URLs matched by +ik`an]pkno+&& is accessible by users in the admin and mod- erator roles only. After the domain classes are created, the Acegi plug- in can generate controllers and views that will let you perform CRUD operations on them. To do so, issue the following command: cn]ehocajan]pa)i]j]can The script will generate a total of three controllers and three sets of views (create, edit, list, and view). Each controller and set of views are for one of the three domain classes created earlier. If you wish to create a sign- up page for your application that uses CAPTCHA and requires e-mail confirmation to activate the account, the Acegi plug- in packages all that in one command: cn]ehocajan]pa)naceopn]pekj This command will create two controllers (?]lp_d]?kjpnkhhan and Naceopan?kjpnkhhan), one service (Ai]ehanOanre_a), and three views for the Naceopan?kjpnkhhan. Run cn]eho_ha]j to clean any compiled resources from your project and then start up your application with cn]ehonqj)]ll. Take a look at the underlying database; you should see a total of four tables generated: nkha, qoan, namqaopi]l, and nkha[qoan, as shown in Figure 14-1. Figure 14-1. Tables generated in the database by the Acegi plug- in Now that your application has started, the first step is to create the three roles in the application: admin, moderator, and user. Navigate to the following URL: dppl6++-.3*,* ,*-64,4,+Bknqi+nkha+_na]pa. You should see the Create Role page shown in Figure 14-2. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY330 Figure 14-2. Create Role page Go ahead and create the three required roles: admin, moderator, and user. If you query the nkha table in the database, you should see the roles listed as NKHA[=@IEJ, NKHA[ IK@AN=PKN, and NKHA[QOAN to match Acegi’s convention. Now navigate to the Create Requestmap page at dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+ namqaopi]l+_na]pa and create the mappings listed in Table 14-2. Table 14-2. Security Mappings URL Role +]`iejo+&& ]`iej +ik`an]pkno+&& ]`iej(ik`an]pkn +qoano+&& ]`iej(ik`an]pkn(qoan The final step is to create a user. There are two ways to create one. You can create a user via the User Registration page at dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+naceopan, as shown in Figure 14-3. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 331 Figure 14-3. User Registration page The User Registration page will create a user with the default security role: user. This can be changed by modifying the `ab]qhpNkha property inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+ Oa_qnepu?kjbec*cnkkru. The User Registration page is what you would typically want your application users to use for signing up. You can also create a user via the Create User page at dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+ qoan+_na]pa, as shown in Figure 14-4. The Create User page enables you to assign the user you create to a role and therefore is mainly intended for internal use by admins. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY332 Figure 14-4. Create User page Create three users and assign each user to one of the three roles you created earlier. To test the steps you took so far, create the following three controllers: =`iejo?kjpnkhhan, Ik`an]pkno?kjpnkhhan, and Qoano?kjpnkhhan, as shown in Listing 14-7. Listing 14-7. Three Controllers for Testing the Application _h]oo=`iejo?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wnaj`an]__aooa`^u]`iejokjhuy y _h]ooIk`an]pkno?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wnaj`an]__aooa`^u]`iejo]j`ik`an]pknoy y CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 333 _h]ooQoano?kjpnkhhanw `abej`at9wnaj`an]__aooa`^u]`iejo(ik`an]pkno]j`qoanoy y Now try to access the following URLs: sdppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+qoan+]`iejo: Should be accessible by users in the admin role only sdppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+qoan+ik`an]pkno: Should be accessible by users in the admin or moderator role sdppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+qoan+qoano: Should be accessible by users in the admin, moderator, or user role When you try to access any of the preceding URLs, you will be presented the login page shown in Figure 14-5. Figure 14-5. Login page Test the application to make sure that secured pages can be viewed by authorized users only. If a user tries to access a page he is not authorized to, he will receive an Error 403 page, as shown in Figure 14-6. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY334 Figure 14-6. Unauthorized access error You can change this page in cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+QnhI]llejco*cnkkru to map the DPPL0,/ error code to a different view. For example: 0,/$reas6#qj]qpdkneva`*col#% Many times when working with GSPs, you will want to display different regions of the page according to the logged- in user. The Acegi plug- in comes with a few built- in GSP tags that will help you with that. The built- in tags are summarized in Table 14-3. Table 14-3. Acegi Plug- In Built-In Tags Tag Usage Example c6eb=hhCn]jpa` Will display its body only if all the supplied roles are granted 8c6eb=hhCn]jpa`nkha9NKHA[ =@IEJ(NKHA[IK@AN=PKN:>k`u8+ c6eb=hhCn]jpa`: c6eb=juCn]jpa` Will display its body if any of the supplied roles are granted 8c6eb=juCn]jpa`nkha9NKHA[ =@IEJ(NKHA[IK@AN=PKN:>k`u8+ c6eb=juCn]jpa`: c6ebJkpCn]jpa` Will display its body if none of the supplied roles are granted 8c6ebJkpCn]jpa`nkha9NKHA[ =@IEJ(NKHA[IK@AN=PKN:>k`u8+ c6ebJkpCn]jpa`: c6hkcca`EjQoanEjbk Displays the logged- in user field information 8c6hkcca`EjQoanEjbk beah`9qoanj]ia+: c6eoHkcca`Ej Will display its body only if the user is logged in 8c6eoHkcca`Ej:^k`u8+ c6eoHkcca`Ej: c6eoJkpHkcca`Ej Will display its body only if the user is not logged in 8c6eoJkpHkcca`Ej:>k`u8+ c6eoJkpHkcca`Ej: CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 335 The Acegi plug- in comes with a service class called =qpdajpe_]paOanre_a that you can inject in your controller (more on services in Recipe 16- 1). =qpdajpe_]paOanre_a offers some utility security functions for checking whether the user is logged in and for retriev- ing the currently logged- in user. Listing 14-8 shows how to use =qpdajpe_]paOanre_a in your controller. Listing 14-8. Using =qpdajpe_]paOanre_a in a Controller eilknpknc*cn]eho*lhqcejo*olnejcoa_qnepu*oanre_a*=qpdajpe_]paOanre_a _h]oo?da_g?kjpnkhhanw =qpdajpe_]paOanre_a]qpdajpe_]paOanre_a `abej`at9w `abqoan9]qpdajpe_]paOanre_a*qoan@ki]ej$% eb$qoan99jqhh%w naj`anjkphkcca`ej y ahoaw naj`anSah_kia'qoan*qoanj]ia'6'qoan*cap=qpdknepeao$% y y y Finally, to log out of your application, simply access the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+ Bknqi+hkckqp. 14-7. How Do I Use OpenID? OpenID (dppl6++klaje`*jap) is a shared identity service that lets you log on to many dif- ferent web sites by using one username. OpenID is a decentralized service that lets you choose your preferred OpenID provider. An OpenID comes in the form of a URL (usu- ally the domain name of the provider), and when you log in with your OpenID on a web site that accepts OpenIDs, you will be redirected to the provider web site to authenticate yourself. Upon successful authentication, you will be redirected back to the original web site fully authenticated. Many large companies act as OpenID providers—such as Yahoo, Google, Microsoft, AOL, and IBM—so chances are you already have an OpenID account. The page at dppl6++ klaje`*jap+cap lists some of the most well- known providers. CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY336 Many web sites are also offering an OpenID login option. The complete list can be found on the OpenID directory web site: dppl6++klaje``ena_pknu*_ki. There are two ways to enable OpenID in your Grails application. You can use the OpenID plug- in (dppl6++sss*cn]eho*knc+KlajE@'Lhqcej). Alternatively, if you are using the Acegi plug- in, it already comes with OpenID support. Because I already presented a rec- ipe for using the Acegi plug- in, I will show you how to enable OpenID by using it. To enable OpenID by using the Acegi plug- in, change the qoaKlajE` value to pnqa inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+Oa_qnepu?kjbec*cnkkru: qoaKlajE`9pnqa I will be using Yahoo as an OpenID provider. To use Yahoo as your provider, you will need to have a Yahoo account with OpenID enabled. To enable OpenID in your Yahoo account, go to dppl6++klaje`*u]dkk*_ki, click Get Started, log in with your Yahoo user- name and password, and follow the screens. By default Yahoo uses the format dpplo6++ia*u]dkk*_ki+]+8aj_nulpa`E@: as its OpenID URL, which is difficult for users to know. Fortunately, this can be changed on your Yahoo OpenID Summary page to an easier URL that uses your username instead: dpplo6++ia*u]dkk*_ki+8qoanj]ia:. After you have activated your OpenID, create a new user on the Forum application by using the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+qoan+_na]pa. Enter your Yahoo OpenID URL as a username (dpplo6++ia*u]dkk*_ki+8qoanj]ia:) and either leave the password field blank or enter any dummy value because this field will be no longer used. Now try to access a secure page. You will be presented with the OpenID login page, as shown in Figure 14-7. Figure 14-7. OpenID login page CHAPTER 14 N SECURITY 337 Enter your OpenID URL and click the Login button. You will be redirected to the Yahoo web site for authentication. After you successfully authenticate yourself there, you will be redirected back to the original page you were trying to access, fully authenticated. Summary Security is a broad topic. In this chapter, I showed you how to use Grails to protect your application from two common security attacks: SQL injection and XSS. I also showed you how to secure your application in two ways: by using filters to roll your own security implementation and by using the Acegi plug- in. Acegi is a complex security framework, and the Acegi plug- in aims to take the com- plexity out of it by using domain classes, scaffolding, and Groovy configuration files instead of XML. All of this offers a best practice security configuration that can be fully customized. OpenID is a shared identity service that lets you use a common username on all web sites that support OpenID. Many big companies act as OpenID providers, so chances are you already have an OpenID account. Many web sites are beginning to accept OpenID for authentication, so it’s a wise idea to offer that option for your users. So far I have not written any code to test my Grails artifacts—something that is highly unacceptable in this age of test- driven development. The next chapter is dedicated to showing you how to test your Grails application. 339 CHAPTER 15 Testing Testing web applications is notorious for being harder than testing other kinds of appli- cations. This is because web applications run in an environment in which the application has access to various specific web objects such as the user’s session, HTTP requests, responses, and parameters. So testing the application in isolation can be quite diffi- cult. Moreover, it’s usually not easy to mock a web application environment to provide a dummy implementation. Grails makes testing web applications a whole lot easier thanks to its dynamic nature and its use of the highly dynamic Groovy language. Grails enables you to run your tests in a testing environment that simulates a web environment and provides full access to all of Grails’ dynamic objects. Grails also makes it easy to mock any object or method by using Groovy mocks or the Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo. There are three kinds of tests in Grails: s 5NITTESTS5NITTESTSDONOTprovide access to the Grails environment, meaning that you can’t use any of the dynamic methods that Grails injects during runtime. Those dynamic methods must be mocked by using Groovy mocks or the Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo. s )NTEGRATIONTESTS)NTEGRATION tests provide full access to the Grails environment and use an in- memory HSQLDB database by default for running the tests. s &UNCTIONALTESTS&UNCTIONAL tests test the actual running application in a browser. Grails offers support for functional tests via the Canoo WebTest plug- in. This chapter shows you recipes for all three of the test types you can write in Grails. 15-1. How Do I Unit- Test My Application? Because unit tests are supposed to test a unit of work in isolation, your unit tests will not have access to the Grails environment and you will have to mock any dynamic method before you can use it. Thanks to Groovy’s excellent testing capabilities (refer to Chapter 8 for more on Groovy testing), mocking objects and methods is a breeze with Groovy mocks and the Atl]j`kIap]?h]oo. CHAPTER 15 N TESTING340 5NITTESTSFILESAREPLACEDINSIDEcn]eho)]ll+paop+qjep and must end with the Paopo suf- fix. A unit test method name starts with the prefix paop—for example, paopOkiapdejc. Tests can be run with the command cn]ehopaop)]ll. Notice that this command will run both unit and integration tests. To run unit tests only, pass the Ìqjep parameter as follows: cn]ehopaop)]llÌqjep The preceding command will run all of your unit tests. To run one test only, specify its name as an argument (minus the Paopo suffix): cn]ehopaop)]llBknqi You can specify more than one test by separating them with a space: cn]ehopaop)]llBknqiPkle_ The output of the tests is written to the paop+nalknp directory. Grails will also create HTML reports inside paop+nalknp+dpih that will show detailed results of running the tests. )N2ECIPE  )OVERRODETHEDEFAULT`ahapa action in the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan to prevent the controller from deleting “sticky” topics. Let’s write a unit test to see whether my code WORKS4HECODEISPROVIDEDAGAININ,ISTING  Listing 15-1. Preventing the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan from Deleting Sticky Topics _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw `abo_]bbkh`9Pkle_ `ab`ahapa9w Pkle_pkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_*oq^fa_p*pkHksan?]oa$%*_kjp]ejo$#ope_gu#%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% napqnj y eb$pkle_%w pkle_*`ahapa$% bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`y`ahapa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#% y ahoaw bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#%y y y CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 341 To write a unit test for the `ahapa action, you will have to mock the following objects and methods first: s 4HEcap and `ahapa methods of the Pkle_ class s 4HEbh]od object s 4HEna`ena_p method s 4HEl]n]io object The testing code is shownIN,ISTING 2EMEMBERTOPLACETHETESTINSIDEpaop+qjep. Listing 15-2. A Unit Test for the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanQPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`paop@ahapa$%w ++Ik_gpdaop]pe_capiapdk` Pkle_*iap]?h]oo*op]pe_*cap9wHkjce`): eb$e`99-%++Ope_gupkle_ napqnjjasPkle_$e`6e`( oq^fa_p6ope_gu6Cappejcop]npa`sepdCnkkru(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca^k`u% ahoaeb$e`99.%++Jkjope_gupkle_ napqnjjasPkle_$e`6e`( oq^fa_p6CnkkruF@>?mqaopekj(iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca^k`u% ahoa napqnjjqhh y ++Ik_gpdaop]pe_`ahapaiapdk` Pkle_*iap]?h]oo*op]pe_*`ahapa9w jasPkle_$e`6)-(iaoo]ca6(oq^fa_p6% y `abbh]od9W6Y ++Ik_gpdabh]odk^fa_p Pkle_?kjpnkhhan*iap]?h]oo*capBh]od9w):bh]ody ++Ik_gpdana`ena_p]_pekj Pkle_?kjpnkhhan*iap]?h]oo*na`ena_p9w]_pekj): napqnj]_pekj y CHAPTER 15 N TESTING342 ++Ope_gupkle_paop Pkle_?kjpnkhhan*iap]?h]oo*capL]n]io9w):We`6-Yy `ab_kjpnkhhan9jasPkle_?kjpnkhhan$% _kjpnkhhan*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hobh]od*iaoo]ca(Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o ++JkjOpe_gupkle_paop Pkle_?kjpnkhhan*iap]?h]oo*capL]n]io9w):We`6.Yy _kjpnkhhan9jasPkle_?kjpnkhhan$% _kjpnkhhan*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hobh]od*iaoo]ca(Pkle_.`ahapa` ++Pkle_jkpbkqj` Pkle_?kjpnkhhan*iap]?h]oo*capL]n]io9w):We`6/Yy _kjpnkhhan9jasPkle_?kjpnkhhan$% _kjpnkhhan*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hobh]od*iaoo]ca(Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde`/ y y You can run the test with the command cn]ehopaop)]llPkle_?kjpnkhhanQ2UNNING the test, however, will fail with a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj. You can examine the result of run- ning the test by viewing the report generated at paop+nalknpo+dpih+ej`at*dpih, as shown IN&IGURE  Figure 15-1. Generated HTML test report CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 343 The test reveals one bug in my code: if the topic is not found (and thus returned as jqhh), the first eb condition will throw a JqhhLkejpanAt_alpekj. 4OFIXTHECODE )WILLHAVE to rearrange the order of the eb statements and check for the existence of the topic first. ,ISTING PROVIDESTHEFIXEDCODE Listing 15-3. Modified Pkle_?kjpnkhhan _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanw `abo_]bbkh`9Pkle_ `ab`ahapa9w Pkle_pkle_9Pkle_*cap$l]n]io*e`% eb$pkle_%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde` wl]n]io*e`y na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#% y ahoaeb$pkle_*oq^fa_p*pkHksan?]oa$%*_kjp]ejo$#ope_gu#%%w bh]od*iaoo]ca9Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#(ik`ah6Wpkle_6pkle_Y% napqnj y ahoaw pkle_*`ahapa$% bh]od*iaoo]ca9Pkle_ wl]n]io*e`y`ahapa` na`ena_p$]_pekj6#heop#% y y y The test will pass now. This example shows how important it is to write unit tests in a web application, because some bugs can easily go undetected if you rely only on inter- actively testing your application in a browser. 15-2. How Do I Create Integration Tests? 5NLIKEUNITTESTS INTEGRATIONTESTS have full access to the Grails environment, and all IMPLICITOBJECTSANDDYNAMICMETHODSAREAVAILABLEATRUNTIME&ORTHISREASON INTEGRA- TIONTESTSAREALITTLEEASIERTOWRITETHANUNITTESTS)NTEGRATIONTESTSALSORUNAGAINSTTHEIR own database (an in- memory HSQLDB by default), which is defined under the paop block inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+@]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru. The database is configured by default to wipe out all the data between test runs. CHAPTER 15 N TESTING344 )TISIMPORTANTTOUNDERSTANDTHATINTEGRATIONTESTSHAVEACCESSTOmocked versions of the namqaop, oaooekj, and naolkjoa objects. The mocked versions are instances of Spring’s Ik_gDpplOanrhapNamqaop, Ik_gDpplOaooekj, and Ik_gDpplOanrhapNaolkjoa, respectively. The mocked versions are, unlike the real instances, completely mutable and allow you to call setter methods that are not exposed in the interfaces they implement. !SANEXAMPLE LETSREWRITETHEUNITTESTIN,ISTING ASANINTEGRATIONTEST9OU may notice that there is already a test called Pkle_?kjpnkhhanPaopo created inside paop+ ejpacn]pekj. The test was created automatically by the _na]pa)_kjpnkhhan command. The test contains one empty test method called paopOkiapdejc. The final test is shown in ,ISTING ,ISTING SHOWSTHEPkle_CLASSUNDERTEST)NTEGRATIONTESTSCANBERUN with the command cn]ehopaop)]llÌejpacn]pekj. You can also specify the test name (minus the Paopo suffix) as an argument to run that test only. Listing 15-4. An Integration Test for the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan _h]ooPkle_?kjpnkhhanPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`paop@ahapa$%w `abp_9jasPkle_?kjpnkhhan$% p_*iap]?h]oo*na`ena_p9wI]l]nco):napqnj]ncoy `abcnkkru9jasBknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru(`ao_nelpekj6Cajan]hCnkkru@eo_qooekj( h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%% cnkkru*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa% Pkle_pkle_9jasPkle_$e`6-(oq^fa_p6ope_gu6Cappejcop]npa`sepdCnkkru( iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca^k`u(`]pa6jas@]pa$%(bknqi6cnkkru% pkle_*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa% p_*l]n]io*e`9#-# p_*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hop_*bh]od*iaoo]ca(Oknnu(ukq_]j#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o pkle_9jasPkle_$e`6.(oq^fa_p6CnkkruF@>?mqaopekj( iaoo]ca6Iaoo]ca^k`u(`]pa6jas@]pa$%(bknqi6cnkkru% pkle_*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa% p_*l]n]io*e`9#.# p_*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hop_*bh]od*iaoo]ca(Pkle_.`ahapa` p_*l]n]io*e`9#/# p_*`ahapa$% ]ooanpAmq]hop_*bh]od*iaoo]ca(Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde`/ y y CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 345 Listing 15-5. The Pkle_ class _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca @]pa`]pa op]pe_^ahkjcoPk9Wbknqi6BknqiY y 15-3. How Do I Test render and redirect Methods? 2EMEMBERTHATTHEnaolkjoa implicit object inside an integration test is an instance of Ik_gDpplOanrhapNaolkjoa2ENDERINGTHERESPONSEDIRECTLYTOTHEUSERINSIDEACONTROLLER will set the _kjpajp=oOpnejc property on the naolkjoa object to the value of the rendered output. Similarly, calling na`ena_p inside a controller will set the na`ena_pa`Qnh property on the naolkjoaOBJECTTOTHEVALUEOFTHEREDIRECTED52, As an example, consider the simple controller in ,ISTING  WHICHCHECKSWHETHER a user is logged in before submitting a post. Listing 15-6. Simple ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj*qoan%w na`ena_p$]_pekj6#hkcej#% napqnjb]hoa y ahoaw naj`anoq__aoo y y y ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTO test this controller in an integration test. CHAPTER 15 N TESTING346 Listing 15-7. Testing naj`an and na`ena_p _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`paopJkpHkcca`Ej$%w `abrb_9jasReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan$% rb_*oq^iep$% ]ooanpAmq]ho+reasBknqi+hkcej(rb_*naolkjoa*na`ena_pa`Qnh y rke`paopHkcca`Ej$%w `abrb_9jasReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan$% rb_*oaooekj*qoan9#qoanj]ia# rb_*oq^iep$% ]ooanpAmq]hooq__aoo(rb_*naolkjoa*_kjpajp=oOpnejc y y Sometimes your controller may render a view back to the user, passing the model to it. The model can be accessed by using the ik`ah=j`Reas property of your controller. #ONSIDERTHECONTROLLERIN,ISTING  Listing 15-8. A Controller That Uses the Model _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `aboq^iep9w eb$oaooekj*qoan%w na`ena_p$]_pekj6#hkcej#% napqnjb]hoa y ahoaw naj`an$reas6oq__aoo(ik`ah6Wiaoo]ca6Pkle_lkopa`Y% y y y ,ISTING SHOWSHOWTOaccess the model in an integration test. Listing 15-9. Accessing the Model _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`paopHkcca`Ej$%w `abrb_9jasReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan$% rb_*oaooekj*qoan9#qoanj]ia# CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 347 rb_*oq^iep$% ]ooanpAmq]horb_*ik`ah=j`Reas*ik`ah*iaoo]ca(Pkle_lkopa` y y 15-4. How Do I Test Tag Libraries? Tag libraries can be tested with the help of the class cn]eho*paop*CnkkruL]caoPaop?]oa. This is a utility class that extends CnkkruPaop?]oa and enables you to test the output of GSP pages. ,ISTING SHOWShow to test the _kjranpPailan]pqnaTAG)CREATEDIN2ECIPE 0LEASE note that the CnkkruL]caoPaop?]oa class can be used in integration tests only. Listing 15-10. Testing Tag Libraries _h]ooBknqiP]cHe^Paopoatpaj`ocn]eho*paop*CnkkruL]caoPaop?]oaw rke`paop?kjranpPailan]pqna$%w `abpailh]pa9#8c6_kjranpPailan]pqnapailan]pqna9 wpailybnki9 wbnkiy+:# `abbnkiB]dnajdaep9]llhuPailh]pa$pailh]pa(Wpail6#31#(bnki6#b#Y% `abbnki?ahoeqo9]llhuPailh]pa$pailh]pa(Wpail6#/2#(bnki6#_#Y% ]ooanpAmq]hobnkiB]dnajdaep(#./*4444444445# ]ooanpAmq]hobnki?ahoeqo(#52*4# y y The ]llhuPailh]pa method in CnkkruL]caoPaop?]oa will return the output of evaluating a GSP template. The method also accepts a map of arguments to be passed to the tem- plate being evaluated. 15-5. How Do I Test Domain Classes? )NADDITIONTOCREATINGADOMAINCLASS the _na]pa)`ki]ej)_h]oo command will also cre- ate an integration test for that domain class. Testing domain classes is easy and similar TOUSINGTHE'ROOVYCONSOLETOTEST#25$OPERATIONS WITHTHEEXCEPTIONTHATINTEGRATION TESTSPOINTTOTHEIROWNDATABASEBYDEFAULT4HEEXAMPLEIN,ISTING SHOWSHOWTO TESTTHREEDOMAINCLASSESOFTHE&ORUMAPPLICATIONTHATWEREINTRODUCEDIN2ECIPE  (Bknqi, Pkle_, and Lkop). The example uses the utility builder class @ki]ej>qeh`an to cre- ate a graph of the domain objects. @ki]ej>qeh`an is based on Groovy’s K^fa_pCn]ld>qeh`an 2ECIPE   CHAPTER 15 N TESTING348 Listing 15-11. Testing Domain Classes eilknpcn]eho*qpeh*@ki]ej>qeh`an _h]ooBknqiPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw rke`oapQl$%w `ab^qeh`an9jas@ki]ej>qeh`an$% `abcnkkruBknqi9^qeh`an*bknqi$j]ia6Cnkkru( `ao_nelpekj6Cajan]hCnkkru@eo_qooekj(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%%w pkle_$oq^fa_p6CnkkruF@>?mqaopekj( iaoo]ca6Dks`kEnqj]opkna`lnk_a`qnaejCnkkru;( `]pa6jas@]pa$%%w lkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%% y pkle_$oq^fa_p6?hkoqnao(iaoo]ca6Sd]p]na_hkoqnao;( `]pa6jas@]pa$%%w lkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%% y y eb$cnkkruBknqi*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa%%w b]eh$cnkkruBknqi*annkno*]hhAnnknoW,Y*pkOpnejc$%% y `abcn]ehoBknqi9^qeh`an*bknqi$j]ia6Cn]eho( `ao_nelpekj6Cajan]hCn]eho@eo_qooekj(h]opLkop6jas@]pa$%%w pkle_$oq^fa_p6@uj]ie_bej`ano( iaoo]ca6Dks`kEqoa`uj]ie_bej`ano;(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%w lkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%% y pkle_$oq^fa_p6?kjpajpjackpe]pekj( iaoo]ca6Sd]peo_kjpajpjackpe]pekj;(`]pa6jas@]pa$%%w lkop$iaoo]ca6=josan(`]pa6jas@]pa$%% y y eb$cn]ehoBknqi*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa%%w b]eh$cn]ehoBknqi*annkno*]hhAnnknoW,Y*pkOpnejc$%% y y rke`paopBknqi$%w CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 349 `abbknqio9Bknqi*heop$% ]ooanpbknqio*oeva$%99. ]ooanpAmq]hobknqioW,Y*j]ia(#Cnkkru# ]ooanpAmq]hobknqioW-Y*j]ia(#Cn]eho# `abcnkkruBknqi9Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia$Cnkkru% ]ooanpcnkkruBknqi*pkle_o*oeva$%99. cnkkruBknqi*pkle_o*a]_dw lnejphjep*oq^fa_p++Sehhjkpkqplqppkpda_kjokha ]ooanpep*oq^fa_p99#CnkkruF@>?mqaopekj#xxep*oq^fa_p99#?hkoqnao# y y y 4HEEXAMPLEIN,ISTING HIGHLIGHTSTWO things you need to be aware of when running unit or integration tests in Grails: s $OMAINCLASSVALIDATIONERRORSWILLNOTCAUSETHETESTTOFAILANDWILLNOTREPORTANY errors. You will have to catch those errors and deal with them as shown. s 4HETESTSDONOTOUTPUTTOTHECONSOLEBUTRATHERTOTHEFILESYSTEM4HETEST reports are stored inside paop+nalknpo+dpih and paop+nalknpo+lh]ej. Any output from the tests is captured in paop+nalknpo+PAOP)8PaopJ]ia:*tih, paop+nalknpo+ PAOP)8PaopJ]ia:)kqp*patp, and paop+nalknpo+PAOP)8PaopJ]ia:)ann*ptp. 15-6. How Do I Create a Functional Test with Canoo WebTest? &UNCTIONALTESTINGISSOMETIMESloosely referred to as system testing, black- box testing, or smoke testing—although those terms have slightly different meanings. Functional testing means the testing of a complete system to make sure it meets the specified functional REQUIREMENTS&UNCTIONALTESTINGOFAWEBAPPLICATIONINVOLVESTESTINGTHEAPPLICATIONIN a web browser to make sure the application behaves as expected. Canoo WebTest is a free open source testing tool that enables you to automate func- tional tests by writing tests that simulate user actions in a browser—opening a page, clicking a button, entering form values, and so forth. Canoo WebTest automatically runs the tests for you in a browser and provides you with a summary of test results. Tests can be written in Groovy or XML. Grails offers support for Canoo WebTest through the Canoo WebTest plug- in, which can be downloaded and installed with the command cn]ehoejop]hh)lhqcejsa^paop. CHAPTER 15 N TESTING350 The Canoo WebTest plug- in can create a functional test for a domain class that will TESTTHESCAFFOLDEDCONTROLLERANDVIEWSFORTHATDOMAINCLASS&OREXAMPLE TOCREATE a functional test for the Bknqi domain class, issue the command cn]eho_na]pa)sa^paop bknqi. The command will create a test called BknqiPaop inside sa^)paop+paopo. The test will test the scaffolded heop, reas, _na]pa, a`ep, and `ahapa actions and views for the Bknqi class. Let’s create a web test that will test the `ahapa action in the Pkle_?kjpnkhhan, which YOUSAWIN,ISTING 2EFERBACKTO,ISTING FORTHEPkle_ class. The code is dis- PLAYEDIN,ISTING  Listing 15-12. Pkle_?kjpnkhhan’s `ahapa Action Functional Test ++sa^paop+paopo+Pkle_Paop*cnkkru _h]ooPkle_Paopatpaj`ocn]eho*qpeh*Sa^Paopw ++Qjhegaqjeppaopo(bqj_pekj]hpaopo]nakbpajoamqaj_a`alaj`ajp* ++Ola_ebupd]poamqaj_adana* rke`oqepa$%w paopPkle_@ahapa$% ++]``paopobkniknaklan]pekjodana y `abpaopPkle_@ahapa$%w sa^paop$#PaopejcPkle_?kjpnkhhan`ahapa]_pekj#%w ++?na]pa]jasBknqi ejrkga#bknqi# ranebuPatp#Dkia# _he_gHejg#JasBknqi# ranebuPatp#?na]paBknqi# oapEjlqpBeah`#Cnkkru#(j]ia6#j]ia# oapEjlqpBeah`#Cajan]hCnkkru@eo_qooekj#(j]ia6#`ao_nelpekj# _he_g>qppkj#?na]pa# ranebuPatp#OdksBknqi#(`ao_nelpekj6#OdksBknqil]ca# _he_g>qppkj#A`ep#(`ao_nelpekj6#A`eppk]``jaspkle_o# _he_gHejg#=``Pkle_# CHAPTER 15 N TESTING 351 ++Ope_gupkle_ oapEjlqpBeah`#ope_gu6Cappejcop]npa`sepdCnkkru#(j]ia6#oq^fa_p# oapEjlqpBeah`#Iaoo]ca^k`u#(j]ia6#iaoo]ca# _he_g>qppkj#?na]pa# ranebuPatp#OdksPkle_#(`ao_nelpekj6#OdksPkle_l]ca# _he_g>qppkj#@ahapa#(`ao_nelpekj6#=ppailpejcpk`ahapa]ope_gupkle_# ranebuPatp#Oknnu(ukq_]jX#p`ahapaope_gupkle_o# ++JkjOpe_gupkle_ _he_gHejg#JasPkle_#(`ao_nelpekj6#?na]pa]jkjope_gupkle_# oapEjlqpBeah`#CnkkruF@>?mqaopekj#(j]ia6#oq^fa_p# oapEjlqpBeah`#Iaoo]ca^k`u#(j]ia6#iaoo]ca# _he_g>qppkj#?na]pa# ranebuPatp#OdksPkle_#(`ao_nelpekj6#OdksPkle_l]ca# _he_g>qppkj#@ahapa#( `ao_nelpekj6#=ppailpejcpk`ahapa]jkjope_gupkle_# ranebuTL]pdtl]pd6++`erW<_h]oo9#iaoo]ca#Y( patp6+*&Pkle_*&`ahapa`*&+( nacat6pnqa ++Pkle_jkpbkqj` ejrkga#pkle_+`ahapa+)-# ranebuPatp#Pkle_jkpbkqj`sepde`)-# y y y The full syntax reference for Canoo WebTest can be found at dppl6++sa^paop*_]jkk* _ki+sa^paop+i]jq]h+i]jq]hKranreas*dpih. To run the test, issue the command cn]eho nqj)sa^past. This will run all the tests inside sa^paop+paopo. To run the Pkle_Paop only, specify its name (minus the Paop suffix) as an argument: cn]ehonqj)sa^paopPkle_ (this WORKSINTHE7EB4ESTPLUG INVERSION ONLY  2UNNINGTHETESTWILLSTARTANINSTANCEOF*ETTYONPORTBYDEFAULT4HEDEFAULTPORT can be changed (along with other properties) in the file sa^paop+_kjb+sa^paop*lnklanpeao. When the test is complete, it will automatically show the results in a browser window, as SHOWNIN&IGURE  CHAPTER 15 N TESTING352 Figure 15-2. Canoo WebTest results )FYOUDONTLIKETOWRITEYOURTESTSYOURSELF #ANOO7EB4ESTOFFERSA&IREFOXEXTENSION CALLED7EB4EST2ECORDERTHATWILLRECORDYOURINTERACTIONSWITHAWEBPAGEANDEXPORT them to a Groovy Canoo web test. The extension can be downloaded from dppl6++ sa^paopna_kn`an*_]jkk*_ki. Summary Grails makes testing web applications easy thanks to its dynamic nature. This chapter covered three kinds of tests you can write in Grails: unit tests, which run in isolation and have no access to the Grails environment; integration tests, which have full access to the Grails environment; and functional tests, which test your actual application by running it in a browser. The next chapter covers miscellaneous topics in Grails. The service layer, web ser- vices, Spring integration, logging, and reading external configurations are some of the topics covered. 353 CHAPTER 16 Miscellaneous Recipes In this chapter, you will examine various topics that I did not present in the previous chapters. The recipes I present here will show you how to use the service layer in Grails, how to make more advanced use of Spring, how to use external files to configure your application, how to configure logging in your application, how to integrate Grails with Maven 2, and how to write SOAP and RESTful web services. 16-1. What About the Service Layer? In Chapter 10, I mentioned that in addition to using the MVC pattern, Grails has an extra service layer that you can use when your application contains sophisticated logic. Moving the logic to the service layer promotes reuse because you can pull the same service layer into more than one application—possibly even non- Grails applications. A service can be created with the command cn]eho_na]pa)oanre_a8oanre_a[j]ia:. A service must be placed inside the cn]eho)]ll+oanre_ao directory, and its name must end with the suffix Oanre_a. In Recipe 14- 5, I showed you how to implement authentication in your application by using filters. The hkcej action inside the Qoan?kjpnkhhan was responsible for authen- ticating the user. It makes more sense to move the authentication code into a service in case you want to use it in more than one place. To do this, create a new service called =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a with the command cn]eho_na]pa)oanre_a]qpdajpe_]pekj. Listing 16-1 shows the code for the service. Listing 16-1. =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a _h]oo=qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_aw ^kkha]jpn]jo]_pekj]h9pnqa `abhkcej$j]ia(l]ooskn`%w `abqoan9Qoan*bej`>uJ]ia$j]ia% eb$qoan%w CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES354 eb$qoan*l]ooskn`99l]ooskn`%w napqnjqoan*e` y ahoaw napqnjSnkjcl]ooskn` y y ahoaw napqnjQoanjkpbkqj` y y y To use the service in your controller, simply define a property called ]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a, as shown in Listing 16-2. Listing 16-2. Injecting a Service in a Controller _h]ooQoan?kjpnkhhanw `ab]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a `abej`at9w naj`an$reas6hkcej% y `abhkcej9w `abnaoqhp9]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a*hkcej$l]n]io*j]ia(l]n]io*l]ooskn`% eb$naoqhpejop]j_akbJqi^an""naoqhp:,%w ++Qoan]qpdajpe_]pa` oaooekj*qoan9Qoan*cap$naoqhp% naj`anoq__aoo y ahoaw ++Qoanjkp]qpdajpe_]pa` naj`an$reas6hkcej(ik`ah6Wiaoo]ca6naoqhpY% y y y In Listing 16-2, the Spring container will inject a new instance of the service into your controller based on the service name. It is important to understand that services are cre- ated as singletons by default, which means that only one instance of the service will ever be created in your application. This is generally fine as long as your services are stateless CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 355 (as they should be). If you wish to store state in your service, you may do so by adding a static o_kla property to your service: op]pe_o_kla98o_kla[j]ia: The supported scopes are as follows: slnkpkpula: A new instance of the service will be created every time it’s injected. This is the safest option for storing state. snamqaop: A new instance of the service will be created for each new request. sbh]od, bhks, and _kjrano]pekj: These can be used in the context of web flows only (not discussed in this book). soaooekj: A new instance of the service will be created for each new session. soejchapkj: Only one instance of the service will be created and shared among all clients of the service. Notice the static property pn]jo]_pekj]h in Listing 16-1: ^kkha]jpn]jo]_pekj]h9pnqa This indicates that your service uses Spring declarative transaction management. What this means is that all the methods in your service will have automatic transaction management. So if an exception occurs before the method is complete, the transaction will be rolled back and will not be committed to the database, preserving the integrity of your data. You can still use programmatic transaction management1 if you prefer, but it’s repetitive and pollutes your code. Declarative transaction management is one of the most compelling reasons for using services in Grails. If you wish your service to be nontransac- tional, change the pn]jo]_pekj]h property to b]hoa. NCaution You should always inject services (whether in controllers, tag libraries, domain classes, or other artifacts) by name as shown in Listing 16-2 and not create a new instance using the jas operator, because in the latter case you will not be using Spring to configure the services. Let me demonstrate the importance of transaction management with an example. Suppose the Qoan class has a property called jqi^anKbHkcejo that keeps track of how many times the user has logged in to the application. I will modify =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a to increment that property upon each successful login. I will also add a bad line of code 1. dppl6++cn]eho*knc+`k_+-*,*t+cqe`a+oejcha*dpih1*2 Lnkcn]ii]pe_ Pn]jo]_pekjo CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES356 that will cause the service to throw an exception right after the jqi^anKbHkcejo property is incremented and the Qoan instance is saved to the database. Listing 16-3 shows the code. Listing 16-3. Demonstrating the Importance of Transaction Management _h]oo=qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_aw ^kkha]jpn]jo]_pekj]h9pnqa `abhkcej$j]ia(l]ooskn`%w `abqoan9Qoan*bej`>uJ]ia$j]ia% eb$qoan%w eb$qoan*l]ooskn`99l]ooskn`%w qoan*jqi^anKbHkcejo9qoan*jqi^anKbHkcejo'- qoan*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa%++BhqodpdaDe^anj]paoaooekjeiia`e]pahu `ab`ereoekj>uVank9-+,++>]`_k`apd]psehhpdnks]jat_alpekj napqnjqoan*e` y ahoaw napqnjSnkjcl]ooskn` y y ahoaw napqnjQoanjkpbkqj` y y y Now try to log in successfully to the application to cause it to throw an =nepdiape_At_alpekj (because of the division-by- zero bad code). You will notice that the value of the jqi^anKbHkcejo column will not change in the underlying database—even though the session is flushed immediately when calling qoan*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa%. Now change the pn]jo]_pekj]h property to b]hoa and you will notice that the value of the jqi^anKbHkcejo column will be incremented. Testing services is as easy. To initialize a service in your test, simply inject it in the test as you would inject it in a controller. The integration test in Listing 16-4 shows how to test the =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a in Listing 16-1. Listing 16-4. Testing =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a _h]oo=qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_aPaopoatpaj`oCnkkruPaop?]oaw `ab]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 357 rke`oapQl$%w `abqoan9jasQoan$j]ia6>]od]n(l]ooskn`6l]oo% qoan*o]ra$bhqod6pnqa% y rke`paopHkcej$%w `aboq__aoo9]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a*hkcej$>]od]n(l]oo% ]ooanpAmq]hooq__aoo(- `absnkjcL]ooskn`9]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a*hkcej$>]od]n(snkjc% ]ooanpAmq]hosnkjcL]ooskn`(Snkjcl]ooskn` `abqoanJkpBkqj`9]qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a*hkcej$O]ie(l]oo% ]ooanpAmq]hoqoanJkpBkqj`(Qoanjkpbkqj` y y An often asked question is where to put the business logic in a Grails application.2 Many OO experts recommend rich domain models that contain all of your application’s domain logic (business rules, validations, calculations, and so forth) and warn against the anemic domain model antipattern that reduces your domain classes to bags of get- ters and setters.3 They advise that the service layer should be a thin layer that contains no business rules but rather delegates and coordinates work to the domain layer. There is really no set of fixed rules for what should be included in a service layer but rather general guidelines. Remember that the service layer is declaratively transactional by default, so you need to take advantage of that and use it whenever you require transactional support. The service layer is also useful if you are performing complex CRUD operations on multiple domain classes or if you are reusing code from multiple controllers. 16-2. How Can I Use Some of Spring’s Advanced Features with Grails? It is important to know that Grails uses Spring everywhere. Controllers, validations, data binding, transaction management, and runtime configuration using dependency injection are all based on Spring and the Spring MVC web framework (dppl6++sss* olnejcbn]iaskng*knc). Spring is an excellent, powerful, and well- documented application framework for building Java Enterprise applications. Many times Grails developers might 2. dppl6++sss*j]^^ha*_ki+NA!/=)Sdana)`k)sa)lqp)kqn)^qoejaoo)hkce_))pk-12,54/5* dpih]-1200334 3. dppl6++sss*i]npejbkshan*_ki+^hege+=jaie_@ki]ejIk`ah*dpih CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES358 need to work with the underlying Spring model directly for advanced needs. This recipe illustrates how to do that, and therefore some knowledge of Spring is required.4 Grails uses Spring for dependency injection at runtime. Grails’ main =llhe_]pekj?kjpatp file is located at sa^)]ll+SA>)EJB+]llhe_]pekj?kjpatp*tih and is used to configure a Grails application at runtime. Take a look at the sa^*tih file of a Grails application at on_+pailh]pao+ s]n+sa^*tih (which can be obtained with the command cn]ehoejop]hh)pailh]pao). You will see the listener class Cn]eho?kjpatpHk]`anHeopajan. This class is responsible for reading the main Grails =llhe_]pekj?kjpatp file as defined by the _kjpatp?kjbecHk_]pekj _kjpatp)l]n]i value. There are two ways you can configure additional beans in your Grails application for dependency injection: either you can use a traditional Spring XML file by creating a new file called naokqn_ao*tih inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc and placing your bean definitions there or you can define your beans in a groovier way by using Grails’ >a]j>qeh`an inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc+naokqn_ao*cnkkru. The latter approach has the added advantage that you can use Groovy code when configuring your beans. In Recipe 11- 14, I showed you how to upload files in Grails. A similar controller (shown in Listing 16-5) lets users upload a file when submitting a new topic to a forum. Listing 16-5. Uploading Files in Grails _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `aboq^iep9w Pkle_pkle_9jasPkle_$l]n]ioW#pkle_#Y% eb$pkle_*iuBeha*ailpu%w pkle_*iuBeha*pn]jobanPk$ jasBeha$#+dkia+^f]s]`+Cn]eho@aik+#'pkle_*iuBeha*knecej]hBehaj]ia%% y eb$pkle_*o]ra$%% naj`anoq__aoo y y The Pkle_ class looks as follows: _h]ooPkle_w Opnejcoq^fa_p Opnejciaoo]ca 4. There are many excellent books on Spring. For those interested, I highly recommend reading Pro Spring 2.5 by Jan Machacek, Jessica Ditt, Aleska Vukotic, and Anirvan Chakraborty (Apress, 2008); Beginning Spring 2: From Novice to Professional, by Dave Minter (Apress, 2007); and Spring Recipes: A Problem- Solution Approach, by Gary Mak (Apress, 2008). CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 359 `abiuBeha op]pe_pn]joeajpo9W#iuBeha#Y y You may have noticed that the code in Listing 16-5 hard- codes the upload location in the controller. It seems a better idea to make this location configurable. Let’s move the code to a service and configure it in Spring. The service is shown in Listing 16-6. Listing 16-6. Qlhk]`Oanre_a _h]ooQlhk]`Oanre_aw ^kkha]jpn]jo]_pekj]h9b]hoa `abqlhk]`Hk_]pekj `abqlhk]`$`abbeha%w beha*pn]jobanPk$jasBeha$qlhk]`Hk_]pekj'beha*knecej]hBehaj]ia%% y y Listing 16-7 shows how to configure the service in Spring by using XML. Listing 16-7. cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc+naokqn_ao*tih 8^a]jotihjo9dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo tihjo6toe9dppl6++sss*s/*knc+.,,-+TIHO_dai])ejop]j_a toe6o_dai]Hk_]pekj9 dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo+olnejc)^a]jo).*,*to`: 8^a]je`9qlhk]`Oanre_a_h]oo9Qlhk]`Oanre_a: 8lnklanpuj]ia9qlhk]`Hk_]pekjr]hqa9 wqlhk]`*hk_]pekjy+: 8+^a]j: 8+^a]jo: Listing 16-8 shows how to configure the service by using Spring DSL. Listing 16-8. cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc+naokqn_ao*cnkkru eilknpop]pe_knc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*_kiikjo*?kjbecqn]pekjDkh`an*_kjbec ^a]jo9w qlhk]`Oanre_a$Qlhk]`Oanre_a%w qlhk]`Hk_]pekj9_kjbec*qlhk]`*hk_]pekj y y CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES360 Add the qlhk]`*hk_]pekj property to cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+?kjbec*cnkkru as follows: qlhk]`*hk_]pekj9+dkia+^f]s]`+@aogpkl+ To initialize the service in the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan, simply define a property there called qlhk]`Oanre_a, as shown in Listing 16-9. Listing 16-9. Injecting Qlhk]`Oanre_a in ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan _h]ooReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanw `abqlhk]`Oanre_a `aboq^iep9w Pkle_pkle_9jasPkle_$l]n]ioW#pkle_#Y% eb$pkle_*iuBeha*ailpu%w qlhk]`Oanre_a*qlhk]`$pkle_*iuBeha% y eb$pkle_*o]ra$%% naj`anoq__aoo y y You can also reference any Spring bean that is configured during runtime, even if the bean is not declared statically anywhere. For example, you can reference the `]p]Okqn_a and Hibernate oaooekjB]_pknu beans as follows: 8^a]je`9qlhk]`Oanre_a_h]oo9Qlhk]`Oanre_a: 8lnklanpuj]ia9qlhk]`Hk_]pekjr]hqa9 wqlhk]`*hk_]pekjy+: 8lnklanpuj]ia9`]p]Okqn_anab9`]p]Okqn_a+: 8lnklanpuj]ia9oaooekjB]_pknunab9oaooekjB]_pknu+: 8+^a]j: 16-3. How Do I Configure My Application by Using External Files? In the preceding recipe, I used the cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+?kjbec*cnkkru file to configure the Qlhk]`Oanre_a service. In many situations, you will want the configuration to come from an external file—possibly to have a different set of configurations for each environment or to avoid having to redeploy the application when making configuration changes. To do so, uncomment the cn]eho*_kjbec*hk_]pekjo property inside cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+ ?kjbec*cnkkru: CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 361 cn]eho*_kjbec*hk_]pekjo9 W_h]ool]pd6 w]llJ]iay)_kjbec*lnklanpeao( _h]ool]pd6 w]llJ]iay)_kjbec*cnkkru( beha6 wqoanDkiay+*cn]eho+ w]llJ]iay)_kjbec*lnklanpeao( beha6 wqoanDkiay+*cn]eho+ w]llJ]iay)_kjbec*cnkkru Y The application will now read configurations coming from both Java properties and Groovy ?kjbecOhqnlan files located on the class path or inside the user’s home directory. For example, place a file called Bknqi)_kjbec*lnklanpeao inside wqoanDkiay+*cn]eho, where qoanDkia points to your home directory. The file will contain the qlhk]`*hk_]pekj property as follows: qlhk]`*hk_]pekj9+dkia+^f]s]`+@aogpkl+ This will cause the application to read the qlhk]`*hk_]pekj property from the external file. A common requirement is to configure data sources externally. Listing 16-10 shows an external Groovy configuration file (at  wqoanDkiay+*cn]eho+Bknqi)_kjbec*cnkkru) that configures @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru (as originally shown in Listing 12-2). Listing 16-11 shows the modified @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru. Listing 16-10. Externalizing @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru ++ wqoanDkiay+*cn]eho+Bknqi)_kjbec*cnkkru eilknpknc*_k`ad]qo*cnkkru*cn]eho*_kiikjo*Cn]eho=llhe_]pekj `abajrenkjiajp9Ouopai*capLnklanpu$Cn]eho=llhe_]pekj*AJRENKJIAJP% eb$ajrenkjiajp99#`arahkliajp#%w `]p]Okqn_a*qoanj]ia9o] `]p]Okqn_a*l]ooskn`9 `]p]Okqn_a*qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6`ar@> `]p]Okqn_a*`neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*domh`^*f`^_@neran y ahoaeb$ajrenkjiajp99#paop#%w `]p]Okqn_a*qoanj]ia9o] `]p]Okqn_a*l]ooskn`9 `]p]Okqn_a*qnh9f`^_6domh`^6iai6paop@^ `]p]Okqn_a*`neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*domh`^*f`^_@neran y CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES362 ahoaw++Lnk`q_pekj `]p]Okqn_a*qoanj]ia9nkkp `]p]Okqn_a*l]ooskn`9 `]p]Okqn_a*qnh9f`^_6iuomh6++hk_]hdkop6//,2+bknqi `]p]Okqn_a*`neran?h]ooJ]ia9knc*cfp*ii*iuomh*@neran y Listing 16-11. Modified @]p]Okqn_a*cnkkru `]p]Okqn_aw lkkha`9b]hoa y de^anj]paw _]_da*qoa[oa_kj`[harah[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*qoa[mqanu[_]_da9pnqa _]_da*lnkre`an[_h]oo9#knc*de^anj]pa*_]_da*Ad?]_daLnkre`an# y ++ajrenkjiajpola_ebe_oappejco ajrenkjiajpow `arahkliajpw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9_na]pa)`nkl++kjakb#_na]pa#(#_na]pa)`nkl#(#ql`]pa# y y paopw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9ql`]pa y y lnk`q_pekjw `]p]Okqn_aw `^?na]pa9ql`]pa y y y CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 363 16-4. How Do I Configure Logging in My Application? Grails uses log4j (dppl6++hkccejc*]l]_da*knc+hkc0f+-*.+ej`at*dpih) for logging. All logging can be configured inside the cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+?kjbec*cnkkru file. Grails uses this file to generate the hkc0f*lnklanpeao file, which is required by log4j. Logging is configured by using Groovy’s ?kjbecOhqnlan (see Recipe 9- 8). Unfortunately, configuring logging by using ?kjbecOhqnlan is hard and confusing (because ?kjbecOhqnlan is not really fully hierarchical but rather pseudo- hierarchal, and each node in the hierarchy is a property). I believe that future versions of Grails should drop using ?kjbecOhqnlan for configuring log4j and instead use XML (with Groovy’s I]ngql>qeh`an) or properties file for- mat. Fortunately, if you prefer to use the standard log4j properties file format, you can do so using multiline strings. For example: hkcf9 hkc0f*nkkpHkccan9ANNKN(op`kqp hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*?kjokha=llaj`an hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*L]ppanjH]ukqp hkc0f*]llaj`an*op`kqp*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj9W!1lY!`wii6ooy$!B6!I6!H%!j!i!j!j  Grails’ default logging configuration defines several loggers (for Spring, Hibernate, controllers, plug- ins, and more). The full stack trace is written to the file op]_gpn]_a*hkc by default. You can disable stack trace filtering by using the argument Ì@cn]eho*bqhh* op]_gpn]_a9pnqa. All the artifacts in your application (controllers, domain classes, services, tag librar- ies, and so forth) have access to a dynamic hkc method. For example, to log a message at the `a^qc level, you write this: hkc*`a^qc`a^qciaoo]ca Similarly, to log a message at the s]nj level, you use the following: hkc*s]njs]njejc You can also specify different logging options per environment. For example, sup- pose in the ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan I want to log messages of all levels to the output console when running in development mode, while in production mode I want to log only mes- sages of level annkn and b]p]h to the file system. Listing 16-12 shows how to do so. CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES364 Listing 16-12. Configuring Logging per Environment ++Pdeo^hk_giqop^a`abeja`kqpoe`apdao_klakbpdahkc0f^hk_gej?kjbec*cnkkru ajrenkjiajpow `arahkliajpw hkc0f*hkccan*#cn]eho*]ll*_kjpnkhhan*ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan#9]hh y lnk`q_pekjw hkc0f*hkccan*#cn]eho*]ll*_kjpnkhhan*ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan#9annkn(hkcBeha hkc0fw ]llaj`an*hkcBeha9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*Beha=llaj`an ]llaj`an*#hkcBeha*h]ukqp#9knc*]l]_da*hkc0f*L]ppanjH]ukqp ]llaj`an*#hkcBeha*h]ukqp*?kjranoekjL]ppanj#9#W!nY!_w.y!i!j# ]llaj`an*#hkcBeha*Beha#9iuhkc*hkc y y y 16-5. How Do I Use Grails with Maven 2? In Recipe 8- 6, I showed you how you can use Groovy with Maven 2 (dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da* knc). Grails does not use Maven 2 out of the box but rather uses Ant (or more specifically, Gant). If you want to use Maven 2 with your Grails project, you can use the Grails Maven plug- in $dppl6++bknca*k_pk*_ki+i]raj+oepao+ipc+cn]eho)i]raj)lhqcej), which wraps all Grails commands as Maven goals. Let’s modify the Forum application to add Maven support. Place the lki*tih file in Listing 16-13 at the root of the Forum application. Listing 16-13. lki*tih 8;tihranoekj9-*,aj_k`ejc9QPB)4;: 8lnkfa_ptihjo9dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+LKI+0*,*, tihjo6toe9dppl6++sss*s/*knc+.,,-+TIHO_dai])ejop]j_a toe6o_dai]Hk_]pekj9dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+LKI+0*,*, dppl6++i]raj*]l]_da*knc+i]raj)r0[,[,*to`: 8ik`ahRanoekj:0*,*,8+ik`ahRanoekj: 8cnkqlE`:_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:Bknqi8+]npeb]_pE`: 8l]_g]cejc:cn]eho)]ll8+l]_g]cejc: 8j]ia:Bknqi8+j]ia: CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 365 8ranoekj:,*-8+ranoekj: 8^qeh`: 8kqplqp@ena_pknu:sa^)]ll+SA>)EJB+_h]ooao8+kqplqp@ena_pknu: 8lhqcejI]j]caiajp+: 8lhqcejo: 8lhqcej: 8cnkqlE`:_ki*k_pk*ipc8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:cn]eho)i]raj)lhqcej8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:,*/8+ranoekj: 8atpajoekjo:pnqa8+atpajoekjo: 8+lhqcej: 8lhqcej: 8]npeb]_pE`:i]raj)_kilehan)lhqcej8+]npeb]_pE`: 8_kjbecqn]pekj: 8okqn_a:-*18+okqn_a: 8p]ncap:-*18+p]ncap: 8+_kjbecqn]pekj: 8+lhqcej: 8+lhqcejo: 8+^qeh`: 8lnklanpeao: 8cn]ehoRanoekj:-*,*/8+cn]ehoRanoekj: 8cn]ehoDkia: wajr*CN=EHO[DKIAy8+cn]ehoDkia: 8+lnklanpeao: 8+lnkfa_p: Modify your Maven 2 oappejco*tih file inside wqoanDkiay+*i. to add the plug- in cnkqlE`: 8oappejco: *** 8lhqcejCnkqlo: 8lhqcejCnkql:_ki*k_pk*ipc8+lhqcejCnkql: 8+lhqcejCnkqlo: *** 8+oappejco: You can now run any Grails command by using the irj command: irjcn]eho68_kii]j`: For example, to run the application in Jetty, type irjcn]eho6nqj)]ll. To package it as a WAR file, type: irjcn]eho6s]n. CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES366 NNote The Grails Maven plug- in works only with Maven 2.0.5 or higher. 16-6. How Do I Use Grails with REST? Web services are a way of exposing your web application as an API for others to access over a network. In this recipe, I will show you how to write RESTful web services. In the next recipe, I will show you how to implement SOAP web services by using the CXF plug- in. Representational State Transfer (REST) is a software architecture for designing distributed network systems.5 The Internet itself is one big REST system. REST is not a technology or even a standard; it’s an architectural style (just like the client/server or the MVC architecture style). Using REST involves accessing a resource with a particular URL and receiving a representation of that resource (as XML, HTML, or another repre- sentation). Using REST is simple with Grails because the default mapping of all URLs is set to +_kjpnkhhan+]_pekj+e` (an HTTP CAP request). The default mapping is defined at cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+QnhI]llejco*cnkkru as follows: _h]ooQnhI]llejcow op]pe_i]llejco9w + _kjpnkhhan+ ]_pekj;+ e`; w _kjopn]ejpow ++]llhu_kjopn]ejpodana y y y y Consider the controller in Listing 16-14. Listing 16-14. Creating RESTful Services eilknpcn]eho*_kjranpano*& _h]ooBknqi?kjpnkhhanw 5. dppl6++aj*segela`e]*knc+sege+Nalnaoajp]pekj]h[Op]pa[Pn]joban CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 367 `abej`at9wy `abodksBknqio9w `abbknqio9Bknqi*heop$% naj`anbknqio]oTIH y `abodksPkle_o9w `abpkle_o9WY eb$l]n]io*e`%w `abbknqi9Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia$l]n]io*e`% eb$bknqi%w bknqi*pkle_o*a]_dw pkle_o'9ep y y y eb$pkle_o%w ++Jkbknqil]n]iapanl]ooa`knbknqijkpbkqj` `abbknqio9Bknqi*heop$% bkn$bknqiejbknqio%w pkle_o'9bknqi*pkle_o y y sepdBkni]pw tihwnaj`anpkle_o]oTIHy fokjwnaj`anpkle_o]oFOKJy y y y The Bknqi?kjpnkhhan class exposes two actions as RESTful services that are acces- sible by using an HTTP CAP: odksBknqio and odksPkle_o. The odksBknqio service will return a list of all forums in your application in XML format simply by accessing the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+bknqi+odksBknqio. The odksPkle_o service will return all the topics in a particular forum. If the forum name is not passed in the URL or if the forum is not found, all the topics in all the forums will be returned. The odksPkle_o service uses content negotiation to determine the representa- tion returned to the user; it can return a response in either XML or JSON. For example, accessing the URL dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+bknqi+odksPkle_o+Cnkkru;bkni]p9fokj will return all the topics in the Groovy forum in JSON format, whereas accessing the URL CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES368 dppl6++-.3*,*,*-64,4,+Bknqi+bknqi+odksPkle_o will return all the topics in all the forums in XML format. You can easily change the default mapping to add support for other HTTP request methods. Suppose you want to allow users to post new topics to a forum by using an HTTP LKOP. Listing 16-15 shows how to expose the oq^iep action in ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhan to an HTTP LKOP. Listing 16-15. Changing URL Mappings to Enable RESTful Services _h]ooQnhI]llejcow op]pe_i]llejco9w + _kjpnkhhan+ ]_pekj;+ e`; w _kjopn]ejpow ++]llhu_kjopn]ejpodana y y +reasBknqi+ e`;$_kjpnkhhan6reasBknqi%w ]_pekj9WLKOP6oq^iepY y y y The ReasBknqi?kjpnkhhanoq^iep action is shown in Listing 16-16. Listing 16-16. Accepting User Submissions Through HTTP LKOP `aboq^iep9w `abpkle_9jasPkle_$l]n]ioW#pkle_#Y% pkle_*bknqi9Bknqi*bej`>uJ]ia$l]n]ioW#pkle_#Y*bknqi% eb$pkle_*o]ra$%%w naolkjoa*op]pqo9.,- naj`anpkle_*e` y ahoaw naolkjoa*oaj`Annkn$0,,% y y You can invoke the action by using an HTTP LKOP, as shown in Listing 16-17. CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 369 Listing 16-17. Invoking an HTTP Post `ablkop9w Opnejc`]p]9QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$pkle_*oq^fa_p(QPB)4%'9' QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$CnkkruF@>?mqoapekj(QPB)4%7 `]p]'9"'QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$pkle_*iaoo]ca(QPB)4%'9' QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$Dks`kEnqj]opkna`lnk_a`qnaejCnkkru;(QPB)4%7 `]p]'9"'QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$pkle_*bknqi(QPB)4%'9' QNHAj_k`an*aj_k`a$Cnkkru(QPB)4%7 `abqnh9jasQNH$dppl6++-.3*,*,*-65,5,+Bknqi+reasBknqi+oq^iep% `ab_kjj9qnh*klaj?kjja_pekj$% _kjj*oap@kKqplqp$pnqa%7 `absnepan9jasKqplqpOpna]iSnepan$_kjj*capKqplqpOpna]i$%% snepan*snepa$`]p]% snepan*bhqod$% `ab`o9jas@]p]EjlqpOpna]i$_kjj*capEjlqpOpna]i$%%7 naj`an`o*na]`Heja$% snepan*_hkoa$% `o*_hkoa$% y 16-7. How Do I Write SOAP Web Services in Grails with CXF? CXF (dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc) is a full- featured open source web services framework from Apache. CXF lets you develop web services by using a variety of protocols. In this recipe, I will show you how to use CXF to write SOAP web services. At the time of this writing, there is no plug- in that lets you use CXF with Grails. (There is a plug- in for using XFire, the predecessor to CXF.) Fortunately, this by no means indicates that you can’t use CXF with Grails! As I will show here, using CXF with Grails is pretty easy once you figure out all the required dependencies. This recipe uses CXF version 2.1.1 to expose the =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a I introduced in Recipe 16- 1 as a SOAP web service. The recipe also demonstrates how to write a client to consume the service. The trickiest part of using CXF with Grails is to figure out all the required JARs and make sure that they don’t conflict with Grails’ own JARs. If you followed Recipe 16- 5 to use Grails with Maven 2, you can use Maven 2 to download all the required depen- dencies. In fact, one of the most compelling reasons for using Maven is its excellent dependency management. The Maven dependencies are provided in Listing 16-18. CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES370 Listing 16-18. Maven CXF Dependencies 8`alaj`aj_eao: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:knc*]l]_da*_tb8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:_tb)np)bnkjpaj`)f]tso8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:.*-*-8+ranoekj: 8at_hqoekjo: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)^a]jo8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kjpatp8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kna8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)sa^8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8+at_hqoekjo: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:knc*]l]_da*_tb8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:_tb)np)pn]jolknpo)dppl8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:.*-*-8+ranoekj: 8at_hqoekjo: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)^a]jo8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kjpatp8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 371 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kna8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)sa^8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8+at_hqoekjo: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8`alaj`aj_u: 8cnkqlE`:knc*]l]_da*_tb8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:_tb)np)pn]jolknpo)dppl)fappu8+]npeb]_pE`: 8ranoekj:.*-*-8+ranoekj: 8at_hqoekjo: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)^a]jo8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kjpatp8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)_kna8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8at_hqoekj: 8cnkqlE`:knc*olnejcbn]iaskng8+cnkqlE`: 8]npeb]_pE`:olnejc)sa^8+]npeb]_pE`: 8+at_hqoekj: 8+at_hqoekjo: 8+`alaj`aj_u: 8+`alaj`aj_eao: The only thing you need to be aware of here is that the POM file excludes all Spring transitive dependencies from CXF. This is necessary because you don’t want CXF Spring JARs to conflict with Grails’ own Spring JARs (which are of a different version). If you are not using Maven, you will have to manually place all of the JARs in Listing 16-19 inside the he^ directory. CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES372 Listing 16-19. Required CXF JARs ]oi).*.*/*f]n _kiikjo)h]jc).*0*f]n _kiikjo)hkccejc)-*-*-*f]n _tb)]le).*-*-*f]n _tb)_kiikj)o_dai]o).*-*-*f]n _tb)_kiikj)qpehepeao).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)^ej`ejco)ok]l).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)^ej`ejco)tih).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)_kna).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)`]p]^ej`ejc)f]t^).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)bnkjpaj`)f]tso).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)bnkjpaj`)oeilha).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)pn]jolknpo)dppl).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)pn]jolknpo)dppl)fappu).*-*-*f]n _tb)np)so)]``n).*-*-*f]n _tb)pkkho)_kiikj).*-*-*f]n B]opEjbkoap)-*.*.*f]n cankjeik)]_per]pekj[-*-[ola_)-*,*.*f]n cankjeik)]jjkp]pekj[-*,[ola_)-*-*-*f]n cankjeik)f]r]i]eh[-*0[ola_)-*/*f]n cankjeik)f]tso[.*-[ola_)-*,*f]n cankjeik)oanrhap[.*1[ola_)-*.*f]n cankjeik)op]t)]le[-*,[ola_)-*,*-*f]n cankjeik)so)iap]`]p][.*,[ola_)-*-*.*f]n f]t^)]le).*-*f]n f]t^)eilh).*-*2*f]n f]t^)tf_).*-*2*f]n fappu)2*-*5*f]n fappu)qpeh)2*-*5*f]n jaapde).*,*0*f]n o]]f)]le)-*/*f]n o]]f)eilh)-*/*f]n ohb0f)]le)-*/*-*f]n ohb0f)f`g-0)-*/*-*f]n rahk_epu)-*0*f]n rahk_epu)`al)-*0*f]n so`h0f)-*2*-*f]n sopt)]oh)/*.*0*f]n tih)naokhran)-*.*f]n TihO_dai])-*0*.*f]n CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 373 Because I will be using CXF to create both the service and a proxy client, it’s easier to convert my =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a service to an interface and an implementation class (it’s also considered good practice). The interface is a Groovy file with only one method— hkcej—and is located inside on_+cnkkru in the _ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*oanre_ao package. The interface is shown in Listing 16-20. Listing 16-20. =qpdajpe_]pekj Interface l]_g]ca_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*oanre_ao ejpanb]_a=qpdajpe_]pekjw `abhkcej$j]ia(l]ooskn`% y The only change you need to make to the =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a service is to imple- ment the newly created interface as shown: _h]oo=qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_aeilhaiajpo=qpdajpe_]pekjw Å y Next create a file called _tb)oanrap*tih inside sa^)]ll+SA>)EJB. The file will be responsible for creating a simple server instance of your service. The file is shown in Listing 16-21. Listing 16-21. _tb)oanrhap*tih 8;tihranoekj9-*,aj_k`ejc9QPB)4;: 8^a]jotihjo9dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo tihjo6toe9dppl6++sss*s/*knc+.,,-+TIHO_dai])ejop]j_a tihjo6oeilha9dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+oeilha tihjo6ok]l9dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+^ej`ejco+ok]l toe6o_dai]Hk_]pekj9 dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo+olnejc)^a]jo).*,*to` dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+^ej`ejco+ok]l dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+o_dai]o+_kjbecqn]pekj+ok]l*to` dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+oeilha dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+o_dai]o+oeilha*to`: 8oeilha6oanrane`9lkfkoanre_a oanre_a?h]oo9_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*oanre_ao*=qpdajpe_]pekj ]``naoo9dppl6++hk_]hdkop65333+BknqiSO+]qpdajpe_]pa: CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES374 8oeilha6oanre_a>a]j: 8^a]j_h]oo9=qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a+: 8+oeilha6oanre_a>a]j: 8+oeilha6oanran: 8+^a]jo: The file will expose a service at dppl6++hk_]hdkop65333+BknqiSO+]qpdajpe_]pa. In order to read this file when your application starts up, you will have to import it into cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc+naokqn_ao*tih or sa^)]ll+SA>)EJB+]llhe_]pekj?kjpatp*tih as follows: 8eilknpnaokqn_a9_h]ool]pd6_tb)oanrhap*tih+: Start up your application. If you did everything right, you should see the service Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file at the following URL: dppl6++-.3*,*,*-65333+BknqiSO+]qpdajpe_]pa;so`h Figure 16-1 shows the WSDL file. Figure 16-1. =qpdajpe_]pekjOanre_a WSDL CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES 375 Writing a client is as easy. It is usually recommended that your client live in a separate project from the service, but for the sake of simplicity I am going to place the client in the same project as the service. Creating a client can be done in many ways. The easiest is to use the 8oeilha6_heajp: CXF element. Listing 16-22 shows how to configure a client in cn]eho)]ll+_kjb+olnejc+ naokqn_ao*tih. Listing 16-22. Creating a Client in naokqn_ao*tih 8^a]jotihjo9dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo tihjo6toe9dppl6++sss*s/*knc+.,,-+TIHO_dai])ejop]j_a tihjo6oeilha9dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+oeilha tihjo6ok]l9dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+^ej`ejco+ok]l toe6o_dai]Hk_]pekj9 dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo dppl6++sss*olnejcbn]iaskng*knc+o_dai]+^a]jo+olnejc)^a]jo).*,*to` dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+^ej`ejco+ok]l dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+o_dai]o+_kjbecqn]pekj+ok]l*to` dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+oeilha dppl6++_tb*]l]_da*knc+o_dai]o+oeilha*to`: 8oeilha6_heajpe`9]qpdajpe_]pekj?heajp oanre_a?h]oo9_ki*]lnaoo*cnkkrucn]ehona_elao*oanre_ao*=qpdajpe_]pekj ]``naoo9dppl6++hk_]hdkop65333+BknqiSO+]qpdajpe_]pa+: 8+^a]jo: To inject the client in a controller, simply define a property in the controller called ]qpdajpe_]pekj?heajp. Listing 16-23 shows how to use the client in the Qoan?kjpnkhhan to perform authentication. Listing 16-23. Using a Web Service Client from a Controller _h]ooQoan?kjpnkhhanw `ab]qpdajpe_]pekj?heajp `abej`at9w naj`an$reas6hkcej% y `abhkcej9w `abnaoqhp9]qpdajpe_]pekj?heajp*hkcej$l]n]io*j]ia(l]n]io*l]ooskn`% eb$naoqhpejop]j_akbJqi^an""naoqhp:,%w ++Qoan]qpdajpe_]pea` CHAPTER 16 N MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES376 oaooekj*qoan9Qoan*cap$naoqhp% naj`anoq__aoo y ahoaw ++Qoanjkp]qpdajpe_]pa` naj`an$reas6hkcej(ik`ah6Wiaoo]ca6naoqhpY% y y y Summary In this chapter, you learned how to use the service layer in Grails and where it fits within the architecture of a Grails application. Grails encourages the development of rich domain models and offers an additional service layer to help coordinate among the different domain classes that make up your domain layer. The fact that Grails uses Spring under the cover opens the door for many advanced usages of Grails. Spring is a mature and sophisticated Java Enterprise application frame- work, and I encourage you to learn more about it. Web services in Grails can be implemented as RESTful services (which are trivial to implement) or as SOAP web services via the CXF plug- in. This chapter concludes my coverage of Groovy and Grails. I hope that you enjoyed reading the materials presented in this book as much as I enjoyed writing them and that you will consider using Groovy and Grails in your next project, if you haven’t already done so. Groovy and Grails are pleasant to work with and extremely productive tools— valuable additions to any Java developer’s toolbox. 377 Index Symbols @ operator, accessing fields directly using, 89 $ (dollar sign), using in GStrings, 46 =~ (find operator), 32 using in Groovy, 51 /h, displaying list of commands shell sup- ports with, 10 <% %>, embedding code inside GSP page with, 223 < (left angle bracket) operator excluding end value of sequence with, 66 ==~ (match operator), 32 in Groovy vs. Java, 18 using in Groovy, 53 $ notation including Groovy expression in, 46 used by Groovy Server Pages, 222 + (plus) operator adding elements to lists using, 59 += (plus equal) operator, adding elements to lists using, 58 == (equal equal) operator, in Groovy, 36 () (parentheses), optional in Groovy, 20 ~ (pattern) operator, 32, 51 ?. (safe-navigation) operator, using in Groovy, 57 ; (semicolons), optional in Groovy, 19–20 // (slash-slash) characters, patterns en- closed by in Groovy, 32 * (spread) operator, deleting all instances in one statement with, 272 -> symbol, using in closures, 100 ?: (ternary) operator, 45 _ (underscore) character, using in tem- plate names, 243 A access modifiers, in Groovy, 21 AcegiSecurity plug-in creating sign-up page with, 329 downloading and installing, 328 enabling OpenID with, 336 generating controllers and views with, 329 tables generated by, 329 using, 328–335 actionPerformed method, passing a clo- sure to add an action to, 131 actions, overriding in your controller, 309–310 add method, adding elements to lists with, 58 addTo, adding instance to an association with, 273 Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Grails tags for working with, 253 using, 251–254 allowedMethods property, 325 restricting HTTP methods with, 313 allowMultiQueries property, setting, 142–143 AnemicDomainModel.html, web site ad- dress, 357 annotated Java domain class, creating, 318–319 anonymous inner classes closure similarity to, 97 vs. closures, 99 Ant build file, writing, 124 online documentation, web site ad- dress, 123 running Groovy tests with, 163–164 tasks, writing with AntBuilder, 123–125 web site address, 163 NINDEX378 AntBuilder, 111 converting Ant XML build file to, 124–125 writing Ant build files with, 124 writing Ant tasks with, 123–125 Apache’s Bean Scripting Framework, web site address, 42 applyLayout tag, developing portal appli- cations or mashups with, 246 as keyword, using in Groovy, 78 assertions, in Groovy, 22–23 assert keyword, 23 testing Fibonacci number algorithm with, 155–156 AuthenticateService class in AcegiSecurity plug-in, 335 using in a controller, 335 authentication creating UserController to handle, 326–327 filter, creating, 326 implementing in Grails application, 325–327 AuthenticationService creating, 353 testing, 357 using in controller, 354 AuthenticationService service converting to an interface, 373 implementing newly created interface, 373 WSDL file, 374 Author class, with one-to-one relationship with BookSales, 91 automatic conversion, in Groovy, 34 B \ (backslash) character, inside JSP scriplet, 184 Base64Codec, 324 BeanBuilder, using in Grails, 358 Beginning Spring 2, by Dave Minter, 358 binarySearch method, writing Groovy test for testing, 161 bindData method, limiting properties that can be bound with, 240 bitwise AND, performing in Groovy, 55 bitwise NOT, performing in Groovy, 56 bitwise OR, performing in Groovy, 55 bitwise XOR, performing in Groovy, 55 black-box testing. See functional tests Book classes and BookSales, 91 Boolean operators supported by dynamic find- ers, 275 test, rules used to evaluate, 67 BootStrap.groovy file, executing code in when application starts up, 272 break statement, exiting switch block with, 68 bubble sort algorithm, testing Groovy class that implements, 156–158 BubbleSortTest.class, adding to a test suite, 161 builders abstract methods to implement, 135 customto build JSON objects, 135–136 creating your own, 135–138 definition, 111 need for, 112–114 offered by Groovy, 111–138 business logic, where to include, 357 C caching customizing with ORM DSL, 287 enabling in a GORM class, 286 strategies list, 286–287 calculateRaise method, 24 Canoo WebTest plug-in creating functional tests with, 349–352 Firefox extension web site address, 352 running, 351 syntax reference web site address, 351 web site address, 349 CAPTCHA feature, adding to Forum ap- plication, 328 CaptchaController, creating, 329 cascading behavior changing default, 265–266 valid cascading values, 265 categories, using in Groovy, 82–83 CCApp class, testing, 168–169 chained actions, in a controller, 237 chain method, arguments accepted by, 237 NINDEX 379 checked exceptions, in Groovy, 21 Chakraborty, Anirvan, 358 ClassCastException, when treating an integer as a string, 33 classes vs. scripts, 71–74 Class under test (CUT), 168 defining, 166 class variables, accessing inside a closure, 103 clean command, 216 making sure no reports are cached with, 180 client. See also web service client, creating in resources.xml, 375 closures, 97–110 accessing script variables inside of, 104 advantages of treating as objects, 98–99 calling, 100–101 creating, 100 currying, 107 definitions, example of, 100 differences between this, owner, and delegate in, 105 getting information about parameters passed to, 109 in Groovy, 23–25 local effect of returning from, 106 need for, 98–99 passing as argument to another meth- od, 102–103 passing as method arguments in Groovy, 24 returning a value from, 101 returning from, 106 reusing methods as, 101 scope of, 103–104 syntax for, 100 using collect method with, 103 using inside a map, 109 using in switch statements, 108 using with files, 110 vs. anonymous inner classes, 99 vs. methods, 97 Cobertura measuring code coverage with, 175 running and generating the coverage report, 178 running with Maven 2, 176–178 web site address, 175 codecs built-in Grails, 323 creating custom, 324 creating your own, 324 collaborators, defined, 166 collection attribute, accepted by g:render tag, 244 collective data types, 45 in Groovy, 25–28 collect method, using with closures, 103 column, adding an index to, 288 command-line, using Groovy on, 196–197 command objectclass, 239 marshalling as XML, 241–242 company schema, creating new table in, 141–142 comparators, supported by dynamic find- ers, 275 compile command, 216 compose view, 233 composite primary key, using, 288 composition, using, 270 conditional structures, 45 configClass property, setting to use Java 5.0 annotations, 318 ConfigSlurper configuring log4j with, 198–199 writing configuration files with, 198–200 configuration files, writing, 198–200 connection pooling, using, 140–141 console command, with implicit variables, 216 constraints, Grails built-in to validate classes, 302–303 constraints properties, using on Swing widgets, 128–129 content attribute, 246 content negotiation, used by showTopics service, 367 controllers available implicit objects in, 227–235 chaining actions in, 237 creating in Grails, 220–222 NINDEX380 having multiple actions inside of, 227 intercepting actions in, 238–239 in web layer, 219 passing variables to a GSP from, 225 relationship with GSPs, 224 controllers and views creating for your domain class, 319–320 generating in one command, 312 conventions customizing generated views using, 298–299 using over configuration in Grails, 208–209 convertTemperature tag, testing, 347 countBy*, counting number of rows returned by, 277 counter.groovy file, creating, 188–189 counting, number of instances in database with, 274 create-controller command creating new controller with, 220 vs. generate-controller command, 312 create-domain-class command creating a domain class with, 259–262 creating integration test for domain classes with, 347–349 Create Forum page, generated, 293 createLink GSP tag, invoking viewTopic action with, 232 createLinkTo(dir), GSP tag equivalent for, 226 createNewFile method, 21 createNode(Object name) method, 135 createNode(Object name, Map attrs) method, 135 createNode(Object name, Object value) method, 135 createNode(Object name, Object value, Map attrs) method, 135 create, read, update, and delete opera- tions. See CRUD operations Create Requestmap page, creating map- pings in, 330 Create Role page, 329 Create Topic screen, 296 Create User page, creating user via, 331–332 criteria grouping using logical AND or OR, 278–279 using, 277–280 using ScrollableResults with, 280 cross-site scripting (XSS), protecting ap- plication from, 322–323 CRUD operations methods for performing, 271 performing in Groovy, 143–144 performing on domain classes, 270–273 CRUD scaffolding, 291 Ctrl+R, executing all code in console with, 11 Ctrl+Shift+R, executing selection of code in console with, 11 curly braces ({}), using in closures, 100 currying calculating employee annual salary using, 107 closures, 107 custom database identifier, using, 287–288 custom tags for converting Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees, 250 rendering a text editor, 249 writing, 249–250 CXF, manually placing JARS inside lib directory, 371–373, 376 D Daswani, Neil, 321 data, inserting into tables in Groovy, 143 database identifiers, using custom, 287–288 databases connecting to in Groovy, 139, 140 working with, 139–154 DataSet combining filters using logical opera- tors with, 150 determining number of rows in, 149 obtaining an instance of, 148 using, 148–150 using findAll method with, 149–150 using for insertion, 148 using for retrieving rows, 149 NINDEX 381 using with DeptEmployees view, 153–154 using with joined tables, 151–154 dataSource block, settings supported inside of, 258 DataSource.groovy caution about, 259 externalizing, 361–362 modified, 362–363 DataSources, connecting to company schema with, 141 data types and control structures, in Groovy, 45–70 DateModel, using with SwingBuilder, 134–135 date property, updating automatically for Topic class, 284 date variable, accessible in index view, 225 dbCreate setting and supported options, 258 caution about, 259 decimal numbers, in Groovy, 53–54 decodeAs method, 323 def keyword, using in Groovy, 33 delegate keyword, meaning of inside a closure, 105 delete action creating functional test for, 350–352 overriding, 305–310 writing unit test for, 341–343 delete method, flush property accepted as argument with, 273 deleting data, from employees table, 144 DeptEmployees view, using DataSet with, 153–154 depts table creating, 151 inserting two departments into, 151–152 dereference operator (.), 229 dialect setting, 258 _displayTopics.gsp, creating, 243 Ditt, Jessica, 358 Dojo, web site address, 252 dollar sign ($), using in GStrings, 46 dom4j, web site address, 189 domain classes adding properties to, 260–261 adding relationships between, 263–264 creating, 259–262 creating in grails-app/domain folder, 328–329 organizing in packages, 262 rendering as XML or JSON (marshal- ling), 241–242 saving, 271 testing, 347–349 domain class identity, printing, 288 domain-specific languages (DSLs), using builders to create, 111 DOM API, problems with, 114 downloading and installing AcgiSecurity plug-in, 328 Grails, 209–210 Groovy, 8–9 star rater component, 315 downTo and upTo, using in Groovy, 56 driverClassName setting, 258 DriverManager, connecting to database via, 140 duck typing, 34 using in Groovy, 79 dynamic finders Boolean operators supported by, 275 supported comparators, 275 using, 275–277 dynamic scaffolding enabling in controller, 292 of relationships, 295–297 using, 292–295 vs. static scaffolding, 291 dynamic typing. See also duck typing in Groovy, 33, 79 E eachLine(Closure), 110 each method passing closure as argument to, 102–103 ranges useful with, 66 eachRow method creating employees report with, 146 for reading data from a database, 145 eachWithIndex method, ranges useful with, 66 eager fetching, enabling, 267–268 NINDEX382 Eclipse creating a Groovy unit test in, 156 integrating Groovy with, 12–13 running a Groovy test in, 158 using Grails with, 213 Eclipse Groovy plug-in, syntax highlight- ing/code completion in, 13 _editor.gsp template, creating, 249 e implicit variable, for reference to XmlHttpRequest JavaScript object, 253 EmailerService, creating, 329 Employee class constructor, using, 88 employees, assigning to departments, 152 employees table adding deptId as foreign key to, 152 creating employees report from, 146 creating in company schema, 141–142 returning all employees from, 145 updating and deleting data in, 144 encodeAsHTML, calling to prevent XSS, 323 encodeAs method, 323 entrySet, returning a collection view of map with, 65 environment arguments, accepted by Grails commands, 258 environment block, settings supported inside of, 258 equals method implementing in Groovy, 82 implementing in Java, 81 error messages changing, 301 form inside file, 301 Errors interface, errors property an in- stance of in Spring, 303 errors property, domain class, iterating over to print errors, 271 events, supported in GORM, 283–284 exceptions, checked, 21–22 execute method executing external process with, 200–201 using in Groovy, 144 executeUpdate method, using in Groovy, 144 execute(‘your SQL here’), calling to create a new table, 141–142 exists, checking existence of an instance with, 274 Expando class, how to use, 93 ExpandoMetaClass adding behavior to a class with, 96 mocking objects or methods with, 339 Expando objects, testing CCApp class with, 169 explicit type coercion, for calling Employee class constructor, 88 F fetching, customizing strategy using ORM DSL, 268 Fibonacci number algorithm, testing, 155–156 fields accessing directly using the @ operator, 89 referencing in Groovy, 84–85 File class API, web site address, 110 files configuring application using external, 360–363 downloading in Groovy, 201 processing all in a Groovy directory, 201–202 uploading and downloading, 242 using closures with, 110 filters creating, 250 interceptors for, 251 scope of, 251 findAll method, using with DataSet, 149–150 find (=~) operator, in Groovy, 32, 51 flash, flow, and conversation scopes, supported in Grails, 355 flash object, 228 floating-point division, in Groovy, 54 food.xml file, creating, 189–191 foreign key, adding deptId to employees table as, 152 for loop, 45 NINDEX 383 formRemote GSP tag, modifying compose view to use, 252 forms and form fields, GSP tags for creat- ing, 226 Forum application adding authentication and authoriza- tion to, 328–335 adding Maven support to, 364–365 configuring to use a database, 255–259 configuring to use MySQL for produc- tion, 257 creating classes for, 259–262 creating in Grails, 210 creating layout in, 246 creating new user on, 336–337 customizing generated views for, 298–302 domain classes showing relationships, 263 modeling, 259–262 modifying to use inheritance, 281–282 relationships between domain classes and, 263 roles in, 328 Forum class, 259 adding additional constraints to, 304–305 changing default cascading behavior, 266 ForumController class, actions exposed as RESTful services in, 367 forums finding all where description contains Groovy, 279 getting list of all, 274 Foundations of Security: What Every Pro- grammer Needs to Know by Neil Daswani et al., 321 frame, moving button action outside closure, 132 functional tests creating with Canoo WebTest, 349–352 in Grails, 339 G Gant Groovy module for writing Ant tasks without AntBuilder, 125 web site address, 125, 216 g:formRemote tag, submitting form to submit action with, 253 g:render tag, rendering a template using, 244 GDK Groovy, 29 methods added to strings, 31 generate-all command, 216 generate-controller command TopicController generated by, 310–312 vs. create-controller command, 312 generated views changing, 302 customizing, 298–302 getAll, getting list of all instances with, 274 .getClass method, using in maps, 63 getMetaData method, obtaining a table’s metadata with, 147 getters and setters, in Groovy, 20 GMaven module, web site address, 165 Good, Nathan A. Regular Expression Recipes: A Problem- Solution Approach by, 31 Google Web Toolkit, 252 GORM, 255–280 lazy associations in, 267 querying with, 274 seeing SQL generated by, 271 supported events in, 283–284 using events in, 283–285 web site address, 252 GORM implementation, 207 GPath expressions, processing with XmlSlurper, 193 GPaths, defined, 90–92 Grails adding Prototype support for, 252 adding support for, 252 advanced features for querying, 274 built-in constraints in, 302–305 commands that run from anywhere, 217 configuring logging in with log4j, 363–364 creating your first application in, 210–212 NINDEX384 defined, 207–208 design goals of framework, 208 development tools shipped with, 207 different commands for, 216–217 downloading and installing, 209–210 frameworks influenced by, 208 generated files and folders in root direc- tory, 211 getting started with, 207–217 Hibernate ORM library used by, 255–289 HTML reports for tests, 340 kinds of tests in, 339 main ApplicationContext file, 358 main layout in, 245 relationships supported by, 263, 297 running unit or integration tests in, 349 SiteMesh used by for layout, 245–249 support for Canoo WebTest, 349–350 support for Locales, 302 typical application directory structure, 210 uploading files in, 358 using Spring’s advanced features with, 357–360 using with Eclipse, 213 using with IntelliJ IDEA, 214 using with Maven 2, 364–365 using with REST, 366 Grails application architecture with web layer, 219 configuring additional beans in, 358 configuring logging in, 363–364 configuring using external files, 360–363 controllers for testing, 332–333 creating roles in, 329 SiteMesh used by for layout, 245–249 starting up, 329 testing, 333–334 grails-app/views/main/index.gsp page, modifying to pass forum name as parameter, 231 grails-app/views/viewForum/compose. gsp, 243 modifying to send correct parameter names, 240 grails-app/views/viewForum/compose. gsp page, rendering, 233 grails-app/views/viewForum/ _displayTopics.gsp template, modifying to use new layout, 248 grails-app/views/viewForum/index.gsp modifying to use _displayTopics.gsp template, 244 modifying to use new layout, 248 grails clean command, running, 329 grails command, using inside Eclipse as an external tool, 213 Grails commands, environment argu- ments accepted by, 258 GrailsContextLoaderListener class, 358 grails create-controller viewForum com- mand, creating ViewForumCon- troller with, 231–232 Grails database configurations, in Data- Source.groovy, 255–256 grails help command, listing all available Grails commands with, 216 GRAILS_HOME environment variable, adding to Eclipse, 213 Grails Maven plug-in, web site address, 364 Grail’s object-relational mapping (GORM), 255. See also GORM implementation grails.test.GroovyPagesTestCase class, testing tag libraries with, 347 GrailsUtil class, finding environment you are running in, 259 graph finding all departments where Leslie works in, 122 querying using GPaths, 121 grep method, using with regexes to filter a collection, 53 GridBagLayout manager GUI that uses, 128 groovlets,189 simple web application built using, 187 Groovy access modifiers, 21 advanced testing techniques offered by, 166–167 NINDEX 385 as a type-safe language, 33 assertions in, 22–23 automatic conversion in, 34 checked exceptions, 21 closures in, 23–25 collective data types, 25–28 common escape characters in, 46 compiling to bytecode, 38 connecting to a database in, 139–154 creating list of averages of two other lists, 7 data types and control structures, 45–70 declaring strings in, 30–31 defined, 3 defining fields and local variables in, 83 downloading a file in, 201 downloading and installing, 8–9 duck typing in, 34 dynamic typing in, 33 fields and local variables in, 85 fields and local variables vs. Java’s, 83 from Java to, 17–43 GDK, 29 getters and setters in, 20 getting started with, 3–15 GroovyBeans in, 20 how constructors in differ from Java’s, 88–89 how it addresses Java shortcomings, 5–8 IDE support for, 12 implementation in, 78 implementing a Java interface in, 41 implementing equals method in, 82 implementing single-method interface with a closure, 78 import statements, 19–19 inserting, updating, and deleting data in, 143–144 integrating with Eclipse, 12–13 integrating with IntelliJ IDEA, 14 integrating with Java, 38–43 Java elements not supported by, 17 leaving out the type in, 35 lists in, 25 maps in, 27 method declarations in, 85 methods vs. Java methods, 85–88 new and enhanced syntax elements, structures, and constructs, 22–28 new helpers, libraries, and APIs in, 28–32, 96 operator overloading in, 35 optional semi’s in, 19–20 optional syntax elements in, 19–37 optional typing in, 33 optional use of parentheses [()] in, 20 organizing code inside packages in, 74–75 overloading ++ operator for Roman numbers, 36–37 passing closures as method arguments in, 24 processing all files in a directory in, 201–202 ranges in, 28 reading and printing contents of a file in, 6 regular expressions (regexes), 31–32 return keyword in, 20 return type in, 20 running external processes with, 200–201 similarities to Java, 17–18 static typing in, 33 strings and GStrings, 30–31 template engines, 183 testing code with, 155–181 testing Java code with, 160–161 tools that come with, 9 type aliasing and how to use it, 75–76 using a list as a single argument, 86 using an array for optional parameters, 87 using categories in BE, 82–83 using closures in, 24 using GroovyClassLoader, 40–42 using GroovyShell to integrate with Java, 38 using inheritance in, 76–79 using mapped parameters, 87 using multimethods in, 80–82 using on the command-line, 196–197 using packages in, 74–75 using positional parameters in, 86 NINDEX386 using stubs and mocks in, 169–173 using type aliasing in, 75–76 writing an inline test in, 155–156 writing a test class in, 156–160 Ant task, using inside Ant build files, 125 GroovyBeans, 20 defined, 89–90 example of Employee, 89 to demonstrate ObjectGraphBuilder, 122 GroovyCastException, when assigning a string to variable of type java.lang. Integer, 33 groovyc command, using, 11–12 Groovy class, extending java.util.ArrayList, 76 GroovyClassLoader, using to integrate Groovy with Java, 40–42 groovy command, using, 11–12 Groovy compiler, calling directly on your scripts, 11 Groovy console starting, 10–11 starting instance of for testing exam- ples, 271 Groovy Development Kit (GDK), 5 Groovy file choosing strategy for organizing code, 74 classes and scripting code in same, 73–74 creating new, 13 multiple classes per, 72 one public class per, 72 with scripting code only, 73 groovy.lang.GString, GStrings as instance of, 30 GroovyList class, extending, 76 GroovyLogTestCase, using, 173–175 Groovy mocks, mocking objects or meth- ods with, 339 Groovy object, calling, 93 GroovyScriptEngine, using in Groovy, 39 Groovy scripts compiling and executing in one step, 12 implicit objects available inside of, 188 Groovy Server Pages (GSPs), 222. See also GSPs (Groovy Server Pages) groovysh command, starting Groovy shell with, 9 Groovy shell, using, 9–10 GroovyShell, using to integrate Groovy with Java, 38 Groovy SQL API documentation, web site address, 145 groovy.sql.DataSet class, performing data- base operations with, 148 groovy.sql library package, built on top of JDBC, 139 Groovy support, adding to existing Java project, 13 Groovy templates, generating dynamic and reusable content with, 183 GroovyTestCase, subclass of junit.frame- work.TestCase, 156 Groovy test suites, running, 155 Groovy truth rules in action, 67 rules used to evaluate Boolean test, 67–68 Groovy unit tests build.xml file to compile and run, 163–164 creating in Eclipse, 156 finding the big in, 159–160 organizing into suites and running from IDE, 161–163 groovy.util.AllTestSuite, using inside Intel- liJ IDEA, 163 groovy.util.BuilderSupport, extending to create your builders, 135–138 groovy.util.GroovyTestSuite, adding files to a test suite with, 162–163 GSPs (Groovy Server Pages), 207. See also Groovy Server Pages (GSPs) alternatives to, 224 available implicit objects in, 227–235 editing files in, 213 page model, 225 using scriplets inside of, 223 NINDEX 387 GSP tags calling as methods inside controllers, 226 creating links and resources with, 226 defining variables with, 226 expressions and, using, 223 for iteration, 226 for logic, 226 in AcegiSecurity plug-in, 334–335 searching and filtering with, 226 using as method calls, 226–226 GStrings and strings in Groovy, 30–31 new classes in Groovy, 28 using, 45 H Hello World application, creating in Grails, 211 HelloWorldController.groovy filem, gener- ating, 212 helper classes, builders as, 111 Hibernate, built-in cache implementa- tions, 286 hibernate.cfg.xml file, creating inside grails-app/conf/hibernate, 319 HibernateCriteriaBuilder, available nodes in, 277–278, 280 Hibernate mapped classes, using scaffold- ing with, 318–320 Hibernate ORM library, used by Grails, 255–289 Hibernate Query Language (HQL), using, 280 Hibernate session, flushing before closing, 272 HQL. See also Hibernate Query Language (HQL) web site address for complete reference, 280 HSQLDB Grails database for development, 255–259 web site address, 255 HTMLCodec, 324 HTML documents, building with Markup- Builder, 119–120 HTML test report, generated for TopicController unit test, 342 HTTP 403 error code (Forbidden), 325 HTTP Post, invoking, 368 HTTP request methods, restricting, 324–325 Hyperthreaded Structured Query Lan- guage Database (HSQLDB), for development and testing, 207 I id column, in tables, 260 ident method, printing domain class iden- tity with, 288 if statement, 45 implicit constructors, calling Employee class constructor with, 88 implicit objects, available in controllers and GSPs, 228–235 implicit type coercion, calling Employee class constructor with, 88 import statements, in Groovy, 19 index, adding to column, 288 index.gsp, code for, 222 index page, showing all controllers in ap- plication, 221 index property, in static scaffolding, 313 inheritance, using in Groovy, 76 inheritance strategies, using, 281–282 inline layouts, using, 246 inline test, writing in Groovy, 155–156 installing Groovy, 8–9 IntelliJ IDEA JetGroovy plug-in, 14 install-plugin command, 217 install-templates command, 217 files generated by, 314 integer division, in Groovy vs. Java, 54–55 integer numbers, in Groovy, 53 integration tests creating, 343–345 in Grails, 339 IntelliJ IDEA creating new Grails project with, 214 integrating Groovy with, 14 running project in Jetty with, 214 using Grails with, 214 NINDEX388 IntelliJ IDEA JetGroovy plug-in compiling and executing Groovy script with, 14 in IntelliJ IDEA version 7.0 or higher, 14 installing, 14 showing syntax highlighting and code completion, 14 interfaces, 79 isApproved method, testing, 168 isCase method implementing in GDK, 68 using as closures inside switch state- ments, 108 iteration, GSP tags for, 226 J JAR file, making available to Groovy, 139 Java fields and local variables vs. Groovy’s, 83–85 implementation in, 77 implementing equals method in, 81 integrating Groovy with, 38–43 issues with, 4–5 lack of closures in, 8 language vs. platform, 3 methods vs. Groovy methods, 85–88 reading and printing contents of a file in, 5–6 similarities to Groovy, 19–37 support for autoboxing in version 5.0, 7 to Groovy from, 17–43 way of calling Employee class construc- tor, 88 Java 5.0 annotations, setting configClass property to use, 318 Java class, testing using Groovy, 160 Java client, using Groovy and Java imple- mentations, 78 Java code, example running in Groovy console, 18 Java interface example of simple, 77 implementing in Groovy, 41 Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI), creating DataSources us- ing, 141 Java platform, using, 3 JavaScriptCodec, 324 JavaScript events, calling when specific events occur, 253 JavaScript functions, calling when specific events occur, 253 Java testing framework, web site address, 155 java.util.LinkedList, creating instances of, 57 Java web framework, reason for Grails, 208–209 javax.sql.DataSource, working with for connection pooling, 141 Jaxen, web site address, 195 JBoss, web site address for, 187 JDBC’s DriverManager. See DriverManager JDOM problems with libraries in, 114 web site address, 114, 189 JetBrains, IntelliJ Java IDE from, 14 JetGroovy plug-in. See IntelliJ IDEA JetGroovy plug-in Jetty for rapid development and automatic loading, 207 running your project in using IntelliJ IDEA, 214 web site address for, 187 jndiName setting, 258 joined tables, using DataSet with, 151–154 JSON creating builder to build, 135–136 outputting a response, 241 web site address for, 135 JSON builder creating, 137–138 testing, 136–137 JSP (JavaServer Page), 183 JSR 223, using, 42–43 JUnit tests, for testing Java code, 155 K Kern, Christopher, 321 Kesavan, Anita, 321 keys and values, accessing in maps, 65 keySet, returning a set of all keys with, 65 NINDEX 389 key/value pairs, adding/removing to/from maps, 64 keys/values, finding that satisfy a condi- tion in maps, 65 L layout managers, using with SwingBuilder, 128–131 layout meta tag, 246 layout properties, using on Swing widgets, 128–129 lazy associations, in GORM, 267 left and right shifts, performing in Groovy, 56 List, using to represent relationships, 267 listGroovyTopics.gsp, creating inside grails-app/views/main, 227 list.gsp file, modifying to display error messages, 307–309 list.gsp template generating views for Forum class to test with, 313 modifying and adding code to display flash messages, 313 list method arguments for, 274 performing pagination and sorting with, 274 listOrderBy*, using to return results in particular order, 274 lists accessing in Groovy, 58 adding elements to, 58, 59 adding together, 58 basics of in Groovy, 26 finding elements in, 60 finding min and max elements in, 60–61 flattening, 58 in Groovy, 25 iterating over all elements of, 59 iterating over and performing a closure on items in, 59 joining all elements of, 60 nesting in Groovy, 57 printing all items in, 70 removing elements from, 59 reversing, 60 sorting in Groovy, 61 summing all elements in, 60 using in Boolean condition, 58 using in Groovy, 57–61 log4j configuring logging with in Grails, 198, 363–364 web site address, 198, 363 logging, configuring, 363–364 logic, GSP tags for, 226 login.gsp page, creating, 327 logSql setting, 258 looping, performing in Groovy, 69–70 looping structures, 45 Machacek, Jan, 358 MainController class creating, 220 creating new action inside of, 227 modifying index action in, 230 main layout, most important tags in, 245 Mak, Gary, 358 many-to-many relationships, 269 mapping changing default behavior, 261 customizing using ORM DSL, 261–262 unidirectional one-to-many relation- ships, 264–265 maps accessing keys and values in, 65 adding key/value pairs to, 64 basics of in Groovy, 27 checking existence of key or value in, 65 declaring in Groovy, 63 finding keys/values that satisfy a condi- tion in, 65 implementing multimethod interface with, 79 in Groovy, 27 keys in, 63 removing key/value pairs from, 64 retrieving values from, 64 returning collection view of, 65 returning default value if no key exists, 64 returning set of all keys for, 65 returning set of all values, 65 using closures as keys in, 109 using closures as values in, 109 NINDEX390 using in Groovy, 63–65 using the value of a string in, 64 using to test code, 167–169 MarkupBuilder, 111 building complex XML document with, 114–117 building HTML documents with, 119–120 creating employees report with, 146 creating XML document with, 114 Groovy code for creating XML docu- ment, 117–118 Matcher object, creating with find opera- tor, 51–53 match (= =~,) operator, in Groovy, 32, 53 Maven compiling Groovy files with, 165–166 running Groovy tests with, 164–166 Maven 2 CXF dependencies, 369–371 modifying settings.xml file, 365 running Cobertura with, 176–178 using Grails with, 364–365 Maven Surefire plug-in, web site address, 165 merge sort, implementing in Groovy, 62–63 MetaClass, how to use, 93–94 Meta Object Protocol (MOP), metaclasses as part of Groovy’s implementa- tion of, 93 metaprogramming, with Groovy, 28 method calls intercepting on an object, 94–95 using GSP tags as, 226 methods closures vs., 97 intercepting methods that don’t exist on a class, 95–96 passing closures as arguments to, 102 reusing as closures, 101 method variables, accessing inside a clo- sure, 103–104 Minter, Dave, 358 MockFor, defining tight expectations with, 172–173 mocks class that can be tested only in, 169–170 defined, 167 modelAndView property, using, 346 model attribute, accepted by g:render tag, 244 ModeratorsController, creating, 332 multimethod interface, implementing with a map, 79 multimethods, using in Groovy, 80–82 MySQL, allowing multiple SQL queries in, 142–143 MySQL Community Server, web site ad- dress, 140 MysqlConnectionPoolDataSource class, 141 MySQL database, 139 MySQL documentation, web site address, 140 MySQL GUI Tools, web site address, 140 MySQL Query Browser tool, web site ad- dress, 259 N named parameters, for calling Employee class constructor, 88 nested method calls, using on Swing wid- gets, 129 New Forum option, creating a new forum with, 293 newInstance method, 140 NodeBuilder, 111 building a graph of connected objects with, 121 building a tree of objects with, 120–122 nodeCompleted(Object parent, Object node), 135 nullable constraint, for allowing NULL values, 262 NullPointerException, thrown in Groovy, 57 numbers class for calculating whether they are perfect, 175 finding absolute value of in Groovy, 55 iterating by increments in Groovy, 56 negating list of in Groovy, 56 NINDEX 391 specifying type in Groovy, 54 testing whether they are odd or even, 173 using in Groovy vs. Java, 53–57 O ObjectGraphBuilder, 111 building a tree of objects with, 122–123 creating graphs of beans with, 122–123 GroovyBeans to demonstrate, 122 object-relational mapping (ORM) librar- ies, 255–289 objects converting to string representation, 46 intercepting all method calls on, 94 one-to-one relationships, 268–269 OpenID directory web site address, 336 enabling in Grails applications, 336 enabling in Yahoo account, 336 login option, web sites that offer, 336 plug-in, web site address, 336 providers, companies that act as, 335 using, 335–337 web site address, 335 operator overloading example of, 58 in Groovy, 35 optimistic and pessimistic locking controlling concurrency with, 282–283 disabling for your class, 283 org.hibernate.StaleObjectStateException, 283 ORM DSL, customizing mapping with, 261–262 ORM tool, 255 owner keyword, meaning of inside a clo- sure, 105 P packages, using in Groovy, 74–75 parameters, binding incoming, 239–240 params object, 228 parentheses [()], optional in Groovy, 20 password setting, 258 Pattern API docs, web site address, 51 pattern (~) operator, in Groovy, 32, 51 perfect number, Wiki page for information about, 175 PerfectNumber class final version of, 180–181 test class for, 176 PerfectNumberTest, running inside Intel- liJ, 176 pessimistic and optimistic locking controlling concurrency with, 282–283 using lock method to call, 283 pom.xml file, placing at root of Forum ap- plication, 364–365 pooled setting, 258 PostCommand command object, adding property to, 242 prepared statements, using, 144 printing, all items in a list, 70 programmatic transaction management, web site address, 355 projections, customizing returned results with, 279–280 properties property, retrieving all bean’s properties with, 90 property editor, adding your own, 314–318 Pro Spring 2.5, by Machacek, Ditt, Vukotic, and Chakraborty, 358 Prototype, used by Grails, 252 prototype scope, supported in Grails, 355 Q querying, with GORM, 274 query method reading data from a database with, 145 working with ResultSet directly with, 145–146 R ranges basics of in Groovy, 28 using in Groovy, 66 rating property, adding your editor for, 314–318 recipes, miscellaneous, 183–203, 353–376 redirect method arguments accepted by, 233–234 testing, 345–347 regexes. See regular expressions (regexes) RegisterController, creating, 329 NINDEX392 Regular Expression Recipes, by Nathan A. Good, 31 regular expressions (regexes) common patterns and what they mean, 51 in action in Groovy, 32 in Groovy, 31–32 new operators for working with in Groovy, 29 operators for working with in Groovy, 32 using in Groovy, 50 relational database, 151 relationships dynamically scaffolding, 295–297 mapping unidirectional one-to-many, 264–265 modeling, 263–269 one-to-one and many-to-many, 268–269 specifying bidirectional one-to-many, 265 supported by Grails, 263 unidirectional vs. bidirectional, 265 using List to represent, 267 using SortedSet to represent, 266–267 removeFrom method, removing instances from an as- sociation with, 273 render method optional arguments for, 236 rendering a response as XML with, 235 testing, 345–347 replace* methods, regexes used with on String class, 53 Representational State Transfer (REST). See REST RequestMap domain class, creating in grails-app/domain folder, 329 request object, accessing inside a control- ler and GSP, 228–229 request scope, supported in Grails, 355 REST, using Grails with, 366 RESTful services, creating, 366–368 ResultSetMetaData, obtaining table’s metadata with, 147 return keyword optional in Groovy, 20 returning from a closure with, 106 using in Groovy, 101 return type, in Groovy, 20 RichUI plug-in, star rating component in, 305 Role domain class, creating in grails-app/ domain folder, 329 rows method, for reading data from a database, 145 run-app command, 217 RunTimeExceptions, 21 S safe-navigation operator (?.), using in Groovy, 57 save method, passing flush argument as true to, 272 scaffold actions, overriding views and, 310 scaffolding in Grails, 291–320 relationships, 296 property, 292 seeing in action, 292 templates, changing, 313–314 types of, 320 scaffolding relationships, lack of Grails support for Hibernate and GORM, 320 scopes, supported in Grails, 355, adding for Grails, 252 scripts vs. classes, 71–74 script variables, accessing inside a closure, 104 ScrollableResults, criteria use of, 280 searching and filtering, GSP tags for, 226 security, 321–337 kinds of in Grails, 321 semicolons (;), optional in Groovy, 19–20 sentinel value, 63 service layer about it, 353–357 creating, 353 storing state in, 355 servletContext object, 228 session, defined, 270 NINDEX 393 session object, accessing inside a control- ler and GSP, 228–229 session scope, supported in Grails, 355 setParent(Object parent, Object node) method, 135 Show Forum page displaying list of topics, 297 editing, 294 generated, 294 showForums service, URL for list of fo- rums in application, 367 simple data types, 45 SimpleTemplateEngine, creating tem- plates in Groovy with, 183 singleFood.xml, example, 193 single quotes (‘), enclosing property name with, 199, 200 singleton scope, supported in Grails, 355 SiteMesh, web site address, 245 smoke testing. See also functional tests SOAP web services, 376 SortedSet, using to represent relation- ships, 266–267 splitEachLine(String separator, Closure), 110 spread operator (*), deleting all instances in one statement with, 272 Spring books about, 358 moving code to a service and configur- ing in, 359 referencing beans configured during runtime, 360 using XML to configure service in, 359 Spring declarative transaction manage- ment, in AuthenticationService, 355 Spring DSL, configuring service with, 359 Spring MVC web framework, web site ad- dress, 357 Spring Recipes, by Gary Mak, 358 Spring Security, web site address, 328 SQL injection attacks bad code that is prone to, 321 protecting applications against, 321–322 using named parameters to prevent, 322 src/templates/scaffolding/renderEditor. template, editing, 315 star rater component adding method definition to, 315 adding rating property to domain class, 315 creating _rate.gsp template, 316 defining rate action in TopicController, 316 displaying in the view, 314–318 downloading and installing, 315 in RichUI plug-in, 315 installing project templates for, 315 Topic screen showing, 316 static scaffolding using, 310–313 vs. dynamic scaffolding, 291 static scope property, adding to your service, 355 static typing, in Groovy, 33 sticky topic, trying to delete, 305–310 String API, web site address, 49 StringBuffers API web site address, 49 manipulating in place, 49 subscripting, 49 using, 48 StringBuilder API, web site address, 49 StringBuilders, 48–49 strings comparing, 48 counting all occurrences of a word in, 202–203 declaring in Groovy, 46 defining in Groovy, 50 encoding and decoding, 323–324 finding max and min, 48 finding size of, 47 kinds of and how to use in Groovy, 45 padding, 47 points to remember when working with, 49–50 replacing, 47 reversing, 48 searching, 47 tokenizing, 47 using operators on, 48 using subscript operator, 48 NINDEX394 strings and GStrings, in Groovy, 30–31 stub defined, 167 demanding methods on more than once, 171–172 StubFor, using to mock an object, 170 submit action modifying in ViewForumController, 243, 252 modifying to use command object, 239 triggering inside ViewForumController, 233 substring method, testing, 4 Sun’s Java Specification Request (JSR) 223: Scripting for the Java Platform, See JSR 223 supplementary.gsp layout file, 247–248 supplementary template, web site ad- dress, 247 Swing API documentation, web site ad- dress, 127 Swing models, using, 133–135 Swing tutorial, web site address, 125 Swing widgets adding an action to, 131–132 building with SwingBuilder, 125–128 populating with Swing models, 133–135 using layout and constraints properties on, 128–129 SwingBuilder, 111 building a simple GUI with, 125–126 creating a Swing view with, 125–126 factory methods for creating models, 133–134 factory methods for creating widgets, 127–128 factory methods for laying out compo- nents, 130–131 using DateModel with, 134–135 using layout managers with, 128–131 switch statement, 45 power of in Groovy, 61 using in Groovy vs. Java, 68 using closures inside of, 108 syntax elements, new and enhanced in Groovy, 22–28 system testing. See functional tests T table metadata, retrieving, 148 table per hierarchy inheritance, table per subclass inheritance, 281–282 tables creating new in company schema, 141–143 reading data from, 145 tag libraries, testing, 347 tags, writing custom, 249–250 Tapestry framework, web site address, 210 template creating skeleton implementation of interface with, 185 moving to external file, 184–185 template engines, in Groovy, 183 templates defined, 243 sharing across all views of application, 244 what they are and how to use, 243–244 test class, writing in Groovy, 156–160 test suites adding Groovy classes to, 161 organizing tests into and running from IDE, 161–163 running in Eclipse, 161 testing code with Groovy, 155–181 web applications, 339–352 test/report directory, test output written to, 340 test/reports/html/index.html, HTML test report generated at, 342 tests, running with Ant, 163–164 this keyword, meaning of inside a closure, 105 Timestamps, disabling, 285 Tomcat, web site address, 187 Topic class, 358 code for, 345 generating views for, 312 registering error with errors property of, 306–307 updating date property automatically, 284 NINDEX 395 TopicController creating and adding scaffold property to, 295 creating web test for delete action, 350–352 defining rate action in, 316 delete action, 324 generated by generate-controller com- mand, 310–312 integration test for, 344 modified code for, 343 overriding save and update actions in, 316 preventing from deleting sticky topics, 340–341 unit test for, 341–342 Topic primary key, defining, 288 topic.sticky.delete message, adding to resource bundle, 307 TopicTest, running, 351 toString method, 46 populating Topics field in Show Forum page with, 297 transactional static property, in Authenti- cationService, 355 transaction management, demonstrating importance of, 355–356 TransferCommand properties, binding all, 240 transients property, defining to exclude persisting, 262 tree-like structures, common constructs in applications, 111 tree of objects building with NodeBuilder, 120–122 building with ObjectGraphBuilder, 122–123 querying using GPaths, 123 runtime representation of, 120 type aliasing, in Groovy, 75–76 type-safe language, Groovy as, 33 U underscore (_) character, starting tem- plate names with, 243 unit of work, session as, 270 unit test method name, command for, 340 unit tests command for running, 340 in Grails, 339 of applications in Groovy, 339–343 running one test only, 340 specifying more than one test, 340 untyped variable, defining in Groovy, 83 updating data, in employees table, 144 uploading and downloading files, 242 upload.location property adding to grails-app/conf/spring/re- sources.groovy file, 360 reading from an external file, 361 upload service, injecting in ViewForum- Controller, 360 URLCodec, 324 URL mappings, changing to enable REST- ful services, 368 UrlMappings.groovy file, customizing 403 error page in, 325 url setting, 258 user class, 259 UserController, creating to handle au- thentication, 326–327 User domain class, properties for, 327 username setting, 258 User Registration page, creating user via, 330–331 users, rendering a different view for, 235–236 UsersController, creating, 332 uuid generator, generating string identi- fiers with, 287 V validation errors GSP tags for displaying, 304 when customizing generated views, 299–301 values returning from a closure, 101 returning set of all for map, 65 variables accessing within a closure’s scope, 104 GSP tags for defining, 226 passing from a controller to a GSP, 225 version column, in tables, 260 NINDEX396 version property accessing version column with, 282 used for optimistic locking, 283 ViewForumController accessing the model in an integration test, 346 example of simple, 345 full code for, 234–235 initializing service in, 360 modifying submit action in, 237, 243 testing in an integration test, 345–346 testing render and redirect, 345–346 that uses the model, 346 ViewForumController’s index page, com- posing a new topic in, 232 ViewForumController submit action, ac- cepting user submissions through HTTP POST, 368 viewForum view, modifying, 246 views customizing generated, 298–302 in web layer, 219 overridable in your controller, 310 overriding scaffold actions and, 305–310 rendering different for the user, 235–236 views and controllers, generating in one command, 312 viewTopic action, 232 Vukotic, Aleska, 358 W war command, 217 warn level, logging a message at, 363 web layer, 219–254 web service client, using from a controller, 375–376 web site address AnemicDomainModel.html, 357 Ant, 163 Ant online documentation, 123 Apache’s Bean Scripting Framework, 42 Canoo WebTest plug-in, 349 Cobertura, 175 counter.groovy, 189 Create Requestmap page, 330 Create Role page, 329 Create User page, 331 Dojo, 252 dom4j, 189 Eclipse IDE, 12 for list of available Grails plug-ins, 208 for where to put business logic, 357 free supplementary template, 247 full Groovy GDK API specification, 29 Gant Groovy module, 125 Gant, 216 GMaven module, 165 Google Web Toolkit, 252 Grails Maven plug-in, 364 Grails plug-ins list, 208 Groovy documentation, 12 Groovy documentation, 35 Groovy SQL API documentation, 145 Groovy, 8 HQL complete reference, 280 HSQLDB, 255 IntelliJ trial copy, 14 Java testing framework, 155 Jaxen information, 195 JBoss, 187 JDOM, 114, 189 Jetty, 187 JSON information, 135 log4j, 198, 363 Maven download, 165 Maven Surefire plug-in, 165 MySQL Community Server, 140 MySQL documentation, 140 MySQL GUI Tools, 140 MySQL Query Browser tool, 259 OpenID plug-in, 335–336 Pattern API docs, 51 Prototype used by Grails, 252, 252 Spring MVC web framework, 357 Spring Security, 328 Spring’s Errors interface, 303 String API, 49 StringBuffer API, 49 StringBuilder API, 49 Sun’s Swing tutorial, 125 Swing’s API documentation, 127 Tapestry framework, 210 Tomcat, 187 User Registration page, 330 NINDEX 397 Xalan information, 195 XPath information, 195 Yahoo User Interface Library (YUI), 252 WebTestRecorder, Firefox extension web site address, 352 web.xml file, creating, 187 while loop, 45 widgets. See also Swing widgets creating with SwingBuilder, 126–127 getting list of properties passable to, 127 sharing actions among, 132–133 words, counting all occurrences of in a string, 202–203 X Xalan, web site address, 195 XML reading and processing with XmlParser, 189–193 reading and processing with XmlSlurper, 193–195 XML document building with MarkupBuilder, 114–118 creating using DOM in Java, 112–114 creating with MarkupBuilder, 114 sample of, 112 web site address for sample, 114 XML mapping, for your domain class, 320 XmlParser reading and processing XML with, 189–193 reading XML RSS feed with, 196 XML RSS feed, reading, 196 XmlSlurper parse methods, return objects, 193 reading and processing XML with, 193–195 XmlTemplateEngine, creating templates in Groovy with, 183 XPath, example using, 195–196 XSS (cross-site scripting), protecting application from, 322–323 Y Yahoo account, enabling OpenID in, 336 Yahoo User Interface Library (YUI), web site address, 252



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