JSON深入浅出


JSONJSONJSONJSON 是什么? JSON 的全称是 JavaScript Object Notation,是一种轻量级的数据交换格式。JSO N与XML 具有相同的特性,例如易于人编写和阅读,易于机器生成和解析。但是 JSON 比 XML 数据传输的有效性要高出很多。JSON 完全独立与编程语言,使用文本格式保存。 JSON 数据有两种结构: • Name-Value 对构成的集合,类似于 Java 中的 Map。 • Value的有序列表,类似于 Java 中的 Array。 一个 JSON 格式的数据示例: { "Name": "Apple", "Expiry": "2007/10/11 13:54", "Price": 3.99, "Sizes": [ "Small", "Medium", "Large" ] } 更多关于 JSON 数据格式的说明参看 JSON 官方网站:http://www.json.org(中文 内容参看:http://www.json.org/json-zh.html) GWT GWT GWT GWT 与JSONJSONJSONJSON GWT中支持的客户端服务器端方法调用和数据传递的标准格式是 RPC。 JSON 并不 是GWT支持的标准的数据传递格式。那么如何使用 JSON 来作为 GWT的数据传递格式 呢?需要以下几步。 第一,引用 HTTP和JSON 支持。 第二,在客户端创建 JSON 数据,提交到服务器 第三,在服务器上重写数据格式解析的代码,使之支持 JSON 格式的数据 第四,在服务器上组织 JSON 格式的数据,返回给客户端。 第五,客户端解析服务器传回的 JSON 数据,正确的显示 引用HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP 和JSONJSONJSONJSON支持 找到.gwt.xml 文件,在其中的 在之后添加如下的内容: 其中 com.google.gwt.json.JSON 指的是要使用 JSON,com.google.gwt.http.H TTP值得是通过 HTTP调用服务器上的服务方法。 客户端构造 JSONJSONJSONJSON数据 客户端需要使用 com.google.gwt.json.client 包内的类来组装 JSON 格式的数据, 数据格式如下: 组合一个简单的 JSON 数据: 数据类型 说明 JSONArray JSONValue 构成的数组类型 JSONBoolean JSON boolean值 JSONException 访问 JSON 结构的数据出错的情况下可以抛出此异 常 JSONNull JSON Null根式的数据 JSONNumber JSON Number类型的数据 JSONObject JSON Object 类型的数据 JSONParser 将String格式的 JSON 数据解析为 JSONValue 类 型的数据 JSONString JSON String 类型的数据 JSONValue 所有 JSON 类型值的超级类型 JSONObject input = new JSONObject(); JSONString value = new JSONString("mazhao"); input.put("name", value); JSON 数据格式为:{name: "mazhao"} 组合一个包含数组类型的复杂 JSON 数据: JSONObject input = new JSONObject(); JSONString value = new JSONString("mazhao"); input.put("name", value); JSONArray arrayValue = new JSONArray(); arrayValue.set(0, new JSONString("array item 0")); arrayValue.set(1, new JSONString("array item 1")); arrayValue.set(2, new JSONString("array item 2")); input.put("array", arrayValue); JSON 数据格式为: {name: "mazhao", array: {"array item 0", "array item 1", "array item 2"}} 注意上述的 JSON 类型的数据,使用的都是 com.google.gwt.json.client 包内的类 型。这些类型最终会被编译为 JavaScript 执行。 服务端重写数据解析代码,支持JSONJSONJSONJSON格式的数据 在服务器上,需要使用 JSON Java 支持类才能将 JSON 格式的数据转换为各种类型 的数据,当然也可以自己写一些解析用的代码。这里我们使用了 www.json.org 上的代码 来完成。这组代码与 com.google.gwt.json.client 的代码很相似,只是在 org.json 包内 部。 怎么解析 JSON 术诀呢?针对上述中的复杂的 JSON 数据: {name: "mazhao", array: {"array item 0", "array item 1", "array item 2"}} 可以使用如下的方式解析: JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject(payload); String name = jsonObject.getString("name"); System.out.println("name is:" + name); JSONArray jsonArray = jsonObject.getJSONArray("array"); for(int i = 0; i < jsonArray.length(); i++) { System.out.println("item " + i + ":" + jsonArray.getString(i)); } 其中 payload 指的是上述的 JSON 格式的数据。 那么如何写 GWT 的Service 来得到 Payload 的数据呢?需要两点,第一,需要建立 一个 Service 类,第二,覆盖父类的 processCall 方法。 示例代码: package com.jpleasure.gwt.json.server; import com.google.gwt.user.client.rpc.SerializationException; import com.google.gwt.user.server.rpc.RemoteServiceServlet; import com.jpleasure.gwt.json.client.HelloWorldService; import org.json.JSONArray; import org.json.JSONException; import org.json.JSONObject; /** * Created by IntelliJ IDEA. * User: vaio * Date: 2007-9-4 * Time: 22:08:31 * To change this template use File | Settings | File Templates. */ public class HelloWorldServiceImpl extends RemoteServiceServlet implements HelloWorldService { public String processCall(String payload) throws SerializationException { try { JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject(payload); String name = jsonObject.getString("name"); System.out.println("name is:" + name); JSONArray jsonArray = jsonObject.getJSONArray("array"); for(int i = 0; i < jsonArray.length(); i++) { System.out.println("item " + i + ":" + jsonArray.getString(i)); } } catch (JSONException e) { e.printStackTrace(); //To change body of catch statement use File | Settings | File Templates. } return "success"; } } 在服务器上组织 JSONJSONJSONJSON格式的数据,返回给客户端 同上 客户端解析服务器传回的JSONJSONJSONJSON数据,正确的显示 同上 Struts2Struts2Struts2Struts2返回json json json json 需要jsonplugin-0[1].25jsonplugin-0[1].25jsonplugin-0[1].25jsonplugin-0[1].25的 包 然后我们的配置文件中需要继承 json-default Java 代码 1. 2. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 然后我们的 Action 中需要返回的 json信息需要加上注解 Java 代码 1. //pizza 2. package com.action.testJson; 3. 4. import java.util.ArrayList; 5. import java.util.List; 6. 7. import com.googlecode.jsonplugin.annotations.JSON; 8. import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport; 9. 10.public class JsonAction extends ActionSupport { 11. 12. private static final long serialVersionUID = - 4082165361641669835L; 13. 14. Users user=new Users(); 15. List userList=new ArrayList(); 16. 17. 18. public String testUser(){ 19. System.out.println("in the json Acton"); 20. userInit(); 21. userList.add(user); 22. return SUCCESS; 23. } 24. 25. public void userInit(){ 26. user.setAge(1); 27. user.setName("张泽峰"); 28. user.setPassword("nofengPassword"); 29. } 30. 31. @JSON(name="userString") 32. public Users getUser() { 33. return user; 34. } 35. 36. @JSON(name="userList") 37. public List getUserList() { 38. return userList; 39. } 40. 41. public void setUser(Users user) { 42. this.user = user; 43. } 44. 45. public void setUserList(List userList) { 46. this.userList = userList; 47. } 48. 49. 50.} JSONJSONJSONJSON PluginPluginPluginPlugin 的说明 Edit Page Browse Space Add Page Add News Added by Musachy Barroso, last edited by ghostroller on Jul 04, 2008 (view change)SHOWCOMMENT NameNameNameName JSON Plugin PublisherPublisherPublisherPublisher Musachy Barroso LicenseLicenseLicenseLicense Open Source (ASL2) VersionVersionVersionVersion 0.30 CompatibilityCompatibilityCompatibilityCompatibility Struts 2.0.6 or later HomepageHomepageHomepageHomepage http://code.google.com/p/jsonplugin/ DownloadDownloadDownloadDownload http://code.google.com/p/jsonplugin/downloads/list OverviewOverviewOverviewOverview The JSON plugin provides a "json" result type that serializes actions into JSON. The serialization process is recursive, meaning that the whole object graph, starting on the action class (base class not included) will be serialized (root object can be customized using the "root" attribute). If the interceptor is used, the action will be populated from the JSON content in the request, these are the rules of the interceptor: 1. The "content-type" must be "application/json" 2. The JSON content must be well formed, see json.org for grammar. 3. Action must have a public "setter" method for fields that must be populated. 4. Supported types for population are: Primitives (int,long...String), Date, List, Map, Primitive Arrays, Other class (more on this later), and Array of Other class. 5. Any object in JSON, that is to be populated inside a list, or a map, will be of type Map (mapping from properties to values), any whole number will be of type Long, any decimal number will be of type Double, and any array of type List. Given this JSON string: { "doubleValue": 10.10, "nestedBean":{ "name":"Mr Bean" }, "list":["A", 10, 20.20, { "firstName":"El Zorro" }], "array":[10, 20] } The action must have a "setDoubleValue" method, taking either a "float" or a "double" argument (the interceptor will convert the value to the right one). There must be a "setNestedBean" whose argument type can be any class, that has a "setName" method taking as argument an "String". There must be a "setList" method that takes a "List" as argument, that list will contain: "A"(String), 10 (Long), 20.20 (Double), Map ("firstName" -> "El Zorro"). The "setArray" method can take as parameter either a "List", or any numeric array. Rating? •••• 1111 •••• 2222 •••• 3333 •••• 4444 •••• 5555 InstallationInstallationInstallationInstallation This plugin can be installed by copying the plugin jar into your application's /WEB-INF/lib directory. No other files need to be copied or created. To use maven, add this to your pom: ... com.googlecode jsonplugin 0.26 ... Maven Plugin Repository http://struts2plugin-maven- repo.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ false true Customizing Customizing Customizing Customizing SerializationSerializationSerializationSerialization andandandand DeserializationDeserializationDeserializationDeserialization Use the JSON annotation to customize the serialization/deserialization process. Available JSON annotation fields: NameNameNameName DescriptionDescriptionDescriptionDescription DefaultDefaultDefaultDefault ValueValueValueValue Serialization Serialization Serialization Serialization Deserialization Deserialization Deserialization Deserialization name Customize field name empty yes no serialize Include in serialization true yes no deserialize Include in deserialization true no yes ExcludingExcludingExcludingExcluding propertiespropertiespropertiesproperties A comma-delimited list of regular expressions can be passed to the JSON Result and Interceptor, properties matching any of these regular expressions will be ignored on the serialization process: login.password, studentList.*\.sin true login.password, studentList.*\.sin IncludingIncludingIncludingIncluding propertiespropertiespropertiesproperties A comma-delimited list of regular expressions can be passed to the JSON Result to restrict which properties will be serialized. ONLY properties matching any of these regular expressions will be included in the serialized output. ^entries\[\d+\]\.clientNumber, format Format used to format/parse a Date field "yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss" yes yes NoteNoteNoteNote Exclude property expressions take precedence over include property expressions. That is, if you use include and exclude property expressions on the same result, include property expressions will not be applied if an exclude exclude property expression matches a property first. ^entries\[\d+\]\.scheduleNumber, ^entries\[\d+\]\.createUserId RootRootRootRoot ObjectObjectObjectObject Use the "root" attribute(OGNL expression) to specify the root object to be serialized. person.job The "root" attribute(OGNL expression) can also be used on the interceptor to specify the object that must be populated, makemakemakemake suresuresuresure thisthisthisthis objectobjectobjectobject isisisis notnotnotnot nullnullnullnull. bean1.bean2 WrapWrapWrapWrap withwithwithwith CommentsCommentsCommentsComments If the "wrapWithComments" (false by default) attribute is set to true, the generated JSON is wrapped with comments like: /*{ "doubleVal": 10.10, "nestedBean":{ "name":"Mr Bean" }, "list":["A", 10, 20.20, { "firstName":"El Zorro" }], "array":[10, 20] }*/ wrapWithComments can turn safe JSON text into dangerous text. For example, ["*/ alert('XSS'); /*"] Thanks to Douglas Crockford for the tip! This can be used to avoid potential Javascript Hijacks . To strip those comments use: var responseObject = eval("("+data.substring(data.indexOf("\/\*")+2, data.lastIndexOf("\*\/"))+")"); BaseBaseBaseBase ClassesClassesClassesClasses By default properties defined on base classes of the "root" object won't be serialized, to serialize properties in all base classes (up to Object) set "ignoreHierarchy" to false in the JSON result: false EnumerationsEnumerationsEnumerationsEnumerations By default, an Enum is serialized as a name=value pair where value = name(). public enum AnEnum { ValueA, ValueB } JSON: "myEnum":"ValueA" Use the "enumAsBean" result parameter to serialize Enum's as a bean with a special property _name with value name(). All properties of the enum are also serialized. public enum AnEnum { ValueA("A"), ValueB("B"); private String val; public AnEnum(val) { this.val = val; } public getVal() { return val; } } JSON: myEnum: {"_name":"ValueA","val":"A" } Enable this parameter through struts.xml: true Compressing Compressing Compressing Compressing thethethethe output.output.output.output. Set the enableGZIP attribute to true to gzip the generated json response. The request mustmustmustmust include "gzip" in the "Accept-Encoding" header for this to work. true ExampleExampleExampleExample SetupSetupSetupSetup ActionActionActionAction This simple action has some fields: Example: import java.util.HashMap; import java.util.Map; import com.opensymphony.xwork2.Action; public class JSONExample { private String field1 = "str"; private int[] ints = {10, 20}; private Map map = new HashMap(); private String customName = "custom"; //'transient' fields are not serialized private transient String field2; //fields without getter method are not serialized private String field3; public String execute() { map.put("John","Galt"); return Action.SUCCESS; } public String getField1() { return field1; } public void setField1(String field1) { this.field1 = field1; } public int[] getInts() { return ints; } public void setInts(int[] ints) { this.ints = ints; } public Map getMap() { return map; } public void setMap(Map map) { this.map = map; } @JSON(name="newName") public String getCustomName() { return this.customName; } } WriteWriteWriteWrite thethethethe mappingmappingmappingmapping forforforfor thethethethe actionactionactionaction 1. Add the map inside a package that extends "json-default" 2. Add a result of type "json" Example: JSONJSONJSONJSON exampleexampleexampleexample outputoutputoutputoutput { "field1" :"str", "ints":[10, 20], "map":{ "John":"Galt" }, "newName":"custom" } JSONJSONJSONJSONRPCRPCRPCRPC The json plugin can be used to execute action methods from javascript and return the output. This feature was developed with Dojo in mind, so it uses Simple Method Definition to advertise the remote service. Let's work it out with an example(useless as most examples). First write the action: package smd; import com.googlecode.jsonplugin.annotations.SMDMethod; import com.opensymphony.xwork2.Action; public class SMDAction { public String smd() { return Action.SUCCESS; } @SMDMethod public Bean doSomething(Bean bean, int quantity) { bean.setPrice(quantity * 10); return bean; } } Methods that will be called remotely mustmustmustmust be annotated with the SMDMethod annotation, for security reasons. The method will take a bean object, modify its price and return it. The action can be annotated with the SMD annotation to customize the generated SMD(more on that soon), and parameters can be annotated with SMDMethodParameter. As you can see, we have a "dummy", smd method. This method will be used to generate the Simple Method Definition (a definition of all the services provided by this class), using the "json" result. The bean class: package smd; public class Bean { private String type; private int price; public String getType() { return type; } public void setType(String type) { this.type = type; } public int getPrice() { return price; } public void setPrice(int price) { this.price = price; } } The mapping: true true Nothing special here, except that bothbothbothboth the interceptor and the result must be applied to the action, and "enableSMD" must be enabled for both. Now the javascript code: Dojo's JsonService will make a request to the action to load the SMD, which will return a JSON object with the definition of the available remote methods, using that information Dojo creates a "proxy" for those methods. Because of the asynchronous nature of the request, when the method is executed, a deferred object is returned, to which a callback function can be attached. The callback function will receive as a parameter the object returned from your action. That's it. ProxiedProxiedProxiedProxied objectsobjectsobjectsobjects (V0.20) As annotations are not inherited in Java, some user might experience problems while trying to serialize objects that are proxied. eg. when you have attached AOP interceptors to your action. In this situation, the plugin will not detect the annotations on methods in your action. To overcome this, set the "ignoreInterfaces" result parameter to false (true by default) to request that the plugin inspects all interfaces and superclasses of the action for annotations on the action's methods. NOTE: This parameter should only be set to false if your action could be a proxy as there is a performance cost caused by recursion through the interfaces. true false true false 在StrutsStrutsStrutsStruts 2222中使用 JSonJSonJSonJSon ajax ajax ajax ajax 支持 来源: 作者: 发布时间:2007-12-19 JSON插件提供了一种名为 json 的ResultType,一旦为某个 Action 指定了 一个类型为 json 的Result,则该 Result 无需映射到任何视图资源。因为 JSON 插件会负责将 Action 里的状态信息序列化成 JSON格式的数据,并将该数据返 回给客户端页面的 JavaScript。 简单地说,JSON插件允许我们在JavaScript 中异步调用Action,而且 Action 不再需要使用视图资源来显示该 Action 里的状态信息,而是由 JSON插件负责 将Action 里的状态信息返回给调用页面——通过这种方式,就能够完成 Ajax 交互。 Struts2 提供了一种可插拔方式来管理插件,安装Struts2 的JSON插件和安 装普通插件并没有太大的区别,相同只需要将 Struts2 插件的 JAR 文档复制到 Web 应用的 WEB-INF/lib 路径下即可。 安装 JSON插件按如下步骤进行: (1)登陆 http://code.google.com/p/jsonplugin/downloads/list 站点,下载 Struts2 的JSON插件的最新版本,当前最新版本是 0.7,我们能够下载该版本的 JSON 插件。 (2)将下载到的 jsonplugin-0.7.jar 文档复制到 Web 应用的 WEB-INF 路径 下,即可完成 JSON插件的安装。 实现 Actio 逻辑 假设 wo,en 输入页面中包含了三个表单域,这三个表单域对于三个请求参 数,因此应该使用 Action 来封装这三个请求参数。三个表单域的 name 分别为 field1、field2 和field3。 处理该请求的 Action 类代码如下: public class JSONExample { //封装请求参数的三个属性 private String field1; private transient String field2; private String field3; //封装处理结果的属性 private int[] ints = {10, 20}; private Map map = new HashMap(); private String customName = "custom"; //三个请求参数对应的 setter 和getter 方法 public String getField1() { return field1; } public void setField1(String field1) { this.field1 = field1; } //此处省略了 field1 和field2 两个字段的 setter 和getter 方法 ... //封装处理结果的属性的 setter 和getter 方法 public int[] getInts() { return ints; } public void setInts(int[] ints) { this.ints = ints; } public Map getMap() { return map; } public void setMap(Map map) { this.map = map; } //使用注释语法来改变该属性序列化后的属性名 @JSON(name="newName") public String getCustomName() { return this.customName; } public String execute() { map.put("name", "yeeku"); return Action.SUCCESS; } } 在上面代码中,使用了 JSON注释,注释时指定了 name 域,name 域指定 Action 属性被序列化成 JSON对象的属性名。除此之外,JSON注释还支持如下 几个域: serialize:配置是否序列化该属性 deserialize:配置是否反序列化该属性。 format:配置用于格式化输出、解析日期表单域的格式。例如"yyyy-MM- dd'T'HH:mm:ss"。 配置该 Action 和配置普通 Action 存在小小的区别,应该为该 Action 配置 类型为 json 的Result。而这个 Result 无需配置任何视图资源。 配置该 Action 的struts.xml 文档代码如下: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="GBK"?> <!DOCTYPE struts PUBLIC "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.0//EN" "http://struts.apache.org/dtds/struts-2.0.dtd"> <struts> <constant name="struts.i18n.encoding" value="UTF-8"/> <package name="example" extends="json-default"> <action name="JSONExample" class="lee.JSONExample"> <result type="json"/> </action> </package> </struts> 在上面配置文档中有两个值得注意的地方: 第一个地方是配置 struts.i18n.encoding 常量时,不再是使用 GBK 编码,而 是UTF-8 编码,这是因为 Ajax 的POST 请求都是以 UTF-8 的方式进行编码的。 第二个地方是配置包时,自己的包继承了 json-default 包,而不再继承默认 的default 包,这是因为只有在该包下才有 json 类型的 Result。
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