微软Windows7驱动程序开发


ptg ptg WINDOWS 7 DEVICE DRIVER Wow! eBook ptg WINDOWS 7 DEVICE DRIVER Ronald D. Reeves, Ph.D. Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco New York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • Madrid Capetown • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City Wow! eBook ptg Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. The author and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein. The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales (800) 382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com For sales outside the United States, please contact: International Sales international@pearsoned.com Visit us on the Web: informit.com/aw Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Reeves, Ron. Windows 7 device driver / Ronald D. Reeves. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-67021-2 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-321-67021-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Microsoft Windows device drivers (Computer programs) I. Title. QA76.76.D49R44 2011 005.7'1—dc22 2010039109 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permis- sion must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or trans- mission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to: Pearson Education, Inc. Rights and Contracts Department 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900 Boston, MA 02116 Fax: (617) 671-3447 ISBN-13: 978-0-321-67021-2 ISBN-10: 0-321-67021-3 Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at RR Donnelley in Crawfordsville, Indiana. First printing, November 2010 Wow! eBook ptg I would like to dedicate this book to my best friend, and partner in life, my wife, Paulette. Her untiring support and love over the years have been a great source of inspiration. Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg CONTENTS Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PART IDEVICE DRIVER ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW . . . . . . 5 Chapter 1 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1 Nature of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 What Is a Software Object? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Gaining an Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1.4 Software Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) Architecture . . . . . . .13 2.1 WDF Component Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 2.2 Design Goals for WDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 2.3 Device and Driver Support in WDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 2.4 WDF Driver Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2.5 WDF Object Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 2.5.1 Kernel Mode Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 2.5.2 User Mode Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 2.6 Plug and Play and Power Management Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.6.1 Plug and Play/Power Management State Machine . . . . . . . 21 2.7 Integrated I/O Queuing and Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.7.1 Concurrency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.7.2 I/O Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.7.3 I/O Request Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.7.4 Device I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.7.5 Plug and Play and Power Management Requests . . . . . . . . 26 vii Wow! eBook ptg 2.8 WMI Requests (Kernel Mode Drivers Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.9 Driver Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.9.1 Kernel Mode Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.9.2 User Mode Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.10 Windows Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.10.1 Reflector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.10.2 Driver Host Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.10.3 Driver Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.11 Tools for Development and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.11.1 PREfast for Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.11.2 Static Driver Verification (SDV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.11.3 Frameworks Verifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.11.4 Trace Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.11.5 Debugger Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.11.6 Serviceability and Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 PART II USER MODE DRIVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Chapter 3 Windows 7 User Mode Drivers Overview and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.1 Devices Supported in User Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.2 UMDF Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2.1 UMDF Object Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.2.2 UMDF Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.3 Driver Callback Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.4 UMDF Driver Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.4.1 Impersonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.4.2 Device Property Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.5 I/O Request Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.5.1 I/O Request Dispatching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.5.2 Create, Cleanup, and Close Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.5.3 Create, Read, Write, and Device I/O Control Requests . . 56 3.6 I/O Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.6.1 Dispatch Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.6.2 Queues and Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.7 I/O Request Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.7.1 Retrieving Buffers from I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.7.2 Sending I/O Requests to an I/O Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.7.3 Creating Buffers for I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 viii Contents Wow! eBook ptg 3.7.4 Canceled and Suspended Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.7.5 Completing I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.7.6 Adaptive Time-Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.8 Self-Managed I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.9 Synchronization Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.10 Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.11 Plug and Play and Power Management Notification . . . . . . . . . 70 3.12 Device Enumeration and Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.13 Device Power-Down and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.13.1 Surprise-Removal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.14 Build, Test, and Debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.14.1 Installation and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.14.2 Versioning and Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the User Mode Driver Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.1 Windows I/O Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.2 Brief COM Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4.3 UMDF Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.4 Required Driver Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4.5 UMDF Sample Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.5.1 Minimal UMDF Driver: The Skeleton Driver . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.5.2 Skeleton Driver Classes, Objects, and Interfaces . . . . . . . 89 4.6 Driver Dynamic-Link Library and Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.6.1 Driver Entry Point: DllMain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.6.2 Get Class Object: DllGetClassObject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.7 Functions for COM Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.7.1 IUnknown Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.7.2 IClassFactory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.7.3 Driver Callback Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.7.4 Device Callback Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 4.8 Using the Skeleton Driver as a Basis for Development . . . . . . . .106 4.8.1 Customize the Exports File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 4.8.2 Customize the Sources File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 4.8.3 Customize the INX File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 4.8.4 Customize the Comsup.cpp File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 4.8.5 Add Device-Specific Code to Driver.cpp . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 4.8.6 Add Device-Specific Code to Device.cpp . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Contents ix Wow! eBook ptg Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 5.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 5.1.1 COM Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 5.1.2 HRESULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 5.2 Using UMDF COM Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 5.2.1 Obtaining an Interface on a UMDF Object . . . . . . . . . . .117 5.2.2 Reference Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 5.3 Basic Infrastructure Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.3.1 DllMain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 5.3.2 DllGetClassObject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 5.3.3 Driver Object’s Class Factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 5.3.4 Implementing a UMDF Callback Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 5.3.5 Implementing QueryInterface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 PART III KERNEL MODE DRIVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Chapter 6 Windows 7 Kernel Mode Drivers Overview and Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 6.1 KMDF Supported Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 6.2 KMDF Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 6.3 KMDF Driver Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 6.4 Comparing KMDF and WDM Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 6.5 Device Objects and Driver Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 6.5.1 Filter Drivers and Filter Device Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 6.5.2 Function Drivers and Functional Device Objects . . . . . . . .136 6.5.3 Bus Drivers and Physical Device Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 6.5.4 Legacy Device Drivers and Control Device Objects . . . . . .138 6.6 KMDF Object Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 6.6.1 Methods, Properties, and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 6.6.2 Object Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 6.6.3 Object Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 6.6.4 Object Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 6.6.5 Object Creation and Deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 6.7 KMDF I/O Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 6.7.1 I/O Request Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 6.7.2 I/O Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 6.7.3 I/O Request Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 6.7.4 Retrieving Buffers from I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 x Contents Wow! eBook ptg 6.7.5 I/O Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 6.7.6 Creating Buffers for I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 6.7.7 Canceled and Suspended Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 6.7.8 Completing I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 6.7.9 Self-Managed I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 6.7.10 Accessing IRPs and WDM Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . .163 7.1 Plug and Play and Power Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . .163 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 7.2.1 Startup Sequence for a Function or Filter Device Object . . .165 7.2.2 Startup Sequence for a Physical Device Object . . . . . . . . .166 7.2.3 Device Power-Down and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 7.3 WMI Request Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 7.4 Synchronization Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 7.4.1 Synchronization Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 7.4.2 Execution Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 7.4.3 Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 7.4.4 Interaction of Synchronization Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .179 7.5 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 7.5.1 Safe Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 7.5.2 Parameter Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 7.5.3 Counted UNICODE Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 7.5.4 Safe Device Naming Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 8.1 WDK Build Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 8.2 Build Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 8.3 Building a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 8.4 Building Featured Toaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 8.4.1 Makefile and Makefile.inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 8.4.2 The Sources File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 8.4.3 The Build . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 8.5 Installing a KMDF Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 8.5.1 The WDF Co-Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 8.5.2 The INF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 8.5.3 INFs for KMDF Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 8.5.4 wdffeatured.inf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 Contents xi Wow! eBook ptg 8.6 Catalog Files and Digital Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 8.7 Installing Featured Toaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194 8.8 Testing a KMDF Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 8.8.1 PREfast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 8.8.2 Static Driver Verifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 8.8.3 KMDF Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 8.8.4 KMDF Verifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 8.8.5 Debugging a KMDF Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 8.8.6 Kernel Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 8.8.7 KMDF Driver Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 8.9 Debugging Macros and Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 8.10 WDF Debugger Extension Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 8.11 Using WPP Tracing with a KMDF Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 8.12 Using WinDbg with Featured Toaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 8.13 Versioning and Dynamic Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the Kernel Mode Driver Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 9.1 Differences Between KMDF and WDM Samples . . . . . . . . . . . 216 9.2 Macros Used in KMDF Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 9.3 KMDF Driver Structure and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 9.3.1 Object Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 9.3.2 Object Context Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 9.3.3 I/O Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 9.3.4 I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 9.4.1 Creating a WDF Driver Object: DriverEntry . . . . . . . . . . 225 9.4.2 Creating the Device Object, Device Interface, and I/O Queue: EvtDriverDeviceAdd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 9.4.3 Device Object and Device Context Area . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 9.4.4 Device Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 9.4.5 Default I/O Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 9.4.6 Handling I/O Request: EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, EvtIoDevice Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 9.5.1 File Create and Close Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 9.5.2 Additional Device Object Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 9.5.3 Setting Additional Device Object Attributes . . . . . . . . . . 240 xii Contents Wow! eBook ptg Chapter 10 Programming Plug and Play and Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 10.1 Registering Callbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 10.1.1 Sample Code to Register Plug and Play and Power Callbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 10.2 Managing Power Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 10.2.1 Code to Set Power Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 10.3 Callbacks for Power-Up and Power-Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 10.4 Callback for Wake Signal Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 11.1 WMI Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 11.2 Registering as a WMI Data Provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 11.3 Handling WMI Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 11.4 WMI Requirements for WDM Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 11.5 WMI Class Names and Base Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 11.6 Firing WMI Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 11.7 Troubleshooting Specific WMI Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 11.7.1 Driver’s WMI Classes Do Not Appear in the \root\wmi NameSpace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 11.7.2 Driver’s WMI Properties or Methods Cannot Be Accessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 11.7.3 Driver’s WMI Events Are Not Being Received . . . . . . . 267 11.7.4 Changes in Security Settings for WMI Requests Do Not Take Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 11.8 Techniques for Testing WMI Driver Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 11.8.1 WMI IRPs and the System Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 11.8.2 WMI WDM Provider Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 11.9 WMI Event Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 12.1 Support Device Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 12.1.1 Creating an Interrupt Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 12.1.2 Code to Create an Interrupt Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 12.1.3 Enabling and Disabling Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 12.1.4 Code to Enable Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 12.1.5 Code to Disable Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Contents xiii Wow! eBook ptg 12.1.6 Post-Interrupt Enable and Pre-Interrupt Disable Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 12.2 Handling Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 12.2.1 Code for EvtInterruptIsr Callback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 12.2.2 Deferred Processing for Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 12.3 Mapping Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 12.3.1 Code to Map Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 12.3.2 Code to Unmap Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues and Programming I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 13.1 Introduction to Programming I/O Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 13.2 Creating and Configuring the Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 13.2.1 Code to Create Queues for Write Requests . . . . . . . . . 294 13.2.2 Code to Create Queues for Read Requests . . . . . . . . . 296 13.2.3 Code to Create Queues for Device I/O Control Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 13.3 Handling Requests from a Parallel Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 13.3.1 Code to Handle I/O Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 13.3.2 Performing Buffered I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 13.4 Forwarding Requests to a Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 13.5 Retrieving Requests from a Manual Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 13.5.1 Code to Find a Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 13.6 Reading and Writing the Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 13.6.1 Code to Read and Write the Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 13.7 Watchdog Timer: Self-Managed I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 13.7.1 Self-Managed I/O Device Startup and Restart . . . . . . . 313 13.7.2 Self-Managed I/O During Device Power-Down and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 13.7.3 Implementing a Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 xiv Contents Wow! eBook ptg PREFACE This book provides the technical guidance and understanding needed to write device drivers for the new Windows 7 Operating System. It takes this very complex programming development, and shows how the Windows Driver Framework has greatly simplified this undertaking. It explains the hardware and software architecture you must understand as a driver devel- oper. However, it focuses this around the actual development steps one must take to develop one or the other of the two types of drivers. Thus, this book’s approach is a very pragmatic one in that it explains the various soft- ware APIs and computer and device hardware based upon our actual device handler development. There has been great progress in the art of creating and debugging device drivers. There is now a great deal of object-oriented design tech- niques associated with the driver frameworks that are available to the device driver developer. Much of the previous grunt work, thank goodness, is now being handled by the latest device development framework Windows Driver Foundation (WDF). We will be covering both the user mode and kernel mode of device driver development. WDF has excellent submodels contained within it, called the User Mode Driver Framework and the Kernel Mode Driver Framework. It is really great to see a Windows Driver Framework involved in the creation of Windows Device Drivers. I started working with Windows in 1990 and we primarily used the Win32 System APIs to communicate and control the Windows Operating System for our applications. We used the Device Driver Kit (DDK) to create the Windows drivers. Because I had my own company to create application software, I obviously was very con- cerned about the time it took to develop application software, and the robustness of the application. There were more than 2,000 Win32 APIs to be used for this task. Then in about 1992, Microsoft came out with the Microsoft Framework Classes (MFC). In these 600+ classes, most of the Win32 APIs were encapsulated. Of course, prior to this, around 1988, the C++ compiler came out, and Object Oriented Programming started to come xv Wow! eBook ptg into its own. By using the MFC Framework, we could produce more appli- cation software faster and with better quality. My return on investment (ROI) went up, and I made more money. This sure made a believer of me in the use of frameworks. I used MFC until the .NET Framework came out, and for the last nine years I have been using this great collection of classes. All along, Microsoft was working to bring this same kind of soft- ware development improvements to developing device drivers. We came from the DDK, to the Windows Driver Model, to the Windows Driver Foundation Framework. Therefore, this book shows how to create Windows 7 Device Drivers using the Windows Driver Foundation Framework. This should give us driver developers a little more sanity when meeting our deadlines. The book is broken into three major parts as follows: ■ Part I, “Device Driver Architecture Overview”—This part lays out the architecture involved in both software and hardware for device handler development. It also covers the driver development environment needed for driver development, for both types of driv- ers that are normally developed—that is, User Mode and Drivers. This section also covers the two Windows driver frameworks that are most commonly used for driver device development today, which are part of the Windows Driver Framework (WDF). These two Windows Driver Frameworks are the User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) and the Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF). ■ Part II, “User Mode Drivers”—This part outlines the approach, design, development, and debug of User Mode Drivers. This part takes the driver programmer from start to finish in developing User Mode Drivers. We primarily use the User Mode Driver Framework for all of this work. The code is done in C++ because it is the best way to develop these types of drivers. Discussions are based on a USB User Mode Driver that we will develop using the UMDF. We will use a USB hardware learning kit from Open Systems Resources, Inc. (OSR). This provides a hardware simulation to test our User Mode Drivers. This part is primarily stand-alone and could be read and used without reading any other parts of the book. However, you will probably want to read Part I to get a feel for what we are using. xvi Preface Wow! eBook ptg ■ Part III, “Kernel Mode Drivers”—This part outlines the approach, design, development, and debug of Kernel Mode Drivers. The intent again is to take the driver programmer from start to finish in developing Kernel Mode Drivers. For this section, we primarily use the Kernel Mode Driver Framework for all of this work. The code is done in C because this is the best way to develop these types of drivers. Discussions are based on a Kernel Mode Driver that we develop using the KMDF. We use a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) hardware learning kit from OSR. This provides a hardware simulation to test our Kernel Mode Drivers. The section is also primarily stand-alone and could be read and used without reading any other parts of the book. Again, you will probably want to read Part I to get a feel for what we are using. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am most grateful to my editor Bernard Goodwin at Pearson Education for giving me the opportunity to write this book. His support during the prepa- ration was great. I would also like to thank his assistant Michelle Housley for her timely fashion in getting me reference books and material. Also, I would like to thank John Herrin, Video Project Manager at Pearson Education, for support and help in creating the book video. Thanks to Michael Thurston, my development editor, for making the book sound very polished. Preface xvii Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ronald D. Reeves, Ph.D., is founder and president of Software Genesis, LLC, a software development and consulting company based in Brighton, Michigan. Dr. Reeves has some forty years of experience in designing and developing computer hardware and software applications. He holds degrees in engineering and computer science and is a nation- ally recognized author, consultant, and teacher. If you have questions, comments, or suggestions for improving this book, we would like to hear from you. You can contact the author by U.S. Mail or by email at the following addresses: Dr. Ronald D. Reeves PO Box 2425 Brighton, MI 48116 Email: software.genesis@att.net xix Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 1 INTRODUCTION Device drivers are where the rubber meets the road, and are very specialized pieces of software that allow your application programs to com- municate to the outside world. Any communications your Windows 7 makes to the outside world requires a Device Driver. These devices include such things as mouse, display, keyboard, CD-ROMS, data acquisi- tion, data network communication, and printers. However, Microsoft has written and supplied a great many drivers with the Windows 7 Operating System. These drivers support most of what we call the standard devices, and we will not be covering them in this book. This book is about how we create device drivers for the nonstandard devices—devices that are not typically found on standard PCs. Quite often, the market is too small for Microsoft to create a standard device driver for these types of devices—such things as data acquisition boards, laboratory equipment, special test equipment, and communications boards. This discussion will highlight the significant features of interest to the device driver developers. Figure I.1 shows a general block diagram of Windows 7. We develop more detailed block diagrams in the discussions in various parts of the book. In Figure I.1 the user applications don’t call the Windows 7 Operating System Services directly. They go thru the Win32 subsystem dynamic- linked libraries (DLL). The User Mode Device Drivers, discussed later, go through this same communication channel. The various Windows 7 services that run independently are handled by the Service Processes. They are typically started by the service control manager. The various Windows 7 System Support Processes are not considered Windows 7 services. They are therefore not started by the service control manager. The Windows 7 I/O Manager actually consists of several executive sub- systems that manage hardware devices, priority interfaces for both the system and the applications. We cover this in detail in Parts II and III of this book. Wow! eBook ptg The Device Driver block shown in the I/O Manager block is primarily what this book is all about—that is, designing, developing, and testing Windows 7 Device Drivers. The drivers of course translate user I/O func- tion calls into hardware device I/O requests. The Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) is a layer of code that isolates platform-specific hardware differences from the Windows 7 Operating System. This allows the Windows 7 Operating System to run on different hardware motherboards. When device driver code is ported to a new plat- form, in general, only a recompile is necessary. The device driver code relies on code (macros) within HAL to reference hardware buses and reg- isters. HAL usage in general is implemented such that inline performance is achieved. The Windows 7 performance goals often impact device driver writers. When system threads and users request service from a device, it’s very important that the driver code not block execution. In this case, where the driver request cannot be handled immediately, the request must be 2 Introduction User Applications Service Processes System Support Processes Environment Subsystems Win32 Subsystems User Mode Kernel Mode I/O Manager Device Drivers Executive Components Kernel Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) Hardware Platform Figure I.1 System Overview Windows 7 Wow! eBook ptg queued for subsequent handling. As we will show in later discussions, the I/O Manager routines available allow us to do this. Windows 7 gives us a rich architecture for applications to utilize. However, this richness has a price that device driver authors often have to pay. Microsoft, realizing this early on some 14 years ago, started develop- ing the driver development models and framework to aid the device driver author. The earliest model, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) had a steep learning curve, but was a good step forward. Microsoft has subse- quently developed the Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) that makes developing robust Windows 7 drivers easier to implement and learn. This book is about developing Windows 7 Device Driver using WDF. Introduction 3 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg PA R T I DEVICE DRIVER ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 7 CHAPTER 1 OBJECTS Before we go into the discussion on drivers, we need to first briefly review objects, which are mentioned extensively throughout the book. 1.1 Nature of an Object One of the fundamental ideas in software component engineering is the use of objects. But just what is an object? There doesn’t seem to be a universally accepted idea as to what an object is. The view that the computer scientist Grady Booch (1991) takes is that an object is defined primarily by three characteristics: its state, its behavior, and its identity. The fundamental unit of analysis, in most cognitive theories, is the information-processing component. A component is an elementary infor- mation process that operates on the internal representation of objects or symbols (Newell & Simon 1972; Sternberg 1977). If we look at the way these components work, they may translate a sensory input into a concep- tual representation, transform one conceptual representation into another, or translate a conceptual representation into a motor output. The Object Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques for software have been around now for approximately a quarter of a century. But the phenomenon is not new. Ancient philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, as well as modern philosophers like Immanuel Kant have been involved in explaining the meaning of existence in general and determining the essential characteristics of concepts and objects (Rand 1990). Very recently Minsky developed a theory of objects, whose behavior closely resembles processes that take place in the human mind (Minsky 1986). Novak and Gowin (Novak and Gowin 1984) showed how objects play an important role in education and cognitive science. Their approach is one in which concepts are discovered by finding patterns in objects designated by some name. But wait, we were talking about objects and now we are talking about concepts. That is because concepts reflect the way we divide the Wow! eBook ptg world into classes, and much of what we learn, communicate, and reason about involves relations among these classes. Concepts are mental repre- sentations of classes, and their salient function is to promote cognitive economy. A class then can be seen as a template for generating objects with similar structure and behavior. The Object Management Group (OMG) defines a class as follows: A class is an implementation that can be instantiated to create multiple objects with the same behavior. An object is an instance of a class. From the software point of view, by partitioning the software into classes, we decrease the amount of information we must perceive, learn, remember, communicate, and reason about. 1.2 What Is a Software Object? What is a software object? In 1976, Niklaus Wirth published his book Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. The relationship of these two aspects heightens our awareness of the major parts of a program. In 1986, J. Craig Cleaveland published his book Data Types. In 1979 Bjarne Stroustrup had started the work on C with classes. By 1985, the C++ Programming Language had evolved and in 1990 the book The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published by Bjarne Stroustrup. In this discussion, I will only talk about .NET Framework base classes and .NET Framework library classes with respect to objects, because that seems to be the main focus of where we are going today. When Bjarne Stroustrup published the above book on C++ or C with classes, we started associating the word class and object with the term abstract data type. But what is the difference between data types and abstract data types? A data type is a set of values. Some algorithm then oper- ates upon managing and changing the set of values. An abstract data type has not only a set of values, but also a set of operations that can be performed upon the set of values. The main idea behind the abstract data types is the separation of the use of the data type from its implementation. Figure 1.1 shows the four major parts of an abstract data type. Syntax and semantics define how an application program will use the abstract data type. Representation and algorithms show a possible implementation. 8 Chapter 1 Objects Wow! eBook ptg For an abstract data type, we have therefore defined a set of behaviors, and a range of values that the abstract data type can assume. Using the data type does not involve knowing the implementation details. Representation is specified to define how values will be represented in memory. We call these representations class member variables in VB.NET or C#. The algo- rithm or programs specify how the operations are implemented. We call these programs member functions in VB.NET or C#. The semantics spec- ify what results would be returned for any possible input value for each member function. The syntax specifies the VB.NET or C# operator sym- bols or function names, the number and types of all the operands, and the return values of the member functions. We are therefore creating our own data object (abstract data type) for the software to work with and use. This is opposed to only using the data types predefined by the compiler, such as integer, character, and so on. These abstract data types or objects, as defined in Grady Booch’s book Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, Third Edition (2007), are as follows: “an object represents an individual, identifiable item, unit, or entity, either real or abstract, with a well-defined role in the problem domain.” Another classic book relating to objects is Design Patterns (Gamma 1995). This books points out the elements of reusable object-oriented software. 1.2 What Is a Software Object? 9 Figure 1.1 Abstract Data Type Abstract Data Types Specification Implementation Syntax Semantics Representation Algorithms Wow! eBook ptg 1.3 Gaining an Understanding We have slowly come to the realization of just what properties our program should have to make it work in solving complex real world problems. Having a new language like VB.NET or C# and their associated capabili- ties to create classes and objects was not enough. We realized that just using the abstract data type or class was not enough. As part of this ongoing development, the methodology called object-oriented technology evolved into what is called the object model. The software engineering foundation whose elements are collectively called the object model encompass the principles of abstraction, modularity, encapsulation, hierarchy, typing, concurrency, and persistence. The object model defines the use of these elements in such a way that they form a synergistic association. As with any discipline, such as calculus in mathematics, we need a sym- bolism or notation in which to express the design of the objects. The creation of the C++ language, as an example, supplied one language notation needed to write our object-oriented programs. However, we still needed a notation for the design methodology to express our overall approach to the software development. In 1991, Grady Booch first published his book Object- Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications in which he defined a set of notations. These notations have become the defacto standard for Object Oriented Design. His second edition does an even better job of describing the overall Object Oriented Design notation and the object model. In this second edition, he expresses all examples in terms of the C++ language, which for a time became the predominate language for object-oriented soft- ware development. We even have a Windows GUI tool based upon this nota- tion to aid us in our thinking. This tool by Rational Corporation and Grady Booch was called ROSE. Quite a change from how calculus and its notation were initially used. We almost immediately have the same engine we wish to program on, aiding us in doing the programming. This tool has continued to evolve and is now called the Universal Modeling Language (UML). An object (or component) then is an entity based upon abstract data type theory, implemented as a class in a language such as VB.NET or C#, and the class incorporates the attributes of the object model. What we have been describing, however, is just the tip of the iceberg relative to objects. The description so far has described the static definitions and has not talked about objects talking with other objects. Let’s just look at one of the object model attributes: inheritance. Inheritance is our software equiva- lent of the integrated electronic circuit (IC) manufacturing technique of 10 Chapter 1 Objects Wow! eBook ptg large-scale integration (LSI) that allows such tremendous advances in electronic system creations. Software using inheritance is certainly very small scale at the present, but the direction is set. Inheritance allows the creating of a small-scale integration (SSI) black box in software. This SSI creates an encapsulated software cluster of objects directed toward the solution of some function needed for the application. We have thus abstracted away a large amount of the complexity and the programmer works only with the interfaces of the cluster. The programmer then sends messages between these clusters, just like the electronic logic designed has wires between ICs, over which signals are sent. 1.4 Software Components Although we allude to software components having an analogy to hardware chips, this is only true in a most general sense. Software components cre- ated with the rich vocabularies of the programming language, and based upon the constructs created by the programmer’s mind, have a far greater range of flexibility and power for problem solving than hardware chips. Of course, therein lays a great deal of the complexity nature of software programs. However, the software components ride on top of the hardware chips adding another complete level of abstraction. The deterministic logic involved in a complex LSI chip is very impressive. But the LSI chip is very limited in the possibility of forming any synergist relationship with a human mental object. The more we dwell upon the direction of the .NET Framework’s object model, in all its technologies, the more it seems to feel like we are externalizing the mind’s use of mental object behavior mechanics. Certainly, the object relationships formed with linking and embedding of software objects, via interfaces, doesn’t look much like the dendrite distribution of influences on clusters of neurons. But certainly now, one software object is starting to effect one or more other software objects to accomplish its goal. Let’s look at a control object or collection of control objects from an everyday practical standpoint that we are using in other engineering fields. One of our early loves is the automobile. We can hardly wait to learn how to drive one. Notice, we said drive one, any one. We have done such a great job on our encapsulation and interface exposure that we can learn to drive any kind and be able to drive any other kind. The automobile object we 1.4 Software Components 11 Wow! eBook ptg interact with has three primary interface controls: steering wheel, throttle, and brake. We realize that encapsulated within that automobile object is many internal functions. We can be assured that these control interfaces will not change from automobile object to automobile object. In other words, if we go from a General Motors car to a Ford car we can depend on the same functionality of these control interfaces. Another characteristic of a software object is persistence. Persistence of an object is learned very early by a child. Eventually, when we show a child a toy and then hide it behind our back, the child knows the toy still exists. The child has now conceptualized the toy object as part of its mental set of objects. As the programmer does a mental conceptualization of various software objects, this will lead to a high level of persistence of the objects in the programmer’s mind. Because one of the main features of standard software objects is reusability, the efficiency of the programmer will continue to increase as the standard objects are conceptualized in the programmer’s mental model. Polymorphic behavior is another characteristic that can be imple- mented in a software object. Probably one of the earlier forms that a child realizes has different behavior, based upon form, is the chair object. The chair object is polymorphic in that its behavior depends on its form. We have rocking chairs, kitchen chairs, lounge chairs, and so on. This idea of form and related behavior has created a whole field of study called morphology. Certainly, this is a key idea in how we relate cognitively to various objects. Not only does the clustering of our objects have form rela- tionships, the internal constructs of the objects have a form relationship. There is a definite relationship between the logic flow of a program and the placement of the various meaningful chunks of a program. This is somewhat different than a pure polymorphic nature of a function, but does point out that we should be aware of the morphology of our objects and their parts and placement in our program. 12 Chapter 1 Objects Wow! eBook ptg 13 CHAPTER 2 WINDOWS DRIVER FOUNDATION (WDF) ARCHITECTURE The next generation driver model for the Windows family of operating systems is the Windows Driver Foundation (WDF). This new model can reduce driver development time, contribute to greater system stability, and improve driver serviceability. In this chapter, we cover the overall WDF Driver Model and its various functionality. In the subsequent chapters on User Mode Drivers and Kernel Mode Drivers, we will drill down into the programming details of developing one or the other type driver. This chap- ter then should give a good overall feel for the general WDF driver model architecture. Note: In general, when we have a programming construct or variable, we present that information in a bold format. This of course cov- ers the various WDF APIs available to us for developing the driver. 2.1 WDF Component Functions WDF includes a suite of components that support the development, deployment, and maintenance of both Kernel Mode and User Mode Drivers. WDF components work with existing driver development tools to address the entire driver cycle of the following: ■ Plan & Design: Driver Model—The WDF driver model supports the creation of object-oriented, event-driven drivers. By using WDF, driver writers can focus on their device hardware, rather than on the operating system. WDF drivers can be written for either ker- nel mode or user mode. ■ Develop: Frameworks and Windows Driver Kit (WDK)—WDF defines a single driver model and includes frameworks for both Kernel Mode and User Mode Driver development. The frameworks Wow! eBook ptg 14 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture provide the basic infrastructure to support the WDF model. They implement common features, provide intelligent defaults, and man- age most interactions with the operating system. The Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) implements basic Kernel Mode Driver support features that are required by Windows and are common to all Kernel Mode Drivers. The User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) provides func- tional support similar to that in the KMDF, but enables drivers for some types of devices to run in user mode instead of in kernel mode. ■ Test: Tracing and Static Analysis Tools—Both the KMDF and the UMDF have built-in verification code and support integrated trac- ing through Event Tracing for Windows (ETW). The generated traces can help in debugging drivers during development and in diagnosing problems in released drivers. WDF drivers also work with the existing driver verifier. In addition, compile-time driver verification tools, such as PREfast and Static Driver Verifier (SDV), are also part of the WDF effort. ■ Qualify: Driver Signing—WDF drivers are signed in the same way as Windows Driver Model (WDM) drivers. ■ Deploy: Driver Installation Tools—WDF drivers are installed by using INF files and work with existing driver installation tools, including the Driver Install Frameworks (DIFx) tools. ■ Maintain: Versioning—WDF supports versioning so that a single driver binary can run on any version of the operating system and use the same version of the framework on which it was built and tested. 2.2 Design Goals for WDF Writing a Windows driver is not easy. The current Kernel Mode Driver development model Windows Driver Model (WDM) is complex and has serious limitations. WDM requires that drivers be designed to manage interactions with the operating system, not just the device hardware. A simple WDM driver has thousands of lines of code, much of which implements common features that every driver must support. WDM drivers must use device-driver interfaces (DDIs) that are exported directly from the operating system kernel. These interfaces were designed for performance, not for ease of use. In many cases, the DDIs expose essential operating system data structures directly to the Wow! eBook ptg driver, thus increasing the chance that a driver error might crash or corrupt the system. For some device types, port/miniport models implement much of the WDM code. However, Windows supports more than 10 such models and each is different. So the knowledge gained from writing a miniport driver for one type of device does not necessarily apply to writing a miniport driver for a different type of device. Unlike Kernel Mode Drivers, User Mode Drivers have no common infrastructure that is comparable to WDM. The following are the primary design principles underlying the WDF model: ■ Separate the driver model from the core operating system compo- nents. ■ Provide a user mode option for some device types. ■ Implement common and default driver features so that driver devel- opers can focus on their hardware. ■ Make drivers event driven and define the events at a detailed level so that driver tasks are straightforward. ■ Support Plug and Play and power management implementation for all drivers. ■ Support a consistent installation process for both User Mode and Kernel Mode Drivers. ■ Provide integrated tools, including built-in tracing and verification support, to help find and diagnose problems both during debugging and after release. ■ Enable a single driver binary to work with several versions of the framework and the operating system. 2.3 Device and Driver Support in WDF Table 2.1 lists the WDF support for various device classes and driver mod- els in Windows 7. From this table, we can get a feel for the wide range of device types that Windows 7 supports. As we have mentioned earlier, this book is primarily about creating custom device drivers. That is, ones not normally supplied by Microsoft. Notice also the distribution of device types across the two driver modes—that is, Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) and User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF). 2.3 Device and Driver Support in WDF 15 Wow! eBook ptg Table 2.1 WDF Device Support for Windows 7 16 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Device Class/Driver Model KMDF UMDF SDV PREfast Antivirus filters No No Yes Yes CD-ROM device Yes No Yes Yes Cell phones No Yes No Yes Digital cameras No Yes No Yes Display adapters No No No Yes DSL/Cable modems Yes No No Yes Ethernet devices No No No Yes Keyboards and mouse devices Yes No Yes Yes Modems Yes No Yes Yes Other device (not listed here) No Yes No Yes that connect to a Protocol bus such as USB or IEEE 1394 PDAs No Yes No Yes Portable media players No Yes No Yes Printers No No No Yes Scanners No No No Yes SCSI/StorePort No No No Yes Video capture devices No No No Yes 2.4 WDF Driver Model The WDF driver model defines an object-oriented, event-driven environ- ment in which driver code manages device-specific features and a Microsoft-supplied framework calls the driver to respond to events that affect operation of its device. The driver model includes the following: ■ An object model that is implemented by both KMDF and UMDF. ■ A Plug and Play and power management implementation that both frameworks use. ■ An I/O model in which the frameworks handle interactions with the operating system and manage the flow of I/O, Plug and Play, and power management requests. Wow! eBook ptg ■ A versioning strategy that applies to both Kernel Mode and User Mode Drivers. ■ Consistent installation techniques for both Kernel Mode and User Mode Drivers. This design has several important advantages: ■ The frameworks implement common driver features and default behavior, thus making vendor-written drivers smaller and faster to develop and debug. ■ Microsoft can change the operating system’s internal data structure without introducing driver incompatibilities. ■ Driver developers and hardware vendors are better isolated from incremental changes in each new version or update of the operating system. ■ Each framework can track the state of the driver, operating system, and device, thus eliminating much of the complex logic often required in a driver, particularly in respect to Plug and Play and power management. The WDF model provides a consistent but extensible driver development interface. Both frameworks conform to conventions for naming, parameter types and usage, object hierarchy, and default. Features that are required by or common to all device types are part of each overall framework, so driver writers can apply knowledge gained from writing a driver for one device type to writing a driver for another device type. 2.5 WDF Object Model In Chapter 1, Objects, we covered what are objects and classes. This is the point in our discussion of the WDF object model: that we start to talk about the use of objects by the WDF. Objects are a significant fun- damental element of our device driver program development. Of course, many other aspects of Windows 7 use objects as well. After look- ing over this section, you might want to go back and revisit Chapter 1 again. 2.5 WDF Object Model 17 Wow! eBook ptg 18 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture In the WDF object model: ■ Objects work as building blocks for the driver. A driver modifies these objects through well-defined interfaces. The objects them- selves have well-defined life cycles. ■ A set of events can affect each type of object. The framework defines default behavior for each event. To support device-specific behavior, the driver includes callback routines that override the defaults. The model defines a set of objects that represents common driver con- structs, such as devices, queues, I/O requests, and the driver itself. The objects have properties, methods, and events: ■ Properties describe characteristics of the object. Each property is associated with methods that get and (if relevant) set the value of the property. ■ Methods perform actions on the objects. ■ Events are conditions for which a driver might need to take action. WDF identifies possible events for each object and defines default actions for most of them. The driver includes code to handle only the events for which the default actions are inappropriate or inade- quate for its device. When the event occurs, WDF invokes the related callback. The WDF driver creates instances of the objects that it requires to service its device and customizes those instances to suit its requirements. For each instance, the driver provides callbacks for the events that require actions other than the WDF defaults. The callbacks call methods on the object to perform any additional actions. Objects are organized hierarchically. The WDF driver object is the root object; all other objects are subordinate to it. For most types, a driver can specify the parent when it creates the object. If the driver does not specify a parent at object creation, the framework sets the parent to the WDF driver object by default. Some object types, however, have prede- fined parents that cannot be changed at creation. For example, I/O queue objects are children of the device object. Each child object is deleted when its parent object is deleted. Although the object model applies to both the KMDF and UMDF, WDF objects themselves are implemented differently in the two frameworks. Wow! eBook ptg 2.5 WDF Object Model 19 2.5.1 Kernel Mode Objects KMDF objects are structures that are opaque to the driver. Drivers never directly access instances of KMDF objects. Instead, they reference object instances by handles. To read, write, or perform an action on an object, a driver calls a method on the object and passes the handle. The KMDF defines more than 20 types of objects. Table 2.2 lists some of the most commonly used. KMDF objects are unique to the framework. They are not managed by the Windows object manager and therefore cannot be manipulated by using the system’s ObXxx functions. Only the framework and WDF driv- ers can create and manipulate them. Similarly, KMDF events are not related to the kernel dispatcher events that Windows uses as synchronization mechanisms. A driver cannot create, manipulate, or wait on a WDF event. Instead, the driver registers a call- back for the event and WDF calls the driver when the event occurs. 2.5.2 User Mode Objects UMDF objects are based on the component object model (COM). The UMDF uses a small subset of COM for query-interface and reference counting features. In User Mode Drivers, both the driver and the framework Object Type Name Usage WDFDRIVER Represents the driver object WDFDEVICE Represents a device object WDFQUEUE Represents a queue of I/O request WDFINTERRUPT Represents an interrupt resource WDFREQUEST Describes an I/O request WDFMEMORY Describes a buffer for an I/O request WDFDMANENABLE Describes the characteristic of all DMA transfers for a device WDFDMATRANSACTION Manages operations for an individual DMA request WDFIOTARGET Represents the driver that is the target of an I/O request Table 2.2 Commonly Used KMDF Object Types Wow! eBook ptg 20 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture implement and expose COM-style interfaces. Handles are not required because the interfaces are abstract base classes and thus identify the object. The UMDF defines fewer objects than the KMDF because User Mode Drivers cannot directly access hardware and therefore do not per- form direct memory access (DMA) or handle interrupts. Table 2.3 lists the interfaces that expose the UMDF object types. 2.6 Plug and Play and Power Management Support Simplifying driver support for Plug and Play and power management and making it available in both kernel mode and user mode were primary design goals for WDF. Seamless handling of Plug and Play and power events is critically important to system reliability and a good user experi- ence, but is exceedingly complex to implement correctly. Much of this complexity occurs because drivers must determine the cor- rect way to handle each Plug and Play or power management request. Proper handling depends on the driver’s position, the device stack, the current state of its device, the current state of the operating system, and sometimes the nature of an impending state change for the device or system. Such support typically requires thousands of lines of code to handle tricky, state-dependent situations. Most drivers require code to handle requests that they don’t even support. Object Interface Name Usage IWDFObject Defines the base WDF object type IWDFDriver Represents the driver object IWDFDevice Represents a device object IWDFFile Represents a file object IWDFIoQueue Represents a queue of I/O requests IWDFIoRequest Describes an I/O request IWDFIoTarget Represents the driver that is the target of an I/O request IWDFMemory Provides access to an area of memory Table 2.3 Interfaces for UMDF Object Types Wow! eBook ptg 2.6 Plug and Play and Power Management Support 21 WDF concentrates the state-tracking and decision-making logic in the frameworks, instead of requiring it in each driver. WDF support for Plug and Play and power management is based on the following principles: ■ The driver should not be required to interpret or respond to every uninteresting request. Instead, the driver should be able to “opt in” and handle only the requests that are relevant to its device. ■ The frameworks should provide default behavior for a rich set of Plug and Play and power features, including device stop, device removal, device ejection, fast resume, low run-time power usage, and device wake-up by external events. ■ WDF actions at each point must be well-defined and predictable; in effect, a “contract” applies to each driver callback. ■ Plug and Play and power management should be thoroughly integrated with other parts of the frameworks, such as queue management. ■ The frameworks must support both simple and complex hardware and driver designs. ■ A driver should be able to override any framework-supplied defaults. 2.6.1 Plug and Play/Power Management State Machine Internally, WDF implements Plug and Play and power management as a state machine. Both the KMDF and UMDF use the same state machine. A driver includes callbacks so that it can perform device-specific actions at individual states in the machine. For example, a driver can provide a call- back that is called immediately after its device enters the working state. At each state transition, a predetermined set of events is valid for each type of object, and the framework invokes the driver’s callbacks for these events in a defined order. Thus, a driver can assume that both the system and its device are in a particular state whenever it is asked to perform a Plug and Play or power management action. The complicated logic that tracks system and device state is incorpo- rated into the framework, not into the driver. This approach vastly reduces the amount of required decision-making in the driver—especially during power transitions—and eliminates much redundant code. Instead, the framework defines a state-related event and the driver optionally supplies Wow! eBook ptg 22 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture a corresponding callback. As a result, a WDF driver includes code to handle only those events for which it requires device-specific support. All other events can be handled by WDF defaults. Furthermore, Plug and Play and power management support are inte- grated throughout the framework so that other aspects of the driver oper- ate properly when state transitions occur. For example, a driver can configure its I/O queues so that the framework stops dispatching requests while the device is in a low-power state. 2.7 Integrated I/O Queuing and Cancellation WDF integrates Plug and Play and power management support with the queuing of I/O requests and, in turn, integrates queuing with request cancellation. Both the KMDF and UMDF provide configurable I/O queues. The driver creates the queues and configures them for specific I/O request, power management characteristics, and dispatching requirements. The framework queues and dispatches requests according to the driver’s specifi- cations: sequentially (one at a time), in parallel (as soon as they arrive), or manually (at the driver’s explicit request). When Plug and Play or power management events affect queuing, WDF can start, stop, or resume queu- ing as appropriate, depending on how the driver configured the queue. Because Windows I/O is inherently asynchronous, handling the can- cellation of an I/O request is often complex. The driver must cope with several potential race conditions and one or more locks, and the required code is typically scattered among several driver routines. WDF relieves drivers of much of this burden by managing the locks for the I/O queues and by canceling queued requests without driver interven- tion. (A driver can, however, register for notification when a request is can- celed.) By default, requests that are in a queue can be canceled. Requests that have been removed from a queue and dispatched to a driver cannot be canceled unless the driver specifically marks them so. WDF drivers that use these defaults typically require little if any cancellation code. 2.7.1 Concurrency Managing concurrent operations is another challenge in writing a Windows driver. Because Windows is a pre-emptive, multitasking Wow! eBook ptg 2.7 Integrated I/O Queuing and Cancellation 23 operating system, multiple threads can concurrently try to access shared data structures or resources, and multiple driver routines can run concur- rently. To ensure data integrity, drivers must synchronize access to shared data structures. WDF simplifies synchronization by implementing several internal syn- chronization mechanisms and by holding any required locks. In addition, WDF synchronization scope is a configurable object-based mechanism for specifying the degree of concurrency. (Synchronization scope is called the locking constraint in the UMDF.) An object’s synchronization scope deter- mines whether WDF invokes multiple event callbacks on the object con- currently. Drivers that use the KMDF can specify synchronization scope for driver, device, and file objects. In the UMDF, synchronization scope applies only to device objects. WDF defines the following synchronization scopes: ■ Device scope—WDF does not call certain I/O event callbacks con- currently for an individual device object or any file objects or queue objects that are its children. ■ Queue scope—These I/O callbacks are not called concurrently on a per-queue basis. If a Kernel Mode Driver specifies queue scope for a device object, these callbacks can run concurrently for multiple queues. However, multiple callbacks for an individual queue object will not be called concurrently. The initial UMDF release does not support queue scope. ■ No scope—WDF does not acquire any locks and can call any event callback concurrently with any other event callback. By default, the KMDF uses no scope. A Kernel Mode Driver must “opt in” to synchronization for its objects by setting device scope or queue scope when it creates an object. The UMDF uses device scope by default. For Kernel Mode Drivers, the KMDF also enables driver writers to constrain the interrupt request level (IRQL) at which the callbacks can be invoked. 2.7.2 I/O Model In Windows, the I/O request packet (IRP) does more than just present traditional I/O requests (read, write, create, and so forth) to drivers. It works as a general packet-based communication mechanism between the Wow! eBook ptg 24 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture operating system and drivers, and between drivers themselves. The Windows I/O manager sends IRPs to notify drivers of Plug and Play requests, power management requests, changes in device status, and queries about device and driver resources (among other purposes) in addi- tion to passing I/O requests. Therefore, the WDF I/O model encompasses more than just data transfers to and from a device. For WDF drivers, the framework manages the mechanics of dispatch- ing, queuing, completing, and canceling IRPs on behalf of its drivers. The framework calls the driver’s event callback routines to notify it of signifi- cant events such as requests that the driver must handle. After receiving a request, the framework records information about the request, creates a WDF object to represent the request (if neces- sary), and calls one or more of the driver’s event callbacks to handle the request as appropriate. WDF queue objects help drivers to manage the arrival of I/O requests. A driver can create one or more such queues and configure each to receive specific types of requests. Depending on the dispatch mechanism that the driver has designed for each queue, the framework either delivers the request to the driver immediately or queues it for later delivery. The framework keeps track of every I/O request, whereas the driver “owns” the request—that is, until the request has been canceled, com- pleted, or passed to another target. Because the framework is aware of all the active requests, it can call the appropriate driver callbacks in case of IRP cancellation, power state changes, hardware removal, and so forth. 2.7.3 I/O Request Flow Both the KMDF and UMDF use the same I/O model, although it is imple- mented by different components. Within this model, I/O request flow is as shown in Figure 2.1. As Figure 2.1 shows, WDF dispatcher code directs I/O request packets within the framework. WDF dispatches I/O requests according to their major I/O function code. The major function code is a field within the IRP that identifies the type of request. Based on the major I/O function code, the dispatcher determines which package within the framework should initially handle the request. The following sections describe how WDF processes requests. Wow! eBook ptg 2.7.4 Device I/O Requests When an IRP that requests device I/O arrives, the dispatcher passes it to the I/O package. If the driver has not configured a queue or exposed a call- back for the requested type, the framework takes a default action that depends on the type of driver. For a User Mode Driver, or for a Kernel Mode Function Driver or Bus Driver, the framework fails the request. For a Kernel Mode Filter Driver, the framework forwards the request to the next lower driver in the stack. If the driver has configured a queue or exposed a callback for the request type, the framework creates a WDF request object, which contains the information in the original IRP structure along with additional information about the driver state. The framework then places the request object in the corresponding queue. 2.7 Integrated I/O Queuing and Cancellation 25 Figure 2.1 Block Diagram I/O Request Flow Dispatcher I/O Package Nonpower- Managed I/O Queues Power Managed I/O Queues Driver Callbacks I/O Target Plug and Play/ Power Package Driver Callbacks WMI Package Driver Callbacks IRPs WMI Requests (KMDF only) Plug and Play and Power Requests I/O Requests Wow! eBook ptg If the queue is configured for automatic power management, the framework then determines whether the device is in the correct power state. If not, the Plug and Play and power package puts the device in the working state. If the driver has registered callbacks for power events, the framework calls the Plug and Play; otherwise, it takes whatever default steps are required. After the device has entered the working state, the framework dispatches the I/O request according to the driver’s specifications by invoking the callbacks registered for the I/O request. A driver can also request manual dispatching, which means that it must call the framework to get a request. The framework passes the WDF request object when it invokes the callbacks. The driver’s callbacks might set or get properties for the request, call methods on the request object or other WDF objects, perform device I/O, and take other actions as necessary to handle the request. When the driver has finished processing the request, the driver can complete it or pass it on to an I/O target. An I/O target is an external des- tination for the I/O request. The next lower driver in the device stack is considered the local I/O target; any other driver is considered a remote I/O target. If a driver does not complete an I/O request, it typically sends the request to its local I/O target. Occasionally, however, a driver might require information from a different driver before it can complete a request. To obtain this information, the driver creates an object to represent the remote I/O target, creates a WDF request object, and then calls methods on the I/O target to send the request. 2.7.5 Plug and Play and Power Management Requests When a Plug and Play or power request arrives, the framework determines whether any Plug and Play or power management state changes are required to satisfy the request. If so, the framework takes the necessary actions to change the state and either calls the driver’s registered event callbacks or performs default actions if the driver has not registered any callbacks for those events. After the relevant callbacks have returned, the framework completes or forwards the request, as appropriate, on the driver’s behalf. 26 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg 2.8 WMI Requests (Kernel Mode Drivers Only) A Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) request triggers call- backs that the driver registered for any current WMI events. In its WMI callbacks, the driver might call WMI methods on the device object to cre- ate and manipulate WMI instances of to change its status as a WMI provider. After the WMI callbacks have returned, the framework com- pletes or forwards the request, as appropriate, on the driver’s behalf. Only the KMDF supports WMI. To understand how an I/O request flows through a WDF driver, con- sider the following scenario: ■ A user mode process requests a read from a device. ■ At the time of the request, the device is in a low-power state. ■ The driver has configured a power-managed queue to accept read requests. The request is processed by the WDF function driver as follows: 1. The IRP dispatcher inspects the IRP and directs it to the I/O pack- age. The I/O package creates a WDF request object to represent the IRP, adds the WDF request object to the queue, and checks the current device power state. Because the device is in a low- power state, the I/O package calls the Plug and Play/power man- agement package to put the device in the fully powered working state so that it can perform the read operation. 2. The Plug and Play/power management package returns the device to the working state by taking default actions and calling the appro- priate power management callbacks implemented by the driver. 3. When the device has successfully reentered the working state, the framework dispatches the read request to the driver. If the driver has configured manual dispatching, the driver calls a method on the queue to get a request. Otherwise, the framework dispatches the request either immediately or when the driver has completed the previous request, depending on the queue’s configuration. 4. If the driver can satisfy the request, it does; if it cannot, it sends the request to an I/O target. 2.8 WMI Requests (Kernel Mode Drivers Only) 27 Wow! eBook ptg 2.9 Driver Frameworks The WDF driver model is implemented through the KMDF, which sup- ports Kernel Mode Driver development, and the UMDF, which supports User Mode Driver development. The frameworks provide the basic driver infrastructure and perform the following services for WDF Drivers: ■ Define WDF objects that drivers can instantiate. ■ Manage object lifetimes. ■ Expose a basic set of DDIs that drivers call to manipulate the objects. ■ Provide a common implementation of features that drivers typically require, such as Plug and Play, power management, synchroniza- tion, I/O queues, and access to the registry. ■ Manage the flow of I/O requests and Plug and Play and power noti- fications from the operating system to the driver. Instead of calling the operating system directly, drivers interact with the appropriate framework for most services. The frameworks manage most of the interactions with the operating system on behalf of the driver. In effect, the frameworks shield driver developers from the details of the operating system. The frameworks implement the WDF I/O model, object model, and Plug and Play and power management support. Each framework receives I/O requests, calls the driver to handle events according to the driver’s con- figuration, and applies defaults otherwise. Both frameworks provide intel- ligent defaults for common operations so that drivers do not require large amounts of potentially buggy “boilerplate” code. The frameworks support common features required for all device classes. Device-class-specific extensions can also be added. For example, the initial release of the KMDF supports extensions specifically for USB devices. As new features are added to the operating system, and as new device classes are supported, features that are common to all device classes will be added to the base set of DDIs in the frameworks. Extensions will provide features that are required by one or more specific device classes, but not by every device class. The extensions are intended to replace the miniport models common with WDM. 28 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg 2.9 Driver Frameworks 29 2.9.1 Kernel Mode Framework For Kernel Mode Drivers, the KMDF does not replace WDM; instead, it provides a skeletal WDM implementation. In effect, the driver developer configures the skeletal driver to work with a particular device by creating objects and providing event-based callback routines. The KMDF is a reentrant library that can be shared by multiple drivers. Drivers are dynamically bound with the library at load time, and multiple versions of the library can be used by multiple drivers simultaneously. The KMDF currently supports creation of the following types of Kernel Mode Drivers: ■ Function drivers for Plug and Play devices. ■ Filter drivers for Plug and Play devices. ■ Bus drivers for Plug and Play device stacks. ■ Control device drivers for legacy (NT 4.0-style) devices that are not part of a Plug and Play stack. Currently, the KMDF does not support bus filter drivers. WDF provides certain methods and callbacks specifically for bus driv- ers, others specifically for function and filter drivers, and still others for control device drivers. The KMDF identifies a function driver, control device driver, or a bus driver based on the methods that the driver calls and the callbacks that the driver supports. For example, the bus driver for a device typically supports callbacks to enumerate the children of the device and to supply a list of the hardware resources that the device requires. A function driver for a device typically supports callbacks to manage power to its device. A filter driver explicitly identifies itself as such before creating a device object. The KMDF uses this information when passing I/O requests to the driver. A filter driver registers for only the I/O requests it chooses to filter; the KMDF passes all other requests to the next lower driver. (For a func- tion or bus driver, WDF fails other requests.) By contrast, a WDM filter driver must accept all I/O requests that could be targeted to its device, pass those it does not filter to a lower driver, and act on the remaining subset. A WDM filter driver requires logic to inspect and forward many types of requests; a WDF filter driver has no such code because it receives only the requests it is interested in. When an application sends an I/O request to a Kernel Mode WDF Driver, the request travels through the components shown in Figure 2.2. Wow! eBook ptg As the figure shows, the following components are involved in handling an I/O request to a Kernel Mode WDF Driver: ■ Application—The application is a user mode process that issues I/O requests through the Win32 API. ■ Win32 API—In response to the application’s I/O request, the Win32 API calls I/O routines in the Windows kernel. ■ Windows kernel—The I/O manager in the Windows kernel cre- ates an IRP to represent the request and presents it to the target driver by calling the driver at a designated entry point. For Kernel Mode WDF Drivers, the KMDF registers the entry points, in effect intercepting the request on behalf of the driver. ■ KMDF—The KMDF processes the request as previously described in the section “I/O Request Flow,” creating a WDF request object and calling the driver’s event callback routines as required. 30 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Figure 2.2 I/O Flow to Kernel Mode WDF Driver Application Win32 API Windows Kernel I/O Manager Kernel Mode Driver KMDF I/O Request User Mode Kernel Mode Wow! eBook ptg 2.9 Driver Frameworks 31 2.9.2 User Mode Framework The UMDF implements a subset of the KMDF functionality, including support for Plug and Play, power management, and asynchronous I/O. Drivers that run in user mode have access only to the user address space and therefore pose low risk to system stability. User Mode Drivers cannot handle interrupts, perform DMA, or use kernel mode resources such as nonpaged pool. Using the UMDF, developers can create drivers for any protocol or serial-bus based device. Although these drivers run in user mode, they use the standard Plug and Play installation mechanism and the same I/O model as Kernel Mode WDF Drivers. Figure 2.3 shows the components involved in transmitting an I/O request from an application to a User Mode WDF Driver. Figure 2.3 I/O Flow to User Mode WDF Driver Application Win32 API Windows Kernel I/O Manager Reflector I/O Request User Mode Kernel Mode Host Process User Mode Driver UMDF Run-Time Environment Driver Manager Wow! eBook ptg Figure 2.3 includes the following components, described according to the typical flow of an I/O request: ■ Application—The application is a user mode process that issues I/O requests through the Win32 API. ■ Win32 API—In response to the application’s I/O request, the Win32 API calls I/O routines in the Windows kernel. 2.10 Windows Kernel The I/O manager in the Windows kernel creates IRPs to represent the requests and presents them to the target driver by calling the driver at a designated entry point. If the target of the request is a User Mode WDF Driver, however, the I/O manager cannot call the driver or the UMDF directly because these components run a user mode process, and kernel mode components cannot be called back to user mode. Therefore, the I/O manager does not present the request directly to the User Mode Driver. Instead, the I/O manager presents the request to a kernel mode compo- nent called the reflector. 2.10.1 Reflector The reflector is a Kernel Mode WDM Filter Driver that represents the User Mode Driver in the Kernel Mode Driver stack. The reflector passes the I/O request to the User Mode Driver host process. The reflector manages communication between the kernel mode com- ponents and the User Mode Driver host process. It monitors the driver host process to ensure that it responds properly to messages and completes critical operations in a timely manner, thus helping to prevent driver and application hangs. The reflector also sends messages to the driver manager as required. The reflector is supplied by Microsoft and is added as the top driver in the Kernel Mode Driver stack during installation of the User Mode Driver. 2.10.2 Driver Host Process The driver host process is the user mode process in which the User Mode Driver runs. It includes the following components: ■ The User Mode WDF Driver is an in-process COM component that controls the hardware from user mode. 32 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg ■ The UMDF exposes the User Mode DDI. The UMDF is a dynamic-link library (DLL) of COM-style objects that support the presentation, flow, and management of I/O, Plug and Play, and power management requests to the driver. ■ The run-time environment dispatches I/O requests, loads the driver, constructs and destroys the user mode device stack, manages a user mode thread pool, and handles messages from the reflector and the driver manager. The driver host process is separate from the application process and the driver manager. It runs in the security credentials of a LocalService account, although it is not a Windows service. The driver host process contains the user mode device stack for the device. The device stack is visible to all applications across the system. Each instance of a device has its own device stack. Currently, each instance has a separate driver host process, too. The driver host process is a child process of the driver manager. 2.10.3 Driver Manager The driver manager creates and shuts down the driver host process and maintains status information about it. It also responds to messages from the reflector. The driver manager runs as a Windows service is started dur- ing installation of the first device that is managed by a User Mode WDF Driver. The driver manager must be running all the time that any device controlled by a User Mode WDF Driver is installed on the system. 2.11 Tools for Development and Testing The WDF has some outstanding tools to aid in the testing of drivers. We will cover those in the following discussion. Thoroughly testing a driver is nearly as complex as writing one for two main reasons: ■ Observing the point of error can be difficult. In many cases, a driver error is not apparent until long after it has actually occurred. If a Kernel Mode Driver uses a DDI incorrectly, the system might not crash until another driver attempts to perform an action based on the first driver’s error. ■ Subtle, condition-dependent errors and related code paths are difficult to exercise. Drivers that work correctly under normal circumstances 2.11 Tools for Development and Testing 33 Wow! eBook ptg can have subtle errors that occur only under exceptional situations, such as when another driver, lower in the stack, fails an I/O request. Too often, testing becomes a hit-or-miss, trial-and-error affair. To help remedy the situation, WDF has several testing and tracing features that make it easier for driver writers to find problems early in the development cycle. We will cover these features in more detail in the subsequent dis- cussion. These features include the following: ■ Built-in verification with the frameworks verifier ■ Built-in trace logging ■ Debugger extensions In addition, WDF includes PREfast and Static Driver Verifier (SDV). PREfast and SDV are both compile-time code verification tools that are provided with the Windows Driver Kit (WDK). PREfast analyzes code on a function-by-function basis, looking for a wide variety of common logic and usage errors. SDV applies knowledge about system internals to Kernel Mode Driver verification. 2.11.1 PREfast for Drivers PREfast for Drivers (PFD), an extension of PREfast, is a compile-time static verification tool that detects errors missed by the compiler and by conventional run-time testing. It detects common coding errors in C and C++ programs, and is designed to detect errors in Kernel Mode Driver code. You can run PFD very early in the development cycle—as soon as the code compiles correctly. PFD is integrated into the Windows 7 build environments in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) as well as into Windows Automated Code Review (known as OACR). PFD supports a large vocab- ulary of annotations beyond those supported for generic PREfast, includ- ing annotations for IRQLs, resource-object leaks, memory leaks, and stricter type checking. PREfast for Drivers examines each function in the code indepen- dently, looking for common errors and unwise coding practices. PFD runs quickly, even on large drivers, and generates a report that identifies the line of driver code with the suspected error. PREfast for Drivers runs on Windows XP and later versions of Windows and is designed to analyze code written for X86-based and 34 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg X64-based platforms. It can analyze C and C++ source files for drivers in any driver model, including managed code. You should use PREfast for Drivers in conjunction with Driver Verifier, Static Driver Verifier, and the checked build of Windows to ensure that your driver code is safe and reliable. The following new features for PFD are in Windows 7: ■ PFD now supports a broader range of expressions for analysis, such as const, member names, and side effect-free C expressions. ■ PFD now has better annotation error checking. ■ PFD now has improved defect detection, including “banned API” checking. ■ PFD now generates warnings that help you prepare to analyze a driver with Static Driver Verifier (SDV). SDV requires drivers to have declarations that define the role of the driver-supplied callback functions. PFD will indicate when you need to add these role type declarations to the drive code. ■ PFD is now integrated into the build environments and OACR in the WDK. When you build your driver using the WDK build envi- ronments, PFD runs automatically in the background and presents an easy-to-read view for any potential defects it finds. For Windows 7, all Microsoft drivers that ship with the operating system and all WDK samples have been verified with PFD, and identified defects have been fixed. In addition, the WDK public headers are now annotated to enable PFD to better find code defects. The following functionality aids in finding code defects. ■ Because PFD annotations are not in public header files, driver writ- ers can take advantage of these checks by simply running PFD on their drivers. Adding PFD annotations to your driver code will give you deeper analysis. ■ Windows headers for drivers now provide a comprehensive set of examples of how to annotate your functions. 2.11.2 Static Driver Verification (SDV) Static Driver Verifier (SDV) is a static verification tool that runs at compile time. It explores paths in the driver code by symbolically executing the 2.11 Tools for Development and Testing 35 Wow! eBook ptg source code, making the fewest possible assumptions about the state of the operating system and the initial state of the driver. As a result, SDV can exercise code in paths that are missed in traditional testing. SDV includes a set of rules that defines proper interaction between a driver and the operating system kernel. During verification, SDV examines every applicable branch of the driver code and the library code that it uses, and tries to prove that the driver violates the rules. If SDV fails to prove a violation, it reports that the driver complies with the rules and passes the verification. 2.11.3 Frameworks Verifier WDF includes an internal driver verifier that provides framework-specific features that are not currently available in the driver verifier (Verifier.exe). The frameworks verifier provides extensive tracing messages that supply detailed information about activities within the framework. It tracks refer- ences to each WDF object and builds a trace that can be sent to the debugger. In kernel mode, the frameworks verifier checks lock acquisition and hierarchies, and ensures that calls to the framework occur at the correct IRQL. It also verifies correct I/O cancellation and queue usage. It can also simulate low-memory and out-of-memory conditions and test a driver’s response to these situations to determine whether the driver responds properly without crashing, hanging, or failing to unload. In user mode, the frameworks verifier checks for correct use of param- eters, validates configurations, and correct responses to events. 2.11.4 Trace Logging Both the KMDF and UMDF support integrated internal trace logging. The following discussions cover this internal trace logging. The KMDF includes an internal trace logger called the in-flight recorder (IFR), which is based on the Windows Software Trace Preprocessor (WPP). The IFR provides a recent history of events (cur- rently, about the last 100 trace events) on a per-driver-instance basis. The trace logs track the progress of IRPs through the framework and the cor- responding requests through a driver. Each WDF driver has its own log. Kernel Mode Drivers can use Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) and WPP software tracing to generate a trace log that contains information 36 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg about both the driver and the KMDF. Driver-level tracing provides information about events in the driver code. Internal WDF tracing pro- vides information about events internal to WDF that might affect driver activities. A driver developer can choose whether to implement driver- level tracing, but internal WDF tracing is always available. Driver writers can use the software tracing tools provided with the WDK to view the IFR logs during interactive debugging. These logs can also be made available as part of a mini dump for inspection after a crash. The typical saved IFR log file is small (10K to 20K bytes) and written in a binary form that humans cannot read. The User Mode Driver components supplied by Microsoft start trace sessions that record their activities and note such events as driver hangs, timeouts, and failures. The log files from these sessions can be sent as input to Windows Error Reporting (WER). Vendor-supplied User Mode WDRF Drivers can use ETW to generate a trace log of driver events. 2.11.5 Debugger Extensions WDF also includes several debugger extensions that can dump internal trace records. These extensions are specialized commands that run in the context of the WinDbg debugger. These extensions are packaged in two DLLs: WudfExt.dll contains the UMDF extensions, and WdfKd.dll con- tains the KMDF extensions. The information they provide can help locate the exact point in I/O processing at which an error occurred and can often give a clue to faulty assumptions or unexpected behavior. The two sets of debugger extensions are provided for WDF. As men- tioned, one set supports user mode debuggers, and the other supports kernel mode debuggers. 2.11.6 Serviceability and Versioning To improve driver serviceability, WDF includes versioning and side-by- side support. Versioning allows a driver binary to run with the same major version of WDF with which it was built. Side-by-side support enables the simultaneous use of two or more major versions of WDF by two or more drivers. Serviceability is a common problem for drivers. When Microsoft releases a new version of Windows, driver vendors must test their drivers 2.11 Tools for Development and Testing 37 Wow! eBook ptg to ensure that they operate properly on the new release. Any driver that uses undocumented features, or that uses documented features in a non- standard way, is likely to encounter compatibility problems from one release to the next. Even drivers that follow the rules might be affected by subtle changes between versions of Windows. Drivers that use the frameworks, however, are less susceptible to such problems. Microsoft is responsible for testing the frameworks on each new version of the operating system and ensuring that drivers built with older versions maintain consistent behavior from one release to the next. In addition, the versioning support in WDF helps to prevent compat- ibility problems. The frameworks have major and minor version numbers, which are recorded in the driver binaries. In general, a WDF driver runs against the latest available minor version of the major version against which it was compiled, so that it can benefit from bug fixes in the new version. A WDF driver can use a newer minor version, but not an older minor version, than the one against which it was built. Multiple WDF drivers can use a single WDF library. They can also run side by side using different major versions of the framework. 38 Chapter 2 Windows Driver Foundation Architecture Wow! eBook ptg P A R T I I USER MODE DRIVERS Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 41 CHAPTER 3 WINDOWS 7 USER MODE DRIVERS OVERVIEW AND OPERATION The Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) contains a framework for the creation of User Mode Drivers. The User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) is designed to support protocol device classes such as cameras and portable music players. It integrates the installation and management of these devices with standard operating system facilities, such as I/O and Plug and Play and power management. UMDF is based on the same conceptual driver programming model as the Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) that is also part of WDF. However, the two frameworks implement the model with different com- ponents, device-driver interfaces (DDIs), and data structures. KMDF includes some objects that are available only in kernel mode, and UMDF includes some objects that are available only in user mode. Like KMDF, UMDF provides intelligent defaults, so that driver devel- opers can focus on their device hardware and avoid writing code to per- form many common driver tasks. Instead, that code is built into the framework, thus making vendor-written drivers smaller, ensuring greater code reuse, and providing for global bug fixes by Microsoft. This chapter describes the architecture and features of UMDF and outlines the requirements for drivers that use UMDF (sometimes called UMDF-based drivers or simply UMDF drivers). Wow! eBook ptg 42 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation 3.1 Devices Supported in User Mode UMDF supports the development of drivers for protocol-based or serial bus-based devices, such as Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices and network- connected devices. For example, drivers for the following types of devices can be written in user mode: ■ Portable storage devices ■ Portable media players ■ USB bulk transfer devices ■ Auxiliary display devices The device can be directly connected, connected on the network, or con- nected via a wireless protocol such as Bluetooth. UMDF also supports software-only drivers. The initial UMDF release includes the following sample UMDF drivers: ■ Skeleton—A minimal driver that is intended for use as a template for driver development. ■ Echo—A simple-software-only driver that shows the use of a serial I/O queue. ■ USB/FX2_Driver and USB/Echo Driver—Function drivers for the USB-FX2 board that was designed by Open Systems Resources, Inc. (OSR). This is the board we will be using for our driver exam- ple developments for UMDF. ■ USB/Filter—A filter driver for the USB-FX2 device stack. User Mode Drivers can support 32-bit or 64-bit devices for any Windows hardware platform and can be distributed on Windows Update. UMDF is currently supported for Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. Drivers that require the following cannot be written as UMDF drivers; they must be written as Kernel Mode Drivers: ■ Handling interrupts ■ Direct access to the hardware, such as direct memory access (DMA) ■ Strict timing loops ■ Use of nonpaged pool or other resources that are reserved for kernel mode. In addition, a UMDF driver cannot be a client of the Windows kernel or of a Kernel Mode Driver. Wow! eBook ptg 3.2 UMDF Model Overview A UMDF driver runs in a driver host process that also hosts UMDF and a run-time environment. Each such driver operates as part of a stack of driv- ers that manage a device. The User Mode Drivers are loaded above the Kernel Mode Drivers at the top of the stack. Because user mode compo- nents do not have access to the system address space where the system and Kernel Mode Drivers maintain I/O requests and other shared data, the UMDF architecture includes components that communicate between ker- nel mode and user mode. Figure 3.1 shows the overall architecture of the UMDF driver model. 3.2 UMDF Model Overview 43 Figure 3.1 UMDF Driver Architecture Run-Time Environment Host Process User Mode Driver Framework Run-Time Environment Host Process User Mode Driver Framework Applications Driver Manager Windows Kernel User Mode Kernel Mode Reflector (Filter) Reflector (Filter) Kernel Mode Driver Kernel Mode Driver Kernel Mode Driver Win32 API Device Stack Device Stack Wow! eBook ptg Figure 3.1 shows two device stacks that service two different devices. Each device stack includes a UMDF driver that runs in its own driver host process. The figure includes the following components, described accord- ing to the typical flow of an I/O request. Applications. The applications are clients of the drivers. These applica- tions are user mode processes that issue I/O requests through the Win32 File I/O API. The Win32 functions call I/O routines in the Windows kernel. Windows kernel. The Windows kernel creates I/O request packets (IRPs) to represent the user mode I/O requests and forwards them to the top of the Kernel Mode Driver stack for the target device. Reflector. The reflector is a Kernel Mode WDM Filter Driver that is installed at the top of the kernel mode device stack for each device that a UMDF driver manages. The reflector manages communication between the kernel mode components and the User Mode Driver host process. The reflector forwards I/O, power, and Plug and Play messages from the oper- ating system to the driver host process, so that User Mode Drivers can respond to I/O requests and participate in Plug and Play device installa- tion, enumeration, and management. The reflector also monitors the driver host process to ensure that it responds properly to messages and completes critical operations in a timely manner, thus helping to prevent driver and application hangs. Microsoft provides the reflector. Driver manager. The driver manager creates and shuts down the driver host processes and maintains status information about them. It also responds to messages from the reflector. The driver manager runs as a Windows service and is started during installation of the first device that has a UMDF driver. One instance of the driver manager handles all of the driver host processes. The driver manager must be running all of the time that any device controlled by a UMDF driver is installed on the system. Microsoft provides the driver manager. Host process. The host process is the process in which the User Mode Driver runs. It is separate from the application process and the driver manager. It runs in the security credentials of a LocalService account, although it is not a Windows service. The host process contains the user mode device stack for the device. The device stack is visible to all applica- tions across the system. Each instance of a device has its own device stack. Currently, each instance has a separate driver host process, too. The host process includes the following components: ■ The UMDF driver is an in-process component object model (COM) component that controls the hardware from user mode. 44 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg ■ The framework exposes the user mode DDI, which is a dynamic-link library (DLL) of COM-style objects that support the presentation, flow, and management of I/O, power, and Plug and Play requests to the driver. ■ The run-time environment dispatches I/O requests, loads the driver, constructs and destroys the user mode device stack, manages a user mode thread pool, and handles messages from the reflector and the driver manager. The host process is a child process of the driver manager. Kernel Mode Drivers. Additional Kernel Mode Drivers can service each device. These device drivers are supplied either by Microsoft or by the device writer. 3.2.1 UMDF Object Model UMDF drivers are object oriented and event driven. The driver and the framework create instances of objects that are required to support the driv- er’s device. The driver implements event callback interfaces to handle events that affect these objects. The objects and interfaces are based on the COM programming pattern. UMDF uses only a small subset of COM, specifically the COM lifetime model; it does not depend on the entire COM infrastructure and run-time library. The UMDF run-time environment loads the driver by reading infor- mation that is stored in the registry under the WDF service key. UMDF uses only the query-interface and reference-counting features of COM. Every UMDF interface derives from IUnknow and therefore supports the QueryInterface, AddRef, and Release methods by default. The AddRef and Release methods manage object lifetime. The QueryInterface method enables other components to determine which interfaces the driver supports. 3.2.2 UMDF Objects UMDF manages a series of objects that are exposed to the User Mode Driver. UMDF creates some of these objects in response to application- triggered actions, such as an I/O request; the driver creates other objects by calling methods on UMDF interfaces. For each type of object, UMDF defines one or more interfaces through which to manipulate instances of the object. The interfaces provide 3.2 UMDF Model Overview 45 Wow! eBook ptg 46 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation methods and properties. Methods define actions that can be taken on behalf of the object and return a status to indicate whether they succeeded or failed. Property operations set and get the attributes of the object and cannot fail. Some interfaces are implemented by UMDF, and others are implemented by the driver. Table 3.1 lists all the UMDF object types and the interfaces that UMDF implements on each type. Table 3.1 UMDF Object Types Type of Object Interfaces Description Base object IWDFObject Exposes a base object for use as the driver requires. Device IWDFDevice Exposes an instance of a device object. A driver typically has one device object for each device that it controls. Driver IWDFDriver Exposes the driver object itself. Every driver has one driver object. File IWDFFile Exposes a framework file object that was opened by the Win32 CreateFile function, through which applications can access the device. IWDFDriverCreatedFile Exposes a framework file object that the driver created. I/O queue IWDFloQueue Exposes an I/O queue, which controls the flow of I/O in the driver. A driver can have any number of I/O queues. I/O request IWDFloRequest Exposes a request for device I/O. I/O target IWDFloTarget Represents the next-lower driver in the device stack, to which the driver sends I/O requests. Memory IWDFMemory Exposes memory that the driver uses, typically an input or output buffer that is associated with an I/O request. USB device IWDFUsbTargetDevice Exposes a USB device object that is an I/O target. Inherits from IWdfloTarget. USB interface IWDFUsbInterface Exposes an interface on a USB device. USB pipe IWDFUsbTargetPipe Exposes a USB pipe that is an I/O target. Inherits from IWdfloTarget. Wow! eBook ptg 3.3 Driver Callback Interfaces 47 The driver calls methods on these interfaces to perform operations on its objects. For example, UMDF implements the IWDFloRequest interface, and the driver calls methods in this interface to retrieve the parameters for the I/O request. For the driver, devices, and queues, both the framework and the driver maintain objects. The driver-created objects are callback objects, on which the driver implements the callback interfaces that are required to service its device. A driver has one callback object, one device callback object for each device that it supports, and one queue callback object for each queue that it creates. The callback objects serve as the “context memory” for the driver. 3.3 Driver Callback Interfaces The driver implements callback interfaces to provide device-specific responses to events. Each callback interface is implemented on a specific object type. For example, Plug and Play callback interface (IPnpCallback, IPnpCallback- Hardware, and IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo) are implemented for device objects, and I/O queue callback interfaces (IQueueCallbackCreate, IQueueCallbackRead, and so forth) are implemented on I/O queue objects. When a Plug and Play, power management, or I/O request arrives, UMDF calls methods in the driver’s callback interfaces to handle the asso- ciated events. For example, when UMDF receives a read request, it calls methods in the driver’s IQueueCallbackRead interface. A driver implements callback interfaces only for the events that are important to its operation. When the event occurs for an object, the frame- work invokes the callback for that object. For example, the unexpected removal of a device is a Plug and Play event. If a device can be removed unexpectedly, its driver should implement the IPnpCallback interface (which includes the OnSurpriseRemoval method) to perform device- specific operations upon ejection. When the Plug and Play manager sends a surprise-removal notification for the device, UMDF calls the OnSurpriseRemoval method with a pointer to the IWDFDevice inter- face for the device that has been removed. For most events, a driver can either provide a callback interface or allow UMDF to perform a default action in response. For a few events, however, a driver-specific callback is required. For example, adding a Wow! eBook ptg 48 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation device is an event for which every Plug and Play driver must include a call- back. The driver object’s IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd callback creates the device object. The names of the driver-implemented callback interfaces are generally in the form IObjectAction, where Object identifies the object to which the interface applies and Action indicates what the interface does. For example, the IQueueCallbackRead interface is implemented for I/O queues and contains methods called when a queue receives a read request. Table 3.2 lists the possible callback interfaces a driver might implement. Table 3.2 Driver Callback Objects and Interfaces Description Provides process that is required before an object is deleted, typically releasing any references held on the object. Provides main entry point and methods to initialize the driver and add its devices. Handles device stop, removal, and power state changes. Provides hardware-related operations before device power- up and after device power-down. Provides driver, rather than framework, control over I/O operations at specific Plug and Play and power management states. Handles clean-up requests for file objects on a specific device. Handles close requests for file objects on a specific device. Handles file create requests. Handles create, device I/O control, read, and write requests for which no other interface has been implemented. Type of Object Base object, or any object that inherits from the base object type Driver Device I/O queue Callback Interfaces IObjectCleanup IDriverEntry IPnpCallback IPnpCallbackHardware IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo IFileCallbackCleanup IFileCallbackClose IQueueCallbackCreate IQueueCallbackDefault- IoHandler Wow! eBook ptg 3.4 UMDF Driver Features UMDF drivers can call methods in the framework and can use the Win32 API and other Windows user mode features. Every UMDF driver must do the following: ■ Support the DllGetClassObject export that is required by COM. ■ Implement the IClassFactory interface to create a driver object. ■ Implement the IDriverEntry interface on the driver class. UMDF drivers are implemented as in-process COM servers. The COM run-time environment requires the DLL export DllGetClassObject, which must return an IClassFactory interface so that UMDF can create the driver callback object. The IDriverEntry interface includes methods that initialize and uninitialize the driver and perform other required tasks when the device is added to the system. UMDF calls these methods when the driver is loaded 3.4 UMDF Driver Features 49 Description Handles device I/O control requests. Resumes processing an I/O request after its queue has been stopped. Stops processing an I/O request because its queue is stopping. Handles read requests. Handles write requests. Provides impersonation for certain Win32 I/O operations. Handles cancellation of an I/O request. Handles completion of an I/O request. Type of Object I/O request Callback Interfaces IQueueCallbackDevice- IoControl IQueueCallbackIoResume IQueueCallbackIoStop IQueueCallbackRead IQueueCallbackWrite IImpersonateCallback IRequestCallbackCancel IRequestCallbackRequest- Completion Wow! eBook ptg 50 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation or unloaded and when the Plug and Play manager enumerates one of the driver’s devices. Every UMDF driver must implement the IDriverEntry interface on the driver class. 3.4.1 Impersonation UMDF drivers run in the LocalService security context. The LocalService context has minimum security privileges on the local computer and pre- sents anonymous credentials on the network. When necessary, a UMDF driver can impersonate the client process to handle I/O requests, but not Plug and Play, power, or other system requests. At driver installation, the INF file specifies the maximum imper- sonation level that the driver can use. When an application calls the CreateFile function, it can specify the impersonation level for the driver. The impersonation level determines the operations that the driver can perform in the context of the application process. If the level that the application specifies is different from the min- imum that the INF provides, the reflector uses the lower of the two levels. A driver requests impersonation by calling the IWDFIoRequest::- Impersonate method with the required impersonation level and a pointer to the driver’s IImpersonateCallback interface. The IImpersonateCallback interface includes one method, OnImpersonation, which should implement the code that must be run during impersonation. To prevent security leaks, OnImpersonation should perform only the tasks that require impersonation and should not call any other framework methods. Properly handling impersonation is key to writing a secure driver. 3.4.2 Device Property Store The device property store is an area in the registry where a UMDF driver can maintain information about the properties of its device. A UMDF driver can create a device property store (or retrieve an existing property store) during initialization by calling the IWDF- DeviceInitialize::RetrieveDevicePropertyStore method. This method returns a pointer to the IWDFNamedPropertyStore inter- face, through which the driver can set and get the values of device properties. Wow! eBook ptg 3.5 I/O Request Flow 51 The format and contents of the property store is driver defined. The property store persists in the registry until the device is uninstalled from the system. 3.5 I/O Request Flow Figure 3.2 shows the path that an I/O request takes from an application to a UMDF driver. Figure 3.2 I/O Flow to UMDF Driver Application Win32 API Windows Kernel I/O Manager Host Process User Mode Driver Framework Run-Time Environment Driver Manager Up Device Object Down Device Object Control Device Object Additional Kernel Mode Drivers Reflector IRP IPC Win32 API IPC IPC User Mode Kernel Mode Device Stack Wow! eBook ptg 52 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Callers use the Win32 API to send I/O requests to devices that are managed by UMDF drivers, just as they do for any other device. The Win32 API calls the appropriate kernel mode I/O routine, and the Windows kernel I/O manager creates an I/O request packet (IRP) and sends this IRP to the driver at the top of the kernel mode device stack for the target device. For a device that is managed by a UMDF driver, the reflector is the driver at the top of the kernel mode device stack. The reflector creates three types of device objects: ■ up device object—This is at the top of the kernel mode stack for the device and thus is the reflector’s target for IRPs from the I/O man- ager. When an IRP arrives, the reflector uses interprocess commu- nications to forward it to the User Mode Driver host process, in which the framework and driver run. UMDF interprets the request and calls methods in the driver’s event callback interfaces to handle it. The reflector creates an up device object for each device stack in which it participates. ■ down device object—This is the reflector’s target for I/O requests that originate in the User Mode Driver and is therefore the default I/O target for the bottom driver in the user mode device stack. A User Mode Driver might issue an I/O request to perform a device I/O control operation on its own device or to retrieve data from another device to complete one of its own requests. The reflector creates a down device object for each stack in which it participates. ■ control device object—This manages I/O requests to and from the driver manager, which are not part of the normal I/O flow to the driver. Instead, the control device object enables “sideband” I/O between the reflector and the driver manager, which is indepen- dent of the normal flow of I/O, power management, and Plug and Play requests. The reflector creates only one control device object per system. In addition to creating IRPs to represent user I/O requests, the I/O manager sends IRPs to notify drivers of Plug and Play requests, power management requests, change to device status, and queries about device and driver resources (among other purposes). Therefore, the UMDF I/O mode encompasses both I/O request dispatching and Plug Wow! eBook ptg and Play and power notification. The following sections will describe these aspects of the model in more detail. 3.5.1 I/O Request Dispatching UMDF dispatches I/O requests to the driver, manages I/O cancellation and completion, and ensures that the Plug and Play and power state of the device is compatible with performing device I/O. Depending on the type of I/O request, the UMDF either queues the request or invokes a method in a callback interface. UMDF provides configurable I/O queue objects that a driver can instantiate. The driver specifies which types of requests to place in each queue and how to dispatch those requests. Each queue can hold one or more types of requests. UMDF queues and dispatches requests according to the driver’s spec- ifications: sequentially (one at a time), in parallel (as soon as they arrive), or manually (at the driver’s explicit request). If Plug and Play or power management events affect queuing, a UMDF can start, stop, or resume queuing as appropriate, depending on how the driver configured the queue. The driver provides callback interfaces to handle I/O requests on its queues. To dispatch a request, UMDF calls a method in the corresponding callback interface. For example, to dispatch a read request, UMDF calls the OnRead method of the driver’s IQueueCallbackRead interface. The driver can implement request type-specific interfaces (such as IQueue- CallbackRead); it can also optionally implement the default I/O callback interface IQueueCallbackDefaultIoHandler that UMDF calls when it receives a create, read, write, or device I/O control request for which the driver has not implemented any other interface. 3.5.2 Create, Cleanup, and Close Requests UMDF can call the driver to handle create, cleanup, and close requests or can automatically forward them to the default I/O target (typically, the next lower driver in the driver stack). The framework queues create requests if the driver configures a queue accordingly. It does not queue cleanup or close requests. Table 3.3 shows the interfaces and methods that a driver must implement to support, cleanup, and close requests. 3.5 I/O Request Flow 53 Wow! eBook ptg Automatic forwarding is useful for drivers that process some types of I/O requests but not others. For example, a filter driver might inspect the data that is being written to a file but might not look at create, cleanup, or close requests. Therefore, it would have a callback interface for write request but would enable automatic forwarding for create, cleanup, and close. A driver configures automatic forwarding by calling the AutoForwardCreateCleanupClose method on the IWDFDevice- Initialize interface before it creates the device object. This method sets a flag that indicates whether the framework should forward these requests. Its only parameter is one of three enumerators: ■ Wdf Default indicates that the framework should use its defaults for forwarding. The defaults differ for filter and function drivers, as the following sections describe. ■ Wdf True indicates that the framework should forward requests to the default I/O target. ■ Wdf False indicates that the framework should not forward any cre- ate, cleanup, or close requests. If the driver does not implement the required interfaces to handle such requests, the framework fails the request. In addition to the setting of the AutoForwardCreateCleanupClose flag, whether the framework dispatches, forwards, or completes create, cleanup, and close requests depends on the following: ■ Whether this is a filter driver or a function driver. ■ Whether the driver implements the callback interface for the request type. ■ For create request only, whether the driver configures a queue for the requests. 54 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Table 3.3 Supporting Create, Cleanup, and Close Requests Request Type Interface Method Create IQueueCallbackCreate OnCreateFile Cleanup IFileCallbackCleanup OnCleanupFile Close IFileCallbackClose OnCloseFile Wow! eBook ptg The following sections describe what the framework does with such requests for each type of driver. 3.5.2.1 Create, Cleanup, and Close in a Filter Driver The driver calls IWDFDeviceInitialize::AutoForwardCreateCleanup- Close and sets WdfDefault. A UMDF driver identifies itself as a filter driver by calling the IWDFDeviceInitialize::SetFilter method. UMDF forwards cleanup and close requests for filter drivers to the default I/O target. If a filter driver does not implement the IQueueCallbackCreate::OnCreateFile method, UMDF forwards cre- ate requests, too. However, if the filter driver implements OnCreateFile, UMDF by default calls this method when a create request arrives. OnCreateFile should perform whatever filtering tasks are required and then, if appropriate, forward the request to the default I/O target. If the filter driver sets WdfTrue in the call to IWDFDeviceInitialize::AutoForwardCreateCleanupClose, UMDF forwards create requests unless the driver implements OnCreateFile. If the filter driver sets WdfFalse, UMDF calls the corresponding method if the driver implements it; otherwise, UMDF fails the request. If the filter driver completes a create request for a file object, it should set AutoForwardCreateCleanupClose to WdfFalse so that UMDF completes cleanup and close requests for the file object instead of forwarding them. 3.5.2.2 Create, Cleanup, and Close in a Function Driver In a function driver, if a create request arrives for which the driver has nei- ther implemented the OnCreateFile method nor configured a queue to receive create request, UMDF opens a file object to represent the device and completes the request with S_OK. Therefore, any function driver that does not accept create or open requests from user mode applications—and thus does not register a device interface—must implement an IQueueCallbackCreate::OnCreateFile method that explicitly fails such requests. Supplying a method to fail create requests ensures that a rogue application cannot gain access to the device. To handle file cleanup and close requests, a driver implements the IFileCallbackCleanup and IFileCallbackClose interfaces. If a function driver does not implement such interfaces, UMDF closes the file object and completes the request with S_OK. 3.5 I/O Request Flow 55 Wow! eBook ptg 3.5.3 Create, Read, Write, and Device I/O Control Requests For read, write, and device I/O control requests, the driver creates one or more queues and configures each queue to receive one or more types of I/O requests. For create requests, the driver can configure automatic for- warding, as described in the preceding section, or can direct the requests to a queue. When such a request arrives, the I/O request handler: ■ Determines whether the driver has created a queue that handles this type of request (either by explicitly configuring the queue for the request type or by creating a default I/O queue) or has imple- mented a default I/O handler. If neither is true, the handler fails a read, write, or device I/O control request if this is a function driver. If this is a filter driver, the handler forwards the request to the default I/O target. ■ Determines whether the queue is accepting requests and the device is powered on (in the DO state). If both are true, the handler cre- ates an I/O request object to represent the request and adds it to the queue. If the queue is not accepting requests, the handler fails the request. ■ Notifies the Plug and Play handler to power up the device if the queue is power managed and the device is not in the DO state. ■ Queues the request. Figure 3.3 summarizes the flow of a create, read, write, or device I/O con- trol request through the framework to the driver. 3.6 I/O Queues The IWDFIoQueue interface exposes a queue object that presents requests from UMDF to the driver. Queues control the flow of I/O through the driver. 56 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg 3.6 I/O Queues 57 Figure 3.3 Flow of Create, Read, Write, and Device I/O Control Requests Does driver have a queue for this type? Is the queue accepting requests? Create an I/O request object to represent the request Is the queue power managed? Is the device in the working state? Notify the Plug and Play/power handler to power up the device Queue the request Is this a filter driver? YESNO NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES Pass the request to the default I/O target Fail the request Wow! eBook ptg A driver typically creates one or more I/O queues, each of which can accept one or more types of requests. The driver configures the queues when it creates them. For each queue, the driver can specify: ■ The types of requests that are placed in the queue. ■ The power management options for the queue. ■ The dispatch method for the queue, which determines whether the framework calls the driver to dispatch a request or whether the driver calls the framework to dispatch a request. The dispatch method also determines whether the driver services multiple requests from the queue at a given time. ■ Whether the queue accepts read and write requests that have a zero-length buffer. A driver can have any number of queues, which can all be configured dif- ferently. For example, a driver might have a parallel queue for read requests and a sequential queue for write requests. Although a request is in a queue and has not yet been presented to the driver, the queue is considered the “owner” of the request. After the request has been dispatched to the driver, it is “owned” by the driver. Internally, each queue object keeps track of which requests it owns and which requests it has dispatched to the driver. A driver can forward a request from one queue to another by calling a method on the request object. 3.6.1 Dispatch Type A queue’s dispatch type determines how and when I/O requests are deliv- ered to the driver and, as a result, whether multiple I/O requests from a queue are active in the driver at one time. Drivers can control the concur- rency of I/O requests by configuring the dispatching method for their queues. UMDF supports three dispatch types: ■ Sequential—A queue that is configured for sequential dispatching delivers I/O requests to the driver one at a time. The queue does not deliver another request to the driver until the previous request has been completed or forwarded to another queue. ■ Parallel—A queue that is configured for parallel dispatching deliv- ers I/O requests to the driver as soon as possible, whether or not another request is already active in the driver. 58 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg ■ Manual—A queue that is configured for manual dispatching does not deliver I/O requests to the driver. Instead, the driver retrieves requests at its own pace by calling a method on the queue. The dispatch type controls only the number of requests that are active within a driver at one time. It has no effect on whether the queue’s I/O event callbacks are invoked sequentially or concurrently; instead, the con- currency of callbacks is controlled by the synchronization model (locking constraint) of the device object. Even if the synchronization model does not allow concurrent callbacks, a parallel queue nevertheless might have many requests active in the driver at one time. All I/O requests that a driver receives from a queue are inherently asynchronous. The driver can complete the request within the event call- back or sometime later, after returning from the callback. The driver is not required to mark the request pending, as in a Kernel Mode WDM Driver; UMDF handles this on behalf of the driver. 3.6.2 Queues and Power Management UMDF integrates support for queues with Plug and Play/power manage- ment state machine. Power management is configurable on a per-queue basis. A driver can use both power-managed and nonpower-managed queues and can sort requests based on the requirements for its power model. 3.6.2.1 Power-Managed Queues By default, I/O queues are power managed, which means that the state of the queue can trigger power-management activities. Such queues have a couple of advantages, as the following scenarios show: ■ If an I/O request arrives while the system is in the working state (SO) but the device is not, UMDF notifies its Plug and Play and power handler so that it can restore device power. ■ If the device power state begins to change while the driver “owns” an I/O request that was dispatched from a power-managed queue, UMDF can notify the driver through the IQueueCallback- IoStop::OnIoStop callback. The driver must complete, cancel, or acknowledge all of the I/O requests that it owns before the device can exit from the working state. 3.6 I/O Queues 59 Wow! eBook ptg For power-managed queues, UMDF pauses the delivery of requests when the device leaves the working state (DO) and resumes delivery when the device returns to the working state. Although delivery stops while the queue is paused, queuing does not. If UMDF receives a request while the queue is paused, UMDF adds the request to the queue for delivery after the queue resumes. If an I/O request arrives while the system is transitioning to a sleep state, however, UMDF does not return the device to the working state until the system returns to the working state. The request remains in the queue until the system and the device have returned to the working state. For requests to be delivered, both the driver and device power state must allow processing. The driver can pause delivery manually by calling IWDFIoQueue::Stop or IWDFIoQueue::StopSynchronously and later resume delivery by calling WdfIoQueue::Start. 3.6.2.2 Nonpower-Managed Queues If a queue is not power managed, the state of the queue has no effect on power management, and conversely, UMDF delivers requests to the driver any time the system is in the working state, regardless of the power state of the device. Drivers should use nonpower-managed queues to hold requests that the driver can handle even while its device is not in the work- ing state. 3.7 I/O Request Objects The IWDFIoRequest interface exposes an I/O request object, which describes a read, write, or device I/O control request. When an I/O request arrives from the reflector, the I/O handler creates an I/O request object and adds the object to the queue that the driver configured for requests of that type. The driver receives a pointer to IWDFIoRequest interface for the object when UMDF calls the I/O event callback function or, if the queue supports manual dispatching, when the driver requests the object from the queue. The driver can then call methods on the interface to retrieve informa- tion about the request, such as the request type, parameters, data buffers, and associated file object, among others. Like all other UMDF objects, the I/O request object has a reference count. When the driver completes the I/O request that the object repre- sents, UMDF automatically drops its reference on the object and any child 60 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg objects such as memory buffers. After the driver that was called completes the request, it must not attempt to access the request object or any of its child objects. 3.7.1 Retrieving Buffers from I/O Requests The IWDFMemory interface exposes a memory object, which encapsu- lates an I/O buffer that is associated with an I/O request. The memory object can be used to copy data from the driver to the buffer and vice versa. The driver can also create its own memory object by calling IWDFDriver::CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory and can then associate that memory object with the buffer that is supplied in an I/O request. Like other UMDF objects, memory objects have reference counts and persist until all references to them have been removed. The buffer that underlies the memory object, however, might not be “owned” by the object itself. For example, if the issuer of the I/O request allocated the buffer or if the driver called CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory to assign an existing driver-created buffer to the object, the memory object does not “own the buffer.” In this case, the buffer pointer becomes invalid when the associ- ated I/O request has been completed, even if the memory object still exists. Each memory object contains the length of the buffer that it repre- sents. IWDFMemory methods that copy data to and from the buffer val- idate the length of every transfer to prevent buffer over runs and under runs, which can result in corrupt data or security breaches. Each memory object also controls access to the buffer and allows the driver to write only buffers that support I/O from the device to the buffer. A buffer that is used to receive data from the device (as in a read request) is writable. The memory object does not allow write access to a buffer that only supplies data (as in a write request). 3.7.2 Sending I/O Requests to an I/O Target If a driver cannot satisfy an I/O request by itself, it typically forwards the request to an I/O target. An I/O target represents a device object to which the driver sends an I/O request. The default I/O target is typically the next lower driver in the device stack. A UMDF driver can access the default I/O target through the IWDFIoTarget interface; it gets a pointer to this interface by calling the IWDFDevice::GetDefaultIoTarget method. 3.7 I/O Request Objects 61 Wow! eBook ptg In addition to forwarding existing I/O requests, some UMDF drivers issue I/O requests by creating or reusing an I/O request object and send- ing the request to an I/O target. Drivers can send requests either synchro- nously or asynchronously and can specify a time-out value for either type of request. If the time-out period expires, UMDF cancels the request. In addition to using the default I/O target, a driver can create addi- tional I/O targets. An I/O target can be a UMDF driver, a KMDF driver, a WDM driver, or any other Kernel Mode Driver. UMDF defines two inter- faces that create targets: ■ IWDFFileHandleTargetFactory creates an I/O target that is associated with a file handle that the driver has already opened. The driver calls the Win32 CreateFile function to open the handle, and then calls methods in this interface to create the I/O target. This mechanism enables a driver to send I/O requests to a different device stack. ■ IWDFUsbTargetFactory creates a USB device object and an associated I/O target. To create an I/O target, the driver queries the device object for the IWDFFileHandleTargetFactory or IWDFUsbTargetFactory inter- face and then calls the creation method that is supported by the interface. If the driver is the originator of the request, it creates an I/O request object by calling IWDFDevice::CreateRequest. If the driver is merely forwarding an existing request, this step is not required. Whether this is a new or existing request, the driver must format it before sending it. To format a request for the default I/O target or for a file handle-based target, the driver calls methods in the IWDFIoTarget inter- face. To format an I/O request for a USB target, the driver calls methods in the IWDFUsbTargetDevice, which inherits from IWDFIoTarget. Formatting the request is important because it specifies the buffers and buffer lengths that the target should use in performing the I/O. The driver then can call IWDFIoRequest::Send to send the request. If the driver implements the IRequestCallbackCompletion::- OnCompletion and IRequestCallbackCancel::OnCancel interfaces, UMDF calls the driver if the request is completed or canceled. The I/O target object racks queued and sent requests and can cancel them when the state of the target device of the issuing driver changes. UMDF does not free the I/O target object until all of the I/O requests that 62 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg have been sent to it are complete. If the driver created the I/O request, it must release its reference to the request before deleting it. By default, UMDF sends a request only when the target is in the proper state to receive it. However, a driver can request that UMDF ignore the state of the target and send the request anyway. If the target device has been stopped (but not removed), UMDF queues the request to send later after the target device resumes. If the driver that forwarded the request specifies a time-out value, the timer starts when the request is added to the queue. To manage an I/O target, the driver can call methods in the IWDFIoTargetStateManagement interface. These methods enable the driver to start, stop, and remove the target and to query its current state. 3.7.3 Creating Buffers for I/O Requests Drivers that issue I/O requests must supply buffers with those requests. A driver can ■ Allocate the buffer from memory by using the C++ new operator or a Win32 memory allocation function and the call IWdfDriver::- CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory to associate the buffer with a memory object. The driver must ensure that the buffer persists until the request has completed. ■ Call IWdfDriver::CreateWdfMemory to create a memory object with a specified buffer size. UMDF ensures that the buffer persists until the I/O request has completed back to the issuing driver. ■ Retrieve a memory object from an incoming I/O request for use in a new request. If the driver uses a memory object, UMDF takes out a reference on that object on behalf of the new I/O target when it formats the memory object to send to the I/O target. This reference persists until one of the following occurs: ■ The request has been completed. ■ The driver reformats the request object by calling IWDFRequest::- FormatUsingCurrentType or any of the IWDFIoTarget::Format- RequestForXxx methods. ■ The request has been deleted. 3.7 I/O Request Objects 63 Wow! eBook ptg The driver can retrieve a memory object from an incoming I/O request and then reformat it for use in a new request to a new I/O target. However, if the driver has not yet completed the original request, the driver still has a reference on the memory object. The driver should implement an I/O completion callback (the IRequestCallbackRequestCompletion inter- face) for the new I/O request, and in this callback must call Release on the memory object before it completes the original request. 3.7.4 Canceled and Suspended Requests Windows I/O is inherently asynchronous. The system can request that a driver stop processing an I/O request at any time for many reasons, most commonly: ■ The thread or process that issued the request cancels it or exits. ■ A system Plug and Play or power event such as hibernation occurs. ■ The device is being, or has been, removed. The action that a driver takes to stop processing an I/O request depends on the reason for suspension or cancellation. In general, the driver can either cancel the request or complete it with an error. In some situations, the sys- tem might request that a driver suspend (temporarily pause) processing; the system notifies the driver later when to resume processing. To provide a good user experience, drivers should provide callbacks to handle cancellation and suspension of any I/O request that might take a long time to complete or that might not complete, such as a request for asynchronous input. 3.7.4.1 Request Cancellation How UMDF proceeds to cancel an I/O request depends on whether the request has already been delivered to the target driver: ■ If the request has never been delivered—either because UMDF has not yet queued it or because it is still in a queue—UMDF cancels or suspends it automatically without notifying the driver. ■ If the request has been delivered but the driver forwards it to a dif- ferent queue, UMDF automatically cancels the request without notifying the driver. 64 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg ■ If the request has been delivered and is owned by the driver, UMDF does not cancel it. However, if the driver explicitly marks the request cancelable by calling the IWDFIoRequest::- MarkCancelable method and registering a cancellation callback (IRequestCallbackCancel::OnCancel), UMDF notifies the driver that the request was canceled. A driver should mark a request cancelable and register an I/O cancellation callback if either of the following is true: ■ The request involves a long-term operation. ■ The request might never succeed; for example, the request is wait- ing for synchronous input. In the OnCancel callback, the driver must perform any tasks that are required to cancel the request, such as stopping any device I/O operations that are in progress and canceling any related requests that it has already forwarded to an I/O target. Eventually, the driver must complete the request with the status ERROR_CANCELLED. Requests that the driver has marked cancelable cannot be forwarded to another queue. Before requeuing a request, the driver must first make it noncancelable by calling IWDFIoRequest::UnmarkCancelable. After the request has been added to the new queue, UMDF again consid- ers it cancelable until that queue dispatches it to the driver. 3.7.4.2 Request Suspension When the system transitions to a sleep state—typically because the user has requested hibernation or closed the lid on a laptop—a driver can com- plete, requeue, or continue to hold any requests that it is currently pro- cessing. UMDF notifies the driver of the impending power change by calling the IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop callback for each such request. Each call includes flags that indicate the reason for stopping the queue and whether the I/O request is currently cancelable. Depending on the value of the flags, the driver can complete the request, requeue the request, acknowledge the event but continue to hold the request, or ignore the event if the current request will complete in a timely manner. If the queue is stopping because the device is being removed, either by an orderly removal or a surprise removal, the device must complete the request immediately. 3.7 I/O Request Objects 65 Wow! eBook ptg Drivers should implement the OnIoStop method for any request that might take a long time to complete or that might not complete, such as a request for asynchronous input. OnIoStop provides a good user experi- ence for laptops and other power-managed systems. 3.7.5 Completing I/O Requests To complete an I/O request, a driver calls IWDFIoRequest::Complete or CompleteWithInformation. In response, UMDF completes the underlying I/O request from the system and then deletes the I/O request object and any child objects. If the driver implements the IObjectCleanup::OnCleanup method for the request object, UMDF invokes that method before completing the underlying system I/O request, so that the system I/O request itself is still valid when the call- back runs. Because the underlying request is still valid, the UMDF driver has access to its parameters and memory buffers. After Complete or CompleteWithInformation returns, the I/O request object and its resources have been released. The driver must not attempt to access the object or any of its resources, such as parameters and memory buffers that were passed in the request. If the request was dispatched from a sequential queue, the driver’s call to complete the request might cause UMDF to deliver the next request in the queue. (If the queue is configured for parallel dispatching, UMDF can deliver another request at any time.) If the driver holds any locks while it calls Complete or CompleteWithInformation, it must ensure that its event callback methods for the queue do not use the same locks because a deadlock might occur. In practice, this is difficult to ensure, so the best practice is not to call Complete or CompleteWithInformation while holding a lock. 3.7.6 Adaptive Time-outs Drivers for Windows 7 should follow the Windows guidelines for I/O com- pletion and cancellation, which require that drivers: ■ Support cancellation for I/O requests that might take an indefinite period of time to complete. 66 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg ■ Complete I/O requests within a reasonable period (generally, 10 seconds or less) after cancellation. ■ Do not block I/O thread for an unreasonable period while perform- ing I/O. UMDF I/O threads are a limited resource, so blocking on such a thread for a long time can decrease driver performance. To aid User Mode Drivers in conforming to these guidelines, UMDF supports adaptive time-outs. UMDF tracks the progress on critical I/O operations that can hold up the system if delayed. Critical opera- tions include cleanup, close, cancellation, and Plug and Play and power requests. When the reflector passes a critical request to the driver host process, it watches for progress to ensure that I/O operations are proceeding. While such a request is pending, the User Mode Driver must complete an oper- ation at regular intervals until it has completed the critical request. If the time-out period expires, the reflector terminates the host process and reports the problem through Window Error Reporting (WER). By default, the time-out is currently one minute. If the driver must perform opera- tions that take a long time to complete, it should handle them asynchro- nously, create a separate thread to handle them, or handle them in a user work item. 3.8 Self-Managed I/O Some drivers have I/O paths that do not go through queues or are not sub- ject to power management. UMDF provides self-managed I/O features to support these requirements. The self-managed I/O callbacks correspond directly to Plug and Play and power management state changes, and the automatic queuing feature in UMDF is built around the same mechanism. These routines are called with a pointer to the IWDFDevice interface and no other parameters. If a driver implements the IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo interface, UMDF calls its methods at the designated times so that the driver can per- form whatever actions it requires. Table 3.4 lists the methods of this interface and indicates when each is called. 3.8 Self-Managed I/O 67 Wow! eBook ptg 68 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation 3.9 Synchronization Issues Because Windows is a preemptive, multitasking operating sys- tem, multiple threads can try to access shared data structures or resources concurrently and multiple driver routines can run concurrently. To ensure data integrity, all drivers must synchro- nize access to shared data structures. Table 3.4 Self-Managed I/O Methods Method When Called OnSelfManagedIoCleanup During device removal, after calling OnSelfManagedIoSuspend OnSelfManagedIoFlush After device removal has completed. OnSelfManagedIoInit During device start-up, after the framework has called the driver’s IPnpCallback::OnDoEntry callback function for the first time. OnSelfManagedIoRestart When the device returns from a low- power state to its working (DO) state; called only if UMDF previously called the driver’s OnSelfManagedIo- Suspend method. OnSelfManagedIoStop Not currently called. OnSelfManagedIoSuspend When one of the following is true: ■ The device is about to enter a low-power state. ■ The device is being removed or was surprise-removed. ■ The Plug and Play manager is preparing to redistribute the sys- tem’s hardware resources among system’s attached devices. Wow! eBook ptg For UMDF drivers, ensuring proper synchronization requires attention to several areas: ■ The number of concurrently active requests that are dispatched from a particular queue. ■ The number of concurrently active callbacks for a particular device object. ■ The driver utility functions that access object-specific data. The dispatch method for an I/O queue controls the number of requests from the queue that can concurrently be active in the driver, as described in “Dispatch Type” earlier. Limiting concurrent requests does not, however, resolve all potential synchronization issues. Concurrently active callbacks on the same object might require access to shared object-specific data. Similarly, driver utility functions might share object-specific data with callbacks. For example, a driver’s cleanup and cancellation methods often use the same data as its dispatch (read, write, and device I/O control) callbacks. UMDF provides configurable concurrency control, called the syn- chronization model or locking constraint, for the callbacks of several types of objects. An object’s synchronization model determines whether UMDF invokes certain event callbacks on the object concurrently. UMDF defines two synchronization models that is device scope and no scope. Device Scope means that UMDF does not call certain I/O event call- backs concurrently for an individual device object or any file objects or queues that are children of the device object. Specifically, device scope applies to the following event callbacks: IFileCallbackCleanup::OnCleanupFile IFileCallbackClose::OnCloseFile IQueueCallbackCreate::OnCreateFile IQueueCallbackDefaultIoHandler::OnDefaultIoHandler IQueueCallbackDeviceIoControl::OnDeviceIoControl IQueueCallbackIoResume::OnIoResume IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop IQueueCallbackRead::OnRead IQueueCallbackStateChange::OnStateChange IQueueCallbackWrite::OnWrite IRequestCallbackCancel::OnCancel 3.9 Synchronization Issues 69 Wow! eBook ptg However, callbacks for different device objects that were created by the same driver can be called concurrently. By default, a UMDF uses device scope. No Scope means that UMDF can call any event callback concurrently with any other event callback. The driver must create and acquire all its own locks. A driver sets the synchronization mode by calling the SetLocking Constraint method of the IWDFDeviceInitialize interface before it creates the device object. 3.10 Locks In addition to the synchronization for the configurable synchronization model, UMDF provides a lock for each device and I/O queue object. A driver can acquire and release this lock by using the IWDFObject::- AcquireLock and IWDFObject::ReleaseLock methods. These methods are supported for IWDFDevice and IWDFIoQueue, which inherit from IWDFObject. Driver code that runs outside an event callback sometimes must syn- chronize with code that runs inside an event callback. After acquiring the lock, the driver can safely access the object and perform other actions that affect the object. However, to prevent a deadlock, the driver must release the lock before calling any methods in the framework, such as IWDFRequest::CompleteWithInformation. 3.11 Plug and Play and Power Management Notification UMDF implements integrated Plug and Play and power management sup- port as an internal state machine. An event is associated with the transition to each state, and a driver can supply callbacks that are invoked at specific state changes. UMDF is designed to work with drivers on an “opt-in” basis. A UMDF driver implements Plug and Play callback interfaces for only the events that affect its device. For example, some devices require intervention immediately after they are turned on and immediately before they are turned off. The driver for such a device can implement the 70 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg IPnpCallbackHardware interface, which provides methods to be called at those times. If the device does not require such intervention, its driver does not implement the interface. If you are familiar with WDM driver, you probably remember that any time the system power state changes, the WDM driver must determine the correct power state for its device and then issue power management requests to put the device in that state at the appropriate time. The UMDF state machine automatically handles the translation of system power events to device power events and notifies the driver to ■ Transition the device to low power when the system hibernates or goes to sleep. ■ Return the device to full power when the system resumes. UMDF automatically provides for the correct behavior in device parent/child relationships. If both a parent and a child device are powered down and the child must power up, UMDF automatically returns the par- ent to full power and then powers up the child. To accomplish these power transitions, a driver implements the IPnpCallback and IPnpCallbackHardware interfaces. The meth- ods in these two interfaces are called in a defined order and each con- forms to a “contract” so that both the device and the system are guaranteed to be in a particular state when the driver is called to per- form an action. In addition, requests that the framework has received and not yet delivered to the device driver can affect the power state of the device. If the driver has configured a queue for power management, the framework can automatically restore device power before it delivers the request to the driver. It can also automatically stop and start the queue in response to Plug and Play and power events. 3.12 Device Enumeration and Startup To prepare the device for operation, UMDF calls the driver’s callback rou- tines in a fixed sequence. The following shows the callbacks for a driver that is involved in bring- ing a device to the fully operations state, starting from the DeviceArrived state at the bottom of the following steps. 3.12 Device Enumeration and Startup 71 Wow! eBook ptg 72 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Device Operational End Sequence 1. Enable self-managed I/O, if driver supports it. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManageIoInit or OnSelfManagedIoRestart 2. Start power-managed queues. (Called only if UMDF earlier invoked IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop during power-down.) IQueueCallbackIoResume::OnIoResume 3. Notify driver of state change. IPnpCallback::OnDOEntry Restart from here if device is in low-power state 4. Prepare hardware for power. IPnpCallbackHardware::OnPrepareHardware Restart from here if rebalancing resources 5. Create device object. IDRiverEntry::OnDeviceAdd Device Arrived Start Sequence Above At the bottom of the preceding steps, the device is not present on the system. When the user plugs it in, UMDF begins by calling the driver’s IDRiverEntry::OnDeviceAdd callback so the driver can create a device object to represent the device. UMDF continues calling the driver’s callback routines by progressing up through the sequences above until the device is operational. If the device was stopped because the PnP manger was rebal- ancing system resources or if the device was physically present but not in the working state, not all of the steps are required, as the sequence shows. 3.13 Device Power-Down and Removal UMDF might remove a device from the operational state for several reasons: ■ To put the device in a low-power state because the system is entering a sleep state Wow! eBook ptg ■ To rebalance resources ■ To remove the device after the user has requested an orderly removal ■ To disable the device in response to the user’s request in Device Manager The following shows the sequence of callbacks that are involved in power- down and removal. The sequence starts at the top of the sequence below with an operational device that is in the working power state (DO). 3.13 Device Power-Down and Removal 73 Device Operational Start Sequence 1. Suspend self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoSuspend 2. Stop power-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop 3. Notify driver of state change. IPnpCallback::OnDoExit Stop here if transitioning to low-power state 4. Release hardware (Not called if target device state is WdfPowerDeviceD3Final). IPnpCallbackHardware::OnReleaseHardware Stop here if rebalancing resources 5. Purge power-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop 6. Flush I/O buffers, if driver supports self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoFlush 7. Purge nonpower-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop 8. Clean up I/O buffers, if driver supports self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoCleanup Device Removed End Sequence Wow! eBook ptg As the preceding sequence shows, the UMDF power-down and removal sequence involves calling the corresponding “undo” callbacks in the reverse order from which UMDF called the methods that it invoked to make the device operational. 3.13.1 Surprise-Removal Sequence If the user removes the device without warning, by simply unplugging it without using Device Manager or the Safely Remove Hardware utility, the device is considered surprise removed. When this occurs, UMDF follows a slightly different removal sequence. It also follows the surprise-removal sequence if another driver invalidates the device state (for example, a Kernel Mode Driver calls IoInvalidateDeviceState), even if the device is physically present. In the surprise-removal sequence, UMDF calls the IPnpCallback::- OnSurpriseRemoval callback to notify the driver that the device has been unexpectedly removed. This callback is not guaranteed to occur in any particular order with the other callbacks in the removal sequence. Drivers for all removable devices must ensure that the callbacks in both the shutdown and startup paths can handle failure, particularly fail- ures that are caused by the removal of the hardware. The reflector times out the driver if an attempt to access the hardware waits indefinitely. The following sequence shows the surprise-removal sequence. 74 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Device Surprise Removed Start here if device is in the working state 1. Suspend self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoSuspend 2. Stop power-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop 3. Notify driver of state change. IPnpCallback::OnDOExit Start here if device is not in the working state 4. Release hardware. IPnpCallbackHardware::OnReleaseHardware 5. Purge power-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop Wow! eBook ptg If the device was not in the working state when it was removed, UMDF starts with the IPnpCallbackHardware::OnReleaseHardware method. It omits the intervening steps, which were already performed when the device exited from the working state. 3.14 Build, Test, and Debug Like Kernel Mode Drivers, UMDF drivers are built with the Windows Driver Kit (WDK). The WDK includes the required libraries and header files to build a UMDF driver, along with sample code and build scripts. The WDK includes a library of debugger extensions for use with UMDF drivers. The debugger extensions work with CDB, NTSD, and WinDbg. UMDF drivers can be debugged in either user mode or kernel mode. Debugging a User Mode Driver is similar to debugging a service. Symbol files are also included as an aid in debugging. UMDF drivers can use Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) to gener- ate a trace log of driver events. The logs can be viewed using the tracing tools provided with the WDK. The user mode components that Microsoft supplies start trace sessions that record their activities and note such events as driver hangs, time-outs, and failures. UMDF has integrated verification code that is always enabled. If a driver uses UMDF DDIs incorrectly or passes incorrect parameters, the verifier saves a memory dump in the system log file direc- tory and optionally creates a Windows error report. The trace log files and error reports can optionally be sent to the Microsoft Windows Error Reporting (WER) facility. WER captures software crash data and supports 3.14 Build, Test, and Debug 75 6. Flush I/O buffers, if driver supports self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoFlush 7. Purge nonpower-managed queues. IQueueCallbackIoStop::OnIoStop 8. Clean up I/O buffers, if driver supports self-managed I/O. IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo::OnSelfManagedIoCleanup Removal Processing Complete Wow! eBook ptg end-user reporting of crash information. The information collected through WER is accessible to vendors so that they can analyze problems and respond directly to their customers. You can also use PREfast, a static analysis tool that is part of the WDK, with UMDF drivers. PREfast examines code paths on a per-function basis and can find logic and usage errors in a driver at compile time. 3.14.1 Installation and Configuration UMDF drivers are installed by using standard INF files, in the same way as Kernel Mode Drivers. A hardware vendor’s installation package thus includes ■ An INF file for the driver ■ The redistributable update co-installer WUDF_Update_MMmmm.dll (where MM is the major UMDF version number and mmm is the minor version number) ■ A driver binary ■ An optional custom installation application The INF file includes a [DDInstall.CoInstallers] section that references the co-installer. The co-installer is available to hardware vendors in the WDK and in general distribution releases (GDRs). Microsoft provides the redistributable co-installer Wudf_Update_MMmmm.dll, which vendors can ship as part of their driver packages. The co-installer is a signed com- ponent. Driver installation fails if the certificate with the co-installer was signed and is not available on the target system. The Wdf section of the driver’s INF file specifies the driver service name, the driver class ID, the order in which the UMDF drivers should be installed in the device stack, and the maximum impersonation level that the UMDF driver can use. The DestinationDirs section of the INF file specifies the location to which to copy the driver. All UMDF drivers must reside in %SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\UMDF. This directory has sufficient ACLs to ensure that an unprivileged user cannot tamper with the drivers. If the UMDF device stack for the driver contains only filter drivers, the INF installs the reflector as the top-level filter driver in the Kernel Mode Driver stack. However, if the function driver for the device is a UMDF driver, the INF installs the reflector as the service for the device. 76 Chapter 3 Windows 7 UMD Overview and Operation Wow! eBook ptg When the INF for the device is processed, the co-installer starts the driver manager if it is not already running. User Mode Driver installation must not require a reboot of the system. 3.14.2 Versioning and Updates UMDF supports versioning, which enables a driver binary to run with the same major version of UMDF independent of the operating system version. Versioning helps to ensure that a driver uses the components with which it was designed, tested, and released. Each version of the operating system supports all versions of UMDF. Updates to UMDF or the operating system do not require updates to the driver. Microsoft is responsible for ensuring consistent behavior across releases. Although two major versions of UMDF can run side by side simulta- neously, two minor versions of the same major version cannot. At installa- tion, a more recent minor version of the UMDF run-time library or other components overwrites an existing, older minor version. If the older ver- sion is already loaded when a user attempts to install a driver with a newer version, the user must reboot the system. 3.14 Build, Test, and Debug 77 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 79 CHAPTER 4 PROGRAMMING DRIVERS FOR THE USER MODE DRIVER FRAMEWORK In this chapter, we will cover the overview of the User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) as well as how to create a UMDF Driver. We will introduce COM and how it is used in conjunction with creating a UMDF Driver. As was discussed in Chapter 3, UMDF Drivers create callback objects to represent the driver itself, each of its devices, and each of its I/O queues. The framework defines a set of interfaces, some of which the driver must implement for the callback objects that it creates and others the framework itself implements for the objects that the framework creates. In general, the framework creates an object that corresponds to each of the driver’s callback objects. The framework makes the interfaces on its own objects available to the driver by passing pointers. 4.1 Windows I/O Overview Before writing a driver—even a User Mode Driver—you must under- stand the basics of the Windows I/O architecture, as shown in Figure 4.1. In this overview, we will discuss some of the major principles behind the I/O system and define the most important terms. For a detailed explana- tion of Window I/O, see the book Windows Internals, Fifth Edition, which is listed in the Bibliography. As Figure 4.1 shows, Windows supports a layered I/O architecture. User mode applications and services issue I/O requests through the Win32 API and communicate with the user mode PnP manager to perform Plug and Play and power activities. The Win32 API and user mode PnP manager, Wow! eBook ptg 80 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Figure 4.1 Block Diagram Windows I/O Applications and Windows Services Win32 API User Mode PnP Manager Windows I/O System I/O Manager Power Manager PnP Manager Device Stack Filter Driver Function Driver Filter Driver Bus Driver User Mode Kernel Mode in turn, communicate with the kernel mode I/O system, which includes the kernel mode I/O manager, PnP manager, and power manager. The kernel mode I/O system communicates with the Kernel Mode Drivers. Wow! eBook ptg Drivers are also layered. Most devices are driven by not one but by several drivers, each layered atop the next. Together, the group of drivers that operates a particular device is called the device stack (sometimes also called the driver stack). At the bottom of the device stack is a bus driver, which controls a bus and enumerates the devices that are connected to the bus. Layered above the bus driver are filter drivers and a function driver. The function driver is the primary driver for the device and exposes the device interface to the I/O manager. Filter drivers can be layered above or below the function driver and provide additional features, such as encryp- tion or security, or change the behavior of a device. Each driver in the device stack is represented by a device object. The device object is a data structure that contains information about the driver and the device. Drivers receive I/O, Plug and Play, and power management requests in the form of I/O request packets (IRPs). When the Windows I/O manager receives an I/O request, it determines which device stack corres- ponds to the virtual file that is specified in the request. It then packages the request into an IRP and forwards it to the target device object. Plug and Play and power management notifications are also packaged as IRPs, and drivers communicate with other drivers by sending IRPs. When a driver receives an IRP, it takes whatever actions are required to satisfy the request and then completes it. Sometimes, however, a driver cannot satisfy an IRP by itself. If the driver cannot complete the IRP, it typically passes the IRP down the device stack to the next driver and optionally sets an I/O completion routine for callback when the request is complete. Eventually, the IRP arrives at a driver that satisfies and com- pletes the request. When the request is complete, the I/O manager calls any completion callback routines that drivers set as the request traveled down the device stack. It calls these routines in the opposite order in which they were set—that is, it “unwinds” back up the device stack. 4.2 Brief COM Information Chapter 5 covers the component object model (COM) in a fair amount of detail to get you up to speed on COM and the UMDF driver development. Here, we will just touch upon a few points. The UMDF interfaces are defined in terms of COM. UMDF does not depend on the COM infrastructure and run-time library. Instead, it uses only the COM programming pattern, specifically the query-interface and reference-counting features. It does not use the COM run-time loader. 4.2 Brief COM Information 81 Wow! eBook ptg The following is a brief overview on COM: ■ COM is based on a client-server model. ■ COM maintains reference counts for all of its objects. ■ COM objects expose interfaces, which support callable methods. ■ COM interfaces are C++ abstract base classes. An interface con- tains one or more methods that form the contract for any caller that wants to use the class. ■ The query-interface (QI) feature of COM enables a client to query a server to determine whether the server supports a particular interface. UMDF drivers can request notification of particular system events by exposing callback interfaces. UMDF uses the QI feature to discover these callback interfaces. ■ IUnknown is the fundamental COM interface, and every COM object supports it. IUnknown supports the QueryInterface, AddRef, and Release methods. The QueryInterface method enables other components to determine which interfaces the object supports. The AddRef and Release methods manage object lifetime. ■ The IClassFactory interface creates instances of class objects. UMDF calls DllGetClassObject to get a pointer to an IClassFactory interface in the driver and then uses the CreateInstance method of the IClassFactory interface to create an instance of the driver object. ■ When COM returns an interface pointer to a driver, it takes out a reference on the corresponding object. The driver should release this reference by calling the object’s Release method when it has finished using the object. Failing to release references causes object leaks, which consume memory unnecessarily. 4.3 UMDF Architecture A UMDF driver is a dynamic-link library (DLL) that runs as an in-process COM server. Figure 4.2 shows the components that are involved when a UMDF driver controls a device. As Figure 4.2 shows, the User Mode Driver runs under the Host Process, which combines with Kernel Mode Drivers (including the reflector) to form the device stack for the device. 82 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg The following describes the preceding components in the figure according to the typical flow of an I/O request. Application. The application issues I/O requests through the Win32 API, which in turn calls I/O routines in the Windows kernel. Windows kernel. The Windows kernel creates IRPs to represent the requests and forwards them to the top of the kernel mode device stack for the target device. 4.3 UMDF Architecture 83 Figure 4.2 User Mode Driver Architecture Application Win32 API Windows Kernel I/O Manager I/O Request User Mode Kernel Mode Host Process User Mode Driver UMDF Run-Time Environment Driver Manager Reflector Kernel Mode Drivers Device Stack Wow! eBook ptg Reflector. The reflector is a Kernel Mode WDM Filter Driver that is installed at the top of the kernel mode device stack for each device that is managed by a UMDF driver. The reflector manages communication between the kernel mode components and the User Mode Driver host process. Driver manager. The driver manager creates and shuts down all the driver host processes and maintains status information about them. It also responds to messages from the reflector. The driver manager runs as a Windows service and is started during installation of the first device that is managed by a UMDF driver. The driver manager must be running all the time that any device controlled by a UMDF driver is installed on the system. Microsoft provides the driver manager. Host process. The host process is the process in which the User Mode Driver runs. The host process is a child process of the driver manager and runs in the security credentials of a LocalService account, although it is not a Windows service. The host process includes the follow- ing components: ■ The UMDF driver is an in-process COM component that controls the hardware from user mode. ■ UMDF exposes the User Mode device-driver interface (DDI). UMDF is a DLL of COM-style objects that support the presentation, flow, and management of I/O and Plug and Play requests to the driver. ■ The run-time environment dispatches I/O requests, loads the driver, constructs and destroys the user mode device stack, man- ages a user mode thread pool, and handles messages from the reflector and the driver managers. Kernel Mode Drivers. Additional Kernel Mode Drivers can service each device. 4.4 Required Driver Functionality Every UMDF driver must provide the following functionality: ■ Support the DllMain export as its primary entry point. The driver must support DllMain as its primary entry point. After the system creates the UMDF driver host process, the host 84 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg process loads the driver by calling the DllMain function. In a UMDF driver, this function does very little; typically, it enables trac- ing and then returns. As in all DLLs, the driver must not make block- ing calls such as WaitForSingleObject, which can deadlock the system. Drivers should defer resource allocation to IDriverEntry::- OnInitialize, instead of DllMain. ■ Support the DllGetClassObject export, which must return a pointer to an IClassFactory interface that creates an instance of the driver callback object. The driver must also support the DllGetClassObject function, which COM requires. This function returns a pointer to an IClassFactory interface with which UMDF can create an instance of the driver callback object. The UMDF sample drivers show how to implement this function. Alternatively, the Active Template Library (ATL) wizard can be used to generate the supporting COM code. ■ Implement the IDriverEntry interface on the driver class. Finally, every User Mode WDF driver must implement the IDriverEntry interface on the driver class. This interface includes methods that initialize and uninitialize driver-wide data. UMDF calls the OnInitialize method when the first device for the driver is loaded and calls the OnDeinitialize method when the driver is unloaded. IDriverEntry also includes the OnAddDevice method, which UMDF calls when the Plug and Play manager enu- merates one of the driver’s devices. Figure 4.3 shows the interactions of the functionality of a driver with UMDF and the system. When the system starts, the driver manager is loaded and the follow- ing actions occur: 1. The driver manager creates the driver host process and then loads the driver library by calling the DllMain entry point. DllMain performs any required global initialization for the driver, such as starting tracing. 2. UMDF creates a framework driver object and calls the driver at DllGetClassObject to get an interface that I can use to create a corresponding callback object in the driver. DllGetClassObject returns a pointer to the driver’s IClassFactory interface. 4.4 Required Driver Functionality 85 Wow! eBook ptg 86 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Figure 4.3 Flow of Control for UMDF and Driver System and UMDF Actions Driver Actions Load driver library Initialize global variables and tracing Get interface with which to create driver callback object Instantiate class factory object. Return pointer to IClassFactory interface. Create driver callback object and get pointer to IDriverEntry interface Create driver callback object. Return pointer to IDriverEntry interface. Start UMDF driver Initialize driver variables Notify driver that a device is present Create device callback object. Create and configure I/O queues. Query for PnP and I/O queue interfaces on device object Return interface pointers as requested Invoke PnP and I/O queue methods as events occur DllMain DllGetClassObject IClassFactory::CreateInstance IDriverEntry::OnInitialize IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd IUnknown::QueryInterface various Respond to events as called Wow! eBook ptg 3. UMDF calls the CreateInstance method of the IClassFactory interface to create an instance of the driver callback object. The driver callback object implements methods to initialize the driver, to notify it that one of its devices has been enumerated, and to prepare it for unloading. 4. UMDF calls the OnInitialize method of the driver callback object to initialize the driver. 5. Whenever one of the driver’s devices is enumerated, UMDF calls OnDeviceAdd. OnDeviceAdd performs any required configu- ration, creates a device callback object to represent the device, creates any required device interfaces, and creates and configures the queues into which UMDF will place I/O requests that are tar- geted at the driver. A device interface is a device feature that driver exposes to applications or other system components, whereas a COM interface is a related group of functions that act on an object. 6. UMDF queries for the Plug and Play and queue interfaces that it will use to handle I/O requests. 7. When the device is removed, UMDF calls the Plug and Play meth- ods that are appropriate for the type of removal (orderly or surprise), deletes the objects, and calls the IDriverEntry::OnDeinitialize method to clean up. It then unloads the DLL and deletes the driver host process. 4.5 UMDF Sample Drivers The UMDF release for Windows 7 includes several sample User Mode Drivers, which are installed at WDF\UMDF\src in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) installation directory. You can use these samples as the basis for your own driver, as well as the examples in the book. Table 4.1 lists the UMDF samples. Use the WDK build environment to build the samples. To build a par- ticular sample: 1. Start a build environment window. 2. Set the working directory to the directory that contains the sample to build. 3. Type the following command: build –ceZ 4.5 UMDF Sample Drivers 87 Wow! eBook ptg 4.5.1 Minimal UMDF Driver: The Skeleton Driver The Skeleton driver contains the minimum amount of code that is required in a loadable UMDF driver. It was designed as a starting point from which to build drivers for actual hardware. In addition to demonstrating the minimal required features and best practices, the Skeleton driver splits into appropri- ate modules the common code that is required in all UMDF drivers. The Skeleton driver supports a driver entry point, functions to create and initialize the driver and device callback objects, and functions for COM support. It does not support any I/O or Plug and Play operations. Table 4.2 lists the component source files. 88 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Name Description Skeleton Minimal software-only driver that shows the structure and fundamental components of a simple UMDF driver. Echo Simple driver that uses a serial I/O queue and handles one I/O request at a time. The Echo sample defers the completion of each I/O request to a worker thread and shows how to mark a request cancelable while it is pending in the driver. This sample was adapted from the KMDF Echo sample and is functionally similar to the WDM sample of the same name. USB\Driver Hardware driver for the USB-FX2 Learning Kit from OSR. This sample supports a parallel I/O queue. It is similar to the Echo sample, but can handle multiple independent requests at one time. This driver also demonstrates how a User Mode Driver controls a device. It uses the memory in the OSR-USBFx2 device as a buffer and uses the WinUSB API and WinUSB Kernel Mode Driver to control the hardware. The driver demonstrates how to escape from UMDF and send I/O by using an alternate path and how to synchronize I/O on the alternate path with cancellation and file closure. USB\Filter Filter driver for the WinUSB driver stack. This sample modifies the data in read and write requests as they flow through the device stack and uses I/O targets to communicate with a lower driver. Table 4.1 List of UMDF Sample Drivers Wow! eBook ptg 4.5 UMDF Sample Drivers 89 Filename Description Comsup.cpp Source code for the CUnknown and CClassFactory classes. Comsup.h Header file for COM support functions and classes. Device.cpp Source code for the device callback object class, CMyDevice. Device.h Header file for the device callback object. Dllsup.cpp Source code for the driver entry point and exported COM support functions. Driver.cpp Source code for the driver callback object class, CMyDriver. Driver.h Header file for the driver callback object. Exports.def Definition file that identifies the library name and exported entry point for driver. Internal.h Header file for local type definitions. Makefile Generic makefile for building the sample. Makefile.inc Additional commands input to the makefile. Skeleton.htm Help file that describes the sample. Skeleton.rc Resource file for the sample. Sources Source file for the build procedure. UMDF_Skeleton_OSR.inx INF that installs the Skeleton sample as a driver for the OSR USBFX2 device. UMDF_Skeleton_OSR_xp.inx INF that installs the Skeleton sample as a driver for the OSR USBFX2 device on Windows 7. UMDF_Skeleton_root.inx INF that installs the Skeleton sample as a driver for a root-enumerated device. UMDF_Skeleton_root_xp.inx INF that installs the Skeleton sample as a driver for a root-enumerated device on Windows 7. Table 4.2 Component Source Files 4.5.2 Skeleton Driver Classes, Objects, and Interfaces The Skeleton driver implements the four classes that are listed in Table 4.3. Wow! eBook ptg 90 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Table 4.3 Classes Implemented in Skeleton Driver Class Name Description Public Interfaces CUnknown Base Class from which others derive IUnknown CClassFactory Class factory that instantiates the IClassFactory driver class CMyDriver Driver callback object class IDriverEntry IUnknown CMyDevice Device callback object IUnknown Figure 4.4 Interaction of Framework and Skeleton Objects IWdfDeviceInitialize CUnknownIUnknown IClassFactory IDriverEntry IWdfDevice CClassFactory CMyDriver CMyDeviceFramework Device Object IWdfDriver Framework Driver Object Figure 4.4 shows how the objects that are instantiated from these classes interact with the corresponding framework objects. Wow! eBook ptg 4.6 Driver Dynamic-Link Library and Exports 91 As Figure 4.4 shows, the framework implements a driver object and a device object. The framework’s driver object uses the IDriverEntry inter- face on the Skeleton driver’s CMyDriver object, and the CMyDriver object, in turn, uses the IWdfDriver interface on the framework’s driver object. The framework’s device object exposes the IWdfDevice and IWdfDeviceInitialize interfaces, which the driver’s CMyDevice object uses. The Skeleton driver’s CMyDevice class does not implement addi- tional interfaces because it does not support hardware or handle I/O requests. The device object in a typical driver would implement additional interfaces for Plug and Play notifications, I/O requests, I/O queues, and so forth. 4.6 Driver Dynamic-Link Library and Exports Every UMDF driver must support DllMain as the driver’s primary entry point and must export the DllGetClassObject function so that COM can instantiate the driver object. The Skeleton sample defines these functions in the Dllsup.cpp file. 4.6.1 Driver Entry Point: DllMain DllMain is the driver’s primary entry point. This function typically ini- tializes any data that is required for tracing and debugging but otherwise does little because most driver-and-device-specific initialization takes place in conjunction with the driver and device object creation. In the Skeleton driver, DllMain simply initializes tracing, as the following source code shows: BOOL WINAPI DllMain{ HINSTANCE ModuleHandle, DWORD Reason, PVOID /* Reserved */ } /*++ Routine Description: This is the entry point and exit point for the I/O driver. It does very little because the driver has mini- mal global data. Wow! eBook ptg 92 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF This method initializes tracing. Arguments: ModuleHandle - the Dll handle for this module. Reason - the reason this entry point was called. Reserved - unused Return Value: TRUE --*/ { If (DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH == Reason) { // // Initialize tracing. // WPP_INIT_TRACING(MYDRIVER_TRACING_ID); } else if (DLL_PROCESS_DETACH == Reason) { // // Clean up tracing. // WPP_CLEANUP(); } return TRUE; } When the driver host process calls DllMain, it passes a reason for the call, along with a handle and a reserved value, both of which the function can ignore. If the driver host process is starting and the DLL is being loaded, the reason is DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH. In this case, the func- tion initializes tracing. If the driver host process is terminating or the library did not load successfully, the reason is DLL_PROCESS_ DETACH, so the function ends tracing. Starting and ending tracing in DllMain ensures that trace information is recorded for the entire life of the driver. Wow! eBook ptg 4.6 Driver Dynamic-Link Library and Exports 93 4.6.2 Get Class Object: DllGetClassObject COM calls the driver’s DllGetClassObject function to get a pointer to an interface through which it can instantiate a driver callback object. This method should create an instance of the class factory for the driver object; UMDF later calls methods on the class factory to actually instantiate the driver callback object. The following is the source code for the Skeleton driver’s DllGet- ClassObject function: HRESULT STDAPICALLTYPE DllGetClassObject{ __in REFCLSID ClassId, __in REFIID InterfaceId, __deref_out LPVOID *Interface } /*++ Routine Description: This routine is called by COM to instantiate the skeleton driver callback object and do an initial query interface on it. This method only creates an instance of the driver’s class factory, which is the minimum required to support UMDF. Arguments: ClassId - the CLSID of the object being “gotten” InterfaceId - the interface the caller wants from that object Interface - a location to store the referenced interface pointer Return Value: S_OK if the function succeeds, or Error code indicating the reason for failure --*/ { PCClassFactory factory; HRESULT hr = S_OK; *interface = NULL; Wow! eBook ptg // // If the CLSID doesn’t match that of our “coclass” // defined in the IDL file) then we can’t create the // object that the caller wants. This error may indicate // that the COM registration is incorrect, and another // CLSID is referencing this driver. // If (IsEqualCLSID(ClassId, CLSID_MyDriverCoClass == false) { Trace{ TRACE_LEVEL_ERROR, L”ERROR: Called to create instance of unrecognized class “(%!GUID!)”, }; Return CLASS_E_CLASSNOTAVAILABLE; } // // Create an instance of the class factory for the caller // factory = new CClassFactory(); if (NULL == factory) { Hr = E_OUTOFMEMORY; } // // Query the object we created for the interface that the // caller requested. Then release the object. If the QI // succeeded and referenced the object, its reference // count will now be 1. If the QI failed, the reference // count is 0 and the object is automatically deleted. // If (S_OK == hr) { hr = factory->QueryInterface(InterfaceId, Interface); factory->Release(); } return hr; } 94 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg In the Skeleton driver, DllGetClassObject verifies that the class ID passed in by the caller (COM) matches the class ID of the object, as defined in the IDL file. It creates an instance of the class factory, calls QueryInterface on the class factory to get a pointer to the IClassFactory interface and increment its reference count, and then returns. 4.7 Functions for COM Support The source file Comsup.cpp supplies code that is required to support COM. It implements methods for the IUnknown and IClassFactory interfaces. This section briefly describes what these methods do, but does not show any of the sample code. You can simply copy the Comsup.cpp and Comsup.h files for use in your own drivers, typically without any changes. 4.7.1 IUnknown Methods CUnknown is the base class from which all other classes derive, and it supports the IUnknown interface. Every UMDF driver must implement this class with a constructor method and the IUnknown interface, which includes the AddRef, QueryInterface, QueryIUnknown, and Release methods. Table 4.4 summarizes the IUnknown methods. 4.7 Functions for COM Support 95 Method Name Description CUnknown Constructor, which initializes the reference count for this instance of the CUnknown class to 1. QueryInterface Returns a pointer to the IUnknown interface for the object. QueryIUnknown Public helper method that casts a CUnknown pointer to an IUnknown pointer. AddRef Increments the reference count for the object. Release Decrements the object’s reference count and deletes the object if the reference count reaches zero. Table 4.4 IUnknown Method Names Wow! eBook ptg 4.7.2 IClassFactory Interface The CClassFactory class object implements the IClassFactory inter- face. The framework invokes methods in this interface to create an instance of the driver callback class. The driver callback class instance is the only callback object that the framework creates; the driver itself cre- ates all other callback objects in response to calls from the framework. Table 4.5 summarizes the methods in this interface. 4.7.3 Driver CallBack Object When UMDF gets a pointer to the IClassFactory interface, it calls the CreateInstance method in that interface to create an instance of an object. That method, in turn, calls the CMyDriver::CreateInstance method, which creates and initializes the driver callback object. In gen- eral, any CreateInstance method is a factory method that creates an object. 96 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Method Description QueryInterface Returns a pointer to the requested interface. QueryIClassFactory Public helper method that casts a CClassFactory pointer to an IClassFactory pointer; essentially similar to the IQueryIUnknown method in the IUnknown interface. CreateInstance Creates an instance of the driver callback class and returns a pointer to a requested interface for that class. LockServer Maintains a lock count that indicates whether the driver DLL should remain in memory. Table 4.5 IClassFactory Methods Wow! eBook ptg CMyDriver::CreateInstance is defined in the source file Driver.cpp and is straightforward, as the following shows: HRESULT CMyDriver::CreateInstance( __out PCMyDriver *Driver ) /*++ Routine Description: This static method is invoked to create and initialize a new instance of the driver class. The caller should arrange for the object to be released when it is no longer in use. Arguments: Driver - a location to store a referenced pointer to the new instance Return Value: S_OK if successful, or error otherwise --*/ { PCMyDriver driver; HRESULT hr; // // Allocate the callback object // driver = new CMyDriver(); if (NULL == driver) { return E_OUTOFMEMORY; } // // Initialize the callback object // hr = driver->Initialize(); if (SUCCEEDED (hr)) { 4.7 Functions for COM Support 97 Wow! eBook ptg // // Store a pointer to the new, initialized object in // the output parameter. // *Driver = driver; } else { // // Release the reference on the driver object so that // it will delete itself // driver->Release(); } return hr; } This method allocates and creates an instance of the driver callback object, and then calls the initialize method to initialize the object. The Skeleton driver object requires no initialization, so the Initialize method is a stub (and so is not shown here). CreateInstance returns a pointer to the new driver callback object and releases its reference on this object before returning. Every UMDF driver must implement the IDriverEntry interface on the driver callback object. This interface supports methods to ini- tialize the driver, perform tasks when one of the driver’s devices is added to the system, and prepare the driver for unloading, just before DllMain.DetachProcess is called. The driver.cpp file contains code that implements IDriverEntry. IDriverEntry defines three methods: OnDeviceAdd, OnInitialize, and OnDeInitialize. In the Skeleton driver, the OnInitialize and OnDeInitialize methods are stubs. When one of the driver’s devices is added, UMDF calls the OnDevice method, passing as parameters pointers to the IWdfDriver and IWdfDeviceInitialize interfaces, which the framework implements. The Skeleton driver does not support physical hardware, so its OnDeviceAdd method is minimal: HRESULT CMyDriver::OnDeviceAdd{ __in IWDFDriver *FxWdDriver, __in IWDFDeviceInitialize *FxDeviceInit } /*++ 98 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg Routine Description: The FX invokes this method to install our driver on a device stack. This method creates a device callback object, then calls the Fx to create an Fx device object and associate the new callback object with it. Arguments: FxWdfDriver - the Fx driver object. FxDeviceInit - the initialization information for the device. Return Value: Status --*/ { HRESULT hr; PCMyDevice device = NULL; // // TODO: Here is where to do any per device initialization // (reading settings from the registry, for example) that is // required before you create the device callback object. // You can leave initialization of the device callback // object itself to the device event handler. // // // Create a new instance of our device callback object // hr = CMyDevice::CreateInstance(FxWdfDriver, FxDeviceInit, &device); // // TODO: Change any per device settings that the object // exposes before you call Configure to complete its // initialization. // 4.7 Functions for COM Support 99 Wow! eBook ptg // // If that succeeded then call the device’s construct // method. The construct method can create queues or // other structures that are required for the device object. if (S_OK == hr) { hr = device->Configure(); } // // Release the reference on the device callback object // now that it’s associated with an fx device object. // if (NULL != device) { device->Release(); } return hr; } The Skeleton driver’s OnDeviceAdd method calls the CreateInstance method on the CMyDevice class to instantiate the device callback object. It passes the pointers to the IWdfDevice- Initialize and IWdfDriver interfaces so that CreateInstance can use these UMDF defined interfaces to create and initialize the device object. By convention, a CreateInstance method in the sample represents a factory for building objects of a particular type. 4.7.4 Device CallBack Object The device callback object represents the device in the driver. The driver creates an instance of this object when its IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd method is called. The driver implements the CreateInstance, Initialize, Configure, and QueryInterface methods for the device callback object. The code for the device callback object for the Skeleton driver is in the Device.cpp. This module includes the header files Internal.h, which contains driver-specific internal definitions, and Device.tmh, which defines tracing information for Event Tracing for Windows (ETW). 100 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg 4.7.4.1 CreateInstance Method A driver’s IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd method calls IDeviceObject::- CreateInstance to create an instance of the device callback object. This method simply allocates and initializes an instance of the device callback object as follows: HRESULT CMyDevice::CreateInstance( __in IWDFDriver *FxDriver, __in IWDFDeviceInitialize *FxDeviceInit, __out PCMyDevice *Device ) /*++ Routine Description: This method creates and initializes an instance of the skeleton Driver’s device callback object. Arguments: FxDeviceInit - the settings for the device. Device - a location to store the referenced pointed to the device object. Return Value: Status --*/ { PCMyDevice device; HRESULT hr; // // Allocate a new instance of the device class. // device = new CMyDevice(); if (NULL == device) { Return E_OUTOFMEMORY; } 4.7 Functions for COM Support 101 Wow! eBook ptg // // Initialize the instance. // hr = device->Initialize(FxDriver, FxDeviceInit); if (S_OK == hr) { *Device = device; } else { device->Release(); } return hr; } When UMDF calls the OnDeviceAdd method, it passes a pointer to the IWdfDriver interface and a pointer to the IWdfDeviceInitialize interface. These interfaces provide methods through which the driver can initialize per- device-object settings and create a device callback object. OnDeviceAdd passes these pointers to CreateInstance, which in turn passes them as parameters to the Initialize method to initialize the instance. 4.7.4.2 Initialize Method The Initialize method of the device callback object does exactly what its name implies: It initializes the callback object. It also calls the framework to create the framework’s device object. The initialize method receives a handle to the framework’s IWdfDeviceInitialize interface and stores it in FxDeviceInit. It uses this handle to call methods on that interface to initialize certain device characteristics that must be set before the framework’s device object is created. Such characteristics include the synchronization (locking) model and the Plug and Play features. They also indicate whether the driver is a filter driver, whether the driver controls device power policy, and whether the framework should forward or fail certain request types. The driver must set these values before creating the framework’s device object because they determine which callbacks the framework initializes for the device object. The following code shows how to set the needed values: HRESULT CMyDevice::Initialize( 102 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg __in IWDFDriver *FxDriver, __in IWDFDeviceInitialize *FxDeviceInit ) /*++ Routine Description: This method initializes the device callback object and creates the partner device object. The method should perform any device specific configuration that: Could fail (these can’t be done in the constructor) must be done before the partner object is created-or- can be done after the partner object is created and isn’t influenced, by any device level parameters that the parent (the driver in this case) might set. Arguments: FxDeviceInit - the settings for this device. Return Value: status. --*/ { IWDFDevice *fxDevice; HRESULT hr; // // Configure things like the locking model before we // create our partner device. // // // TODO: Set her locking mode. The skeleton uses device level // locking, but you can choose “none” as well. // FxDeviceInit->SetLockingConstraint (WdfDeviceLevel); // // TODO: If you’re writing a filter driver indicate that // here. // 4.7 Functions for COM Support 103 Wow! eBook ptg // FxDeviceInit->SetFilter(); // // // TODO: Any per-device initialization which must be done // before creating the partner object. // // // Create a new FX device object and assign the new // callback object to handle any device level events that // occur. // // // QueryIUnknown references the IUnknown interface that it // returns (which is the same as referencing the device). We // pass that to CreateDevice, which takes its own reference // if everything works. // { IUnknown *unknown = this->QueryIUnknown(); hr = FxDriver->CreateDevice(FxDeviceInit, unknown, &fxDevice); unknown->Release(); } // // If that succeeded, then set our FxDevice member variable. // if (S_OK == hr) { m_FxDevice = fxDevice; // // Drop the reference we got from CreateDevice. Since // this object is partnered with the framework object // they have the same lifespan. There is no need for an // additional reference. // } return hr; } 104 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg The Initialize method first sets the locking model for the driver by calling the SetLockingConstraint method of the IWdf- DeviceInitialize interface. The locking model determines whether the framework calls the driver’s callback methods concurrently on a per- device-object level or not at all. The Skeleton driver sets WdfDeviceLevel, which means that the framework synchronizes calls to methods at the device object level or lower. Therefore, the driver does not require code to synchronize access to shared data in such methods. Device-level locking applies to methods on the IWdfIoQueue interface, the IFileCallbackCleanup interface, and the IFileCallback- Close interface. The IWdfIoQueue interface is implemented by the I/O queue object, and the IFileCallbackCleanup and IFileCallbackClose interfaces are implemented by the device object. The Skeleton does not support physical hardware, so it does not set any Plug and Play characteristics. If it supported an actual Plug and Play device, it might also have to specify whether the device is ejectable, lock- able, and other similar settings. After the driver has set the device characteristics, it can call UMDF to create the framework’s device object. The IWdfDriver::Create- Device method takes a pointer to the IWdfDeviceInitialize interface that was passed to the driver, a pointer to the driver’s device callback object, and a location in which to return the handle to the created frame- work device object. To get a pointer to the device callback object, the driver calls QueryIUnknown on the current interface. It then passes this pointer when it calls CreateDevice. Calling QueryIUnknown adds a reference on the IUnknown interface it returns—in this case, the driver’s callback object interface. After the CreateDevice method returns, the driver releases this reference. If UMDF successfully creates the framework device object, the driver initializes the variable m_FxDevice to hold the pointer to the returned interface. It then calls the Release method to release the reference that the CreateDevice method added on the returned interface. The m_FxDevice interface has the same lifetime as the framework’s IWdfDevice interface, so this reference is not required to ensure that the interface persists for the driver. 4.7.4.3 Configure Method The Configure method handles tasks that are related to configuration after the framework and device callback objects have been created. The 4.7 Functions for COM Support 105 Wow! eBook ptg Skeleton driver’s OnDeviceAdd callback invokes the Configure method after CreateInstance has successfully returned. In the Skeleton driver, Configure is a stub. In a driver that handles I/O requests, this method would create and configure I/O queues and queue callback objects. 4.7.4.4 QueryInterface Method The QueryInterface method returns a pointer to any of the device call- back object’s interfaces. It takes the interfaceId as an input parameter and returns a pointer to the interface. The Skeleton driver does not implement any of the event callback interfaces for the device object because it does not support actual hard- ware. Therefore, it simply returns the pointer to the IUnknown interface of the base class CUnknown, as follows: return CUnknown::QueryInterface(InterfaceId, object); In a driver that supports actual hardware, this method should validate the input interfaceId and return a pointer to the requested interface. 4.8 Using the Skeleton Driver as a Basis for Development The Skeleton driver is designed for use as a basis for UMDF driver develop- ment. By customizing the existing code and adding some of your own code, you can create a driver for your specific device. The following tasks are required: ■ Customize the exports. ■ Customize the Sources file. ■ Customize the INF file. ■ Customize the Comsup.cpp file. ■ Add device-specific code to the Driver.cpp file. ■ Add device-specific code to the Device.cpp file. For most drivers, you can use the following files from the Skeleton unchanged: ■ Resource.h ■ Makefile 106 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg ■ ComSup.cpp and ComSup.h, which supply basic support for COM ■ DllSup.cpp, which supports basic DLL functions 4.8.1 Customize the Exports File The file Exports.def lists the library and function names that the DLL exports. To customize this file, replace the value in the LIBRARY statement with the name of the binary file that contains the DLL. For example: LIBRARY “MyDevice.DLL” Your driver must export the DLLGetClassObject function, so you can leave the EXPORTS area unchanged. 4.8.2 Customize the Sources File The Sources file defines environment variables and settings that are required to build the driver. It is input to the generic makefile that is sup- plied with the samples. To create a makefile to build your own driver, you do not edit the generic makefile. Instead, you edit the Sources file. To customize the Sources file: ■ Change the TARGETNAME statement to include the name for your driver. For example: TARGETNAME=MyDevice ■ Change the SOURCES statement to include the source files for your driver. For example: SOURCES=\ MyDevice.rc \ dllsup.cpp \ comsup.cpp \ driver.cpp \ device.cpp \ ■ Change the NTTARGETFILES statement to include the INF files and any other miscellaneous files for your driver. For example: NTTARGETFILES=$(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\UMDFSkeleton_Root.inf\ $(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\UMDFSkeleton_OSR.inf 4.8 Using the Skeleton Driver 107 Wow! eBook ptg 4.8.3 Customize the INX File The INX file contains the INF that is used to install the driver. To use this file as a basis for your own driver’s installation, you must change a variety of settings. The following list outlines the types of required changes: ■ Change the [Manufacturer] section to include the name of your company and the [Manufacturer.NT$ARCH$] section to include the name and location of your driver. ■ Change the [SourceDisksFiles] section to include the name of your DLL. ■ If your driver is a filter driver, change the [DDInstall.Services] section to install the reflector as the top filter driver in the kernel mode device stack. If your driver is a function driver, the [DDInstall.Services] section should install the reflector as the service for the device. ■ Change the [DDInstall.Wdf] section to install your driver as a service and list it in the UMDFServiceOrder directive. ■ If your driver performs impersonation, add the UMDF- Impersonation directive that specifies the maximum imperson- ation level for the driver. ■ In the [UMDFServiceInstall] section, change the name of the binary to the name of your driver binary and specify your driver’s class ID in the DriverCLSID directive. ■ In the UMDriverCopy section, specify the name of your DLL. ■ In the [Strings] section, change the strings to specify the name of your company, installation medium, and so forth. Additional changes might be required depending on the type of device that your driver supports or whether yours is a software-only driver. 4.8.4 Customize the Comsup.cpp File If you change the name of the driver class to something different from CMyDriver, you must change the following line in CClassFactory::CreateInstance to reflect the new class name: hr = CMyDriver::CreateInstance(&driver); 108 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg 4.8.5 Add Device-Specific Code to Driver.cpp In the driver.cpp file, you should add code to the OnDeviceAdd method to initialize your device and to change any device-specific settings. For example, if your driver must read settings from the registry before initial- izing the device, it should do so in OnDeviceAdd. The CreateInstance, AddRef, Release, and QueryInterface methods from the Skeleton driver should suffice for most drivers. 4.8.6 Add Device-Specific Code to Device.cpp The file Device.cpp is where you must do the most work. The Skeleton sample does not support an actual device, so it implements very few of the interfaces and callback objects that are required for the typical device. In the Initialize method, you should set the locking constraint for your driver. The locking constraint determines whether your driver’s call- back methods can be called concurrently or whether only one such method at a time can be active. Note, however, that the locking model applies strictly to the number of callback methods that are concurrent; it does not limit the number of I/O requests that can be active in your driver at one time. If your driver is a filter driver, you should indicate that in the Initialize method as well, by calling the SetFilter method of the IDeviceInitialize interface. In the Configure method, you create the I/O queues for the driver. Because the Skeleton driver does not handle actual I/O requests, it does not set up any queues. Most drivers, however, implement one or more queues through which UMDF dispatches I/O requests. To create a queue, the driver calls the IWdfDevice::CreateIoQueue method and specifies how the queue dispatches requests to the driver: in parallel as soon as they arrive, sequentially (one at a time), or only when the driver calls a method on the queue to request one. The driver then calls IWdfIoQueue::ConfigureRequestDispatching to specify the types of requests that should be directed to the queue. The driver must also imple- ment methods in the IQueueCallbackXxx, IRequestCallbackXxx, and IFileCallbackXxx interfaces as appropriate to handle the requests that are directed to its queues. Finally, a driver that supports a Plug and Play device typically must implement the IPnPCallback interface and possibly the 4.8 Using the Skeleton Driver 109 Wow! eBook ptg IPnPCallbackHardware and IPnPCallbackSelfManagedIo inter- faces as well. You should also either update the header file Internal.h or add your own device-specific header file with any additional definitions pertinent to your device-specific code. 110 Chapter 4 Programming Drivers for the UMDF Wow! eBook ptg 111 CHAPTER 5 USING COM TO DEVELOP UMDF DRIVERS The Component Object Model (COM) is a specification for a way of building applications based on using components. In the traditional sense, applications were divided into files, modules, or classes. They were then linked to form a monolithic application. A component, however, is like a small application that comes packaged as a binary piece of code that is com- piled, linked, and ready to use. This piece of code then links with other components at run-time to form an application. One of the great features of this approach is that one can change or enhance the application by simply replacing one of the components. This chapter introduces COM and its use in creating UMDF drivers. For a more detailed discussion on COM, see the Bibliography for a reference to the book Inside COM (Rogerson 1997). For our work in the UMDF driver development, we must use a number of COM objects that are part of the WDF framework. A number of callback objects are needed to be created based on COM-based callback objects. In the UMDF driver development, we will not use the COM run-time, which contained a good deal of complexity. In the UMDF driver development, we use the essential core of the COM programming model. This keeps the UMDF driver fairly lightweight and thus relatively easy to implement. 5.1 Getting Started In general, the UMDF drivers are programmed using C++, and the COM objects are developed and also written in C++. It is good to have an under- standing of class structure such as the struct and class keywords, public and private members, static methods, constructors, destructors, and pure abstract classes. Also, you should understand object creation, which includes base and derived classes, multiple inheritance, and pure virtual methods. Wow! eBook ptg See the Bibliography for a reference to C++ How to Program, Seventh Edition (Deitel 2009) to review or get an understanding of these concepts. In UMDF drivers, the operator overloading or templates are not neces- sary. The UMDF drivers could use, but are not required to use, the C++ standard template libraries. This includes the Standard Template Library (STL) and the Active Template Library (ATL). We do not show examples of the use of these libraries. 5.1.1 COM Fundamentals Let’s look at some of the fundamental aspects of COM to get us started: ■ IUnknown is the core COM interface. All COM interfaces derive from this interface. Every COM object exposes this interface and it is essential to the object’s operation. ■ One of the significant differences between objects in COM and other Object Oriented Programming (OOP) models is that there are no fundamental object pointers in COM. COM exposes interfaces that are groups of related methods. Objects typically expose at least two and sometimes many interfaces. Thus, when you obtain a COM object, you are given a pointer to one of the object’s interfaces not the object itself. ■ Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs) are used by COM to uniquely identify COM interfaces. Some COM objects have GUID identifiers, which are referred to as CLSIDs. GUIDs are referred to as IIDs. We can request an interface pointer using these IIDs. COM uses GUIDs for two primary purposes: ■ Interface ID (IID)—An IID is a GUID that uniquely identi- fies a particular COM interface. The interface always has the same IID, regardless of which object exposes it. ■ Class ID (CLSID)—A CLSID is a GUID that identifies a par- ticular COM object. CLSIDs are required for COM objects that are created by a class factory, but optional for objects that are created in other ways. With UMDF, only the driver callback object has a class factory or a CLSID. To simplify using GUIDs, an associated header file usually defines friendly names that conventionally have a prefix of either IID_ or CLSID_ followed by the descriptive name. For example, the friendly name for the GUID that is associated with IDriverEntry 112 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg is IID_IDriveEntry. For convenience, the UMFD documentation usually refers to interfaces by the name used in their implementa- tion, such as IDriverEntry, rather than the IID. ■ Any of the methods on an interface can be used with an interface pointer. If you want access to a method on another interface you must obtain another interface pointer. That is done using the IUnknown::QueryInterface method. ■ There is no public data member’s exposure in COM objects. Public data is exposured through methods we call accessors. In UMDF, we use a Get/Retrieve or Set/Assign prefix for its read and write acces- sors, respectively. Figure 5.1 shows the logical relationship between an object and its contents. 5.1 Getting Started 113 Figure 5.1 COM Objects, Interfaces, and Methods Object 1 Interface 1 Methods Interface 2 Methods Additional Interfaces Private Data, Utility Methods Etc. Wow! eBook ptg All access to COM objects is through a virtual function table—com- monly called a VTable—that defines the physical memory structure of the interface. The VTable is an array of pointers to the implementation of each of the methods that the interface exposes. When a client gets a pointer to an interface, it is actually a pointer to the VTable pointer, which in turn points to the method pointer. For example, Figure 5.2 shows the memory structure of the VTable for IWDFloRequest. The VTable is exactly the memory structure that many C++ compilers create for a pure abstract base class. This is one of the main reasons that COM objects are normally implemented in C++, with interfaces declared as pure abstract base classes. You can then use C++ inheritance to imple- ment the interface in your objects, and the VTable is created for you by the compiler. 5.1.2 HRESULT Before we look at using COM objects, let’s look at the return from a COM method. COM methods often return a 32-bit type called an HRESULT. It’s similar to the NTSTATUS type that Kernel Mode Driver routines use as a return value and is used in much the same way. Figure 5.3 shows the layout of an HRESULT. The HRESULT type has three fields: ■ Severity, which is essentially a Boolean value that indicates success or failure ■ Facility, which can usually be ignored ■ Return code, which provides a more detailed description of the results 114 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Figure 5.2 VTable and Interface Pointers Interface Pointer VTable Pointer Private Data &CancelSentRequest &Complete &CompleteWithInformation CancelSentRequest Complete CompleteWithInformation Client Interface Class Implementation Wow! eBook ptg As with NTSTATUS values, it’s rarely necessary to parse the HRESULT and examine the individual fields. Standard HRESULT values are defined in header files and described on method reference pages. By convention, success codes are assigned names that begin with S_ and failure codes with E_. For example, S_OK is the standard HRESULT value for simple success. It’s important not to think of HRESULT as error values. Methods often have multiple return values for success and for failure. S_OK is the usual return value for success, but methods sometimes return other suc- cess codes, such as S_FALSE. The severity value is all that is needed to determine whether the method simply succeeded or failed. Rather than parse the HRESULT to get the Severity value, COM provides two macros that work much like the NT_SUCCESS macro that is used to check NTSTATUS values for suc- cess or failure. For an HRESULT return value of hr: FAILED(hr) Returns TRUE if the Severity code for hr indicates failure and FALSE if it indicates success. SUCCEEDED(hr) Returns FALSE if the Severity code for hr indicates failure and TRUE if it indicates success. You can examine the HRESULT’s return code to determine whether a failure is actionable. Usually, you just compare the returned HRESULT to the list of possible return values on the method’s reference page. However, be aware that those lists are often incomplete. They typically have only those HRESULTs that are specific to the method or standard HRESULTs that have some method-specific meaning. The method might also return other HRESULTs. 5.1 Getting Started 115 Figure 5.3 HRESULT Layout Severity Facility Return Code 015163031 Wow! eBook ptg Always test for simple success or failure with the SUCCEEDED or FAILED macros, whether or not you test for specific HRESULT values. Otherwise, for example, if you test for success by comparing the HRE- SULT to S_OK and the method unexpectedly returns S_FALSE, your code will probably fail. Although NTSTATUS and HRESULT are similar, they are not inter- changeable. Occasionally, information in the form of an NTSTATUS value must be returned as an HRESULT. In that case, use the HRE- SULT_FROM_NT macro to convert the NTSTATUS value into an equiv- alent HRESULT. However, do not use this macro for an NTSTATUS value of STATUS_SUCCESS. Instead, return the S_OK HRESULT value. If you need to return a Windows error value, you can convert it to an HRESULT with the HRESULT_FROM_WIN32 macro. 5.2 Using UMDF COM Objects A process that uses a COM object is known as a COM client. Both UMDF drivers and the UMDF run-time function as COM clients. UMDF drivers interact with UMDF run time by using UMDF-provided COM objects. For example, the UMDF device object represents the device, and drivers can use the object for tasks such as setting or retrieving the device’s Plug and Play state. The UMDF run time interacts with drivers through the drive-provided COM-based callback objects. For example, a driver can create one or more queue callback objects to handle I/O requests. The UMDF run time uses those objects to pass request to the driver. After you get a pointer to an interface, you can call the interface meth- ods by using the same syntax that is used for a pointer to a C++ method. For example, if pWdfRequest is a pointer to an IWDFloRequest inter- face, the following code is an example of how to invoke the interface’s Send method: HRESULT hr; hr = pWdfRequest- >Send( m_pIUsbTargetDevice, WDR_REQUEST_SEND_OPTION_SYNCHRONOUS, 0); 116 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg The method’s return value is an HRESULT, a typical return type for COM methods. HRESULT is similar to the NTSTATUS type that Kernel Mode Drivers use as a return value and is used in much the same way. It is important not to think of HRESULT as error values. Methods some- times have multiple return values for success as well as for failure. You can determine the result of calling a method by comparing the returned HRESULT to the list of possible values in the reference documentation. However, be aware that these lists are not always complete. Use the error- checking macros that are discussed shortly to ensure that you do not miss a possible return value. You can also test an HRESULT for simple success or failure. COM provides two macros for that purpose that work much like the NT_SUCCESS macro. For an HRESULT return value of hr: ■ FAILED(hr) returns TRUE for failure and FALSE for success. ■ SUCCEEDED(hr) returns FALSE for failure and TRUE for success. Although NTSTATUS and HRESULT are similar, they are not inter- changeable. Occasionally, information in the form of an NTSTATUS value must be returned as an HRESULT. In that case, you can use the HRESULT_FROM_NT macro to convert the NTSTATUS into an equivalent HRESULT. Do not use this macro for an NTSTATUS value of STATUS_SUCCESS. In that case, return the S_OK HRESULT value. 5.2.1 Obtaining an Interface on a UMDF Object You can obtain an interface on a UMDF object in one of three ways: ■ The UMDF run time passes an interface pointer in to one of the driver’s callback methods. ■ The driver creates a new WDF object by calling a UMDF object creation method. ■ The driver calls IUnknown::QueryInterface to request a new interface from an existing WDF object. You can also receive an Interface through a Driver Method. The first case is the simplest. For example, when the UMDF run time calls a driver’s IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd method, it passes a pointer to the device object’s IWDFDriver interface. 5.2 Using UMDF COM Objects 117 Wow! eBook ptg The following example shows this activity: HRESULT CMyDriver::OnDeviceAdd( __in IWDFDriver *FxWdfDriver, __in IWDFDeviceInitialize *FxDeviceInit ) { // Install the driver in the device stack } You can then use FxWdfDriver to access the methods on the driver object’s IWDFDriver interface. Do not release FxWdfDriver when you are finished with it. The caller ensures that the object remains valid during the scope of the method call. Another way to create a WDF object is by calling the appropriate UMDF object creation method. For example, to create a request object, call the UMDF device object’s IWDFDevice::CreateRequest method. If you look at the UMDF reference in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK), you will find syntax like that for IWDFDevice::CreateRequest: HRESULT CreateRequest( IN IUnknown* pCallbackInterface, IN IWdfObject* pParentObject, OUT IWDFIoRequest** ppRequest ); ppRequest is an OUT parameter that provides an address at which the CreateRequest method can store a pointer to the newly created request object’s IWDFObject interface. The following procedure and sample show how to handle such parameters, by using a call to CreateRequest by the UMDF’s fx2_driver sample as an example. We would declare a variable, pWdfRequest, to hold a pointer to IWDFloRequest. Then we would pass a reference to pWdfRequest to CreateRequest as follows: IWDFIoRequest *pWdfRequest = NULL; … hr = m_FxDevice- >CreateRequest ( NULL, NULL, &pWdfRequest); When CreateRequest returns, pWdfRequest holds a pointer to an IWDFIoRequest interface. When the caller has finished with pWdf- Request, it should release the interface pointer by calling IUn- known::Release. 118 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg Another approach is to call QueryInterface to request a new inter- face. Objects can expose more than one interface. Sometimes, you have a pointer to one interface and need a pointer to another interface on the same object. In that case, call IUnknown::QueryInterface to request the desired pointer. Pass QueryInterface the IID of the desired interface and the address of the interface pointer, and QueryInterface returns the requested pointer. When the caller is finished with the interface pointer, the caller should release it. The following is an example: VOID CMyDevice::StartTarget ( IWDFIoTarget * pTarget) { IWDFIoTargetStateManagement * pStateMgmt = NULL; HRESULT hrQI = pTarget->QueryInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&pStateMgmt)); … } This example requests an IWDFIoTargetStateManagement inter- face pointer from the UMDF’s I/O target object. It uses the IID_PPV_ARGS macro—declared in objbase.h—which takes an interface pointer and produces the correct arguments for QueryInterface. QueryInterface belongs to the IUnknown interface. However, as shown earlier, there is no need to have an explicit pointer to an object’s IUnknown interface to call QueryInterface. All interfaces inherit from IUnknown, so you can use any interface to call QueryInterface. 5.2.2 Reference Counting Unlike C++ objects, a client does not directly manage the lifetime of a COM object. Instead, a COM object maintains a reference count on itself. When a client creates a new object with an object-creation method, the object has a reference count of 1. Each time the client requests an addi- tional interface on the object, the object increments the reference count. When a client is finished with an interface, it releases the interface pointer, which decrements the reference count. When all the interface pointers on the object have been released, the reference count is zero and the object destroys itself. You must be extremely careful about handling reference counts when you use or implement COM objects. Although clients do not explicitly destroy COM objects, there is no garbage collection to take care of the problem automatically as there is with managed code. A common 5.2 Using UMDF COM Objects 119 Wow! eBook ptg mistake is to fail to release an interface. In that case, the reference count never goes to zero and the object remains in memory indefinitely. Conversely, releasing the interface pointer too many times causes the object to be destroyed prematurely, which can cause a crash. Failure to correctly manage reference counts is a common cause of memory leaks in COM-based applications, along with a variety of other problems. Even worse, bugs that are caused by mismanaged reference counts can be very difficult to locate. The following are some basic rules for reference counting: ■ Release any interface pointer that is passed to you as an OUT parameter when you are finished with it by calling IUnknown::- Release. Do not release pointers that are passed as IN parameters. A common practice to ensure that all interface pointers are properly released is to initialize all pointers to NULL. Then set them to NULL again when they are released. That convention allows you to test all the interface pointers in your cleanup code; any non-NULL pointers are still valid and should be released. ■ The reference count is usually incremented for you. The main exception is when you make a copy of an interface pointer. In that case, call IUnknown::AddRef to explicitly increment the object’s reference count. You must then release the pointer when you are finished. ■ When you discover that the driver has reference counting prob- lems, do not attempt to fix them by simply adding calls to AddRef or Release. Make sure that the driver is acquiring and releasing references according to the rules. Otherwise, you may find, for example, that the Release calls that you added to solve a memory leak occasionally deletes the object prematurely and instead causes a crash. As with QueryInterface, you do not need a pointer to the object’s IUnknown interface to call AddRef or Release. You can call these meth- ods from any of the object’s interfaces. 5.3 Basic Infrastructure Implementation In this section, we will discuss the required basic infrastructure to support UMDF drivers. A good starting point for your implementation is to take 120 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg the sample in this book and modify that code to suit your driver’s needs. That code should require at most only modest changes to adapt it to your driver’s requirements. 5.3.1 DllMain A dynamic-link library (DLL) can contain any number of in-process COM objects, but it must have a single entry point that is named DllMain. Windows calls DllMain after the driver binary has been loaded into a host process and before it is unloaded. The function is also called when threads are created or destroyed. The dwReason parameter indicates why the function was called. When a UMDF driver’s DllMain function is called for DLL loading or unloading, it should perform only simple module-wide initialization and termination tasks, such as initializing or freeing global variables and regis- tering or unregistering Window Software Trace Preprocessor (WPP) trac- ing. There is a number of things DllMain should definitely not do, such as calling LoadLibrary. When a UMDF driver’s DllMain function is called for thread creation or destruction, it can ignore the call. For more information, see the func- tion’s reference page in the Platform Software Developers Kit (SDK). For a typical DllMain implementation, see the dllsup.cpp from the UMDF sample code. 5.3.2 DllGetClassObject Because class factories aren’t exported by name, there is no direct way for a client to get access to them. Instead, the DLL exports the DllGetClassObject function by name, which allows it to be called by any client with access to the DLL. For many COM DLLs, including the UMDF samples, DllGetClassObject is the only function that is listed in the project’s .def file to be exported by name from the DLL. When a client wants to create an instance of one of the COM objects in the DLL, it passes the CLSID of the desired class factory object to DllGetClassObject and the IID of the desired interface, usually IClassFactory. DllGetClassObject creates a new class factory object and returns a pointer to the appropriate interface on the object. The client can then use the IClassFactory::CreateInstance method to create an instance of the object. For a typical implementation of 5.3 Basic Infrastructure Implementation 121 Wow! eBook ptg DllGetClassObject, see dllsup.cpp from the UMDF’s sample code in the book. A standard COM server is also required to implement DllCan UnloadNow and, optionally, DllRegisterServer and DllUnregister Server. These exports are not required for UMDF drivers. 5.3.3 Driver Object’s Class Factory Some COM objects must be created by external clients. For UMDF driv- ers, there is usually only one such object: that is the driver callback object. A COM object that can be created by an external client must have a class factory. This is a small specialized COM object whose sole purpose is to create a new instance of its associated COM object and return a pointer to a specified interface. For a typical implementation of a class factory, see comsup.cpp from the UMDF’s sample code. Class factories usually expose only one interface in addition to IUnknown, IClassFactory. The IClassFactory interface has two members: ■ CreateInstance creates an instance of the object and returns the requested interface pointer to the client. ■ LockServer can be used to keep the DLL in memory. UMDF class factories typically have only a token implementation because UMDF does not use LockServer. Some recommendations for implementing CreateInstance are as follows. ■ Ignore the first parameter. Its purpose is to support COM aggrega- tion, which is not used by UMDF. ■ Create a new driver callback object by whatever means is conven- ient. The sample code puts the object creation code in a static method on the class that implements the callback object. ■ Return the appropriate interface as an OUT parameter. At this point, the object should have a reference count of 1. 5.3.4 Implementing a UMDF Callback Object A UMDF driver consists of a collection of COM callback objects. These objects respond to notification by the UMDF run time and allow the driver to process various events, such as read or write requests. All callback 122 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg objects are in-process COM objects. This means that they are packaged in a DLL and run in the process context of a UMDF host. The basic requirements for implementing UMDF callback objects are relatively simple and straightforward: ■ Implement the IUnknown methods to handle reference counting and provide pointers to the object’s interfaces. ■ Implement the methods of the UMDF callback interfaces that are to be exported by the object. 5.3.4.1 Implementing the UMDF Callback Class UMDF callback objects are typically implemented as a C++ class that contains the code to support IUnknown plus any UMDF interfaces that the object exposes. The UMDF interfaces are declared in wudfdd.h. Following are some of the requirements: ■ The class must inherit from every interface that it exposes. However, it can do so indirectly, for example, by inheriting from a class that in turn inherits from one or more interfaces. ■ Interfaces are declared as abstract base classes, so the class must implement all the interface methods. ■ The class often inherits from a parent class in addition to interfaces. Many of the UMDF samples, for instance, inherit from a parent class, named CUnknown, that contains a base implementation of IUnknown. ■ The class can contain private data members, public methods that are not part of an interface, and so on. These are for internal use and are not visible to clients. ■ Constructors are optional. However, if a class has a constructor, it should contain no code in it that might fail. Put any code that can fail in a public initialization method that can be called after object creation. As we mentioned, a UMDF callback object is typically implemented as a class that inherits from IUnknown and one or more object-specific inter- faces. Listing 5.1 shows the full declaration of the CMyDriver class. The class inherits from a single UMDF interface IDriverEntry and inherits from IUnknown through the CUnknown parent class. For convenience, several of the simpler methods are implemented here, rather than in the associated .cpp file. 5.3 Basic Infrastructure Implementation 123 Wow! eBook ptg Listing 5.1 Declaration of a Driver’s Callback Object Class CMyDriver : public Unknown, Public IDriveEntry { private: IDriverEntry * QueryIDriverEntry (VOID) { AddRef(); return static_cast(this); } HRESULT initialize(VOID); public: static HRESULT CreateInstance(__out PCMyDriver *Driver); public: virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE OnInitialize(__in IWDFDriver *FxWdfDriver) { UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER (FxWdfDriver); return S_OK; } virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE OnDeviceAdd( __in IWDFDriver *FwWdfDriver, __in IWDFDeviceInitialize *FxDeviceInit); virtual VOID STDMETHODCALLTYPE OnDeinitialize( __in IWDFDriver *FxWdfDriver ) { UNREFERENCED PARAMETER(FxWdfDriver); return; } virtual ULONG STDMETHODCALLTYPE AddRef (VOID) { return __super::AddRef(); } virtual ULONG STDMETHODCALLTYPE Release(VOID) { return __super::Release(); } virtual HRESULT STDMETHODCALLTYPE QueryInterface( __in REFID InterfacedId, __deref_out PVOID *Object ); }; 124 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg IUnknown is the core COM interface; it is exposed by every COM object and is essential to the object’s operation. The approach that is used by the UMDF sample code is to have an IUnknown base class, called CUnknown, plus an implementation for each exposed interface that inherits from the base class. 5.3.4.2 Implementing AddRef and Release Reference counting is arguably the key task of IUnknown. Normally, a single reference count is maintained for the object as a whole. The follow- ing are some recommendations for handling AddRef and Release: ■ Have the interface-specific implementations pass their calls to the base implementation and let it handle incrementing or decrement- ing the reference count for the object. ■ Use InterlockedIncrement and InterlockedDecrement to modify the reference count. This eliminates the possibility of a race condition. ■ After the Release method decrements the reference count, check to see whether the count has gone to zero. If so, there are no out- standing interface pointers and you can use delete to destroy the object. ■ Both AddRef and Release return the current reference count. Use this for debugging purposes. 5.3.5 Implementing QueryInterface QueryInterface is the fundamental mechanism by which a COM object provides pointers to its interfaces. It responds to a client’s request by returning the specified interface pointer. The following are some recom- mendations for QueryInterface: ■ QueryInterface must check the incoming IID to see if the request is for a supported interface. IsEquallD is a utility function declared in guiddef.h that simplifies comparing IIDs. ■ If the object supports the requested interface, QueryInterface calls AddRef to increment the object’s reference count and returns the requested interface pointer. To return the pointer, QueryInterface casts a this pointer to the requested interface type. This cast is required because of the way in which C++ handles multiple inheritances. 5.3 Basic Infrastructure Implementation 125 Wow! eBook ptg ■ When a client queries for IUnknown, an object must always return the same IUnknown pointer regardless of which interface QueryInterface is called from. The basic process of implementing UMDF callback interfaces is similar to IUnknown. Most of the implementation details are governed by the requirements of the individual methods. 126 Chapter 5 Using COM to Develop UMDF Drivers Wow! eBook ptg P A R T I I I KERNEL MODE DRIVERS Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg CHAPTER 6 WINDOWS 7 KERNEL MODE DRIVERS OVERVIEW AND OPERATIONS The Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) is an infrastructure for developing Kernel Mode Drivers. It provides a C-language device-driver interface (DDI) and can be used to create drivers for Windows 7. In essence, the framework is a skeletal device driver that can be customized for specific devices. KMDF implements code to handle common driver requirements. Drivers customize the framework by setting object proper- ties, registering callbacks to be notified of important events, and including code only for features that are unique to their device. KMDF provides a well-defined object model and controls the lifetime of objects and memory allocations. Objects are organized hierarchically in a parent/child model, and important driver data structures are maintained by KMDF instead of by the driver. This chapter provides an introduction to the architecture and features of KMDF and to the requirements for drivers that use KMDF (sometimes called KMDF-based drivers or simply DMDF drivers). As we covered in Part II, the Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) also includes a User Mode Driver Framework (UMDF). If your device does not handle interrupts, perform direct memory access (DMA), or require other kernel mode resources such as nonpaged pool memory, you should consider writing a User Mode Driver instead. 6.1 KMDF Supported Devices KMDF was designed to replace the Windows Driver Model (WDM). The initial KMDF release supports most of the same devices and device classes as WDM, except in those that are currently supported by 129 Wow! eBook ptg miniport models. Table 6.1 lists the device and driver types that KMDF supports. Table 6.1 Devices and Driver Types That KMDF Supports 130 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Device or Driver Type Control and non-Plug and Play drivers IEEE 1394 client drivers ISA, PCI, PCMCIA, and secure digital (SD) devices NDIS protocol drivers NDIS WDM drivers SoftModem drivers Storage class drivers and filter drivers Transport driver interface (TDI) client drivers USB client drivers Winsock client drivers Existing Driver Model Legacy Depends on device class WDM driver WDM upper edge and NDIS lower edge NDIS upper edge and WDM lower edge WDM driver with upper Edge support for TAPI Interface WDM driver Generic WDM driver Depends on device class WDM driver with a callback interface for device-specific requests Comments Supported Supported for devices that do not conform to existing device class specifications Supported, if device class or port drivers do not provide the driver dispatch functions Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported Supported In general, KMDF supports drivers that conform to WDM, supply entry points for the major I/O dispatch routines, and handle I/O request packets (IRPs). For some device types, device class and port drivers sup- ply driver dispatch functions and call back to a miniport driver to handle Wow! eBook ptg specific I/O details. Such miniport drivers are essentially callback libraries and are not currently supported by KMDF. In addition, KMDF does not support device types that use the Windows imaging architecture (WIA). 6.2 KMDF Components KMDF is distributed as part of the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) and con- sists of header files, libraries, sample drivers, development tools, public debugging symbols, and tracing format files. By default, KMDF is installed in the WDF subdirectory of the WDK root installation directory. KMDF- based drivers are built in the WDK build environment. Table 6.2 lists the KMDF components that are installed as part of WDF. Table 6.2 KMDF Component Names 6.2 KMDF Components 131 Component Location Description Header files wdf/inc Header files required to build KMDF drivers Libraries wdf/lib Libraries for x86, x64, and Intel Itanium architectures Sample drivers wdf/src Sample drivers for numerous device types; most are ported from Windows Device Kit (DDK) WDM samples Tools wdf/bin Tools for testing, debugging, and installing drivers, includes the redistributable KMDF co-installer, WdfConinstallernn.dll Debugging symbols wdf/symbols Public symbol database (.pdb) files for KMDF libraries and co-installer for checked and free builds Tracing format files wdf/tracing Trace format files for the trace messages generated by KMDF libraries and co- installer Wow! eBook ptg To aid in debugging, KMDF is distributed with free and checked builds of the run-time libraries and loader, along with corresponding sym- bols. However, Microsoft does not provide a checked version of the redis- tributable co-installer itself. 6.3 KMDF Driver Structure A KMDF driver consists of a DriverEntry function that identifies the driver as based on KMDF, a set of callback functions that KMF calls so that the driver can respond to events that affect its device, and other driver-specific utility functions. Nearly every KMDF driver must have the following: ■ A DriverEntry function, which represents the driver’s primary entry point ■ An EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback, which is called when the Plug and Play manager enumerates one of the driver’s devices (not required for drivers that support non-Plug and Play devices) ■ One or more EvtIo* callbacks, which handle specific types of I/O requests from a particular queue Drivers typically create one or more queues into which KMDF places I/O requests for the driver’s device. A driver can configure the queues by type of request and type of dispatching. A minimal Kernel Mode Driver for a simple device might have these functions and nothing more. KMDF includes code to support default power management and Plug and Play operations, so drivers that do not manipulate physical hardware can omit most Plug and Play and power management code. If a driver can use the default, it does not require code for many common tasks, such as passing a power IRP down the device stack. The more device-specific features a device supports and the more functionality the driver provides the more code the driver requires. 6.4 Comparing KMDF and WDM Drivers The KMDF model results in drivers that are much simpler and easier to debug than WDM drivers. KMDF drivers require minimal common code for default operations because most such code resides in the 132 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg framework, where it has been thoroughly tested and can be globally updated. Because KMDF events are clearly and narrowly defined, KMDF- based drivers typically require little code complexity. Each driver callback routine is designed to perform a specific task. Therefore, compared to WDM drivers, KMDF-based drivers have fewer lines of code and virtually no state variables or locks. As part of the WDF development effort, Microsoft has converted many of the sample drivers that shipped with the Windows DDK from WDM drivers to KMDF drivers. Without exception, the KMDF drivers are smaller and less complex. Table 6.3 shows “before-and-after” statistics for the PCIDRV, Serial, and OSRUSBFX2 drivers. Table 6.3 WDM-KMDF Statistics for Sample Drivers 6.4 Comparing KMDF and WDM Drivers 133 Statistic PCIDRV Serial OSRUSBFX2 WDM KMDF WDM KMDF WDM KMDF Total lines of code 13,147 7,271 24,000 17,000 16,350 2,300 Lines of code required 7,991 1,795 5,000 2,500 8,700 742 for Plug and Play and power management Locks and 8 3 10 0 9 0 synchronization State variables required 30 0 53 0 21 0 for Plug and Play and power management The PCIDRV sample supports the Intel E100B NIC card. The WDM and KMDF versions are functionally equivalent. The Serial sample sup- ports a serial device. In this case, the WDM sample supports a multiport device, but the KMDF sample supports only a single port. However, the statistics for the WDM driver do not include code, locks, or variables that are required solely to support multiport devices, so the statistics are com- parable. The OSRUSBFX2 sample supports the USB-FX2 board built by OSR. The WDM and KMDF versions are functionally equivalent. Wow! eBook ptg As the table shows, converting these drivers from WDM to KMDF resulted in significant reductions in the lines of code, particularly for Plug and Play and power management. The KMDF samples also require fewer locks and synchronization primitives and state variables. The following information shows more detail with respect to these requirements: ■ Lines of code—The KMDF drivers require significantly fewer lines of code both overall and to implement Plug and Play and power management. Less code means a less complex driver with fewer opportunities for error and a smaller executable image. ■ Locks and synchronization primitives—Not only are the KMDF drivers smaller, but in all three cases the number of locks and synchronization primitives has been reduced significantly. This change is important because it eliminates a common source of driver problems. WDM drivers use locks to synchronize I/O queues with Plug and Play and power operations and often supply locks to manage I/O cancellation. The locking scenarios typically involve one or more race conditions and can be difficult to implement correctly. KMDF drivers can be implemented with few such locks because the framework provides the locking. ■ State variables—The number of state variables that are required for Plug and Play and power management is a measure of the com- plexity of the Plug and Play and power management implementa- tion within the driver. A WDM driver receives Plug and Play and power management requests from the operating system in the form of IRPs. When such a driver receives a Plug and Play or power IRP, it must determine the current state of its device and the system and, based on those two states, must determine what to do to satisfy the IRP. Drivers must handle some IRPs immediately upon arrival as they travel down the device stack, but must handle others only after they have been acted upon by drivers lower in the stack. Consequently, a WDM driver must keep track of numerous details about the current state of its device and of current Plug and Play and power management requests. Tracking this information requires 30 variables in the WDM PCIDRV sample, 53 in the Serial sample, and 21 in the OSRUSBFX2 sample. The KMDF versions of the three sample drivers require no state variables. The KMDF drivers do not maintain such information because the 134 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg framework does so on their behalf. The framework implements an exten- sive state machine that integrates Plug and Play and power management operations with I/O operations. A driver provides callbacks that are invoked only when its device requires manipulation. For example, a driver for a device that supports a wake-up signal can register a callback that arms the signal, and KMDF invokes the callback at the appropriate time. By contrast, a WDM driver must determine which power management IRPs require it to arm the signal and at which point in handling those IRPs it should do so. 6.5 Device Objects and Driver Roles Every driver creates one or more device objects, which represent the driver’s roles in handling I/O requests and managing its device. KMDF supports the development of the following types of device objects: ■ Filter device objects (filter DOs) represent the role of a filter driver. Filter DOs “filter,” or modify, one or more types of I/O requests that are targeted at the device. Filter DOs are attached to the Plug and Play device stack. ■ Functional device objects (FDOs) represent the role of a function driver, which is the primary driver for a device. FDOs are attached to the Plug and Play device stack. ■ Physical device objects (PDOs) represent the role of the bus driver, which enumerates child devices. PDOs are attached to the Plug and Play device stack. ■ Control device objects represent a legacy non-Plug and Play device or a control interface. They are not part of the Plug and Play device stack. Depending on the design of the device and the other drivers in the device stack, a driver might assume one or more of these roles. Each Plug and Play device has one function driver and one bus driver, but can have any number of filter drivers. In the Plug and Play device stack, a driver some- times acts as the function driver for one device and as the bus driver for the devices that its device enumerates. For example, a USB hub driver acts as the function driver for the hub itself and the bus driver for each USB 6.5 Device Objects and Driver Roles 135 Wow! eBook ptg device that is attached to the hub. Thus, it creates an FDO for the hub and a PDO for each attached USB device. 6.5.1 Filter Drivers and Filter Device Objects A filter driver receives one or more types of I/O requests that are targeted at its device, takes some action based on the request, and then passes the request to the next driver in the stack. Filter drivers do not typically per- form device I/O themselves; instead, they modify or record a request that another driver satisfies. Device-specific data encryption/decryption soft- ware is commonly implemented as a filter driver. A filter driver adds a filter DO to the Plug and Play device stack. A KMDF driver notifies the framework that it is a filter driver when its device is added to the system, so that KMDF creates a filter DO and sets the appropriate defaults. Most filter drivers are not “interested” in every request that is targeted at their devices; a filter driver might filter only read requests or only cre- ate requests. To simplify filter driver implementation, KMDF dispatches only the types of requests that the filter driver specifies and passes all other requests down the device stack. The filter driver never receives them and so does not require code to inspect them or pass them to another driver. The sample Firefly, Kbfiltr, and Toaster Filter drivers create filter DOs. KMDF does not support the development of bus filter drivers. Such drivers are layered immediately above a bus driver that creates a PDO and add their device objects to the stack when Plug and Play manager queries the bus driver for bus relations. 6.5.2 Function Drivers and Functional Device Objects Function drivers are the primary drivers for their devices. A function driver communicates with its device to perform I/O and typically manages power policy for its device. In the Plug and Play device stack, a function driver exposes an FDO. To support function drivers, KMDF includes an FDO interface, which defines a set of methods, events, and properties that apply to FDOs during initialization and operation. By using the FDO interface, a driver can 136 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg ■ Register event callbacks that are related to resource allocation for its device. ■ Retrieve properties of its physical device. ■ Open a registry key. ■ Manage a list of child devices, if the device enumerates one or more children. When the driver creates its device object, KMDF creates an FDO unless the driver notifies it otherwise. By default, KMDF assumes that the function driver is the power pol- icy manager for its device. If the device supports wake-up signals, the func- tion driver typically also sets power policy event callbacks to implement this feature. All the sample drivers, except the KbFiltr and Firefly drivers, create an FDO. 6.5.3 Bus Drivers and Physical Device Objects A bus driver typically operates as the function driver for a parent device that enumerates one or more child devices. The parent device might be a bus but could also be a multifunction device that enumerates children whose functions require different types of drivers. In the Plug and Play device stack, a bus driver exposes a PDO. KMDF defines methods, events, and properties that are specific to PDOs, just as it does for FDOs. By using the PDO interface, a driver can ■ Register event callbacks so that the driver can report the hardware resources that its children require. ■ Register event callbacks that are related to device locking and ejec- tion. ■ Register event callbacks that perform bus-level operations so that its child devices can trigger a wake signal. ■ Assign Plug and Play, compatible, and instance IDs to its child devices. ■ Set removal and ejection relations for its child devices. ■ Notify the system that a child device has been ejected or surprise removed. ■ Retrieve and update the bus address of a child device. ■ Indicate that the driver controls a raw device. (A raw device is driven directly by a bus driver, without a function driver.) 6.5 Device Objects and Driver Roles 137 Wow! eBook ptg To indicate that it is a bus driver, a KMDF driver calls one or more of the PDO initialization methods before creating its device object. If the driver indicates that it is driving a raw device, KMDF assumes that the driver is the power policy manager for the device. Writing bus drivers is much simpler with KMDF than with WDM. KMDF manages the state of the PDO on behalf of the driver, so that the driver is only required to notify KMDF when the device is added or removed. KMDF supports both static and dynamic models for enumerat- ing child devices. If the status of child devices rarely changes, the bus driver should use the static model. The dynamic model supports drivers for devices such as IEEE 1394 buses, where the status of child devices might change at any time. For bus drivers, KMDF handles most of the details of enumeration, including: ■ Reporting children to WDM. ■ Coordinating scanning for children. ■ Maintaining the list of children. In addition, the KMDF interface through which drivers report resource requirements is easier to use than that provided by WDM. The sample KbFiltr, OsrUsbFx2/EnumSwitches, and Toaster bus drivers create PDOs and use both the static and dynamic methods to enumerate their child devices. 6.5.4 Legacy Device Drivers and Control Device Objects In addition to Plug and Play function, bus, and filter drivers, KMDF sup- ports the development of drivers for legacy devices, which are not con- trolled by a Plug and Play lifetime model. Such drivers create control device objects, which are not part of the Plug and Play device stack. Plug and Play drivers can also use control device objects to imple- ment control interfaces that operate independently of the device stack. An application can send requests directly to the control device object, thus bypassing any filtering performed by other drivers in the stack. Such a con- trol device object typically has a queue and might sometimes forward requests from that queue to a Plug and Play device object. 138 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg Because control device objects are not part of the Plug and Play device stack, the driver must notify KMDF when their initialization is complete. In addition, the driver itself must delete the device object when the device has been removed because only the driver knows how to con- trol the lifetime of such a device. The sample NdisProt, NonPnP, and Toaster Filter drivers create control device objects. 6.6 KMDF Object Model KMDF defines an object-based programming model in which object types represent common driver constructs. Each object exports methods (func- tions) and properties (data) that drivers can access and is associated with object-specific events, which drivers can support by providing event call- backs. The objects themselves are opaque to the driver. KMDF creates some objects on behalf of the driver, and the driver cre- ates others depending on its specific requirements. The driver also provides callbacks for the events for which the KMDF defaults do not suit its device and calls methods on the object to get and set properties and perform any additional actions. Consequently, a KMDF driver is essentially a Driver- Entry routine, a set of callback functions that perform device-specific tasks, and whatever utility functions the driver implementation requires. Framework-base drivers never directly access instances of framework objects. Instead, they reference object instances by handles, which the driver passes as parameters to object methods and KMDF passes as parameters to event callbacks. Framework objects are unique to the frame- work. They are not managed by the Windows object manager and cannot be manipulated by using the system’s ObXxx function. Only the frame- work (and its drivers) can create and operate on them. 6.6.1 Methods, Properties, and Events Methods are functions that perform an action on an object, such as creat- ing or deleting the object. KMDF methods are named according to the fol- lowing pattern: WdfObjectOperation Object specifies the KMDF object on which the method operates, and Operation indicates what the method does. For example, the WdfDeviceCreate method creates a framework device object. 6.6 KMDF Object Model 139 Wow! eBook ptg Properties are functions that read and write data fields in an object, thus defining object behavior and defaults. Properties are named accord- ing to the following pattern: WdfObject{Set|Get}Data WdfObject{Assign|Retrieve}Data Object specifies the KMDF object on which the function operates, and Data specifies the field that the function reads or writes. Some properties can be read and written without failure, but others can sometimes fail. Functions with Set and Get in their names read and write fields without failure. The Set functions return VOID, and the Get functions typically return the value of the field. Functions with Assign and Retrieve in their names read and write fields but can fail. These functions return an NTSTATUS value. For example, the WDFINTERRUPT object represents the interrupt object for a device. Each interrupt object is described by a set of charac- teristics that indicate the type of interrupt (message signaled or IRQ based) and provide additional information about the interrupt. The WdfInterruptGetInfo method returns this information. A corresponding method to set the value is not available because the driver initializes this information when it creates the interrupt object and cannot change it dur- ing device operation. Events represent run-time states to which a driver can respond or dur- ing which a driver can participate. A driver registers callbacks only for the events that are important to its operation. When the event occurs, the framework invokes the callback, passing as a parameter a handle to the object for which the callback is registered. For example, the ejection of a device is a Plug and Play event. If a device can be ejected, its driver reg- isters an EvtDeviceEject callback routine, which performs device-spe- cific operations upon ejection. KMDF calls this routine with a handle to the device object when the Plug and Play manager sends an IRP_ MN_EJECT request for the device. If the device cannot be ejected, the driver does not require such a callback. For most events, a driver can either provide a callback routine or allow KMDF to perform a default action in response. For a few events, however, a driver-specific callback is required. For example, adding a device is an event for which every Plug and Play driver must include a callback. The driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback creates the device object and sets device attributes. KMDF events are not related to the kernel-dispatcher events that Windows provides as synchronization mechanisms. A driver cannot create, 140 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg manipulate, or wait on a KMDF event. Instead, the driver registers a callback for the event and KMDF calls the driver when the event occurs. (For time-related waits, KMDF provides timer objects.) 6.6.2 Object Hierarchy KMDF objects are organized hierarchically. WDFDRIVER is the root object; all other objects are considered its children. For most object types, a driver can specify the parent when it creates the object. If the driver does not specify a parent at object creation, the framework sets the default parent to the WDFDRIVER object. Figure 6.1 shows the default KMDF object hierarchy. 6.6 KMDF Object Model 141 Figure 6.1 Parent-Child Relationships Among the KMDF Objects WDFDRIVER WDFDEVICE WDFDMAENABLER WDF COMMONBUFFER WDFTRANSACTION WDFIORESREQLIST WDFIORESLIST WDFQUEUE WDFDPC WDFTIMER WDFWORKITEM WDRWMIPROVIDER WDFWMIINSTANCE WDFCMRESLIST WDFUSBDEVICE WDFUSBINTERFACE WDFUSBPIPE WDFCHILDLIST WDFFILEOBJECT WDFINTERRUPT WDFIOTARGET WDFREQUEST (Delivered from Queue) WDFCOLLECTION WDFKEY WDFLOOKASIDE WDFMEMORY WDFOBJECT WDFREQUEST (Driver Created) WDFSPINLOCK WDFSTRING WDFWAITLOCK Wow! eBook ptg For each object, the figure shows which other object(s) must be in its par- ent chain. These objects are not necessarily the immediate parent but could be the grandparent, great-grandparent, and so forth. For example, Figure 6.1 shows the WDFDEVICE object as parent of the WDFQUEUE object. However, a WDFQUEUE object could be the child of a WDFIOTARGET object, which in turn is the child of a WDFDEVICE object. Thus, the WDFDEVICE object is in the parent chain for the WDFQUEUE object. The object hierarchy affects the object’s lifetime. The parent holds a reference count for each child object. When the parent object is deleted, the child objects are deleted and their callbacks are invoked in a defined order. Table 6.4 lists all the KMDF object types. Table 6.4 KMDF Object Types 142 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Object Type Description Child list WDFCHILDLIST Represents a list of the child devices for a device. Collection WDFCOLLECTION Describes a list of similar objects, such as resources or the devices for which a filter driver filters requests. Device WDFDEVICE Represents an instance of a device. A driver typically has one WDFDEVICE object for each device that it controls. DMA WDFCOMMON Represents a buffer that can be accessed by common BUFFER both the device and the driver to perform buffer DMA. DMA enabler WDFDMAENABLER Enables a driver to use DMA. A driver that handles device I/O operations has one WDFDMAENABLER object for each DMA channel within the device. DMA WDFDMATRANS- Represents a single DMA transaction. transaction ACTION Deferred WDFDPC Represents a Deferred Procedure Call. Procedure Call (DPC) Driver WDFDRIVER Represents the driver itself and maintains information about the driver, such as its entry points. Every driver has one WDFDRIVER object. Wow! eBook ptg 6.6 KMDF Object Model 143 Object Type Description File WDFFILEOBJECT Represents a file object through which external drivers or applications can access the device. Generic WDFOBJECT Represents a generic object for use as the object driver requires. I/O queue WDFQUEUE Represents an I/O queue. A driver can have any number of WDFIOQUEUE objects. I/O request WDFREQUEST Represents a request for device I/O. I/O target WDFIOTARGET Represents a device stack to which the driver is forwarding an I/O request. Interrupt WDFINTERRUPT Represents a device’s interrupt object. Any driver that handles device interrupts has one WDFINTERRUPT object for each IRQ or message-signaled interrupt (MSI) that the device can trigger. Look-aside WDFLOOKASIDE Represents a dynamically sized list of list identical buffers that are allocated from the paged or nonpaged pool. Both the WDFLOOKASIDE object and its component memory buffers can have attributes. Memory WDFMEMORY Represents memory that the driver uses, typically an input or output buffer that is associated with an I/O request. Registry key WDFKEY Represents a registry key. Resource list WDFCMRESLIST Represents the list of resources that have actually been assigned to the device. Resource WDFIORESLIST Represents a possible configuration for a range list device. Resource WDFIORESREQLIST Represents a set of I/O resource lists, which requirements comprises all possible configurations for the list device. Each element of the list is a WDFIORESLIST object. String WDFSTRING Represents a counted Unicode string. Synchro- WDFSPINLOCK Represents a spin lock, which synchronizes nization: access to data DISPATCH_LEVEL. spin lock (continues) Wow! eBook ptg 6.6.3 Object Attributes Every KMDF object is associated with a set of attributes. The attributes define information that KMDF requires for objects, as listed in Table 6.5. Table 6.5 KMDF Object Attributes 144 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Field Description ContextSizeOverride Size of the context area; overrides the value in ContextTypeInfo->ContextSize. ContextTypeInfo Pointer to the type information for the object context area. EvtCleanupCallback Pointer to a callback routine that is invoked to clean up the object before it is deleted; the object might still have references. Object Type Description Synchronization: WDFWAITLOCK Represents a wait lock, which synchro- wait lock nizes access to data at PASSIVE_LEVEL. Timer WDFTIMER Represents a timer that fires either once or periodically and causes a callback routine run. USB device WDFUSBDEVICE Represents a USB device. USB interface WDFUSBINTERFACE Represents an interface on a USB device. USB pipe WDFUSBPIPE Represents a pipe in a USB interface. Windows WDFWMIINSTANCE Represents an individual WMI data Management block that is associated with a particular Instrumentation provider (WMI) instance WMI provider WDFWMIPROVIDER Represents the schema for WMI data blocks that the driver provides. Work item WDFWORKITEM Represents a work item, which runs in a system thread at PASSIVE_LEVEL. Table 6.4 KMDF Object Types (continued) Wow! eBook ptg 6.6 KMDF Object Model 145 Field Description EvtDestroyCallback Pointer to a callback routine that is invoked when the reference count reaches zero for an object that is marked for deletion. ExecutionLevel Maximum interrupt request level (IRQL) at which KMDF can invoke certain object callbacks. ParentObject Handle to the object’s parent. Size Size of the object SynchronizationScope Level at which certain callbacks for this object are synchronized; applies only to driver, device, and file objects. The framework supplies defaults for most attributes. A driver can override these defaults when it creates the object by using the WDF_ OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT function. 6.6.4 Object Context Every instance of a KMDF object can have one or more object context areas. This area is a driver-defined storage area for data that is related to a specific instance of an object, such as a driver-allocated lock or event for the object. The size and layout of the object context area are determined by the driver. When the driver creates the object, it initializes the context area and specifies its size and type. The driver can create additional con- text areas after the object has been created. For a KMDF device object, the object context area is the equivalent of the WDM device extension. When KMDF creates the object, it allocates memory for context areas from the nonpaged pool and initializes them according to the driver’s spec- ifications. When KMDF deletes the object, it deletes the context areas, too. The framework provides macros to associate a type and a name with the context area and to create a named accessor function that returns a pointer to the context area. If you are familiar with WDM, this design might seem unnecessarily complicated. However, it provides flexibility in attaching information to I/O requests as they flow through the driver. In addition, it enables different libraries to have their own separate context for an object. For example, an IEEE 1394 library could track a WDFDEVICE object at the same time Wow! eBook ptg that the device’s function driver tracks it, but with separate contexts. Within a driver, the context area enables a design pattern that is similar to inheri- tance. If the driver uses a request for several different tasks, the request object can have a separate context area to each task. Functions that are related to a specific task can access their own contexts and do not require any information about the existence or contents of any other contexts. 6.6.5 Object Creation and Deletion To create an object, KMDF does the following: ■ Allocates memory from the nonpaged pool for the object and its context areas. ■ Initializes the object’s attributes with default values and the driver’s specifications (if any). ■ Zeroes the object’s context areas. ■ Configures the object by storing pointers to its event callbacks and setting other object-specific characteristics. If object initialization fails, KMDF deletes the object and any children that have already been created. To initialize object attributes and configuration structures, a driver invokes KMDF initialization functions before it calls the object-creation methods. KMDF uses the initialized attributes and structures when it cre- ates the object. KMDF maintains a reference count for each object and ensures that the object persists until all references to it have been released. If the driver explicitly deletes an object (by calling a deletion method), KMDF marks the object for deletion but does not physically delete it until its reference count reaches zero. Drivers do not typically take out references on the objects that they create, but in some cases (such as when escaping directly to WDM) such references are necessary to ensure that the object’s handle remains valid. For example, a driver that sends asynchronous I/O requests might take out a reference on the request object to guard against race conditions during cancellation. Before the request object can be deleted, the driver must release this reference. Object deletion starts from the object farthest from the parent and works up the object hierarchy toward the root. KMDF takes the following steps to delete an object: 146 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 147 ■ Starting with the child object farthest from the parent, calls the object’s EvtCleanupCallback. In this routine, drivers should per- form any cleanup tasks that must be done before the object’s parent is deleted. Such tasks might include releasing explicit references on the object or a parent object. Note that when the EvtCleanup- Callback function runs, the object’s children still exist; even though their EvtCleanupCallback functions have already been invoked. ■ When the object’s reference count reaches zero, calls the object’s EvtDestroyCallback, if the driver has registered one. ■ Deallocates the memory that was allocated to the object and its con- text area. KMDF always calls the EvtCleanupCallback routines of child objects before calling those of their parent objects, so drivers are guaranteed that the parent object still exists when a child’s EvtCleanupCallback runs. This guarantee does not apply to EvtDestroyCallbacks, however; KMDF can call the EvtDestroyCallback routines in any order, so that the EvtDestroyCallback for a parent might be called before that of one of its children. Drivers can change the parent of most KMDF objects by setting the ParentObject attribute. By setting the parent/child relationships appro- priately, a driver can avoid taking out explicit references on related objects and can instead use the hierarchy and the associated callbacks to manage the object’s lifetime. 6.7 KMDF I/O Model KMDF established its own dispatch routines that intercept all IRPs that are sent to the driver. Figure 6.2 shows the overall flow of I/O through the KMDF library and driver. When an IRP arrives, KMDF directs it to one of the following com- ponents for processing: ■ I/O request handler, which handles requests that involve device I/O. ■ Plug and Play/power request handler, which handles Plug and Play and power request (IRP_MJ_PNP and IRP_MJ_ POWER requests) and notifies other components of changes in device status. Wow! eBook ptg 148 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations ■ WMI handler, which handles WMI and event-tracing request (IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL requests). Each component takes one or more of the following actions for each request: ■ Raises one or more events to the driver. ■ Forwards the request to another internal handler or I/O target for further processing. ■ Completes the request based on its own action. ■ Completes the request as a result of a driver call. If the request has not been processed when it reaches the end of frameworks processing, KMDF takes an action that is appropriate for the type of driver. For function and bus drivers, KMDF completes the request with the status STATUS_INVALID_DEVICE_REQUEST. For filter drivers, KMDF automatically forwards the request to the default I/O IRPs Dispatcher Plug and Play/ Power Request Handler WMI Request Handler I/O Request Handler Nonpower- Managed I/O Queues Power-Managed I/O Queues Driver Callbacks I/O Target Driver Callbacks Driver Callbacks Figure 6.2 KMDF I/O Flow Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 149 target (the next lower driver). The next sections describe how each of the three components processes I/O requests. 6.7.1 I/O Request Handler The I/O request handler dispatches I/O requests to the driver, manages I/O cancellation and completion, and works with the Plug and Play/power han- dler to ensure that the device state is compatible with performing device I/O. Depending on the type of I/O request, the I/O request handler either queues the request or invokes an event callback that the driver registered for the request. 6.7.1.1 Create, Cleanup, and Close Requests To handle create events, a driver can either configure a queue to receive the events or can supply an event callback that is invoked immediately. The driver’s options are the following: ■ To be called immediately, the driver supplies an EvtDevice- FileCreate callback and registers it from the EvtDriverDevice- Add callback by calling WdfDeviceInitSetFileObjectConfig. ■ To configure a queue to receive the requests, the driver calls Wdf- DeviceConfigureRequestDispatching and specifies Wdf- RequestTypeCreate. If the queue is not manual, the driver must register an EvtIoDefault callback, which is called when a create request arrives. Queuing takes precedence over the EvtDeviceFileCreate callback—that is, if the driver both registers for EvtDeviceFileCreate events and configures a queue to receive such requests, KMDF queues the requests and does not invoke the callback. KMDF does not queue create requests to a default queue; the driver must explicitly configure a queue to receive them. In a bus or function driver, if a create request arrives for which the driver has neither registered an EvtDeviceFileCreate callback function nor con- figured a queue to receive create requests, KMDF opens a file object to rep- resent the device and completes the request with STATUS_SUCCESS. Therefore, any bus or function driver that does not accept create or open requests from user mode application—and thus does not register a device interface—must register an EvtDeviceFileCreate callback that explicitly fails such requests. Supplying a callback to fail create requests ensures that a rogue user mode application cannot gain access to the device. Wow! eBook ptg 150 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations If a filter driver does not handle create requests, KMDF by default for- wards all create, cleanup, and close requests to the default I/O target (the next lower driver). Filter drivers that handle create requests should per- form whatever filtering tasks are required and then forward such requests to the default I/O target. If the filter driver completes a create request for a file object, it should set AutoForwardCleanupClose to WdfFalse in the file object configuration so that KMDF completes cleanup and close requests for the file object instead of forwarding them. To handle file cleanup and close requests, a driver registers the EvtFileCleanup and EvtFileClose event callbacks. If a bus or function driver does not register such a callback, KMDF closes the file object and completes the request with STATUS_SUCCESS. In a filter driver that does not register cleanup and close callbacks, KMDF forwards these requests to the default I/O target unless the driver has explicitly set AutoForwardCleanupClose to WdfFalse in the file object configuration. 6.7.1.2 Read, Write, Device I/O Control, and Internal Device I/O Control Requests For read, write, device I/O control, and internal device I/O control requests, the driver creates one or more queues and configures each queue to receive one or more types of I/O requests. When such a request arrives, the I/O request handler does the following: ■ Determines whether the driver has configured a queue for this type of request. If not, the handler fails a read, write, device I/O control, or internal device I/O control request if this is a function or bus driver. If this is a filter driver, the handler passes such a request to the default I/O target. ■ Determines whether the queue is accepting requests and the device is powered on. If both are true, the handler creates a WDFRE- QUEST object to represent the request and adds it to the queue. If the queue is not accepting requests, the handler fails the request. ■ If the device is not in the DO state, notifies the Plug and Play/power handler to power up the device. ■ Queues the request. Figure 6.3 shows the flow of a read, write, device I/O control, or internal device I/O control request through the I/O request handler to the driver. Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 151 Figure 6.3 Flow of I/O Request Through I/O Request Handler Does driver have a queue for this type? NO YES Is the queue accepting requests? NO YES Create an I/O request object to represent the request Is the queue power managed? NO YES Is the device in the working state? NO YES Notify the Plug and Play/power handler to power up the device Queue the request Is this a filter driver? NO YES Pass the request to the default I/O target Fail the request Wow! eBook ptg 152 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations 6.7.2 I/O Queues A WDFQueue object represents a queue that presents requests from KMDF to the driver. A WDFQUEUE is more than just a list of pending requests; however, it tracks requests that are active in the driver, supports request cancellation, manages the concurrency of requests, and can optionally synchronize calls to the driver’s I/O event callback functions. A driver typically creates one or more queues, each of which can accept one or more types of requests. The driver configures the queues when it creates them. For each queue, the driver can specify ■ The types of requests that are placed in the queue. ■ The event callback functions that are registered to handle I/O requests from the queue. ■ The power management options for the queue. ■ The dispatch method for the queue, which determines the number of requests that are serviced at a given time. ■ Whether the queue accepts requests that have a zero-length buffer. A driver can have any number of queues, and they can all be configured differently. For example, a driver might have a parallel queue for read requests and a sequential queue for write requests. While a request is in a queue and has not yet been presented to the driver, the queue is considered the “owner” of the request. After the request has been dispatched to the driver, it is “owned” by the driver and is consid- ered an in-flight request internally, and each WDFQUEUE object keeps track of which requests it owns and which requests are pending. A driver can forward a request from one queue to another by calling a method on the request object. 6.7.2.1 Queues and Power Management KMDF provides rich control of queues. The framework can manage the queues for the driver, or the driver can manage queues on its own. Power management is configurable on a per-queue basis. A driver can use both power-managed and non-power-managed queues and can sort requests based on the requirements for its power model. By default, queues for FDOs and PDOs are power managed, which means that the state of the queue can trigger power-management activi- ties. Such queues have several advantages: Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 153 ■ If an I/O request arrives while the system is in the working state (SO) but the device is not, KMDF notifies the Plug and Play/power handler so that it can restore device power. ■ When a queue becomes empty, KMDF notifies the Plug and Play/power handler so that it can track device usage through its idle timer. ■ If the device power state begins to change while the driver “owns” an I/O request, KMDF can notify the driver through the EvtIoStop call- back. The driver must complete, cancel, or acknowledge all the I/O requests that it owns before the device can leave the working state. For power-managed queues, KMDF pauses the delivery of requests when the device leaves the working state (DO) and resumes delivery when the device returns to the working state. Although delivery stops while the queue is paused, queuing does not. If KMDF receives a request while the queue is paused, KMDF adds the request to the queue for delivery after the queue resumes. If an I/O request arrives while the device is idle and the system is in the working state, KMDF returns the device to the working state so that it can handle the request. If an I/O request arrives while the system is transitioning to a sleep state, however, KMDF does not return the device to the working state until the system returns to the working state. For requests to be delivered, both the driver and the device power state must allow processing. The driver can pause delivery manually by calling WdfIoQueueStop and resume delivery by calling WdfIo- QueueStart. If a queue is not power managed, the state of the queue has no effect on power management, and conversely, KMDF delivers requests to the driver any time the system is in the working state, regardless of the power state of the device. KMDF does not start an idle timer when the queue becomes empty, and it does not power up a sleeping device when I/O arrives for the queue. Drivers should use non-power-managed queues to hold requests that the driver can handle even while its device is not in the working state. 6.7.2.2 Dispatch Type A queue’s dispatch type determines how and when I/O requests are deliv- ered to the driver and, as a result, whether multiple I/O requests from a queue are active in the driver at one time. Drivers can control the concur- rency of in-flight requests by configuring the dispatching method for their queues. KMDF supports three dispatch types: Wow! eBook ptg 154 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations ■ Sequential—A queue that is configured for sequential dispatching delivers I/O requests to the driver one at a time. The queue does not deliver another request to the driver until the previous request has been completed. (Sequential dispatching is similar to the start-I/O technique in WDM.) ■ Parallel—A queue that is configured for parallel dispatching deliv- ers I/O requests to the driver as soon as possible, whether or not another request is already active in the driver. ■ Manual—A queue that is configured for manual dispatching does not deliver I/O requests to the driver. Instead, the driver retrieves requests at its own pace by calling a method on the queue. The dispatch type controls only the number of requests that are active within a driver at one time. It has no effect on whether the queue’s I/O event callbacks are invoked sequentially or concurrently; instead, the con- currency of callbacks is controlled by the synchronization scope of the device object. Even if the synchronization scope for a parallel queue does not allow concurrent callbacks, the queue nevertheless might have many in-flight requests. All I/O requests that a driver receives from a queue are inherently asynchronous. The driver can complete the request within the event call- back or sometime later, after returning from the callback. 6.7.3 I/O Request Objects The WDFREQUEST object is the KMDF representation of an IRP. When an I/O request arrives, the I/O handler creates a WDFREQUEST object, queues the object, and eventually passes the object to the driver in its I/O callback function. The properties of the WDFREQUEST object represent the fields of the IRP. The object also contains additional information. Like all other KMDF objects, the WDFREQUEST object has a reference count and can have its own object context area. When the driver completes the I/O request that the object represents, KMDF automatically frees the object and any child resources such as associated memory buffers or memory descriptor lists (MDLs). After the driver has called WdfRequest- Complete, the driver must not attempt to access the handle to the WDFREQUEST object or any of its child resources. A driver can create its own WDFREQUEST objects to request I/O from another device or to split an I/O request into multiple, smaller requests before completing it. Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 155 6.7.4 Retrieving Buffers from I/O Requests The WDFMEMORY object encapsulates the I/O buffers that are sup- plied for an I/O request. To enable device drivers to handle complicated requests with widely scattered buffers, any number of WDFMEMORY objects may be associated with a WDFREQUEST. The WDFMEMORY object represents a buffer that the framework manages. The object can be used to copy memory to and from the driver and the buffer represented by the WDFMEMORY handle. In addition, the driver can use the underlying buffer pointer and its length for complex access, such as casting to a known data structure. Like other KMDF objects, WDFMEMORY objects have reference counts and persist until all references to them have been removed. The buffer that underlies the WDFMEMORY object, however, might not be “owned” by the object itself. For example, if the issuer of the I/O request allocated the buffer or if the driver called WdfMemoryCreate- Preallocated to assign an existing buffer to the object, the WDFMEMORY object does not “own” the buffer. In this case, the buffer pointer becomes invalid when the associated I/O request has been com- pleted, even if the WDFMEMORY object still exists. Each WDFMEMORY object contains the length of the buffer that it represents. KMDF methods that copy data to and from the buffer validate the length of every transfer to prevent buffer over- and underruns, which can result in corrupt data or security breaches. Depending on the type of I/O that the device and driver support, the underlying buffer might be any of the following: ■ For buffered I/O, a system-allocated buffer from the nonpaged pool. ■ For direct I/O, a system-allocated MDL that points to the physical pages for DMA. ■ For neither buffered nor direct I/O, an unmapped and unverified user mode memory address. The WDFMEMORY object supports methods that return each type of buffer from the object and methods to read and write the buffers. For device I/O control requests (IOCTLs), KMDF provides methods to probe and lock user mode buffers. The driver must be running in the context of the process that sent the I/O request to probe and lock a user mode buffer, Wow! eBook ptg 156 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations so KMDF also defines a callback that drivers can register to be called in the context of the sending component. Each WDFMEMORY object also controls access to the buffer and allows the driver to write only to buffers that support I/O from the device to the buffer. A buffer that is used to receive data from the device (as in a read request) is writable. The WDFMEMORY object does not allow write access to a buffer that only supplies data (as in a write request). 6.7.5 I/O Targets Drivers send I/O requests by creating or reusing an I/O request object, creating an I/O target, and sending the request to the target. Drivers can send requests either synchronously or asynchronously. A driver can spec- ify a time-out value for either type of request. An I/O target represents a device object to which an I/O request is directed. If a driver cannot complete an I/O request by itself, it typically forwards the request to an I/O target. An I/O target can be a KMDF driver, a WDM driver, or any other Kernel Mode Driver. Before a driver forwards an existing I/O request or sends a new request, it must create a WDFIOTARGET object to represent either a local or remote target for the I/O request. The local I/O target is the next lower driver in the device stack and is the default target or a filter or FDO device object. A remote I/O target is any other driver that might be the tar- get of an I/O request. A driver might use a remote I/O target if it requires data from another device to complete an I/O request. A function driver might also use a remote I/O target to send a device I/O control request to its bus driver. In this case, the I/O request originates with the function driver itself, rather than originating with some other process. The WDFIOTARGET object formats I/O requests to send to other drivers, handles changes in device state, and defines callbacks through which a driver can request notification about target device removal. A driver can call methods on the WDFIOTARGET to ■ Open a device object or device stack by name. ■ Format read, write, and device I/O control requests to send to the target. Some types of targets, such as WDFUSBDEVICE and WDFUSBPIPE, can format bus-specific requests in addition to the standard request types. Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 157 ■ Send read, write, and device I/O control requests synchronously or asynchronously. ■ Determine the Plug and Play state of the target. Internally, KMDF calls IoCallDriver to send the request. It takes out a reference on the WDFREQUEST object to prevent the freeing of associ- ated resources while the request is pending for the target device object. The WDFIOTARGET object racks queued and sent requests and can cancel them when the state of the target device or of the issuing driver changes. From the driver’s perspective, the I/O target object behaves like a cancel-safe queue that retains forwarded requests until KMDF can deliver them. KMDF does not free the WDFIOTARGET object until all the I/O requests that have been sent to it are complete. By default, KMDF sends a request only when the target is in the proper state to receive it. However, a driver can also request that KMDF ignore the state of the target and send the request anyway. If the target device has been stopped (but not removed), KMDF queues the request to send later after the target device resumes. If the issuing driver specifies a time-out value, the timer starts when the request is added to the queue. If the device that is associated with a remote I/O target is removed, KMDF stops and closes the I/O target object, but does not notify the driver unless the driver has registered an EvtIoTargetXxx callback. If the driver must perform any special processing of I/O requests that it sent to the I/O target, it should register one or more such callbacks. When the removal of the target device is queried, canceled, or completed, KMDF calls the cor- responding functions and then processes the target state changes on its own. For local I/O targets, no such callbacks are defined. Because the driver and the target device are in the same device stack, the driver is notified of device removal requests through its Plug and Play and power management callbacks. 6.7.6 Creating Buffers for I/O Requests Drivers that issue I/O requests must supply buffers for the results of those requests. The buffers in a synchronous request can be allocated from any type of memory, such as the nonpaged pool or an MDL, as well as a WDFMEMORY object. Asynchronous requests must use Wow! eBook ptg 158 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations WDFMEMORY object so that KMDF can ensure that the buffers persist until the I/O request has completed back to the issuing driver. If the driver uses a WDFMEMORY object, the I/O target object takes out a reference on the WDFMEMORY object when it formats the object to send to the I/O target. The target object retains this reference until one of the following occurs: ■ The request has been completed. ■ The driver reformats the WDFREQUEST object. ■ The driver calls WdfRequestReuse to send a request to another target. A driver can retrieve a WDFMEMORY object from an incoming WDFREQUEST and reuse it later in a new request to a different target. However, if the driver has not yet completed the original request, the orig- inal I/O target still has a reference on the WDFMEMORY object. To avoid a bug check, the driver must call WdfRequestReuse in its I/O com- pletion routine before it completes the original request. 6.7.7 Canceled and Suspended Requests Windows I/O is inherently asynchronous. The system can request that a driver stop processing an I/O request at any time for many reasons, of which these are the most common: ■ The thread or process that issued the request cancels it or exits. ■ A system Plug and Play or power event such as hibernation occurs. ■ The device is being, or has been, removed. The actions that a driver takes to stop processing an I/O request depend on the reason for suspension or cancellation. In general, the driver can either cancel the request or complete it with an error. In some situations, the sys- tem might request that a driver suspend (temporarily pause) processing; the system notifies the driver later when to resume processing. To provide a good user experience, drivers should provide callbacks to handle cancellation and suspension of any I/O request that might take a long time to complete or that might not complete, such as a request for asynchronous input. Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 159 6.7.7.1 Request Cancellation How KMDF proceeds to cancel an I/O request depends on whether the request has already been delivered to the target driver: ■ If the request has never been delivered—either because KMDF has not yet queued it or because it is still in a queue—KMDF cancels or suspends it automatically. If the original IRP has been canceled, KMDF completes the request with a cancellation status. ■ If the request has been delivered and then requeued, KMDF noti- fies the driver of cancellation only if the driver has registered an EvtIoCanceledOnQueue callback for the queue. After a request has been delivered, it cannot be canceled unless the driver that owns it explicitly marks it cancelable by calling the WdfRequest- MarkCancelable method on the request and registering a cancellation callback (EvtRequestCancel) for the request. A driver should mark a request cancelable and register an I/O cancel- lation callback if either of the following is true: ■ The request involves a long-term operation. ■ The request might never succeed; for example, the request is wait- ing for synchronous input. In the EvtRequestCancel callback, the driver must perform any tasks that are required to cancel the request, such as stopping any device I/O operations that are in progress and canceling any related requests that it has already forwarded to an I/O target. Eventually, the driver must com- plete the request with the status STATUS_CANCELLED. Requests that are marked cancelable cannot be forwarded to another queue. Before requeuing a request, the driver must first make it non- cancelable by calling WdfRequestUnmarkCancelable. After the request has been added to the new queue, KMDF once again considers it cancelable until that queue dispatches it to the driver. If the driver does not mark a request cancelable, it can call WdfRequestIsCanceled to determine whether the I/O manager or orig- inal requester has attempted to cancel the request. A driver that processes data on a periodic basis might use this approach. For example, a driver involved in image processing might complete a transfer request in small Wow! eBook ptg chunks and poll for cancellation after processing each chunk. In this case, the driver supports cancellation of the I/O request, but only after each dis- crete chunk of processing is complete. If the driver determines that the request has been canceled, it performs any required cleanup and com- pletes the request with the status STATUS_CANCELLED. 6.7.7.2 Request Suspension When the system transitions to a sleep state—typically because the user has requested hibernation or closed the lid on a laptop—a driver can com- plete, requeue, or continue to hold any in-flight requests. KMDF notifies the driver of the impending power change by calling the EvtIoStop call- back for each in-flight request. Each call includes flags that indicate the reason for stopping the queue and whether the I/O request is currently cancelable. Depending on the value of the flags, the driver can complete the request, requeue the request, acknowledge the event but continue to hold the request, or ignore the event if the current request will complete in a timely manner. If the queue is stopping because the device is being removed (either by an orderly removal or a surprise removal), the driver must complete the request immediately. Drivers should handle EvtIoStop events for any request that might take a long time to complete or that might not complete, such as a request for asynchronous input. Handling EvtIoStop provides a good user experi- ence for laptops and other power-managed systems. 6.7.8 Completing I/O Requests To complete an I/O request, a driver calls WdfRequestComplete. In response, KMDF completes the underlying IRP and then deletes the WDFREQUEST object and any child objects. If the driver has set an EvtCleanupCallback for the WDFREQUEST object, KMDF invokes the callback before completing the underlying IRP, so that the IRP itself is still valid when the callback runs. After WdfRequestComplete returns, the WDFREQUEST object’s handle is invalid and its resources have been released. The driver must not attempt to access the handle or any of its resources, such as parameters and memory buffers that were passed in the request. 160 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations Wow! eBook ptg 6.7 KMDF I/O Model 161 If the request was dispatched from a sequential queue, the driver’s call to complete the IRP might cause KMDF to deliver the next request in the queue. (If the queue is configured for parallel dispatching, KMDF can deliver another request at any time.) If the driver holds any locks while it calls WdfRequestComplete, it must ensure that its event callbacks for the queue do not use the same locks because a deadlock might occur. In practice, this is difficult to ensure, so the best practice is not to call WdfRequestComplete while holding a lock. 6.7.9 Self-Managed I/O Although the I/O support that is built into KMDF is recommended for most drivers, some drivers have I/O paths that do not pass through queues or are not subject to power management. KMDF provides self-managed I/O features for this purpose. For example, the PCIDRV sample uses self- managed I/O callbacks to start and stop a watchdog timer DPC. The self-managed I/O callbacks correspond directly to WDM Plug and Play and power management state changes. These routines are called with a handle to the device object and no other parameters. If a driver registers these callbacks, KMDF calls them at the designated times so that the driver can perform whatever actions it requires. 6.7.10 Accessing IRPs and WDM Structures KMDF includes a mechanism nicknamed “the great escape” through which a driver can access the underlying WDM structures and the I/O request packet as it was delivered from the operating system. Although this mechanism exposes the driver to all the complexity of the WDM model, it can often be useful in converting a WDM driver to KMDF, such as processing for some types of IRPs. Such drivers can use KMDF for most features but can rely on the “great escape” to gain access to the WDM features that they require. To use the “great escape,” a driver calls WdfDeviceInit- AssignWdmIrpPreprocessCallback to register an EvtDeviceWdm- IrpPreprocess event callback function for an IRP major function code. When KMDF receives an IRP with that function code, it invokes the call- back. The driver must then handle the request just as a WDM driver would, by using I/O manager functions such as IoCallDriver to forward Wow! eBook ptg 162 Chapter 6 Windows 7 KMD Overview and Operations the request and IoCompleteRequest to complete it. The Serial driver sample shows how to use this feature. In addition to the “great escape,” KMDF provides methods with which a driver can access the WDM objects that the KMDF objects represent. For example, a driver can access the IRP that underlies a WDFRE- QUEST object, the WDM device object that underlies a WDFDEVICE object, and so forth. Wow! eBook ptg 163 CHAPTER 7 PLUG AND PLAY AND POWER MANAGEMENT The Windows Driver foundation (WDF) implements a fully integrated model for Plug and Play and power management. In this chapter, we will cover the Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) guidelines for imple- menting Plug and Play and power management. The model provides intel- ligent defaults so that some drivers do not require any code to support simple Plug and Play or power management. 7.1 Plug and Play and Power Management Overview KMDF implements integrated Plug and Play and power management support as an internal state machine. An event is associated with the transition to each state, and a driver can supply callback routines that are invoked at each such state change. If you are familiar with WDM drivers, you probably remember that any time the system power state changes, the WDM driver must determine the correct power state for its device and then issue power management requests to put the device in that state at the appropriate time. The KMDF state machine automatically handles the translation of system power events to device power events. For example, KMDF notifies the driver to ■ Transition the device to low power when the system hibernates or goes to sleep. ■ Enable the device’s wake signal so that it can be triggered while the system is running, if the device is idle. ■ Enable the device’s wake signal so that it can be triggered while the system is in a sleep state. Wow! eBook ptg KMDF automatically provides for the correct behavior in device parent/child relationships. If both a parent and a child device are powered down and the child must power up, KMDF automatically returns the parent to full power and then powers up the child. To manage idle devices, the KMDF state machine notifies the driver to remove the device from the working state and put it in the designated low-power state when the device is idle and to return the device to the working state when there are requests to process. To accomplish these power transitions, a driver includes a set of call- back routines. These routines are called in a defined order, and each conforms to a “contract” so that both the device and the system are guaranteed to be in a particular state when the driver is called to perform an action. This support makes it much easier for drivers to power down idle devices. The driver simply sets an appropriate time-out value and low-power state for its device and notifies KMDF of these values; KMDF calls the driver to power down the device at the correct times. In addition, requests received by the framework and not yet delivered to the device driver can affect the power state of the device. If the driver has not configured a queue for power management, the framework can automatically restore device power before it delivers the request to the driver. It can also automatically stop and start the queue in response to Plug and Play and power events. Finally, the driver that manages power policy for the device can spec- ify whether a user can control both the behavior of the device while it is idle and the capability of the device to wake up the system. All the driver must do is specify the appropriate enumerator value when it initializes certain power policy settings. KMDF enables the necessary property sheet through Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), and Device Manager displays it. 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup To prepare the device for operation, KMDF calls the driver’s callback rou- tines in a fixed sequence. The sequence varies somewhat depending on the driver’s role in the device stack. 164 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup 165 Device Operational Enable self-managed I/O, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit if driver supports it or EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart Start power-managed EvtIoResume queues (called only if EvtIoStop was previously called during power-down) Disarm wake signal, EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSx if it was armed EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSO (called only during power-up; not called during resource rebalance) Enable DMA, if driver EvtDmaEnablerSelfManagedIoStart supports it EvtDmaEnablerEnable EvtDmaEnableFill Connect interrupts EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled EvtInterruptEnable Notify driver of state EvtDeviceDOEntry change Restart from here if device is in low-power state Prepare hardware for EvtDevicePrepareHardware power Change resource EvtDeviceRemoveAddedResources requirements EvtDeviceFilterAddResourceRequirements EvtDeviceFilterRemoveResourceRequirements Restart from here if rebalancing resources Create device object EvtDriverDeviceAdd Device Inserted 7.2.1 Startup Sequence for a Function or Filter Device Object The following example shows the callbacks for an FDO or filter DO that is involved in bringing a device to the fully operational state, starting from the Device Inserted state at the bottom of the figure. Wow! eBook ptg The spaces between the entries in the preceding example mark the steps that are involved in starting a device. The column on the left side of the figure describes the step, and the column on the right lists the event callbacks that accomplish it. At the bottom of the figure, the device is not present on the system. When the user inserts it, KMDF begins by calling the driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback so that the driver can create a device object to represent the device. KMDF continues calling the driver’s callback rou- tines by progressing up through the sequence until the device is operational. Remember that KMDF invokes the event callbacks in bottom-up order as shown in the figure, so EvtDeviceFilterRemoveResourceRequirements is called before EvtDeviceFilterAddResourceRequirements, and so forth. If the device was stopped to rebalance resources or was physically present but not in the working state, not all of the steps are required as the figure shows. 7.2.2 Startup Sequence for a Physical Device Object The following shows the callbacks for a bus driver (PDO) that are involved in bringing a device to the fully operational state, starting Device Inserted state at the bottom of the figure. 166 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Device Operational Enable wake signal, if a wake EvtDeviceEnableWakeAtBus request from the previous power-down is still pending Enable self-managed I/O, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit if driver supports it or EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart Start power-managed queues EvtIoResume (called only if EvtIoStop was called during power-down) Enable DMA, if driver EvtDmaEnablerSelfManagedIoStart supports it EvtDmaEnablerEnable EvtDmaEnablerFill Connect interrupts EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled EvtInterruptEnable Wow! eBook ptgKMDF does not physically delete a PDO until the corresponding device is physically removed from the system. For example, if a user disables the device in Device Manager but does not physically remove it, KMDF retains its device object. Thus, the three steps at the bottom of the preceding exam- ple occur only during Plug and Play enumeration—that is, during initial boot or when the user plugs in a new device. If the device was previously disabled but not physically removed, KMDF starts by calling the EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback. 7.2.3 Device Power-Down and Removal KMDF can remove a device from the operational state for several reasons: ■ To put the device in a low-power state because it is idle or the system is entering a sleep state. ■ To rebalance resources. ■ To remove the device after the user has requested an orderly removal. ■ To disable the device in response to the user’s request in Device Manager. As in enumeration and power-up, the sequence of callbacks depends on the driver’s role in device management. 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup 167 Notify driver of state change EvtDeviceDOEntry Disable wake signal, if it was EvtDeviceDisableWakeAtBus (called only during power-up; not called during resource rebalance) Restart from here if device is in low-power state Prepare hardware for power EvtDevicePrepareHardware Restart from here if rebalancing resources or if device remained physically present after logical removal Create device object EvtDriverDeviceAdd Report resource EvtDeviceResourceRequirementsQuery requirements EvtDeviceResourcesQuery Enumerate child devices EvtChildListCreateDevice Device Inserted Wow! eBook ptg 7.2.3.1 Power-Down and Removal Sequence for a Function or Filter Driver Object The following shows the sequence of callbacks that are involved in power- down and removal for an FDO or filter DO. The sequence starts at the top of the figure with an operational device that is in the working power state (DO). 168 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Device Operational Suspend self-managed I/O, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend if driver supports it Stop power-managed queues EvtIoStop Arm wake signal, if driver EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx supports it EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO (called only during transitions to low power, not during resource rebalance or device removal) Disable DMA, if driver EvtDmaEnablerSelfManagedIoStop supports it EvtDmaEnablerDisable EvtDmaEnableFlush Disconnect interrupts EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled EvtInterruptDisable Notify driver of state change EvtDeviceDOExit Stop here if transitioning to low-power state Release hardware EvtDeviceReleaseHardware Stop here if rebalancing resources Purge power-managed queues EvtIoStop Flush I/O buffers, if driver EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoFlush supports self-managed I/O Purge non-power-managed EvtIoStop queues Clean up I/O buffers, if driver EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup supports self-managed I/O Delete device object’s EvtCleanupContext context area EvtDestroyContext Device Removed Wow! eBook ptg As the preceding example shows, the KMDF power-down and removal sequence involves calling the corresponding “undo” callbacks in the reverse order from which KMDF called the functions that are involved in making the device operational. 7.2.3.2 Power-Down and Removal Sequence for a Physical Device Object The following example shows the callbacks involved in power-down and removal for a PDO. 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup 169 Device Operational Enable wake signal, if driver EvtDeviceEnableWakeAtBus supports it (called only during transitions to lower power, not during resource rebalance or device removal) Suspend self-managed I/O, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend if driver supports it Stop power-managed queues EvtIoStop Disable DMA, if driver EvtDmaEnablerSelfManagedIoStop supports it EvtDmaEnablerDisable EvtDmaEnableFlush Disconnect interrupts EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled EvtInterruptDisable Notify driver of state change EvtDeviceDOExit Disable wake signal, if it is EvtDeviceDisableWakeAtBus enabled (called only during device removal) Stop here if transitioning to low-power state Release hardware EvtDeviceReleaseHardware Stop here if rebalancing resources Purge power-managed I/O EvtIoStop queues (continues) Wow! eBook ptg KMDF does not physically delete the PDO until the device is physically removed from the system. For example, if a user disables the device in Device Manager or uses the Safely Remove Hardware utility to stop the device but does not physically remove it, KMDF retains the PDO. If the device is later re-enabled, KMDF uses the EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback, as previously shown in section 7.2.2, “Startup Sequence for a Physical Device Object.” 7.2.3.3 Surprise-Removal Sequence If the user removes the device without warning, by simply unplugging it without using Device Manager or the Safely Remove Hardware utility, the device is considered surprise removed. When this occurs, KMDF follows a slightly different removal sequence. It also follows the surprise-removal sequence if another driver calls IoInvalidateDeviceState on the device, even if the device is still physically present. In the surprise-removal sequence, KMDF calls the EvtDevice- SurpriseRemoval callback before calling any of the other callbacks in the removal sequence. When the sequence is complete, KMDF destroys the device object. Drivers for all removable devices must ensure that the callbacks in both the shutdown and startup paths can handle failure, particularly fail- ures caused by the removal of the hardware. Any attempts to access the hardware should not wait indefinitely, but should be subject to time-outs or a watchdog timer. The following example shows the surprise-removal sequence. 170 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Flush I/O buffers, if driver EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoFlush supports Stop here if device is still physically present Purge non-power-managed I/O EvtIoStop Clean up I/O buffers, if driver EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup supports self-managed I/O Delete device object’s context EvtCleanupContext area EvtDestroyContext Device Physically Removed Wow! eBook ptg 7.2 Device Enumeration and Startup 171 Device Removal Notify driver that device EvtDeviceSurpriseRemoval has been surprise removed Suspend self-managed I/O EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend (called only if the device was in the working state at removal) Stop power-managed queues EvtIoStop (called only if the device was in the working state at removal) Disable DMA, if driver EvtDmaEnablerSelfManagedIoStop supports it (called only if EvtDmaEnablerDisable the device was in the working EvtDmaEnablerFlush state at removal) Disconnect interrupts EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled (called only if the device was EvtInterruptDisable in the working state at removal) Notify driver of state change EvtDeviceDOExit (called only if the device was in the working state at removal) Release hardware EvtDeviceReleaseHardware Purge power-managed queues EvtIoStop Flush and clean up I/O EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoFlush buffers, if driver supports self-managed I/O Purge non-power-managed EvtIoStop queues Clean up I/O buffers, if driver EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup supports self-managed I/O Delete device object’s EvtCleanupContext context area EvtDestroyContext Removal Processing Complete Wow! eBook ptg If the device was not in the working state when it was removed, KMDF calls the EvtDeviceReleaseHardware event callback immediately after EvtDeviceSurpriseRemoval. It omits the intervening steps, which were already performed when the device exited from the working state. 7.3 WMI Request Handler WMI provides a way for drivers to export information to other compo- nents. Drivers typically use WMI to enable the following: ■ User mode applications to query and set device-related information, such as time-out values. ■ An administrator with the necessary privileges to control a device by running an application on a remote system. A driver that supports WMI registers as a provider of information and registers one or more instances of that information. Each WMI provider is associated with a particular Globally Unique Identifier (GUID). Another component can register with the same GUID to consume the data from the instances. User mode components request WMI instance data by calling COM functions, which the system translates into IRP_MJ_ SYSTEM_CONTROL requests and sends to the target providers. KMDF supports WMI requests through its WMI request handler, which provides the following features for drivers: ■ A default WMI implementation. Drivers that do not provide WMI data are not required to register as WMI providers; KMDF handles all IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL requests. ■ Callbacks on individual instances, rather than just at the device object level, so that different instances can behave differently. ■ Validation of buffer sizes to ensure that buffers that are used in WMI queries meet the size requirements of the associated provider and instance. The default WMI implementation includes support for the check boxes on the Power Management tab of Device Manager. These check boxes enable a user to control whether the device can wake the system and whether the system can power down the device when it is idle. WDM drivers must include 172 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg code to support the WMI controls that map to these check boxes, but KMDF drivers do not require such code. If the driver enables this feature in its power policy options, KMDF handles these requests automatically. The driver enables buffer size validation when it configures a WMI provider object (WDFWMIPROVIDER). In the WDF_WMI_ PROVIDER_CONFIG structure, the driver can specify the minimum size of the buffer that is required for the provider’s EvtWmiInstance- QueryInstance and EvtWmiInstanceSetInstance callbacks. If the driver specifies such a value, KMDF validates the buffer size when the IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL request arrives and calls the callbacks only if the supplied buffer is large enough. If the driver does not configure a buffer size—because the instance size is either dynamic or is not avail- able when the provider is created—the driver should specify zero for this field and the callbacks themselves should validate the buffer size. When KMDF receives an IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL request that is targeted at a KMDF driver, it proceeds as follows: ■ If the driver has registered as a WMI provider and registered one or more instances, the WMI handler invokes the callbacks for those instances as appropriate. ■ If the driver has not registered any WMI instances, the WMI handler responds to the request by providing the requested data (if it can), passing the request to the next lower driver, or failing the request. Like all KMDF objects, WMI instance objects (WDFWMIINSTANCE) have a context area. A driver can use the context area of a WDFWMIIN- STANCE object as a source of read-only data, thus enabling easy data col- lection with minimal effort. A driver can delete WDFWMIINSTANCE objects any time after their creation. WMI callbacks are not synchronized with the Plug and Play and power management state of the device. Therefore, when WMI events occur, KMDF calls a driver’s WMI callbacks even if the device is not in the working state. 7.4 Synchronization Issues Because Windows is a pre-emptive, multitasking operating system, multi- ple threads can try to access shared data structures or resources concur- rently and multiple driver routines can run concurrently. To ensure data 7.4 Synchronization Issues 173 Wow! eBook ptg integrity, all drivers must synchronize access to shared data structures. Correctly implementing such synchronization can be difficult in WDM drivers. For KMDF drivers, ensuring proper synchronization requires attention to several areas: ■ The number of concurrently active requests that are dispatched from a particular queue. ■ The number of concurrently active callbacks for a particular object. ■ The driver utility functions that access object-specific data. ■ The IRQL at which an object’s callbacks run. The dispatch method for an I/O queue controls the number of requests from the queue that can be concurrently active in the driver, as described previously in the section “Dispatch Type” in both Chapters 3 and 6. Limiting concurrent requests does not, however, resolve all potential synchronization issues. Concurrently active callbacks on the same object might require access to shared object-specific data, such as the information that is stored in the object context area. Similarly, driver utility functions might share object-specific data with callbacks. Furthermore, a driver must be aware of the IRQL at which its callbacks can be invoked. At DISPATCH_LEVEL and above, drivers must not access pageable data and thread pre-emption does not occur. KMDF simplifies synchronization for driver by providing automatic synchronization of many callbacks. Calls to most PDO, FDO, Plug and Play, and power event callback functions are synchronized so that only one such callback function is invoked at a time for each device. These callback functions are called at IRQL PASSIVE_LEVEL. Note, however, that calls to the EvtDeviceSurpriseRemoval, EvtDeviceQueryRemove, and EvtDeviceQueryStop callbacks are not synchronized with the other callbacks and so occur while the device is changing power state or is not in the working state. For other types of callbacks—primarily I/O related callbacks—the driver can specify the synchronization scope (degree of concurrency) and the maximum execution level (IRQL). KMDF provides the following configurable synchronization features: ■ Synchronization scope ■ Execution level ■ Locks 174 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg Although implementing synchronization is much less complicated in KMDF drivers than in WDM drivers, you should nevertheless be familiar with the basics of Windows IRQL, synchronization, and locking. 7.4.1 Synchronization Scope KMDF provides configurable concurrency control, called synchronization scope, for the callbacks of several types of objects. An object’s synchro- nization scope determines whether KMDF invokes certain event callbacks on the object concurrently. KMDF define the following synchronization scopes: ■ Device scope means that KMDF does not call certain I/O event callbacks concurrently for an individual device object or any file objects or queues that are children of the device object. Specifically, device scope applies to the following event call- backs: EvtDeviceFileCreate, EvtFileCleanup, EvtFileClose, EvtIoDefault, EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, EvtIoDeviceControl, EvtIoInternalDeviceControl, EvtIoStop, EvtIoResume, EvtIo- QueueState, EvtIoCanceledOnQueue, and EvtRequestCancel. However, callbacks for different device objects that were cre- ated by the same driver object can be called concurrently. Internally, KMDF creates a synchronization lock for each device object. To implement device synchronization scope, KMDF acquires this lock before invoking any of the device callbacks. ■ Queue scope means that KMDF does not call certain I/O callbacks concurrently on a per-queue basis. If a Kernel Mode Driver speci- fies queue scope for a device object, some callbacks for the device object and its queues can run concurrently. However, the following callbacks for an individual queue object are not called concurrently: EvtIoDefault, EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, EvtIoDeviceControl, EvtIoInternalDeviceControl, EvtIoStop, EvtIoResume, EvtIoQueueState, EvtIoCanceledOnQueue, and EvtRequest- Cancel. If the driver specifies queue scope, KMDF creates a syn- chronization lock for each queue object and acquires this lock before invoking any of the listed callbacks. ■ No scope means that KMDF does not acquire any locks and can call any event callback concurrently with any other event callback. The driver must create and acquire all its own locks. By default, 7.4 Synchronization Issues 175 Wow! eBook ptg KMDF uses no scope. A driver must “opt in” to synchronization for its objects by setting device scope explicitly. Each KMDF object inherits its scope from its parent object (WdfSynchronizationScopeInheritFromParent). The parent of each WDFDEVICE object is the WDFDRIVER object, and the default value of the synchronization scope for the WDFDRIVER object is WdfSynchronizationScopeNone. Thus, a driver must explicitly set the synchronization scope on its objects to use frameworks synchronization. A driver can change the scope by setting a value in the WDR_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure when it creates the object. Because scope is inherited, a driver can easily set synchronization for most of its objects by setting the scope for the device object, which is the parent to most KMDF objects. (For the complete hierarchy, refer to Figure 6.1.) For example, to set the concurrency for its I/O callback functions, a driver sets the SynchronizationScope in the WDF_OBJECT_ ATTRIBUTES for the device object that is the parent to the I/O queues. If the driver sets device scope (WdfSynchronizationScopeDevice), KMDF calls only one I/O callback function at a time across all the queues. To use queue scope, the driver sets WdfSynchronizationScopeQueue for the device object and WdfSynchronizationScopeInheritFromParent for the queue object. Queue scope means that only one of the listed callback func- tions can be active for the queue at any time. A driver cannot set concurrency separately for each queue. Restricting the concurrency of I/O callbacks can help to manage access to shared data in the WDFQUEUE context memory. By default, a file object inherits its scope from its parent device object. Attempting to set queue scope for a file object causes an error. Therefore, drivers that set queue scope for a device object must manually set the syn- chronization scope for any file objects that are its children. The best prac- tice for file objects is to use no scope and to acquire locks in the event callback functions when they are required to synchronize access. If a driver sets device scope for a file object, it must also set the pas- sive execution level for the object, as described in the upcoming section “Execution Level.” The reason is that the framework uses spin locks (which raise IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL) to synchronize access to objects with device scope. However, the EvtDeviceFileCreate, EvtFileClose, and EvtFileCleanup callbacks run in the caller’s thread context and use pageable data, so they must be called at 176 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg PASSIVE_LEVEL. At PASSIVE_LEVEL, the framework uses a FAST_MUTEX instead of a spin lock for synchronization. Interrupt objects are the children of device objects. KMDF acquires the interrupt object’s spin lock at device interrupt request level (DIRQL) to synchronize calls to the EvtInterruptEnable, EvtInterruptDisable, and EvtInterruptlsr callbacks. A driver can also ensure that calls to its interrupt object’s EvtInterruptDpc callback are serialized with other call- backs on the parent device object. Deferred Procedure Call (DPC), timer, and work item objects can be children of device objects or of queue objects. To simplify a driver’s imple- mentation of callbacks for DPCs, timers, and work items, KMDF enables the driver to synchronize their callbacks with those of either the associated queue object or the device object (which might be the parent or the grand- parent of the DPC, timer, or work item). A driver sets callback synchronization on interrupt, DPC, timer, and work item objects by setting AutomaticSerialization in the object’s con- figuration structure during object creation. 7.4.2 Execution Level KMDF drivers can specify the maximum IRQL at which the callbacks for driver, device, file, and general objects are invoked. Like synchronization scope, execution level is an attribute that the driver can configure when it creates the object. KMDF supports the following execution levels: ■ Default execution level indicates that the driver has placed no particular constraints on the IRQL at which the callbacks for the object can be invoked. For most objects, this is the default. ■ Passive execution level (WdfExecutionLevelPassive) means that all event callbacks for the object occur at PASSIVE_LEVEL. If necessary, KMDF invokes the callback from a system worker thread. Drivers can set this level only for device and file object. Typically, a driver should set passive execution level only if the call- backs access pageable code or data or call other functions that must be called at PASSIVE_LEVEL. Callbacks for events on file objects (WDFFILEOBJECT type) are always called at PASSIVE_LEVEL because these functions must be able to access pageable code and data. 7.4 Synchronization Issues 177 Wow! eBook ptg ■ Dispatch execution level (WdfExecutionLevelDispatch) means that KMDF can invoke the callbacks from any IRQL up to and including DISPATCH_LEVEL. This setting does not force all callbacks to occur at DISPATCH_LEVEL. However, if a callback requires synchronization, KMDF uses a spin lock, which raises IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL. Drivers can set dispatch execution level but nevertheless ensure that some tasks are performed at PASSIVE_LEVEL by using work items (WDFWORKITEM objects). Work item callbacks are always invoked at PASSIVE_ LEVEL in the context of a system thread. By default, an object inherits its execution level from its parent object. The default execution level for the WDFDRIVER object is WdfExecutionLevelDispatch. 7.4.3 Locks In addition to internal synchronization, synchronization scope, and execu- tion level, KMDF provides the following additional ways for a driver to synchronize operations: ■ Acquire the lock that is associated with a device or queue object. ■ Create and use additional, KMDF-defined, driver-created lock objects. Driver code that runs outside an event callback sometimes must synchro- nize with code that runs inside an event callback. To accomplish this syn- chronization, KMDF provides methods (WdfObjectAcquireLock and WdfObjectReleaseLock) through which the driver can acquire and release the internal framework lock that is associated with a particular device or queue object. Given the handle to a device or queue object, WdfObjectAcquireLock acquires the lock that protects that object. After acquiring the lock, the driver can safely access the object context data or properties and can perform other actions that affect the object. If the driver has set WdfExecutionLevelPassive for the object (or if the object has inherited this value from its parent), KMDF uses a PASSIVE_LEVEL synchroniza- tion primitive (a fast mutex) for the lock. If the object does not have this constraint, use of the lock raises IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL and, while 178 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg the driver holds the lock, it must not touch pageable code or data or call functions that must run at PASSIVE_LEVEL. KMDF also defines two types of lock objects: ■ Wait locks (WDFWAITLOCK) synchronize access from code that runs at IRQL PASSIVE_LEVEL or APC_LEVEL. Such locks prevent thread suspension. Internally, KMDF implements wait locks by using kernel dispatcher events, so each wait lock is associ- ated with an optional time-out value (as are the kernel dispatcher events). If the time-out value is zero, the driver can acquire the lock at DISPATCH_LEVEL. ■ Spin locks (WDFSPINLOCK) synchronize access from code that runs at any IRQL up to DISPATCH_LEVEL. Because code that holds a spin lock runs at DISPATCH_LEVEL, it cannot take a page fault and therefore must not access any pageable data. The WDFSPINLOCK object keeps track of its acquisition history and ensures that deadlocks cannot occur. Internally, KMDF uses the system’s spin lock mechanisms to implement spin lock objects. As with all other KMDF objects, each instance of a lock object can have its own context area that holds lock-specific information. Drivers that do not use the built-in frameworks locking (synchroniza- tion scope, execution level, and AutomaticSerialization) can implement their own locking schemes by using KMDF wait locks and spin locks. Drivers that use frameworks locking can use KMDF wait locks and spin locks to synchronize access to data that is not associated with a particular device or queue object. In general, drivers can rely on frameworks locking while communicating with their own hardware and calling within their own code. Drivers that communicate with other drivers generally must implement their own locking schemes. 7.4.4 Interaction of Synchronization Mechanisms Synchronization scope and execution level interact because of the way in which KMDF implements synchronization. By default, KMDF uses spin locks, which raise IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL, to synchronize callbacks. Therefore, if the driver specifies device or queue synchroniza- tion scope, its device and queue callbacks must be able to run at DISPATCH_LEVEL. 7.4 Synchronization Issues 179 Wow! eBook ptg If the driver sets the WdfExecutionLevelPassive constraint for a parent device or queue object, KMDF uses a fast mutex instead of a spin lock. In this case, however, KMDF cannot automatically synchronize callbacks for timer and DPC child objects (including the DPC object that is associated with the interrupt object) because DPC and timer callbacks, by definition, always run at DISPATCH_LEVEL. Trying to create any of these objects with AutomaticSerialization fails if the WdfExecutionLevelPassive constraint is set for the parent object. Instead, the driver can synchronize the event callbacks for these objects by using a WDFSPINLOCK object. The driver acquires and releases the lock manually by the KMDF locking methods WdfSpinLockAcquire and WdfSpinLockRelease. Alternatively, the driver can perform whatever processing is required within the DPC or timer callback and then queue a work item that is syn- chronized with the callbacks at PASSIVE_LEVEL to perform further detailed processing. 7.5 Security KMDF is designed to enhance the creation of secure driver by providing: ■ Safe defaults ■ Parameter validation ■ Counted Unicode strings ■ Safe device naming techniques 7.5.1 Safe Defaults Unless the driver specifies otherwise, KMDF provides access control lists (ACLs) that require Administrator privileges for access to any exposed driver constructs, such as names, device IDs, WMI management inter- faces, and so forth. In addition, KMDF automatically handles I/O requests for which a driver has not registered by completing them with STATUS_INVALID_DEVICE_REQUEST. 7.5.2 Parameter Validation One of the most common driver security problems involves improper han- dling of buffers in IOCTL requests, particularly requests that specify 180 Chapter 7 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg neither buffered nor direct I/O (METHOD_NEITHER). By default, KMDF does not grant drivers direct access to user mode buffer pointers, which is inherently unsafe. Instead, it provides methods for accessing the user mode buffer pointer that require probing and locking, and it provides methods to probe and lock the buffer for reading and writing. All KMDF DDIs that require a buffer take a length parameter that spec- ifies a required minimum buffer size. I/O buffers use the WDFMEMORY object, which provides data access methods that automatically validate length and determine whether the buffer permissions allow write access to the underlying memory. 7.5.3 Counted UNICODE Strings To help prevent string handling errors, KMDF DDIs use only counted PUNICCODE_STRING values. To aid drivers in using and formatting UNICODE_STRING values, the safe string routines in ntstrsafe.h have been updated to take PUNICODE_STRING parameters. 7.5.4 Safe Device Naming Techniques KMDF device objects do not have fixed names. KMDF sets FILE_AUTOGENERATED_DEVICE_NAME in the device’s charac- teristics for PDOs, according to the WDM requirements. KMDF also supports the creation and registration of device interfaces on all Plug and Play devices and manages device interfaces for its drivers. Whenever possible, you should use device interfaces instead of the older fixed name/symbolic link techniques. However, if legacy applications require that a device has a name, KMDF enables you to name a device and to specify its security description definition language (SDDL). The SDDL controls which users can open the device. By convention, a fixed device name is associated with a fixed symbolic link name (such as \DosDevices\MyDeviceName). KMDF supports the creation and management of a symbolic link and automatically deletes the link when the device is destroyed. KMDF also enables the creation of a symbolic link name for an unnamed Plug and Play device. 7.5 Security 181 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 183 CHAPTER 8 KERNEL MODE INSTALLATION AND BUILD In this chapter, we will cover the kernel mode installation and build approach. Although KMDF supports a completely new device-driver interface (DDI) and programming model, the basic process of implementing and building a KMDF driver still has much in common with Windows Driver Model (WDM). If you are new to driver development, here are a few key points: ■ Drivers are normally written in C. C++ can be used for driver devel- opment in only a very limited way. You can safely use some basic C++ features, but the object-oriented features of C++ produce gen- erated code that is not guaranteed to work correctly in kernel mode. ■ You can use a .cpp extension with the C++ compiler to compile driver code. The C++ compiler works fine with C code and provides better error detection and type safety than the C compiler. ■ Include Ntddk.h and Wdf.h. These are standard header files that are used for all KMDF drivers. ■ Drivers must be built with the WDK or DDK build tools. Microsoft Visual Studio is not designed to support driver development and can be used only in a limited way. 8.1 WDK Build Tools KMDF drivers are built with the WDK build utility build.exe. This is a command line tool that is essentially identical to the tool that is used to build Windows itself. The build utility can be used for a variety of project types including user mode applications, but it must be used for drivers. Wow! eBook ptg The build utility requires a number of supporting files. The following are required for any project: ■ Source code files—A project must have at least one source code file (.c or .cpp) and typically one or more header files (.h). ■ Make file—This file contains build instruction. It should be named makefile and consist of the following statement that includes the standard WDK make file: !INCLUDE $(NTMAKEENV)\makefile.def ■ Sources file—This file contains project-specific information that is used to build the driver, such as the list of source files. The following example shows the content of a basic Sources file. An example of a some- what more complex Sources file along with an explanation of its element is given in the “Building Featured Toaster,” later in this section. TARGETNAME=WdfSimple TARGETTYPE=DRIVER KMDF_VERSION=1 SOURCES=WdfSimple.c Optional files include ■ Makefile.inc—Project with custom targets, such as Windows Management Instrumentation-(WMI)-related files, must put the necessary directives in Makefile.inc. Do not modify the standard make file. ■ Dirs—This file is used by projects that have source files in multiple subfolders or to build multiple projects with a single build com- mand. ■ Resource files (.rc)—These files contain resources such as string tables. ■ Managed object format (MOF) resource files (.mof)—Drivers that support WMI must have a MOF resource file (.mof). ■ INX file (.inx)—An INX file is an architecture-independent INF file. When the appropriate instructions are specified, the Build util- ity uses the data in an INX file to produce an appropriate INF file for the project. You can use any names that are convenient for most project files and folders, with one important restriction: the names cannot contain spaces or 184 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg nonANSI characters. However, the build utility assumes by default that the make, makefile.inc, Sources, and Dirs files are named makefile, make- file.inc, sources, and dirs, respectively. The supporting files must all be created manually. However, you can usually simplify the process by copying the files from an appropriate sam- ple and modifying them to suit the project. Visual Studio can be used in only a limited way for driver development. In particular, its compiler and debugger are not designed to be used with drivers. However, if you are accustomed to using Visual Studio, you can still use its integrated development environment (IDE) to edit source code and build the driver. Essentially, you reprogram the Visual Studio Build command to bypass the Visual build utility and instead run a command line that launches the WDK build utility. You still must manually create the build utility supporting files that were discussed earlier in this section. KMDF drivers, like WDM drivers, are built in the WDK build envi- ronment. KMDF drivers include the header files Wdf.h (shipped with KMDF) and ntddk.h. To build a KMDF driver, you must set the /GS flag on the compiler and the KMDF_VERSION environment variable in the Sources file. Setting KMDF_VERSION=1 indicates that the driver should be built with the first version of KMDF. 8.2 Build Environment There are two basic types of build: ■ Checked builds are similar to the Debug builds that are used in application development. They generate detailed debugging infor- mation and enable certain types of debugging-related code such as ASSERT macros. Checked builds are normally used during the earlier stages of driver development because they are much easier to debug than free builds. Checked builds are typically somewhat slow. ■ Free builds are similar to the Release builds that are used in application development. They lack the detailed debugging informa- tion of a checked build and are fully optimized. Free builds are more difficult to debug, so they are typically used at the end of the development cycle for final testing and performance tuning. 8.2 Build Environment 185 Wow! eBook ptg To simplify the process of setting up the build environment, the WDK includes a set of console windows with the correct settings for each build environment/platform/architecture combination. To open a build environment window: 1. On the taskbar, click Start, and then click All Programs. 2. Click Windows Driver Kits, click the latest WDK version, and then click Build Environments. 3. Click the appropriate CPU architecture, and then open a checked or free build environment window for the appropriate Windows version. The build environment window for a specified version of Windows works for that version and all later versions. 8.3 Building a Project After you have launched the correct build window, use cd to move to the project folder and run the build utility to compile and link the driver. The command syntax is simple: build –a[b[c]...] The build utility assumes by default that the project has a make file that is named makefile, a Sources file with the list of source files, and so on. There is no need to specify these files explicitly. a[b[c]...] represents the build arguments, most of which consists of a single case-sensitive character. The WDK has a complete list of flags, but here are some of the commonly used ones: ■ ?—Displays a list of all command-line flags. ■ c—Deletes all object files. ■ e—Generates log, error, and warning files. ■ g—Uses colored text to display warnings, errors, and summaries. ■ Z—Prevents dependency checking or scanning of source files. The following example shows a commonly used build command: build –ceZ The build utility produces several output files, including 186 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg ■ TargetName.sys—The driver binaries. ■ SourceFileName.obj—Object files that are produced from the corresponding source files. ■ TargetName.pdb—The driver’s symbol tables. ■ TargetName.inf—The project’s INF file. This file is produced by the build utility only if the project uses an INX file. Otherwise, you must create the INF file separately. The output normally goes in a subfolder of the project folder. The default output folder name depends on the build environment. For example, the default output folder for a Windows XP x86 free build is named Project- Folder\objfre_wxp_x86\i386. 8.4 Building Featured Toaster The Toaster sample is set of simple software drivers that were created by Microsoft as a learning tool for new driver developers. If you are new to KMDF driver development, it’s the first sample you should look at. Not only does Toaster provide a simple example of how to write drivers by using the best coding practices, it includes detailed comments that explain every step. Toaster is located at WinDDK\ BuildNmber\src\kmdf\toaster. Toaster includes a number of drivers, including two function drivers. One is a minimal version that is named Simple and the other a full-featured version that is named Featured. This section uses the Featured Toaster sample as a convenient way to demonstrate the basics of the build, install, and debug process. We will walk through how to create a Windows 7 checked build of Featured Toaster. We will dis- cuss some of the supporting files that are mentioned in the previous material. The KMDF version of Toaster is essentially a port of the WDM Toaster sample. If you are familiar with the WDM version, com- pare it to the KMDF version to see just how much KMDF can simplify driver code. 8.4.1 Makefile and Makefile.inc The contents of Makefile are the same for all driver projects. Featured Toaster also includes an optional file, Makefile.inc. This file contains 8.4 Building Featured Toaster 187 Wow! eBook ptg some additional make directives that handle two targets that aren’t covered by makefile.def. The following example shows the contents of Featured Toaster’s makefile.inc file: _LNG=$(LANGUAGE) _INX=. STAMP=$(STAMPINF_PATH) –f $@ -a $(_BUILDARCH) -v 1.0.0.0 $(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\$(INF_NAME) .inf: $(_INX)\$(INF_NAME .inx copy $(_INX)\$(@B) .inx $@ $(STAMP) mofcomp: $(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\toaster.bmf $(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\toaster.bmf: toaster.mof mofcomp –WMI –B:$(OBJ_PATH)\$0\toaster.bmf toaster.mof wmimofck –m –h$(OBJ_PATH)\$0\ToasterMof.h – w$(OBJ_PATH)\$0\htm $(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\toaster.bmf The first part of makefile.inc uses the project’s INX file, wdffea- tured.inx, to produce an architecture-specific INF file. The second part of makefile.inc produces the WMI target file. 8.4.2 The Sources File The Sources file contains most of the project-specific information that the build utility uses to build the project. It consists of a series of directives that assign project-specific values to a set of macros and environment variables. The following example shows the contents of the Featured Toaster Sources file, which is a typical Sources file for a simple KMDF driver: TARGETNAME=wdffeatured TARGETTYPE=DRIVER KMDF_VERSION=1.5 INF_NAME=wdffeatured MISCFILES=$(OBJ_PATH)\$(0)\$(INF_NAME) .inf INCLUDES = $(INCLUDES) ;..\..\inc;..\shared NTTARGETFILES= NTTARGETDILE0=mofcomp # # List of source files to compile. 188 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg # SOURCES= \ toaster.rc \ toaster.c \ power.c \ wmi.c C_DEFINES= !include $(WDF_ROOT)\project.mk The following list gives brief descriptions of the macros and environment variables in this file. For a complete list, see the WDK documentation. ■ TARGETNAME—Required. This macro specifies wdffeatured as the name to be used for output files such as the project’s .sys and .pdb files. ■ TARGETTYPE—Required. The build utility can be used to build a variety of binary types. This macro specifies which type of binary is to be built; DRIVER indicates a Kernel Mode Driver. ■ KMDF_VERSION—Required. This environment variable specifies the KMDF version number. This project uses KMDF version 1.5. ■ INF_NAME—Optional. INF_NAME is a custom macro for proj- ects that use INX files. It specifies that the INF file that is gener- ated from the projects INX file is to be named wdffeatured.inf. ■ MISCFILES—Optional. MISCFILES is a custom macro for proj- ects that use INX files. It specifies where to place the INF file that is generated. In this example, the INF file is placed in the output folder with the other output files. ■ INNLUDES—Optional. This macro specifies the location of folders, other than the project folder, that contain header files. These are typically header files that are shared across multiple projects. ■ NTTARGETFILE0—Optional. This macro is used to specify additional targets and dependencies that are not covered by make- file.def. In this case, it is used for WMI-related aspects of the build. ■ SOURCES—Required. This macro lists the project’s source files. By default, the files must be on a single line. The backslash (\) is a line-con- tinuation character that allows the files to be listed on separate lines. ■ C_DEFINES—Required for Unicode builds. Specifies any compile-time switches that must be passed to the C compiler. 8.4 Building Featured Toaster 189 Wow! eBook ptg 8.4.3 The Build The following procedure shows how to build Featured Toaster. For sim- plicity, assume that the WDK’s root folder is C:\WinDDK\6000. 1. Launch the Windows 7 Checked Build Environment console window. It opens in the c:\WinDDK\6000 folder. 2. Use cd to move to the project folder. The project folder is at C:\WinDDK\6000\src\kmdf\toaster\func\featured. 3. Build the project by running the following command. This isn’t the only way to build the project, but it’s a commonly used set of flags. build –ceZ The output files go in the featured\objchk\w7_x86\i386 subfolder. 8.5 Installing a KMDF Driver Drivers must be installed before they can be used—either by the developer to test and debug the driver or by the end user who wants to use the related device. The procedures for installing a driver are distinctly different from those that are used to install applications. This section discusses how to cre- ate a WDF installation package and install it on a system. There is a variety of ways to install drivers on a user’s system. One com- mon way is to simply attach the associated hardware to the user’s system. The Plug and Play manager detects new hardware and prompts the user to insert a disk that contains the driver package. The system then installs the driver. Users can also install drivers manually with the New Hardware application in Control Panel. KMDF driver packages contain at least three files in addition to the driver binaries: ■ The KMDF co-installer dynamic-link library (DLL). ■ An INF file. ■ A digitally signed catalog (.cat) file. This file is not necessary for test installations. Driver packages can optionally contain files such as icons, property sheet providers, supporting DLLs, and so on. This section discusses the relatively simple driver package and test-installation procedure for Featured Toaster. 190 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg 8.5.1 The WDF Co-Installer A KMDF driver package must include the redistributable WDF co-install DLL. Its primary purpose is to install the KMDF run time. The WDF co-installer is located under the WinDDK\BuildNumber\Redis\Wdf folder. There are six co-installers—a checked and a free build for each supported process architecture (x86, Intel Itanium, and amd64). To install the WDF co-installer, add the appropriate DLL to the driver package and add the appropriate directives to the INF file. The WDF co-installer version number must be greater than or equal to the KMDF version with which the driver is compiled. The version number is embedded in the DLL’s name. For example, the co-installer for KMDF version 1.5 is named WdfCoInstaller01005.dll. The KMDF run-time version and the KMDF co-installer version that are specified in the project’s INF must be identical. The build type of the co-installer must match that of the Windows version on which the driver will be installed. You cannot use the checked build of a co-installer to install a driver on a free build of Windows, or vice versa. 8.5.2 The INF The INF is the core of the installation package. It is a text file that contains most of the information that the system uses to install a driver, including ■ General information about the device such as the device’s manufac- turer, installation class, and version number. ■ Names and locations of files on the distribution disk and where they should be installed on the user’s system. ■ Directives for creating or modifying registry entries for the driver or device. ■ Installation directives for which drivers are to be installed, which binaries contain the driver, and a list of drivers to be loaded on the device. ■ Directives for setting KMDF-specific configuration information. The INF format is much like the earlier Windows .ini files. Each line con- tains a single entry, and there are two basic types of entries: ■ Section—Each INF contains a number of sections, indicated by square brackets—for example, [Version]. 8.5 Installing a KMDF Driver 191 Wow! eBook ptg ■ Directive—Each section contains one or more directives. A direc- tive is a key-value pair and is used to specify various types of instal- lation-related data. For example, the Class=Mouse directive in the Version section specifies the mouse device class. 8.5.3 INFs for KMDF Drivers Most of the contents of an INF for a KMDF driver are similar to those that are used for WDM drivers and aren’t discussed here. For further informa- tion, see the WDK document or examine the INF for Featured Toaster, wdffeatured.inf. The major difference is that INFs for KMDF drivers must contain several additional sections that are devoted to the KMDF co- installer. These sections instruct the system to run the co-installer and pro- vide it with necessary data. The co-installer unpacks and installs a number of files that KMDF drivers require, including the KMDF run-time library. 8.5.4 wdffeatured.inf The following sample shows the WDF co-installer sections from the Featured Toaster sample’s INF file, wdffeatured.inf. It was produced from an INX file by the build described earlier. [DestinationDirs] ToasterClasInstallerCopyFiles = 11 [Toaster_Device.NT.CoInstallers] AddReg=Toaster_Device_CoInstaller_AddReg CopyFiles=Toaster_Device_CoInstaller_CopyFiles [Toaster_Device_CoInstaller_AddReg] HKR, ,CoInstallers32, 0x00010000, “WdfCoinstaller01000.dll,WdfCoInstaller” [Toaster_Device_CoInstaller_CopyFiles] WdfCoinstaller01000.dll [SourceDisksFiles] WdfCoinstaller01000.dll=1 [Toaster_Device.NT.Wdf] KmdfService = wdffeatured, wdffeatured_wdfsect 192 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg [wdffeatured_wdfsect] KmdfLibraryVersion = 1.1 To modify this code for your driver, replace the text that is specific to Featured Toaster with custom text of your choosing. The following example is a generic version of the co-installer section for a driver that is named MyDevice: [DestinationDirs] MyDeviceClassInstallerCopyFiles = 11 [MyDevice.NT.CoInstallers] AddReg=MyDevice_CoInstaller_AddReg CopyFiles= MyDeviceClassInstallerCopyFiles [MyDevice_CoInstaller_AddReg] HKR, ,CoInstallers32,0x00010000, “WdfCoinstaller01000.dll,WdfCoInstaller” [MyDevice_CoInstaller_CopyFiles] wdfCoinstller01000.dll [SourceDisksFiles] wdfCoinstaller01000.dll=1 ; [MyDevice.NT.Wdf] KmdfService = MyDevice, MyDevice_wdfsect [MyDevice_wdfsect] KmdfLibraryVersion = 1.0 8.6 Catalog Files and Digital Signature Because Kernel Mode Drivers have essentially unrestricted access to the system, they should be digitally signed. Digitally signing the package sim- plifies the installation process, but it also provides customers with two very important additional benefits: ■ Customers can use the signature to identify the origin of the package. ■ Customers can use the signature to verify that the contents of the package have not been tampered with since it was signed. For exam- ple, this assures them that the driver has not been modified into a root kit or infected with a virus. 8.6 Catalog Files and Digital Signature 193 Wow! eBook ptg With recent versions of Windows, unsigned drivers can be installed only by an administrator, and even administrators receive a warning dialog box that requires them to explicitly approve the installation. A signed catalog file (.cat) contains the digital signature for the entire driver package. The signing process ties the catalog file to a specific driver package. If anyone subsequently modifies any member of the package by even a single byte, it invalidates the signature. If you modify a driver pack- age, it must have a new signed catalog file. There are two ways to obtain a signed catalog file for a driver package: ■ Obtain a Windows logo. Drivers that pass the Windows Hardware Quality Lab (WHQL) testing and receive a Windows logo also receive a catalog file for the driver package, signed with the WHQL certificate. ■ Create your own signed catalog file. You can obtain a digital certifi- cate from a certificate authority (CA). The WDK provides tools to create a catalog file and sign it with the certificate. For testing purposes, you can create a test certificate and install it in the trusted publishers’ certificates store on the test computer. Sign the test driver packages with the test certificate and the driver will install without warning messages. The CatalogFile entry in the INF file’s Version section specifies a package’s catalog file. The following example is from the Featured Toaster sample’s INF file and declares KmdfSamples.cat as the pack- age’s catalog file: [Version] Signature=”$WINDOWS NT$” Class=TOASTER ClassGuid={B85B7C50-6A01-11d2-B841-00C04FAD5171} Provider=%MSFT% DriverVer=02/22/2006, 1.0.0.0 CatalogFile=KmdfSamples.cat 8.7 Installing Featured Toaster Kernel Mode Drivers under development are normally installed on a sep- arate test computer that is used specifically for testing and debugging 194 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg drivers. If you are new to drivers, there are two primary reasons for this practice: ■ Kernel Mode Drivers have essentially unrestricted access to the system. This means that a misbehaving driver can corrupt system memory and possibly the contents of the hard disk. Drivers under development invariably have bugs, and it is better to have any related damage happen to a stripped-down test computer that can be easily reformatted. ■ Debugging Kernel Mode Drivers normally requires two computers: one to host the driver being debugged and one to host the debug- ging software. One important reason for this arrangement is that driver bugs often hang or crash the system. Hosting the debugger on a separate system protects it from crashing along with the target computer and allows you to immediately analyze the problem. This section describes how to install Featured Toaster on a test computer. The driver is installed on a root-enumerated physical device object, which is the simplest approach. More commonly, drivers are installed on a bus-enumerated physical device object. The Toaster sam- ple also includes a bus driver that can be used for this type of installation. Remember that Featured Toaster is a software driver, not a device driver. This means that there is nothing for the Plug and Play manager to detect, so the driver must be installed manually. Because the test driver is unsigned, installing it requires administrator rights and an extra step. For a more streamlined process, install a test certificate on the test computer and use the certificate to sign the package. The steps involved in installing the Featured Toaster are as follows: 1. Copy the driver binary (WdfFeatured.sys) and INF file (WdfFeatured.inf) to installable media such as a USB drive. 2. Copy the WDF co-installer to the same media. 3. Put the media on the test computer, start the Control Panel Add Hardware wizard, and go to page 2. 4. Page 2: Click Yes, I Have Already Added the Hardware. 5. Page 3: Select Add a New Hardware Device, from the bottom of the list. 6. Page 4: Click Install the Hardware That I Manually Select From a List. 8.7 Installing Featured Toaster 195 Wow! eBook ptg 7. Page 5: Select Show All Devices from the top of the list. It may take awhile for page 6 to appear. 8. Page 6: Click Have Disk, which opens the Install From a Disk dia- log box. 9. Enter the drive letter for the media that contains the driver pack- age and click OK to return to the wizard. 10. Page 8: Select the Featured Toaster driver from the list and click Next on this page and the following page. The system then loads the driver. 11. Page 10: Click Finish to complete the process. Device Manager is the simplest way to uninstall the driver. On Windows 7, you can also use System Restore to restore the system to the state it had before the driver installation—that uninstalls the driver, along with any other system changes that took place in the interim. 8.8 Testing a KMDF Driver Testing drivers is a large and complicated subject. This section touches on only a few KMDF-specific issues. There are two basic approaches to testing: ■ Static testing by using tools that analyze the source code for errors without actually executing it. ■ Dynamic testing that puts an installed driver through its paces in hopes of activating a bug and causing the driver to fail in some way. Some related techniques, such as tracing tools, record the actions of a driver. This section only provides a brief introduction to the testing tools that WDF provides for KMDF drivers. 8.8.1 PREfast PREfast is a static source code analysis tool that detects certain classes of errors not easily found by a compiler. PREfast steps through all possible execution paths in each function and evaluates each path for problems by simulating execution. PREfast does not actually execute code and cannot find all possible errors. However, it can find errors that the compiler might not catch and that can be difficult to find during debugging. 196 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg PREfast is a general-purpose tool that can be used with any type of project. WDF includes a customized version of PREfast that checks for driver-specific issues such as the correct interrupt request level (IRQL), use of preferred driver routines, and misuse of driver routines. It also aggressively checks for memory and resource leaks. PREfast is run in conjunction with a build. The following is a simple example of how to run a PREfast build. For the purposes of illustration, the command uses a typical set of build flags, but any build flags can be used with PREfast. The second line opens the PREfast viewer to display the error log. prefast build –ceZ prefast view 8.8.2 Static Driver Verifier Static Driver Verifier (SDV) is a static compile-time unit-testing tool that symbolically executes the source code. SDV does deeper testing than PREfast and creates what is in effect a hostile environment for the driver. It systematically tests all code paths by looking for violations of usage rules. The symbolic execution makes very few assumptions about the state of the operating system or the initial state of the driver, so SDV can create sce- narios that are difficult to handle with traditional testing. The set of rules that are packaged with SDV define how device drivers should use the DDI. The categories of rules tested include the following. 8.8 Testing a KMDF Driver 197 Category Tests IRP Functions that use I/O request packets IRQL Functions that use interrupt request levels PnP Functions that use Plug and Play PM Functions that use power management WMI Functions that use Windows Management Instrumentation Sync Functions that use synchronization, including spin locks, semaphores, timers, mutexes, and other methods of access control Other Functions that are not fully described by any of the other categories Wow! eBook ptg 198 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build 8.8.3 KMDF Log KMDF includes an internal trace logger that is based on the Windows soft- ware trace preprocessor (WPP). It tracks the progress of I/O request pack- ets (IRPs) through the framework and the corresponding WDFREQUEST objects through the driver. The KMDF log maintains a record of recent race events—currently, approximately the last 100—for each driver instance. Each KMDF driver has its own log. You can use WDF debugger extensions to view and save the KMDF log during interactive debugging. The typical saved log file is small (10 to 20 KB) and written in a binary format. You can also make logs available as part of a small-memory dump for inspection after a crash. 8.8.4 KMDF Verifier KMDF Verifier operates on an installed and running driver. It comple- ments Driver Verifier and supports a number of WDF-specific features. In addition, if the target driver is not loaded, KMDF Verifier can be turned on without rebooting the system. In general, you should run both Driver Verifier and KMDF Verifier during development. KMDF Verifier provides extensive tracing messages that supply detailed information about activities within the framework. It tracks refer- ences to each WDF object and builds a trace that can be sent to the debugger. In particular, KMDF Verifier ■ Checks lock acquisition and hierarchies. ■ Ensures that calls to the framework occur at the correct IRQL. ■ Verifies correct I/O cancellation and queue usage. ■ Ensures that the driver and framework follow the documented contracts. KMDF Verifier can also simulate low-memory and out-of-memory conditions. It tests a driver’s response to these situations to determine whether the driver responds properly without crashing, hanging, or failing to unload. 8.8.5 Debugging a KMDF Driver Debuggers are an essential development tool; programs under develop- ment always have bugs, especially in the early stages. Debuggers can also Wow! eBook ptg be used as learning tools, to step through sample code and understand in detail how it functions. Debugging is normally done at run time to determine why a driver is failing. The exception to this rule is that kernel debuggers can also be used to analyze crash-dump files. If you are new to driver development, you will find kernel debugging a bit different from application debugging. One immediately noticeable difference is that kernel debugging requires three hardware components: ■ A host computer running WinDbg. This is typically the computer that is used to develop and build the driver. ■ A test computer running an appropriate build of Windows with the driver installed and kernel debugging enabled. Debugging is typi- cally done with a checked build of the driver because checked builds are much easier to debug. Test computers also often run a checked build of Windows. ■ A way for the two computers to communicate. Historically, this was handled by connecting serial ports on the host and test computers with a null-modem cable. An alternative is to use USB or IEEE 1394 cables. The kernel debugging tools are available as a separate package from WHDC that includes the debugging tools, documentation, and some related files. The procedures for setting up systems for kernel debugging are covered in detail in the debugging documentation. The debugging package includes two kernel debuggers, WinDbg and KD. They have essentially the same capabilities, but WinDbg has a graph- ical user interface (GUI) that many developers find convenient. The exam- ples we use are from WinDbg. We will cover a walkthrough of a simple debugging session with Featured Toaster that demonstrates the basics of how to use WinDbg with a KMDF driver. WinDbg is a debugger, not an IDE like Visual Studio. It comes into play only after you have successfully built the driver and installed it on a test machine. There are two basic ways to use WinDbg: ■ Kernel debugging—In this mode, WinDbg is connected to an active test machine and can interact with a running driver. ■ Crash dump analysis—If the system crashes, you can use WinDbg to analyze the crash dump data to try to determine the cause. 8.8 Testing a KMDF Driver 199 Wow! eBook ptg When you launch WinDbg, you must first point it to the driver’s source and symbol files. To start a kernel debugging session, on the File menu, click Kernel Debug. You won’t be able to do much until the system breaks into the debugger. This essentially stops the test computer and turns its opera- tion over to WinDbg. The following are common ways to cause a test sys- tem to break into the debugger: ■ You instruct WinDbg to force a break. This can be done from the UI, on the Debug menu by clicking Break, or by clicking the cor- responding toolbar button. You can also run the break command. ■ You use WinDbg to dynamically insert breakpoints into the running driver. This approach is quite flexible because it allows breakpoints to be inserted, disabled, enabled, or removed during the debugging session. ■ You insert DbgBreakPoint statements in the driver’s source code. This approach is simpler but less flexible because the driver must be recompiled and reinstalled to change a breakpoint. ■ The driver bug checks and crashes the test computer. At this point, you can use WinDbg to examine crash dump data, but the computer must be rebooted before it can run again. You can force a system crash by running the .crash command. 8.8.6 Kernel Debugging With the first two cases in the previous discussion, after the driver breaks into the debugger, you can do most of the usual debugging procedure: exam- ine variables, step through lines of code, examine the call stack, and so on. Much of the interaction with WinDbg is through the command-line interface. There are two basic types of commands: ■ Debugger commands are native to the debugger and are used to obtain basic information. Commands are typically one or two letter strings, often followed by one or more arguments. For example, k and related commands display a thread’s stack frame and some related information. When you are finished, use the g command to break out of the debugger and return the driver and test computer to normal operation. Some simple commands have corresponding menu items or toolbar buttons, but many can be run from the command line. 200 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg ■ Debugger extensions extend the basic set of debugger com- mands. A number of them are included with the debugger package and are launched from the command window in much the same way as debugger commands. The first character of a debugger extension is always an exclamation point (!), to distinguish it from a debugger command. For example, a particularly useful debugger extension is !analyze, which is used to analyze crash dumps. In addition to the debugger extensions that are included with the debugger package, it is also possible to write custom debugger extensions. The debugging Help file includes a complete reference for debugging commands, standard debugger extensions, and the API that is used to create custom extensions. In the next section, we will discuss some debug- ger extensions that were created specifically for KMDF drivers. If a driver bug causes a system crash, the computer must be rebooted before it can run again. However, if WinDbg is running and connected when the test computer crashes, the system breaks into the debugger and you can analyze the crash dump immediately. You can also configure your test computer to attempt to create a crash dump file when it crashes. If the file is successfully created, you can load it into WinDbg and analyze the crash after the fact. WinDbg doesn’t have to be connected to the test computer for this purpose. 8.8.7 KMDF Driver Features Debugging a KMDF driver is similar in many ways to debugging any Kernel Mode Driver. However, some debugging features are specific to KMDF. 8.8.7.1 Registry Settings A number of the WDF debugging features must be enabled by setting registry values for the driver’s Parameters\Wdf subkey. The driver key itself is named for the driver and located under HKEY_LOCAL_ MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services. Table 8.1 summarizes the values that can be added to the Wdf subkey. The features are disabled by default. To enable most of these features, cre- ate the associated value and set it to a nonzero number. To enable handle tracking, set TrackHandles to a MULTI_SZ string that contains the names of the objects that you want to track. The settings do not take effect until the next time that the driver is loaded. The simplest way to reload a 8.8 Testing a KMDF Driver 201 Wow! eBook ptg driver is to use Device Manager to disable and then reenable the driver. Table 8.1 shows some of the settings. Table 8.1 Registry Values 202 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Category Type Tests VerifierOn REG_DWORD Set to a nonzero value to enable the KMDF verifier. VerifyOn Set to a nonzero value to enable the WDFVERIFY macro. If VerifierOn is set, WDFVERIFY is automatically enabled. DbgBreakOnError REG_DWORD Set to a nonzero value to instruct the framework to break into the debugger when a driver calls WdfVerifierDbgBreakPoint. VerboseOn REG_DWORD Set to a nonzero value to capture verbose information in the KMDF logger. LogPages REG_DWORD Set to a value from 1 to 10 to specify the number of memory pages that the framework assigns to its logger. The default value is 1. VerifierAllocateFailCount REG_DWORD Set to a nonzero value to test low- memory conditions. When VerifierAllocateFailCount is set to n, the framework fails every attempt to allocate memory for the driver’s objects after the nth allocation. This value works only if VerifierOn is also set. TrackHandles MULTI_SZ Set to a MULTI_SZ string that contains the names of one or more object types to track handle references to those types. This feature can help find memory leaks that are caused by unreleased references. To track all objects types, set TrackHandles to “*”. Wow! eBook ptg 8.8.7.2 Symbols You must explicitly provide WinDbg with paths to all the relevant symbols files. For KMDF drivers, this normally includes the symbols for the driver, Windows, and the KMDF run time. The symbols file is named Wdf01000.pdb and is located under %WDF_ROOT%\Symbols\Build- Environment\wdf\sys. There are six Build Environment folders, one for each of the standard build types and architectures. For most debugging, you should use the checked build for the appropriate architecture. 8.9 Debugging Macros and Routines KMDF drivers can include any of the standard debugging macros and rou- tines, such as ASSERT or DbgPrintEx. Several routines and macros are also specific to WDF as summarized in Table 8.2. Table 8.2 Debugging Macros 8.9 Debugging Macros and Routines 203 Category Type Tests ForceLogsInMiniDump REG_DWORD Set to a nonzero value to include the KMDF log in a small memory dump file if the system crashes. Category Tests WdfVerifierDbgBreakPoint This routine breaks into the debugger if the DbgBreakOnError value is set in the registry. WDFVERIFY If the VerifyOn value is set in the registry, this macro tests a logical expression and breaks into the kernel debugger if the expression evaluates to FALSE. Unlike ASSERT, this macro is included in both checked and free builds. VERIFY_IS_IRQL_ If the VerifyOn value is set in the register, this macro PASSIVE_LEVEL breaks into the kernel debugger if the driver is not executing at IRQL=PASSIVE_LEVEL. Wow! eBook ptg 204 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Category Tests !wdfhelp Displays the list of debugger extensions. !wdfcrashdump Displays a crash dump that includes the framework’s log information. !wdfdevice Displays information that is associated with a WDFDEVICE- typed handle. !wdfdevicequeues Displays information about all the queue objects that belong to a specified device. !wdfdriverinfo Displays information about a framework-based driver, such as its run-time version and hierarchy of object handles. !wdfhandle Displays information about a specified KMDF handle. !wdfIotarget Displays information about a WDFIOTARGET-typed object handle. !wdfdr Displays all loaded WDF drivers. !wdfIodump Displays the framework’s log information. !wdfqueue Displays information about a WDFQUEUE-typed object handle. !wdfrequest Displays information about a WDFREQUEST-typed object handle. 8.10 WDF Debugger Extension Commands KMDF includes a set of debugger extension commands that can be invoked in the debugger’s command window to obtain a variety of WDF- related data. The output often includes command strings that can be pasted into the command line to retrieve additional related information. Table 8.3 shows some of the more commonly used commands. Table 8.3 Debugger Extension Commands When KMDF Verifier is enabled, several of the WDF debugger extension commands provide more information than is available otherwise. For example, !wdfdriverinfo reports leaked handles. The code for the WDF debugger extensions is contained in a DLL that is named wdfkd.dll. The DLL is included with WDK debugging tools and is stored in Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows\winext. Wow! eBook ptg Check it against the most recent version of the DLL, which is included with the latest KMDF distribution. Wdfkd.dll is stored under WinDDK\ BuildNumber\bin\. There are actually three versions of wdfkd.dll, one for each supported architecture (amd64, Intel Itanium, or x86). If neces- sary, overwrite the version that came with the debugger with the most recent version. 8.11 Using WPP Tracing with a KMDF Driver WPP tracing works in essentially the same way with a KMDF driver as it does with a WDM driver. However, KMDF provides hundreds of frame- work-specific tracing messages. To enable KMDF support for WPP, include the following RUN_WPP directive in the project’s Sources file: RUN_WPP = $(SOURCES) \ -km \ -func:TraceEvents(LEVEL,FLAGS,MSG,...) \ -gen:{km-WdfDefault.tpl}*.tmh 8.12 Using WinDbg with Featured Toaster Featured Toaster doesn’t have any known bugs, but WinDbg is still a useful tool to walk through the source and see how the driver works. The walkthrough also demonstrates the basics of how to use WinDbg. The test computer should be running Windows with kernel debugging enabled and be connected to the host computer. For convenience, this sec- tion assumes that the COM ports are connected with a null-modem cable. The simplest way to use the debugger is to run a test application that accesses the driver and hits a breakpoint, causing the driver to break into the debugger. KMDF doesn’t include a test application for Toaster, but the WDM test appli- cation, Toast.exe, works just as well with the KMDF version of the driver. The source code for Toast.exe is located at WinDDK\BuildNumber \src\general\toaster\exe\toast. Use the same console window and build commands to build Toast.exe as for Featured Toaster. Unlike most proj- ects, the output folder is not a subfolder of the project folder. Copy Toast.exe from the output folder WinDDK\BuildNumber\src\gen- eral\toaster\disk\chk_wxp_x86\i386 to a convenient folder on the test computer. 8.12 Using WinDbg with Featured Toaster 205 Wow! eBook ptg To get WinDbg ready to debug Featured Toaster: 1. Launch WinDbg. 2. On the File menu, click Symbol File Path, which causes the Symbols Search Path dialog box to appear. It should have paths for the Featured Toaster, Windows, KMDF run time, and wdfkd.dll symbols files. 3. Select the Reload check box, which forces WinDbg to load the current symbols, and close the dialog box. 4. On the File menu, click Source File Path, and add the path to the Featured Toaster’s source files. 5. On the File menu, click Open Source File. Open Featured Toaster’s Toaster.c file. 6. On the File menu, click Kernel Debug. This puts WinDbg into kernel debugging mode and establishes the connection with the test computer. 7. Enter the appropriate baud rate and COM port in the Kernel Debugging dialog box, and click OK to start the debugging session. 8. On the Debug menu, click Break, which forces a break and allows you to run debugging commands. 9. Use the bp command as follows to set a breakpoint in Featured Toaster’s ToasterEvtIoRead routine. bp ToasterEvtIoRead To start debugging: 1. Go to the test computer, launch a command window, and run Toast.exe. Type any character other than “q” to cause Toast.exe to send a read request to the driver. Toast.exe then calls Featured Toaster’s ToasterEvtIoRead routine. When the driver hits the breakpoint, it breaks into the debugger. 2. On the Debug menu, select the Source Mode check box if it isn’t already selected. This mode allows you to step through the source code. Notice that the corresponding assembler appears in the Command window. Even if you never write a line of assembler, it’s still useful to know something about it for debugging purposes. 3. Set the cursor on a line of source code. On the Debug menu, click Run to Cursor. The selected line should be highlighted in blue. 4. On the Debug menu, click Step Over to execute the next line. There’s also a Toolbar button for this purpose, located under- neath the Window menu. 206 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg To get detailed information, call one of the debugger extensions. One use- ful WDF debugger extension is !wdfdriverinfo, which returns general information about the driver. It takes the name of the driver as a required argument plus a flag that controls exactly what data is returned. 0xF0 returns essentially everything. The following example shows the output from !wdfdriverinfo for Featured Toaster: kd> !wdfdriverinfo wdfeatured 0xf0 Default driver image name: wdffeatured WDF runtime image name: Wdf01000 FxDriverGlobals 0x829a3c80 WdfBindInfo 0xf7991b8c Version v1.0 build(1234) Driver Handles: WDFDRIVER 0x7d6494f8 dt FxDriver 0x829b6b00 WDFDEVICE 0x7d4e1588 dt FxDevice 0x82b1ea70 Context 82b1ec30 Cleanup f7992dc0 WDF INTERNAL dt FxDefaultIrpHandler 0x82aca158 WDF INTERNAL dt FxPkgGeneral 0x829e8160 WDF INTERNAL dt FxWmiIrpHandler 0x82aa8cb0 WDF INTERNAL dt FxPkgIo 0x82b1cef0 WDFQUEUE 0x7d4e1250 dt FxIoQueue 0x82b1eda8 WDFQUEUE 0x7d552720 dt FxIoQueue 0x82aad8d8 WDF INTERNAL dt FxPkgFd0 0x82aa9d50 WDFCMRESLIST 0x7d4e6340 dt FxCmResList 0x82b19cb8 WDFCMRESLIST 0x7d4e1e10 dt FxCmResList 0x82b1e1e8 WDFCHILDLIST 0x7d639ba8 dt FxChildList 0x829c6450 WDFIOTARGET 0x7d6462d8 dt FxIoTarget 0x829b9d20 WDF INTERNAL dt FxWmiProvider 0x829b6698 WDF INTERNAL dt FxWmiInstanceExternal 0x82b1e098 WDFWMIPROVIDER 0x7d644088 dt FxWmiProvider 0x829bbf70 WDFWMIINSTANCE 0x7d560080 dt FxWmiInstanceExternal 0x82a9ff78 Context 82a9ffe8 WDFWMIPROVIDER 0x7d6436d0 dt FxWmiProvider 0x829c928 WDFWMIINSTANCE 0x7d550d78 dt FxWmiInstanceExternal 0x82aaf280 WDFWMIPROVIDER 0x7d6432a8 dt FxWmiProvider 0x829bcd50 WDFWMIINSTANCE 0x7d5295e0 dt FxWmiInstanceExternal Ox82ad6a18 Context 82ad6a88 WDFFILEOBJECT 0x7d4edc18 dt FxFileObject 0x82b123e0 Many debugger commands and extensions require a handle to an object. For example, !wdfrequest takes a WDFREQUEST object handle 8.12 Using WinDbg with Featured Toaster 207 Wow! eBook ptg and returns information about the object. To get such a handle, on the View menu, click Locals. Assuming that the debugger is still in the ToasterEvtIoRead routine, the associated WDFREQUEST object is name Request. The handle appears in the corresponding Value field in the Locals window. 8.13 Versioning and Dynamic Binding When Windows loads a KMDF driver, the driver is dynamically bound to the KMDF run-time library (WdfMM000.sys). Multiple drivers can share the same run-time library (DLL) image, and the run-time libraries for two major versions can co-exist side-by-side. When you build a KMDF driver, you link it with WdfDriverEntry.lib. This library contains information about the KMDF version in a static data structure that becomes part of the driver binary. The internal FxDriverEntry function in WdfDriverEntry.lib wraps the driver’s DriverEntry routine, so that when the driver is loaded, FxDriverEntry becomes the driver’s entry point. At load time, the following occurs: ■ FxDriverEntry calls the internal function WdfVersionBind (defined in wdfldr.sys) and passes the version number of the KMDF run-time library with which to bind. ■ The loader determines whether the specified major version of the framework library is already loaded. If not, it starts the service that represents the framework library and loads the library and the driver. If so, it adds the driver as a client of the service and returns the relevant information to the FxDriverEntry function. If the driver requires a newer version of the run-time library than the one already loaded, the loader fails and logs the failed attempt in the sys- tem event log. ■ FxDriverEntry calls the driver’s DriverEntry function, which in turn calls back to KMDF to create the KMDF driver object. Although two major versions of KMDF can run side-by-side simultaneously, two minor versions of the same major version cannot. At installation, a more recent minor version of the KMDF run-time library overwrites an existing, older minor version. If the older version is already 208 Chapter 8 Kernel Mode Installation and Build Wow! eBook ptg loaded when a user attempts to install a driver with a newer version, the user must reboot the system. For a boot driver, the loading scenario is different because the KMDF run-time library must be loaded before the driver. At installation, the co-installer reads the INF (or the registry) to determine whether the driver is a boot driver. If so, the co-installer both changes the start type of the KMDF service so that the Windows loader starts it at boot time and sets its load order so that it is loaded before the client driver. 8.13 Versioning and Dynamic Binding 209 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 211 CHAPTER 9 PROGRAMMING DRIVERS FOR THE KERNEL MODE DRIVER FRAMEWORK The Windows Driver Framework (WDF) release includes several sample Kernel Mode Drivers. You can use sample drivers as a basis for your own drivers and refer to them for examples of specific implementation tech- niques. The KMDF sample drivers are installed in the Src\Kmdf subdi- rectory of the WDF installation directory. This chapter lists and discusses the samples in three ways: by name, by device function, and by the features that they demonstrate. We will show various listings of the various sample drivers and discuss the listing. Table 9.1 lists the samples by name. Table 9.1 KMDF Samples by Name Sample Name Description 1394 Virtual (1394vdev.sys) and physical (1394diag.sys) diagnostic drivers for IEEE 1394 devices that interface with the upper edge of the 1394 stack. AMCC5933 Sample driver for devices based on or similar to the AMCC5933 chip for PCI or ISA. Echo Demonstration driver that does not control any hardware. It uses a serial I/O queue to serialize read and write requests that are targeted at the device and shows how to handle request cancellation. FakeModem Driver for controllerless modem (soft modem). (continues) Wow! eBook ptg If none of the sample drivers supports your specific device type, you might be able to find a sample that supports a device that has similar characteristics or is used in a similar way. Table 9.2 lists the device charac- teristics and usage models that the KMDF samples support. 212 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Firefly Filter driver for a human interface device (HID). Kbfiltr Filter driver for a keyboard. It exposes a raw physical device object (PDO) for communication with user-mode application. NdisEdge Driver that exposes an NDIS miniport interface at its upper edge and interacts with other drivers such as USB, IEEE1394, and serial at its lower edge. NdisProt Driver that exposes a WDF interface at its upper edge and an NDIS interface at its lower edge. Nonpnp Legacy, NT 4.0-style driver that does not support Plug and Play or interact with hardware. It handles four different device I/O control (IOCTL) requests and shows how to handle METHOD_NEITHER I/O. It provides kernel-level services to a user application, which dynamically loads and unloads it. OsrUsbFx2 Driver for OSR USB-FX2 Learning kit. It shows how to perform bulk and isochronous data transfers to a generic USB device and how to write a bus driver. Pcidrv Function driver for Intel 82557/82558-based PCI Ethernet Adapter (10/100) and Intel compatibles. Pix9x5x Sample function driver for devices based on the PLx PCI19056RDK-Lite Adapter, a PCI/DMA device. Ramdisk RAM disk driver that shows how to create a virtual disk in memory. Serial WDF version of the in-box serial driver. Toaster Function, filter, and bus drivers for a hypothetical toaster device. Table 9.1 KMDF Samples by Name (continued) Sample Name Description Wow! eBook ptg Table 9.2 KMDF Samples by Device Usage Model Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF 213 Device Usage Model Device or Driver Type KMDF Sample Hardware that supports only port-mapped I/O Driver that handles I/O operations serially and reads or writes one port at a time Driver that polls read operation at regular intervals from either a deferred procedure call (DPC) or a dedicated kernel thread Hardware that supports port-mapped I/O and interrupts to notify the driver about input data and other asynchronous events Same as previous, but also supports memory-mapped I/O Same as previous, but also supports bus master DMA channels to read and write Hardware that has more than one function or emulates more than one device Driver that supports a virtual bus Parallel port, legacy joystick port, and ISA devices Serial port, parallel port, IDE controller, and PS/2 controller Typical PCI and EISA devices for data acquisition that use direct memory access (DMA) Network adapters and similar PCI drivers Multifunction PCI devices that do not confirm to the PCI specification, multiport serial cards, and multiport network cards Serial cards, and multiport network cards AMCC5933 ISA sample (S5933DK1) Serial PLX9x5x PCIDRV Toaster bus driver (continues) Wow! eBook ptg You can also refer to the samples to find out how to use specific KMDF features. Table 9.3 lists the samples that support each fundamental feature. 214 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Device Usage Model Device or Driver Type KMDF Sample Filter driver that modifies I/O requests and provides an interface for applica- tions to directly control the filter Filter driver that modifies the hardware resources Driver that interacts with an Unrelated device stack to perform I/O Driver that supports a USB client Software-only drivers or drivers that are not part of any Plug and Play stack Legacy NT 4.0-style drivers that do not support Plug and Play Driver that must run in the context of the user application so that it can handle METHOD_IOCTs or map memory into user address space Drivers that registers in-process context callback to handle METHOD_NEITHER I/O requests Keyboard and mouse filters, storage class filter drivers, and serial devices NDIS protocol drivers, Asyncmac, transport driver interface (TDI) client drivers, and Ftdisk or volsnap Any USB device No device or legacy devices Video capture devices, audio cards, and high- speed data acquisition devices Toaster filter driver NdisEdge and NdisProt Osrusbfx2 Nonpnp Nonpnp Table 9.2 KMDF Samples by Device Usage Model (continued) Wow! eBook ptg Table 9.3 KMDF Feature Support in Samples Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF 215 KMDF Feature Sample Buffered I/O Ndisprot Child device enumeration OsrUsbFx2, Toaster bus Collection PCIDRV, Toaster bus Direct I/O Ramdisk DMA AMCC5933, PCIDRV, PLX9x5x DPC PCIDRV, PLX9x5x Event tracing AMCC5933, NonPnp, OxrUsbFx2, PCIDRV Functional device object All samples (FDO) interface File object NonPnP Filter driver Firefly, Kbfiltr I/O request cancellation Echo I/O requests and I/O queues All samples (serial/parallel/manual) I/O target objects 1394, Firefly, NdisEdge, OsrUsbFx2 Idle detection PCIDRV, serial In-process callback to handle NonPnP events in caller’s thread context Interrupt handling PLX9x5x, Serial Memory pool All samples METHOD_NEITHER I/O NonPnP Non-Plug and Play, NT 4.0 Ndisprot style device objects (also called control device objects) Physical Device object (PDO) Kbfiltr, OsrUsbFx2/EnumSwitches, interface Toaster bus Plug and Play device interface AMCC5933, PCIDRV, PIX9x5x, Toaster function Plug and Play hardware resources PCIDRV, PLX9x5x, AMCC5933 Plug and Play query interfaces Toaster bus Power policy owner PCIDRV (continues) Wow! eBook ptg 9.1 Differences between KMDF and WDM Samples The KMDF samples are based on the similarly named Windows Driver Model (WDM) samples that are provided in the Windows Driver Kit (WDK). With a few exceptions, the corresponding drivers support similar features. If you are experienced with WDM, you might find useful a com- parison of the KMDF and WDM samples. The primary difference between the samples is that the KMDF sam- ples are much shorter and less complex. The reason is that KMDF imple- ments most of the details of WMD, so that you can avoid writing many lines of code that perform common tasks and implement common features required in all drivers. Instead, you define callbacks for the conditions and events that your driver must handle. For example, KMDF driver, like WDM drivers, support Plug and Play and power management for their devices. WDM drivers typically include thousands of lines of code to ensure that they handle every possible state 216 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Preprocessing callbacks for Serial IRP_MJ_FLUSH_BUFFERS, IRP_MJ_QUERY_INFORMATION, and IRP_MJ_SET_INFORMATION Raw PDO Kbfiltr, OsrUsbFx2 Registry Fakemodem, PCIDRV, Ramdisk, Serial, Toaster bus Self-managed I/O Echo, PCIDRV Symbolic links to device names Fakemodem, Ramdisk Synchronization scope Echo Timer objects Echo USB device support OsrUsbFx2 Wake signal support OsrUsbFx2, PCIDRV, Serial Windows management Firefly, PCIDRV, Serial, Toaster function instrumentation (WMI) Work items AMCC5933, PCIDRV Table 9.3 KMDF Feature Support in Samples (continued) KMDF Feature Sample Wow! eBook ptg and minor I/O request packet (IRP) code; drivers often require code to handle IRPs that they don’t even support. A KMDF driver, however, includes code to handle only those features and requests that its device supports. All other Plug and Play and power requests are handled by WDF in a default manner. These defaults make possible the incremental devel- opment of KMDF drivers. You can implement a skeletal set of features, test the implementation, and then incrementally add code to support addi- tional features or perform more complicated tasks. In a practical sense, the most significant difference between KMDF and WDM drivers is the number and complexity of the required func- tions. For an example of this difference, compare the simplest form of the WDM Toaster sample (src/general/toaster/func/Incomplete1 in the WDK installation directory) with the simplest KMDF Toaster sample (src/kmdf/ toaster/func/simple in the WDF installation directory). Both drivers support basic Plug and Play, power, and WMI requests. The KMDF sample also includes stub functions to handle read, write, and IOCTL requests. However, the KMDF sample contains many fewer lines of code than the WDM sample. Table 9.4 compares the functions in these two drivers. Table 9.4 Comparison of a KMDF Simple Toaster and WDM incomplete1 Toaster Samples 9.1 Differences between KMDF and WDM Samples 217 WDM Function Equivalent KMDF Function Comments DriverEntry DriverEntry Function has same prototype. KMDF driver creates WDF driver object. ToasterAddDevice ToasterEvtDeviceAdd KMDF driver creates a default queue for I/O requests. ToasterUnload None KMDF driver uses defaults. ToasterDispatchPnP None KMDF driver uses defaults. ToasterSendIrp- None WDM driver passes IRPs Synchronously down the stack to be completed synchronously. KMDF driver uses defaults. (continues) Wow! eBook ptg 9.2 Macros Used in KMDF Samples Many of the KMDF samples use two macros that might be unfamiliar: ■ PAGED_CODE ■ UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER The PAGED_CODE macro causes the driver to assert if the function is called at IRQL DISPATCH_LEVEL or higher. The macro is defined in ntddk.h and takes no arguments. It works only in a checked build. 218 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF ToasterDispatchPnP- None KMDF driver uses Complete defaults. ToasterDispatch- None KMDF driver uses Power defaults. Toaster System None WDM function passes Control WMI IRPs to the next lower driver. KMDF driver uses defaults. None ToasterEvtIoRead WDM function handles and completes read request. KMDF function is a stub. None ToasterEvtIoWrite WDM function handles and completes write requests. KMDF function is a stub. None ToasterEvtIoDeviceControl WDM function handles and completes device I/O control request. KMDF function is a stub. Table 9.4 Comparison of a KMDF Simple Toaster and WDM incomplete1 Toaster Samples (continued) WDM Function Equivalent KMDF Function Comments Wow! eBook ptg The UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER is defined in the standard WDK header file ntdef.h, which is included by ntddk.h. It disables com- piler warnings about unreferenced parameters. It can be used in any Kernel Mode Driver. 9.3 KMDF Driver Structure and Concepts KMDF drivers are object-oriented, event-driven drivers that link dynami- cally with the Kernel Mode Driver Framework at run time. This discussion provides a brief overview of KMDF concepts. The KMDF object model defines object types to represent common driver constructs. Each object exports methods (functions) and properties (data) that drivers can access and is associated with object-specific events, which drivers can support by providing event callbacks. The objects them- selves are opaque to the driver. KMDF and the driver instantiate the objects that are required to service the device. The driver provides call- backs for the events for which the KMDF defaults do not suit its device and calls methods on the object to get and set properties and perform any additional actions. Thus, a KMDF driver consists of a DriverEntry func- tion, callback routines for events that affect the driver or its devices, and whatever utility functions the driver requires. All KMDF drivers create a WDFDRIVER object to represent the driver and a WDFDEVICE object to represent each device that the driver supports. Most drivers also create one or more WDFQUEUE objects to represent the driver’s I/O queues. KMDF places I/O requests into the queues until the driver is ready to handle them. Drivers can create additional objects as their device hardware and driver features require. KMDF objects are organized hierarchically, with the WDFDRIVER object as the root. The object hierarchy defines the object’s lifetime—each object is deleted when its parent is deleted. All KMDF objects are created in the same way, by using KMDF- defined initialization functions and an object creation method. Any KMDF object has one or more driver-defined object context areas, in which the driver can store data that is specific to that particular instance of the object. The following discussions provide more information on object creation and context areas and on I/O queues and requests, which are fundamental to KMDF drivers. 9.3 KMDF Driver Structure and Concepts 219 Wow! eBook ptg 9.3.1 Object Creation To create a KMDF object, a driver follows these steps: 1. Initialize the configuration structure for the object, if one exists. 2. Initialize the attributes structure for the object, if necessary. 3. Call the creation method to create the object. The object configuration structure and the object attributes structure supply basic information about the object and how the driver uses it. All object types have the same attributes structure, but the configuration structure for each type of object is different and some objects do not have one. The configuration structure holds pointers to object-specific informa- tion, such as the driver’s event callback functions for the object. The driver fills in this structure and then passes it to the framework when it calls the object creation method. The framework uses the information from the configuration structure to initialize the object. For example, the WDFDRIVER object contains a pointer to the driver’s EvtDriver- DeviceAdd callback function, which KMDF invokes when a Plug and Play add-device event occurs. KMDF defines functions named WDF_Object_Config_INIT to initialize the configuration structures, where Object represents the name of the object type. Not all object types have configuration structures or the corresponding initialization functions. The object attributes structure (WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES) specifies attributes that are common to all objects: ■ Callbacks to handle object cleanup and destruction. ■ The interrupt request level (IRQL) at which the objects’ callback functions are invoked and its locks are held. ■ An object context area. ■ Information about the context area, such as its size and type. KMDF defines the following for use in initializing object attributes: ■ WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT ■ WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE ■ WDF_OBJECT_ATTIBUTES_SET_CONTEXT_TYPE 220 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg The WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT function sets values for synchronization and execution level, which determine which of the driver’s callbacks KMDF invokes concurrently and the highest IRQL at which they can be called. The two context-type initialization macros set information about the object’s context area, which is described in the next section. Although attributes can apply to any type of object, the defaults are typically acceptable for objects for which the driver does not define a con- text area. To accept the defaults, a driver specifies WDF_NO_ OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, in which WDK defines a NULL. After initializing the object’s configuration structure and attributes, the driver creates an instance of the object by calling the creation method for the object type with pointer to the attributes structure and any other object-type-specific parameters. Creation methods are all named WdfObjectCreate, where Object indicates the type of object. The cre- ation method returns a handle to the created object. The driver subse- quently uses the handle to refer to the object. 9.3.2 Object Context Area Every instance of an object can have one or more object context areas. The object context area is a driver-defined storage area for data that is related to that particular instance, such as a driver-allocated event. The driver deter- mines the size and layout of the object context area. For a device object, the object context area is the equivalent of the WDM device extension. A driver initializes the context area and specifies its size and type when it creates the object. When KMDF creates the object, it allocates memory for the context areas from the nonpaged pool and initializes them accord- ing to the driver’s specification. When KMDF deletes the object, the con- text areas are deleted along with the object. The context area is considered part of the object, which is opaque to drivers. Therefore, the driver must use an accessor method to get a pointer to the context area. Each context area has its own accessor method, and KMDF provides macros to create these methods. For the driver, defining and initializing a context area is a multistep process. First, the driver defines a data structure that describes the context area. This definition typically appears in a header file. Next, the driver declares the type of the context area, by using either the WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE or WDF_DECLARE_ CONTEXT_TYPE_WITH_NAME macro. These macros associate a type 9.3 KMDF Driver Structure and Concepts 221 Wow! eBook ptg with the context area and create a named accessor method that returns a pointer to the context area. WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE_ WITH_NAME assigns a driver-specified name to the accessor method. WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE assigns the default name Wdf- ObjectGet_ContextStructure, where ContextStructure is the name of the context structure. This step, too, can be performed in a header file. Finally, the driver associates the context area with a specific instance of an object. To do so, the driver initializes the object attribute structure with information about the context area by using the WDF_ OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE or WDF_OBJECT_ ATTRIBUTES_SET_CONTEXT_TYPE macro. The WDF_OBJECT_ ATTRIBUTES_SET_CONTEXT_TYPE macro records information about the context area in an attributes structure, which the driver later supplies when it creates the object. WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_ INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE combines the actions of WDF_OBJECT_ ATTRIBUTES_INIT and WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_SET_ CONTEXT_TYPE—that is, it initializes the attribute structure with settings for synchronization scope and execution level in addition to information about the context. The driver passes the resulting attribute structure when it calls the creation method for the object. 9.3.3 I/O Queues KMDF I/O queues manage requests that are targeted at the driver. A driver typically creates one or more queues, each of which can accept one or more types of request. A driver can have any number of queues, and they can all be configured differently. Both KMDF and the driver itself can queue I/O request. The most important characteristics of any queue are the types of requests it accepts, the way in which it dispatches those requests, and whether KMDF handles power management for it. A queue can accept one or more types of requests. For example, a driver might have one queue for read and write request and another that accepts only device I/O control requests. The dispatch method determines how many requests the driver serv- ices at a given time. Queues can dispatch requests sequentially, in parallel, or manually. A sequential queue dispatches one request at a time. A paral- lel queue dispatches requests as soon as they arrive. A manual queue does 222 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg not dispatch requests automatically; the driver must call a method on the queue each time it is ready to handle another request. By default, all KMDF I/O queues are power managed, which means that KMDF handles starting and stopping the queue according to the power management state of the device and the system. In addition, KMDF can use an empty queue as a cue to start its idle-device timer. The driver uses a WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG structure to config- ure a queue. For each queue, the driver can specify ■ The types of I/O requests that are placed in the queue. ■ The dispatch method for the queue. ■ The power management options for the queue. ■ The I/O event callback functions registered to handle I/O requests from the queue. ■ Whether the queue accepts requests that have a zero-length buffer. WDF supplies two functions to initialize the WDF_QUEUE_CONFIG structure: ■ WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT, which configures a power- managed queue with a driver-specified dispatch method. ■ WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT_DEFAULT_QUEUE, which configures a power-managed queue with a driver-specified dispatch method and designates it as the driver’s default queue, into which KMDF places all read, write, and device I/O control requests for which no other queue is configured. Like all other objects, queues have attributes. In many cases, the default attributes are acceptable for queues. A driver might override the defaults for one of the following reasons: ■ To create one or more queue-specific context areas in which to save data specific to the queue. ■ To specify a callback function to be invoked when the queue is deleted. ■ To specify a parent object for the queue. By default, the parent object is the device object. 9.3 KMDF Driver Structure and Concepts 223 Wow! eBook ptg 9.3.4 I/O Requests The WDFREQUEST object represents the IRP sent by the application that initiated the I/O request. Like other KMDF objects, the WDFREQUEST object is opaque to driver writers and is managed by the framework. Most KMDF drivers never directly see the underlying IRP. When KMDF calls one of the driver’s I/O event callback functions, it passes a handle to a WDFREQUEST object, along with additional infor- mation that the driver might require to handle the request. The WDFRE- QUEST object encapsulates the information passed in the original IRP. KMDF drivers that support buffered or direct I/O can use the buffer passed by the originator of the I/O request or can use a WDFMEMORY object that represents the output buffer. Using a WDFMEMORY object is simpler and requires less code because the framework handles all vali- dation and addressing issues. For example, the handle to the WDFMEMORY object contains the size of the buffer, thus ensuring that buffer overruns do not occur. 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster The Simple Toaster sample provided in toaster\func\simple is a min- imal, software-only function driver. It creates a driver object, a device object, a device interface, and a single I\O queue. The driver handles read, write, and device I/O control requests that are targeted at its device. This minimal driver includes the following functions: ■ A DriverEntry routine, which creates the driver object. ■ An EvtDriverDeviceAdd event callback, which creates the device object, a device interface, and a default I/O queue. ■ I/O callback functions for read, write, and device I/O control requests. The driver does not manage any physical hardware, so no code to support Plug and Play or power management is required; the driver uses the WDF defaults. 224 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg 9.4.1 Creating a WDF Driver Object: DriverEntry Every KMDF driver must have a DriverEntry routine. The Driver- Entry routine is the first driver function called when the driver is loaded. The KMDF DriverEntry routine has the same prototype as that of a WDM driver: NTSTATUS DriverEntry( IN PDRIVER_OBJECT DriverObject, In PUNICODE_STRING RegistryPath ); The DriverEntry routine performs the following tasks: ■ Creates a driver object (WDFDRIVER), which represents the loaded instance of the driver in memory. In effect, creating this object “registers” the driver with KMDF. ■ Registers the driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback. KMDF calls this function during device enumeration. ■ Optionally initializes event tracing for the driver. ■ Optionally allocates resources that are required on a driver-wide (rather than per-device) basis. The following shows the DriverEntry function for the Simple Toaster sample: NTSTATUS DriverEntry( IN PDRIVER_OBJ DriverObject, IN PUNICODE_STRING RegistryPath ) { NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS; WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG config; KdPrint((“Toaster Function Driver Sample-” Driver Framework Edition.\n)); KdPrint((“Built %s %s\n”, __DATE__, __TIME__)); 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster 225 Wow! eBook ptg WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG_INIT( &config, ToasterEvtDeviceAdd ); // // Create a framework driver object. // Status = WdfDriverCreate( DriverObject, RegistryPath, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES // Driver Attributes &config, // Driver Config Info WDF_NO_HANDLE ); if ( !NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDriverCreate failed with” “status 0x%x\n”, status)); } return status; } Before creating the WDFDRIVER object, the driver must initialize a driver-object configuration structure (WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG) by using the WDF_DRIVER_CONFIG_INIT function. The function zeroes the structure and then initializes it with a pointer to the driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback function, which is named ToasterEvt- DeviceAdd. KMDF calls this function during device enumeration, when it handles an add-device request that is targeted at the driver. After setting up the configuration structure, DriverEntry calls WdfDriverCreate to create the WDFDRIVER object, passing as parameters the DriverObject and RegistryPath that were supplied to it, a pointer to the driver object attributes, and a pointer to the filled-in driver configuration structure. The framework’s default attributes are acceptable for the Simple Toaster’s WDFDRIVER object, so the sam- ple specifies WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, which KMDF defines as NULL. WdfDriverCreate can optionally return a handle to the created WDFDRIVER object. The Simple Toaster driver does not require a local copy of this handle, so instead of passing a location to receive the handle, it passes WDF_NO_HANDLE, which is a null pointer. 226 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg A WDM driver would typically save pointers to the DriverObject and RegistryPath, but a KMDF driver does not require them because KMDF maintains this information on behalf of the driver. 9.4.2 Creating the Device Object, Device Interface, and I/O Queue: EvtDriverDeviceAdd Every KMDF driver that supports Plug and Play must have an EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback function, which is called each time the sys- tem enumerates a device that belongs to the driver. This callback performs actions required at device enumeration, such as the following: ■ Creates and initializes a device object (WDFDEVICE) and corre- sponding context areas. ■ Sets entry points for the driver’s Plug and Play and power manage- ment callbacks. ■ Creates a device interface. ■ Configures and creates one or more I/O queues. ■ Creates an interrupt object, if the device controls physical hardware that generates interrupts. The EvtDriverDeviceAdd function is called with two parameters: a han- dle to the WDFDRIVER object that the driver created during Driver- Entry and a handle to a WDFDEVICE_INIT object. The Simple Toaster does not control hardware, so it does not set Plug and Play or power management callbacks, nor does it create an interrupt object. Its EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback creates the device object and context area, device interface, and a single default I/O queue. The follow- ing shows the source code for this function: NTSTATUS ToasterEvtDeviceAdd( IN WDFDRIVER Driver, IN PWDFDEVICE_INIT DeviceInit ) { NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS; PFDO_DATA fdoData; WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG queueConfig; WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES fdoAttributes; WDFDEVICE hDevice; WDFQUEUE queue; 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster 227 Wow! eBook ptg UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(Driver); PAGED_CODE(); KdPrint((“ToasterEvtDEviceAdd called\n”)); // // Initialize attributes and a context area for the // device object. // // WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE (&fdoAttributes, FDO_DATA); // // Create a framework device object. status = WdfDEviceCreate(&DeviceInit, &fdoAttributes, &hDevice); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDeviceCreate failed with status code” “0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } // Get the device context by using the accessor function // specified in the WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE_WITH_NAME // macro for FDO_DATA. // fdoData = ToasterFdoGetData(hDevice); // // Create device interface. // status = WdfDEviceCreateDeviceInterface( hDevice, (LPUID) &GUID)DEVINTERFACE_TOASTER, NULL // Reference String ); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDeviceCreateDeviceInterface failed “0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } // // Configure the default I/O queue. // 228 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT_DEFAULT_QUEUE(&queueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchParallel); // Register I/O callbacks for IRP_MJ_READ, IRP_MJ_WRITE, // and IRP_MJ_DEVICE_CONTROL request. queueConfig.EvtIoRead = ToasterEvtIoRead; queueConfig.EvtIoWrite = ToasterEvtIoWrite; queueConfig.EvtIoDeviceControl = ToasterEvtIoDeviceControl; // Create the queue. status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( hDevice, &queueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &queue ); if(!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { KdPrint((“WdfIoQueueCreate failed 0x%x\n, status)); return status; } return status; } The following discussions step through the actions of this function. 9.4.3 Device Object and Device Context Area The first task of the ToasterEvtDeviceAdd callback is to initialize the context area and attributes for the WDFDEVICE object. The context area for this device object is a structure of type FDO_DATA, which is defined as follows in the header file toaster.h: typedef struct _FDO_DATA { WDFWMIINSTANCE WmiDeviceArrivalEvent; BOOLEAN WmiPowerDeviceEnableRegistered; TOASTER_INTERFACE_STANDARD BusInterface; } FDO_DATA, *PFDO_DATA; WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE_WITH(FDO_DATA, ToasterFdoGetData) 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster 229 Wow! eBook ptg As the example shows, the header file defines the context area and then invokes the WDF_DECLARE_CONTEXT_TYPE_WITH_ NAME macro. This macro creates an accessor method that is associated with a context type. Thus, when the ToasterEvtDeviceAdd function is called, the accessor method ToasterFdoGetData has already been cre- ated to read and write a context area of type FDO_DATA. To associate the named context area with an object, the driver must ini- tialize the object’s attribute structure with information about the context area. The ToasterEvtDeviceAdd function invokes the WDF_OBJECT_ ATTRIBUTES_INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE macro to do this: WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT_CONTEXT_TYPE(&fdoAttributes, FDO_DATA); This macro performs the following tasks: ■ Initializes fdoAttributes, which is a WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure. ■ Sets pointers to the name and length of the context area and to the context area itself in the WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure. The variable fdoData, of type PFDO_DATA, is defined to hold a pointer to the context area. Next, the driver creates the WDFDEVICE object by calling WdfDeviceCreate, passing as parameters the addresses of the WDFDEVICE_INIT and WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structures and a location to receive a handle to the create object: status = WdfDeviceCreate(&DeviceInit, &fdoAttributes, &hDevice); The framework allocates the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure, which is opaque to the driver writer. This object supports several methods that a driver can use to initialize device and driver characteristics, including the type of I/O that the driver supports, the device name, and a security descriptor definition language (SDDL) string for the device, among others. (These settings correspond to the device characteristics fields of the WDM device object, which is familiar to WDM driver writers.) By default, KMDF sets the I/O type to buffered I/O. This default, along with all the others, is 230 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg appropriate for the Simple Toaster, so the driver does not call any meth- ods on this object. WdfDeviceCreate creates a WDFDEVICE object that is associated with an underlying WDM device object, connects the device object to the device stack, and sets the appropriate flags and attributes. It returns a han- dle to the WDFDEVICE object in hDevice. After creating the device object, the driver gets a pointer to the con- text area by calling the accessor method ToasterFdoGetData: fdoData = ToasterFdoGetData(hDevice); The ToasterEvtDeviceAdd function does not use the returned pointer; this statement appears only for demonstration purposes. 9.4.4 Device Interface Every device that a user-mode application or system component opens must have an interface. A device interface can be created in any of three ways: ■ A user-mode installation application can create the interface using SetupDi function. ■ An INF can create the interface by including a DDInstall- .Interfaces section. ■ The driver can create the interface by calling WdfDeviceCreate- Interface. The following shows how the Simple Toaster driver creates an interface: status = WdfDeviceCreateDeviceInterface ( hDevice, (LPUID) &GUID_DEVINTERFACE_TOASTER, NULL ); If (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { KdPrinte((“WdfDeviceCreateDeviceInterface failed” “0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster 231 Wow! eBook ptg The driver passes a handle to the device object, a pointer to a Globally Unique Identifier (GUID), and a pointer to an optional string. The GUID identifies the interface and is defined in the driver.h header file. The string enables the driver to distinguish two or more devices of the same interface class (that is, two or more devices that have identical GUIDs). The Simple Toaster driver passes NULL for the string. 9.4.5 Default I/O Queue The SimpleToaster driver uses a default I/O queue, for which KMDF handles power management. The default queue receives all I/O requests for which the driver does not specifically configure another queue. In this case, the default queue receives all read, write, and device I/O control requests that are targeted at the Simple Toaster driver. Default queues do not receive create requests. The driver configures the queue by using the WDF_IO_QUEUE_ CONFIG_INIT_DEFAULT_QUEUE function, which sets initial values in a configuration structure for the queue: WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT_DEFAULT_QUEUE (&ioEvents, WdfIoQueueDispatchParallel); The function takes two parameters: a pointer to a WDF_IO_QUEUE_ CONFIG structure (ioEvents) and an enumerator of the WDF_IO_ QUEUE_DISPATCH_TYPE, which indicates how to dispatch requests from the queue. By specifying WdfIoQueueDispatch-Parallel, the driver indicates that KMDF should dispatch I/O requests from the queue as soon as they arrive and that the driver can handle multiple requests in parallel. After configuring the queue, the driver registers its callbacks for I/O events. The Simple Toaster supports only read, write, and device I/O control requests, so it sets callbacks for only these three events in the ioEvents configuration structure. It then calls WdfIoQueueCreate to create the WDFQUEUE object, as the following code shows: ioEvents.EvtIoRead = ToasterEvtIoRead; ioEvents.EvtIoWrite = ToasterEvtIoWrite; ioEvents.EvtIoDeviceControl = ToasterEvtIoDeviceControl; status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( hDevice, &ioEvents, 232 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &queue // pointer to default queue ); When the driver calls WdfIoQueueCreate, it passes a handle to the WDFDEVICE object (hDevice) and a pointer to the ioEvents configu- ration structure. The driver accepts the default attributes for the queue, so it passes WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES. The method returns a handle to the queue at &queue. By default, KMDF places all read, write, and device I/O requests targeted at the device into this queue. 9.4.6 Handling I/O Request: EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, EvtIoDeviceControl A driver can include one or more of the following I/O callback functions to handle the I/O requests that are dispatched from its queues: ■ EvtIoRead ■ EvtIoWrite ■ EvtIoDeviceControl ■ EvtIoInternalDeviceControl ■ EvtIoDefault For each queue, the driver registers one or more such callbacks. When an I/O request arrives, KMDF invokes the callback that is registered for that type of request, if one exists. For example, when a read request arrives, KMDF dispatches it to the EvtIoRead callback. Write requests are dis- patched to the EvtIoWrite callback, and so forth. KMDF calls the EvtIoDefault callback when a request arrives for which the driver has not registered another callback. (In some cases, EvtIoDefault is also called to handle create request.) KMDF queues and dispatches only the request for which the driver configures a queue. If KMDF receives any other I/O requests targeted at the Simple Toaster driver, it fails the requests with STATUS_INVALID_ DEVICE_REQUEST. As the preceding section mentions, the Simple Toaster driver han- dles only read, write, and device I/O control requests, so it includes only the EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, and EvtIoDeviceControl callback functions. 9.4 A Minimal KMDF Driver: The Simple Toaster 233 Wow! eBook ptg When KMDF invokes these callbacks, it passes a handle to the WDFQUEUE object, a handle to the WDFREQUEST object that rep- resents the I/O request, and one or more additional parameters that pro- vide details about the request. The additional parameters vary depending on the specific callback. If the driver supports buffered or direct I/O, it can use either the buffer passed by the originator of the request or a WDFMEMORY object that represents that buffer. Using a WDFMEMORY object is simpler and requires less code because the framework handles all validation and addressing issues. For example, the handle to the WDFMEMORY object contains the size of the buffer, thus ensuring that buffer overruns does not occur. The Simple Toaster driver uses this technique. To get a handle to the WDFMEMORY object, the driver calls WdfRequestRetrieveOutputMemory for a read request and WdfRequestRetrieveInputMemory for a write request. Each of these methods creates a WDFMEMORY object that represents the correspon- ding buffer and is associated with the WDFREQUEST object. To handle a read request, the driver then gets the data from its device and uses WdfMemoryCopyFromBuffer to copy the data from its inter- nal buffer into the WDFMEMORY object that is associated with the request. To handle a write request, the driver has three options: ■ Calling WdfMemoryCopyToBuffer to copy data from the WDFREQUEST object to the driver’s internal buffer, from which the driver can write to the device. ■ Getting the buffer pointer from the request by calling WdfRequest- RetrieveInputBuffer, which also returns the number of bytes to write. ■ Getting the buffer pointer and the number of bytes to write by call- ing WdfMemoryGetBuffer. For most write requests, drivers should use WdfMemoryCopyToBuffer to copy data supplied in the I/O request (and now stored in the associated WDFMEMORY object) to the driver’s output buffer. This function copies the data and returns an error if a buffer overflow occurs. Use the WdfRequestRetrieveInputBuffer and WdfMemoryGetBuffer meth- ods only if you require the buffer pointer so that you can cast it to a struc- ture, which might be necessary when handling a device I/O control request. 234 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg Initially, the names WdfMemoryCopyFromBuffer and Wdf- MemoryCopyToBuffer might appear somewhat confusing. Remember that the word “Memory” in the name means that the function acts on a WDFMEMORY object and copies data to or from a program buffer into that object. Thus, WdfMemoryCopyFromBuffer copies data from the driver’s internal buffer into a WDFMEMORY object, so it is used for read requests. WdfMemoryCopyToBuffer copies data to the driver’s internal buffer, so it is used for write requests. When the driver has satisfied the I/O request, it calls WdfRequest- CompleteWithInformation, which completes the underlying I/O request with the specified status and passes the number of bytes read or written. The Simple Toaster sample’s EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, and EvtIo- DeviceControl callbacks are essentially stubs. Although the Toaster- EvtIoRead function calls WdfRequestRetrieveOutput-Memory to get the output buffer and the ToasterEvtIoWrite function calls Wdf- RequestRetrieveInputMemory to get the input buffer, neither function reads, writes, or returns any data. Therefore, none of these I/O event call- backs is reproduced here. 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver The Featured Toaster sample extends the Simple Toaster sample by adding support for the following features: ■ File create and close requests. ■ Additional device object attributes. ■ Plug and Play and power management events. ■ Windows management instrumentation (WMI). This sample is supplied in Toaster\Func\Featured and supports the same features as the Featured2 Toaster sample for WDM, which is pro- vided in the WDK. 9.5.1 File Create and Close Requests File object events occur when applications and kernel-mode components that open a handle to the device issue create, close, and cleanup requests 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver 235 Wow! eBook ptg on the device. Drivers that handle such requests must configure the device object with the appropriate callbacks. To handle create events, a driver can either receive the events from a queue or can supply an event callback that is invoked immediately. The driver’s options are the following: ■ To be called immediately, the driver supplies an EvtDeviceFile- Create callback and registers it from the EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback by calling WdfDeviceInitSetFileObjectConfig. ■ To configure a queue to receive the requests, the driver calls WdfDeviceConfigureRequestDispatching and specifies Wdf- RequestTypeCreate. If the queue is not manual, the driver must register an EvtIoDefault callback, which is called when a create request arrives. Queuing takes precedence over the EvtDeviceFileCreate callback—that is, if the driver both registers for EvtDeviceFileCreate events and con- figures a queue to receive such requests, KMDF queues the requests and does not invoke the callback. KMDF does not queue requests to a default queue; the driver must explicitly configure a queue to receive them. In a function or bus driver, if a create request arrives for which the driver has neither registered an EvtDeviceFileCreate callback function nor configured a queue to receive create request, KMDF opens a file object to represent the device and completes the request with STATUS_SUCCESS. Therefore, any function or bus driver that does not accept create or open requests from user-mode applications—and thus does not register a device interface—must register an EvtDeviceFile- Create callback that explicitly fails such requests. Supplying a callback to fail create requests ensures that a rogue user-mode application cannot gain access to the device. If a filter driver does not handle create requests, KMDF by default forwards all create, cleanup, and close requests to the default I/O target (the next lower driver). Filter drivers that handle create requests should perform whatever filtering tasks are required and then forward such requests to the default I/O target. If the filter driver completes a create request for a file object, it should set AutoForwardCleanupClose to WdfFalse in the file object configuration so that KMDF completes cleanup and close requests for the file object instead of forwarding them. 236 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg To handle file close and cleanup requests on a device handle, the driver supplies the EvtFileClose and EvtFileCleanup callbacks. It reg- isters both of these callbacks in its EvtDriverDeviceAdd function. 9.5.1.1 Register EvtDeviceFileCreate and EvtFileClose Callbacks The following code is excerpted from the Featured Toaster’s ToasterEvtDeviceAdd function. It shows how the driver registers the EvtDeviceFileCreate and EvtFileClose callbacks. WDF_FILEOBJECT_CONFIG_INIT( &fileConfig, ToasterEvtDeviceFileCreate, ToasterEvtFileClose, WDF_NO_EVENT_CALLBACK // not interested in Cleanup ); WdfDeviceInitSetFileObjectConfig(DeviceInit, &fileConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES); As the example shows, the driver initializes a WDF_FILEOBJECT_ CONFIG structure by calling the configuration function and supplying pointers to its EvtDeviceFileCreate and EvtFileClose callbacks. The driver does not implement the EvtFileCleanup callback, so it supplies WDF_NO_EVENT_CALLBACK instead of a third function pointer. It then calls WdfDeviceInitSetFileObjectConfig to record these settings in the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure (DeviceInit), which the framework uses later when it creates the device object. The EvtDeviceFileCreate and EvtFileClose functions are stubs in the Featured Toaster driver, so they are not shown here. 9.5.2 Additional Device Object Attributes The Featured Toaster sample sets three more attributes for the device object than the Simple Toaster sample does: ■ Synchronization scope ■ Execution level ■ An EvtCleanupCallback function 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver 237 Wow! eBook ptg 9.5.2.1 Synchronization Scope The synchronization scope determines which of the callbacks for a device or queue object KMDF calls concurrently and which it calls sequentially. The following are the possible scopes: ■ Device scope (WdfSynchronizationScopeDevice) means that KMDF does not make concurrent calls to certain I/O event call- backs for the queue or file objects that are children of the device object. ■ Queue scope (WdfSynchronizationScopeQueue) means that KMDF does not call certain I/O event callbacks concurrently for the individual queue objects that are children of the object. ■ No scope (WdfSynchronizationScopeNone) means that KMDF does not acquire any locks and can call any event callback concur- rently with any other event callback. This is the default value for the WDFDRIVER object, which is the root object. ■ Default scope (WdfSynchronizationScopeInheritFromParent) means that the object uses the same scope as its parent object. This is the default value for all objects other than the WDFDRIVER object. By setting synchronization scope to device level (WdfSynchronization- ScopeDevice), a driver tells KMDF to synchronize calls to certain I/O event callbacks (such as EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, and so forth) for queue and file objects that are children of the device object so that only one such callback executes at any given time. In effect, the callbacks execute syn- chronously. Because only one callback runs at a time, the driver is not required to hold locks to protect data that the callbacks share, such as the device context area. Drivers can use these KMDF synchronization techniques (some- times called frameworks locking) to synchronize access to their own hardware and their internal data. However, drivers should not use these techniques when calling externally, particularly to WDM drivers, because KMDF might hold a lock when the WDM driver does not expect it. This problem can occur because of IRQL restrictions or when the WDM driver eventually calls back into the KMDF driver, which results in a deadlock. 238 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg 9.5.2.2 Execution Level The execution level indicates the IRQL at which KMDF should call the event callback for the object. A driver can select PASSIVE_LEVEL (WdfExecutionLevelPassive), DISPATCH_LEVEL (WdfExecution- LevelDispatch), or the default level (WdfExecutionLevelDefault). If the driver sets the default execution level for an object, KMDF does not guarantee callbacks at a particular IRQL, but can call them at any IRQL <= Dispatch_Level. For example, KMDF would call the routines at DISPATCH_LEVEL if an upper-level driver or KMDF itself already holds a spin lock. Setting dispatch execution level for an object does not force its call- backs to occur at DISPATCH_LEVEL. Instead, it indicates that the callbacks are designed to be called at DISPATCH_LEVEL and so do not take any actions that might cause a page fault. If such a callback requires synchronization, KMDF uses a spin lock, which raises IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL. Selecting passive execution level means that KMDF calls the callbacks at PASSIVE_LEVEL, even if it must queue a work item to do so. This level is typically useful only for very basic drivers, such as the Toaster sample. The Featured Toaster driver specifies WdfExecutionLevelPassive, thus ensuring that certain callbacks are called at PASSIVE_LEVEL so it can use pageable data in all such callbacks. Most drivers must coexist in a stack with WDM drivers and therefore should accept the default. 9.5.2.3 EvtCleanupCallback Function KMDF calls the object’s EvtCleanupCallback callback when the object is being deleted, so that the driver can perform any cleanup related to the object. Device objects are typically deleted during device removal pro- cessing, so the EvtCleanupCallback for a device object is not called unless the device is removed. If the device explicitly takes out a reference on an object (by calling WdfObjectReference), it must implement EvtCleanupCallback for that object so that it can release the reference. This callback also typically deallocates memory buffers that the driver previously allocated on a per- object basis and stored in the object context area. 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver 239 Wow! eBook ptg In many drivers, this callback is not required. Remember that KMDF destroys the child objects of each parent object before deleting the parent object itself. If you allocate a WDFMEMORY buffer for object-specific storage and ensure that the ParentObject field in the attributes structure of the buffer points to the device object, you can often avoid the necessity of deallocating the buffer because KMDF deletes it automatically In the Featured Toaster sample, this function is simply a stub. 9.5.3 Setting Additional Device Object Attributes The following listing shows how the Featured Toaster driver sets these additional attributes and creates the WDFDEVICE_OBJECT: // // Set the Synchronization scope to device so that only one Evt // callback for this device is executing at any time. This // eliminates the need to hold any lock to synchronize access // to the device context area. // // By specifying passive execution level, driver ensures // that the framework will never call the I/O callbacks // at DISPATCH_LEVEL. // fdoAttributes.SynchronizationScope = WdfSynchronizationScopeDevice; fdoAttributes.ExecutionLevel = WdfExecutionLevelPassive; // // Set a context cleanup routine to clean up any resources // that are not defined in the parent to this device. This // cleanup routine will be called during remove-device // processing when the framework deletes the device object. // fdoAttributes.EvtCleanupCallback = ToasterEvtDeviceContextCleanup; // // DeviceInit is completely initialized. Now call the // framework to create the device object. // 240 Chapter 9 Programming Drivers for the KMDF Wow! eBook ptg status = WdfDeviceCreate(&DeviceInit, &fdoAttributes, &device); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDEviceCreate failed with Stats code 0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } The driver sets the attributes in fdoAttributes, and then creates the WDFDEVICE object. 9.5 Sample Software-Only Driver 241 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 243 CHAPTER 10 PROGRAMMING PLUG AND PLAY AND POWER MANAGEMENT A few drivers, like the Simple Toaster sample, can use the WDF default for Plug and Play and power management. Most drivers, however, must perform device-specific activities in response to Plug and Play and power management requests. The Featured Toaster driver is the power policy manager for its device and supports wake signals and idling in a low-power state. To implement such support, the driver must ■ Register callbacks for Plug and Play, power, and power policy events. ■ Set power policy options for its device. ■ Implement callbacks to handle wake-up when a wake signal arrives. ■ Implement callbacks for power-up and power-down to support idling in a low-power state. This chapter provides an introduction to these features as they are imple- mented in the Featured Toaster sample. The chapter briefly outlines the purpose of these functions. However, because the Featured Toaster sample does not drive physical hardware, all of the callbacks are essentially stubs. 10.1 Registering Callbacks Plug and Play and power events are defined for the device object, so the driver must register them in its EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback when it creates the device object. Most of the Plug and Play and power callbacks are defined in pairs: One event occurs when the device is added or Wow! eBook ptg powered up, and the other occurs when the device is removed or powered down. The following are the two most commonly used pairs: ■ EvtDeviceDOEntry and EvtDeviceDOExit, which are called immediately after the device enters the working state and before it exits the working state. ■ EvtDevicePrepareHardware and EvtDeviceReleaseHardware, which are called before the device enters the working state and after it exits the working state. Typically, drivers map and unmap hardware resources in these callbacks. KMDF defines the WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS struc- ture to hold the Plug and Play and power settings and provides a function to record the information from that structure into the WDFDEVICE_ INIT structure. It also includes a method to set the Plug and Play and power management callbacks. Thus, to register its Plug and Play and power management callbacks, a driver 1. Calls WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS_INIT to ini- tialize a WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. 2. Sets entry points in the WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALL- BACKS structure for its Plug and Play and power management event callbacks. 3. Calls WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks, passing pointers to the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure and the com- pleted WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. A driver that manages power policy for its devices also must provide callback functions for power policy events, such as arming and disarming wake signals. The following are the power policy event callbacks: ■ EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO, which is called to arm the device to wake the system from SO, the system working state. ■ EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSO, which is called to disarm wake signals from SO. ■ EvtDeviceWakeFromSOTriggered, which is called when the system is in SO and the wake signal is triggered. ■ EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx, which is called to arm the device to wake the system from one of the lower-powered system sleep states. 244 Chapter 10 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg ■ EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSx, which is called to disarm the wake signal, set by the EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx callback. ■ EvtDeviceWakeFromSxTriggered, which is called when the wake signal is triggered and the system is not in the working state. Like the power management callbacks, the power policy event callbacks are required to initialize the device object. KMDF defines a structure and function that the driver can use to record this information in the DEVICE_INIT structure. The driver proceeds as follows: 1. Calls WDF_POWER_POLICY_EVENT_CALLBACKS_INIT to initialize a WDF_POWER_POLICY_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. 2. Sets entry points for the power policy event callbacks that are sup- ported by the driver. 3. Calls WdfDeviceInitSetPowerPolicyEventCallbacks with point- ers to the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure and the completed WDF_POWER_POLICY_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. After creating the device object, the driver sets addition power policy options. 10.1.1 Sample Code to Register Plug and Play and Power Callbacks The following code is excerpted from the Featured Toaster’s EvtDriver- DeviceAdd callback (ToasterEvtDeviceAdd). It shows how to register the Plug and Play, power management, and power policy callbacks. // // Initialize the pnpPowerCallbacks structure. Callback events // for PNP and Power are specified here. If you don’t supply any // callbacks, KMDF will take appropriate default actions based on // whether DeviceInit is initialized as an FDO, a PDO, or a // filter device object. // WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS_INIT (&pnpPowerCallbacks); // // Register PNP callbacks. // 10.1 Registering Callbacks 245 Wow! eBook ptg pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDevicePrepareHardware = ToasterEvtDevicePrepareHardware; pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceReleaseHardware = ToasterEvtDeviceReleaseHardware; // // Register Power callbacks. // pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceDOEntry = ToasterEvtDeviceDOEntry; pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceDOExit = ToasterEvtDeviceDOExit; WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks(DeviceInit, &pnpPowerCallbacks); // // Register power policy event callbacks so that driver is called // to arm/disarm the hardware to handle wait wake and // when the wake event is triggered by the hardware. // WDF_POWER_POLICY_EVENT_CALLBACKS_INIT( &powerPolicyCallbacks); // // This group of three callbacks allows this sample driver to // arm the device for wake from the SO or Sx state. We don’t // differentiate between SO and Sx state. // powerPolicyCallbacks.EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeArm; powerPolicyCallbacks.EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSO = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeDisarm; powerPolicyCallBack.EvtDeviceWakeFromSOTriggered = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeTriggered; powerPolicyCallbacks.EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeArm; powerPolicyCallbacks.EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSx = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeDisarm; powerPolicyCallbacks.EvtDeviceWakeFromSxTriggered = ToasterEvtDeviceWakeTriggered; // // Register the power policy callbacks. // 246 Chapter 10 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg WdfDeviceInitSetPowerPolicyEventCallbacks(DeviceInit, &powerPolicyCallbacks); // // Additional code to initialize other features such as // device file callbacks, the device context area, and // other device object attributes is shown in the // previous discussions // // // Call the framework to create the // device and attach it to the lower stack. // status = WdfDeviceCreate(&DeviceInit, &fdoAttributes, &device); if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDeviceCreate failed with Status Code 0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } The Featured Toaster driver sets callbacks for the EvtDevicePrepare- Hardware, EvtDeviceReleaseHardware, EvtDeviceDOEntry, and EvtDeviceDOExit events in pnpPowerCallbacks, which is a WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. It then calls WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks to record this informa- tion in DeviceInit, which is a WDFDEVICE_INIT structure. The Featured Toaster driver also sets callbacks for EvtDevice- PrepareHardware and EvtDeviceReleaseHardware, in which a driver can map and unmap resources. However, because this driver does not operate physical hardware, these functions are essentially stubs. The driver sets callbacks for power policy in powerPolicyCallbacks, which is a WDF_POWER_POLICY_EVENT_CALLBACKS structure. The Featured Toaster device requires the same driver actions regardless of the system state in which wake-up is armed, disarmed, or triggered. Therefore, the Featured Toaster sample provides only three callbacks for the six possible power policy events: ■ ToasterEvtDeviceWakeArm arms the device for wake-up. ■ ToasterEvtDeviceWakeDisarm disarms the device for wake-up. ■ ToasterEvtDeviceWakeTrigger handles the wake-up signal. 10.1 Registering Callbacks 247 Wow! eBook ptg The driver calls WdfDeviceInitSetPowerPolicyEventCallbacks to record these callbacks in the DeviceInit structure. Finally, it passes the DeviceInit structure in its call to WdfDeviceCreate to create the WDFDEVICE object. (The excerpt shown here omits the code that reg- isters file object events and sets additional device object attributes; this code was shown previously.) 10.2 Managing Power Policy After the driver creates the device object, it sets additional power policy options related to idling and wake signals before its EvtDriver- DeviceAdd callback returns. The idle settings include the following: ■ Idle time-outs, so that KMDF can transition the device out of the working state when it is not being used. ■ The power state in which to idle the device. ■ A Boolean that indicates whether a user can change the idle settings. The WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POLICY_IDLE_SETTINGS_INIT function initializes the structure that holds the idle settings. The driver passes a pointer to the structure and an enumerator that describes whether the device can generate a wake signal when the system is in SO (the fully powered, operational state). The IdleCannotWakeFromSO enumerator indicates that the device and driver do not support wake-up for SO. IdleCanWakeFromSO indicates that the device and driver support wake-up from SO. USB drivers that support Selective Suspend specify IdleUsbSelectiveSuspend. The driver also sets a 60-second idle time-out, which indicates that the framework will attempt to put the device in a low-power state when it has been idle for more than 60 seconds. By default, KMDF puts the driver in state D3 when idle and enables the user to control the idle settings. A driver can change these defaults by setting values for the DxState field and the UserControlOfIdleSettings field in the WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POWER_IDLE_SETTINGS structure. 248 Chapter 10 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg To register these settings, the driver then calls the WdfDEvice- AssignSOIdleSettings method on the WDFDEVICE object. Next, the driver sets the wake-up policy. To initialize the policy settings to default values, the driver uses the WDF_DEVICE_POWER_ POLICY_WAKE_SETTINGS_INIT function. The defaults provide for the following: ■ The device can wake up the system, but a user can override this default through a property page in Control Panel. This setting is appropriate for drivers that use the framework’s WMI support to provide a property page through which a user can select the devices that are enabled to wake up the system. ■ The device is put in its lowest powered state (D3) when the system goes into a sleep state. A call to WdfDeviceAssignSxWakeSettings registers these settings. 10.2.1 Code to Set Power Policy The following code shows how the Featured Toaster sets these power policy settings. This code is excerpted from the ToasterEvtDeviceAdd function in the file toaster.c. // // Set the idle power policy to put the device in Dx if the // device // is not used for the specified IdleTimeout time. Since // this is a // virtual device, we tell the framework that we cannot wake it // if we sleep in SO. The only way to bring the device to DO is // if the device receives an I/O request from the system. // WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POLICY_IDLE_SETTINGS_INIT(&idleSettings, IdleCannotWakeFromSO); idleSettings.IdleTimeout = 60000; // 60 secs idle timeout status = WdfDeviceAssignSOIdleSettings(device, &idleSettings); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“WdfDEviceAssignSOIdleSettings failed 0x%x\n”, status)); return status; } 10.2 Managing Power Policy 249 Wow! eBook ptg // // Set the wait-wake policy. // WDF_DEVICE_POWER_POLICY_WAKE_SETTINGS_INIT( &wakeSettings); status = WdfDeviceAssignSxWakeSettings(device, &wakeSettings); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { // // We are probably enumerated on a bus that doesn’t support // Sx-wake. Do not fail the device add just because we can’t // support wait-wake. // KdPrint((“WdfDEviceAssignSxWakeSettings failed 0x%x\n”, status)); status = STATUS_SUCCESS; } The sample driver sets power policy idle characteristics and an idle time- out in the idleSetting structure, and then calls WdfDEvice- AssignSOIdleSettings method, passing as parameters this structure and the handle to the device object that is received when it created the device object. It then proceeds in a similar fashion to set the wake-up characteristics. If the call to WdfDeviceAssignScWakeSettings fails, the sample driver resets the failure status to STATUS_SUCCESS. The reason is that this method fails if the underlying bus does not support wake from Sx states. If the device is on such a bus, the driver should not fail the add-device request. Instead, it simply resets the failure status and continues processing. 10.3 Callbacks for Power-Up and Power-Down Drivers implement the EvtDeviceDOEntry and EvtDeviceDOExit callbacks to be notified when the device enters and exits the working state, respectively. In a function driver (FDO), KMDF calls the EvtDeviceDOEntry callback after the device has entered the DO power state. The function driver’s EvtDeviceDOEntry callback should initialize the device and per- form any other tasks that are required each time the device enters the working state. 250 Chapter 10 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg In a bus driver (PDO), KMDF calls the EvtDeviceDOEntry callback to put the device into the DO power state. (If you are familiar with WDM drivers, you probably remember that a request to power up a device must be handled by the bus driver first and then other drivers higher in the device stack. For a request to lower the power state, the opposite is true.) A bus driver’s EvtDeviceDOEntry callback should put the device hard- ware in the DO state and perform any additional initialization that the device requires at this time. The EvtDeviceDOEntry callback is called with a pointer to the WDFDEVICE object and a pointer to an enumerator that identifies the most recent power state of the device, before the transition to DO began. KMDF calls the EvtDeviceDOExit callback any time the device must leave the DO state. The callback is passed a pointer to the WDFDE- VICE object and a pointer to an enumerator that identifies the new power state. In a function driver (FDO), the callback should perform any final tasks that are required before the device changes power state. In a bus driver, the callback should change the power state of the physical hardware. In the Featured Toaster sample, both of these functions are stubs. 10.4 Callback for Wake Signal Support Drivers for devices that can generate wake signals implement the following callbacks to support wake-up: ■ EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO and EvtDeviceDisarmWake- FromSO ■ EvtDeviceWakeFromSOTriggered ■ EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx and EvtDeviceDisarmWake- FromSx ■ EvtDeviceWakeFromSxTriggered To enable the wake signal, KMDF calls EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO and EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx while the device is in DO, but while power-managed I/O is stopped. Therefore, the driver does not receive I/O requests from power-managed queues while arming its device and so is not required to synchronize its I/O operations with these callbacks. In the wake-arming callbacks, a function driver should handle any device-specific tasks that are required to enable the device to generate a 10.4 Callback for Wake Signal Support 251 Wow! eBook ptg wake signal. KMDF transitions the device out of the DO state soon after the wake signal is successfully enabled. The driver should not yet perform any tasks related to power state change; KMDF calls the driver’s EvtDeviceDOExit function to do that. The EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSO and EvtDeviceDisarm- WakeFromSx callbacks should undo any device-specific tasks that the driver performed to enable the wake signal for its device. KMDF calls the disarm callbacks after EvtDeviceDOEntry has returned the device to the DO state. The Featured Toaster sample registers the ToasterEvtDevice- WakeArm function for both the EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSO and EvtDeviceArmWakeFromSx events. Likewise, it registers Toaster- EvtDeviceWakeDisarm for both the EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSO and EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSx events. In the Featured Toasted sample, these callbacks are stubs. If the device triggers a wake signal when the system is in SO or Sx, the EvtDeviceWakeFromSOTriggered and EvtDeviceWakeFromSx- Triggered events occur, respectively. KMDF calls these functions after the driver’s EvtDeviceDOEntry callback and before the EvtDevice- DisarmWakeFromSO or EvtDeviceDisarmWakeFromSx callback. The wake-triggered callback should perform any tasks that are required after the wake signal is triggered, but should not disarm the wake signal. The Featured Toaster sample registers the ToasterEvtDevice- WakeTriggered callback for both the EvtDeviceWakeFrom- SOTriggered and EvtDeviceWakeFromSxTriggered events. In the sample, this callback is a stub. 252 Chapter 10 Plug and Play and Power Management Wow! eBook ptg 253 CHAPTER 11 PROGRAMMING WMI SUPPORT This chapter covers the importance of using the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in the development and utilization of a device driver. By making your driver a Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) provider, you can ■ Make custom data available to WMI consumers. ■ Permit WMI consumers to configure a device through a standard interface rather than a custom control panel application. ■ Notify WMI consumers of driver-defined events without requiring the consumer to poll or send IRPs. ■ Reduce driver overhead by collection and sending only requested data to a single destination. ■ Annotate data and event blocks with descriptive driver-defined class names and optional descriptions that WMI clients can enumerate and display to users. 11.1 WMI Architecture To support WMI, your driver registers as a WMI provider. A WMI provider is a Win32 dynamic-link library (DLL) that handles WMI requests and supplies WMI instrumentation data. After your driver is registered as a WMI provider, WMI consumers then request data or invoke methods exposed by providers. Query requests travel from user mode consumers down to WMI ker- nel mode service, which in turn send IRP requests to your driver. For instance, when a WMI client requests a given data block, the WMI kernel component sends a query request to the driver to retrieve or set data. Figure 11.1 shows this data flow. Wow! eBook ptg Figure 11.1 WMI Architecture Data Flow 11.2 Registering as a WMI Data Provider A driver that supports WMI must register as a WMI data provider to make its data and event blocks available to WMI clients. A driver typically regis- ters with WMI when starting its device, after the device has been initial- ized to the point that the driver can handle WMI IRPs. During the registration process, the driver passes WMI a pointer to its device object and information about the data and event blocks it supports. 254 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Instrumented Applications Management Applications and Platforms CIM Object Manager (CIMOM) CIM-Compliant Store WMI Provider for WDM WDM/WMI User Mode Kernel Mode WDM Class Driver SCSI Port Driver NDIS Class Driver WDM Minidrivers SCSI Minidrivers NDIS Miniport Drivers WDM Devices SCSI Minidrivers NICs Query Request Event Notification Query Request Event Notification Wow! eBook ptg A driver registers with WMI in two phases: 1. The driver calls IoWMIRegistrationControl with the action WMIREG_ACTION_REGISTER and a pointer to the device object passed to the driver’s AddDevice routine. 2. The driver handles the IRP_MN_REGINFO or IRP_MN_ REGINFO_EX request that WMI sends in response to the driv- er’s IoWMIRegistrationControl call. The Parameters.WMI. DataPath member of the IRP is set to WMIREGISTER and Parameters.WMI.ProviderId is set to the driver’s device object pointer. The driver supplies WMI with registration information about data and event blocks, either by using the WMI Library, or by handling the IRP_MN_REGINFO or IRP_MN_REGINFO_ EX requests. 11.3 Handling WMI Requests All drivers must set a dispatch table entry point for a Dispatch SystemControl routine to handle WMI requests. If a driver registers as a WMI data provider, it must handle all WMI requests. Otherwise, the driver must forward all WMI requests to the next lower driver. All WMI IRPs have the major code IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL and one of the following minor codes: ■ IRP_MN_REGINFO or IRP_MN_REGINFO_EX—Queries or updates a driver’s registration information after the driver has called IoWMIRegistrationControl. ■ IRP_MN_QUERY_All_DATA or IRP_MN_QUERY_SINGLE_ INSTANCE—Queries for all instances or a single instance of a given data block. ■ IRP_MN_CHANGE_SINGLE_ITEM, IRP_MN_CHANGE_ SINGLE_INSTANCE—Requests the driver to change a single item or multiple items in an instance of a data block. ■ IRP_MN_ENABLE_COLLECTION, IRP_MN_DISABLE_ COLLECTION—Requests the driver to start accumulating data 11.3 Handling WMI Requests 255 Wow! eBook ptg for a block that the driver registered as expensive to collect, or to stop accumulating data for such a block. ■ IRP_MN_ENABLE_EVENTS, IRP_MN_DISABLE_EVENTS —Requests the driver to start sending notification of a given event if the event occurs while it is enabled, or to stop sending notification of such an event. ■ IRP_MN_EXECUTE_METHOD—Requests the driver to exe- cute a method associated with a data block. The WMI kernel mode component sends WMI IRPs any time following a driver’s successful registration as a WMI data provider, typically when a user mode data consumer has requested WMI information for a driver’s device. If a driver registers as a WMI data provider by calling IoWMI- RegistrationControl, it must handle each subsequent WMI request in one of the following ways: ■ Call the kernel mode WMI library routine WmiSystemControl to handle requests concerning only blocks that do not use dynamic instance names, and that base static instance names on a single base name string or the device instance ID of a PDO. ■ In its DispatchSystemControl routine, process and complete any such request tagged with the pointer to its device object that the driver passed in its call to IoWMIRegistrationControl, and for- ward other IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL requests to the next lower driver. 11.4 WMI Requirements for WDM Drivers A driver that handles IRPs registers with WMI as a data provider. System- supplied storage port drivers, class drivers, and NDIS protocol drivers fall into this category. A driver that does not handle IRPs should simply forward WMI requests to the next-lower driver in the driver stack. The next-lower driver then registers with WMI and handles WMI requests on the first driver’s behalf. For instance, SCSI miniport drivers and NDIS miniport drivers can register as WMI providers and supply WMI data to their correspon- ding class drivers. 256 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg A driver that supplies WMI data to a class or port driver must support the driver-type-specific WMI interfaces that are defined by the class or port driver. For example, a SCSI miniport driver must set WmiData Provider to TRUE in the PORT_CONFIGURATION_ INFORMATION structure and handle SRB_FUNCTION_WMI requests from the SCSI port driver. Similarly, a connection-oriented NDIS miniport driver that defines custom data blocks must support OID_GEN_CO_SUPPORTED_ GUIDS; otherwise, NDIS maps those OIDs and status indications returned from OID_GEN_SUPPORTED_LIST that are common and known to NDIS to GUIDS defined by NDIS. 11.5 WMI Class Names and Base Classes WMI class names are case-insensitive, must start with a letter, and cannot begin or end with an underscore. All remaining characters must be letters, digits, or underscores. WMI client applications can access a driver’s WMI class names and display them to users. Descriptive class names can help make classes more intuitive to use. WMI class names must be unique within the WMI name space. Consequently, a driver’s WMI class names cannot duplicate those defined by another driver. To help prevent name collisions, a driver writer can define a driver- specific base class and derive all of the driver’s WMI classes from that base class. The class name and base class name together are more likely to yield a unique name. For example, the following shows an abstract base class for a serial driver’s data blocks: // Serial drivers’ base class for data blocks [abstract] class MSSerial { } // Example class definition for a data block [ // Class qualifiers ] class MSSerial_StandardSerialInformation : MSSerial { // Data items } 11.5 WMI Class Names and Base Classes 257 Wow! eBook ptg Device-specific custom data blocks should include the manufacturer, model, and type of driver or device in the base class name. For example: [abstract] class Adaptec1542 { } class Adaptec1542_Bandwidth : Adaptec 1542 { // Data items } class Adaptec1542_Speed : Adaptec1542 { // Data items } WMI allows only one abstract base class in a given class hierarchy. Classes that define event blocks must derive from WmiEvent, which is an abstract base class, so the abstract qualifier cannot be used in a driver-defined base class for event blocks. Instead, derive a nonabstract base class from WmiEvent, then derive individual event classes from that base class. The following examples show class definitions from the schema of a serial port driver. Not that the guid values shown in these examples are placeholders. Each class definition must have a unique GUID generated by guidgen.exe or uuidgen.exe (which are included in the Microsoft Windows SDK). // Standard class for reporting serial port information // Class qualifiers [WMI, guid(“xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”), Dynamic, Provider(“WMIProv”), WmiExpense(1), Locale(“MS\\0x409”), Description(“Description of class”] // Class name class Vendor_SerialInfo { // Required items [key, read] string InstanceName; [read] boolean Active; // Bytes sent on port // Property qualifiers [read, 258 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg WmiDataId(1), WmiScale(0), WmiComplexity(1), WmiVolatility(1000)] Description(“Description of property”); // Data item uint64 BytesSent; // Bytes received on port [read, write, WmiDataId(2), WmiScale(0), WmiVolatility(1000)] uint64 BytesReceived // Who owns the port [read, WmiDataId(4), WmiScale(0), WmiVolatility(6000)] string Owner; // Status bit array [read, write, WmiDataId(3), WmiScale(0)] byte Status[16]; // The number of items in the XmitBufferSize array [read, WmiDataId(5), WmiScale(0), WmiComplexity(1), Wmivolatility(1000)] uint32 XmitDescriptionCount; // Array of XmitDescription classes [read, WmiDataId(6), WmiSizeIs(“XmitDescriptionCount”), WmiScale(0), Wmicomplexity(1), WmiVolatility(1000)] Vendor_XmitDescriptor XmitBufferSize[]; } The following is the class definition for the embedded class shown in the preceding example. Note that this class does not contain InstanceName or Active items. 11.5 WMI Class Names and Base Classes 259 Wow! eBook ptg // Example of an embedded class [WMI, guid(“xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”), class Vendor_XmitDescriptor { [read, WmiDataId(1)] int32 DestinationIndex; [read, WmiDataId(2)] int32 DestinationTarget; } The following is a class definition for an event block. The class is derived from WmiEvent. // Example of an event [WMI, guid(“xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx”), Dynamic, Provider(“WMIProve”), Locale(“MS\\0x409), Description(“Serial Send Event”), WmiExpense(1)] class Vendor_SerialSentEvent : WMIEvent { // Required items [key, read] string InstanceName; [read] boolean Active; 11.6 Firing WMI Events In the Featured Toaster sample driver, the ToasterFireArrivalEvent function shows how to generate a WMI event that has a dynamic instance name. The WMI event contains the name of the device model, which WMI records to log the arrival of this device. The driver calls this function from its EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback to indicate that the device has been configured. Parts of this function are standard WMI tasks and have little to do with KMDF. This discussion focuses on the KMDF- specific code: NTSTATUS ToasterFireArrivalEvent( IN WDFDEIVE Device ) { WDFMEMORY memory; PWNODE_SINGLE_INSTANCE wnode; ULONG wnodeSize; 260 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg ULONG wnodeDataBlockSize; ULONG wnodeInstanceNameSize; ULONG size; ULONG length; UNICODE_STRING deviceName; UNICODE_STRING modelName; NTSTATUS status; // // *NOTE* // WdfWmiFireEvent only fires single instance events at // the present, so continue to use this method of firing // events // *NOTE* // RtlInitUnicodeString(&modelName, L“Sonali\0\0”); // // Get the device name. // status = GetDeviceFriendlyName(&Device, &memory); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { return status; } RtlInitUnicodeString(&deviceName, (PWSTR) WdfMemoryGetBuffer(memory, NULL)); // //Determine the amount of wnode information we need. // wnodeSize = sizeof(WNODE_SINGLE_INSTANCE); wnodeInstanceNameSize = deviceName.Length + sizeof(USHORT); wnodeDataBlockSize = modelName.Length + sizeof(USHORT); size = wnodeSize + wnodeInstanceNameSize + wnodeDataBlockSize; // // Allocate memory for the WNODE from NonPagedPool // 11.6 Firing WMI Events 261 Wow! eBook ptg wnode = ExAllocatePoolWithTag(NoPagedPool, size, TOASTER_POOL_TAG); If(NULL != wnode) { RtlZeroMemory(wnode, size); wnode->WnodeHeader.BufferSize = size wnode->WnodeHeader.ProviderId = IoWMIDeviceObjectToProviderId( WdfDeviceWdmGetDeviceObject(Device)); wnode->WnodeHeader.Version = 1; KeQuerySystemTime(&wnode->WnodeHeader.TimeStamp); RtlCopyMemory(&wnode->WnodeHeader.Guid, &TOASTER_NOTIFY_DEVICE_ARRIVAL_EVENT, Sizeof(GUID)); // // Set flags to indicate that you are creating dynamic // instance names. This driver supports dynamic // instances because it can fire the events at any time. // If it used static instance names instead, it could only // fire events after WMI queries for IRP_MN_REGINFO, // which happens after the device has been started. // Note also that if you are firing an event after the // device is started, you should // check whether the event is enabled, because that // indicates that someone is interested in receiving the // event. Why waste system resources by firing an event // when nobody is interested? // wnode->WnodeHeader.Flags = WNODE_FLAG_EVENT_ITEM | WNODE_FLAG_SINGLE_INSTANCE; wnode->OffsetInstanceName = wnodeSize; wnode->DataBlockOffset= wnodeSize + wnodeInstanceNameSize; wnode->SizeDataBlock = wnodeDataBlockSize; // // Write the instance name. // 262 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg size -= wnodeSize; status = WDF_WMI_BUFFER_APPEND_STRING( WDF_PTR_ADD_OFFSET(wnode, wnod->OffsetInstance), size, &deviceName, &length ); // // Size was precomputed, so this should never fail. // ASSERT(NT_SUCCESS(status)); // // Write the data, which is the model name as a string. // size = -= wnodeInstanceNameSize; WDF_WMI_BUFFER_APPEND_STRING( WDF_PTR_ADD_OFFSET(wnode, wnode->DataBlockOffset), size, &modelName, &length ); // // Size was precomputed, so this should never fail. // ASSERT(NT_SUCCESS(status)); // // Indicate the event to WMI. WMI will take care of // freeing the WMI struct back to pool. // status = IoWMIWriteEvent(wnode); if(!NT_SUCCESS(status)) { KdPrint((“IoWMIWriteEvent failed %x\n”, status)); ExFreePool(wnode); } } 11.6 Firing WMI Events 263 Wow! eBook ptg else { status = STATUS_INSUFFICIENT_RESOURCES; } // // Free the memory allocated by GetDeviceFriendlyName // function. // WdfObjectDelete(memory); return status; } ToasterfireArrivalEvent first defines a model name for its device and then retrieves the friendly name for the device by calling the internal rou- tine GetDeviceFriendlyName. GetDeviceFriendlyName takes a han- dle to the device object and returns a handle to a WDFMEMORY object that contains a buffer that holds the name. The driver passes the returned WDFMEMORY object handle to WdfGetMemoryBuffer to retrieve a pointer to the buffer itself and calls RtlUnicodeString to copy the contents of the buffer into the Unicode string variable deviceName, as follows: RtlInitUnicodeString(&deviceName, (PWSTR)WdfMemoryGetBuffer(memory, NULL)); The driver now constructs the WMI event by using standard WMI structures and routines (defined in wmistr.h) along with standard Windows device driver interfaces (DDIs), which are defined in wdm.h and ntddk.h. The driver allocates memory from the nonpaged pool for the WNODE_SINGLE_INSTANCE structure (wnode) by calling ExAllocatePoolWithTag. If memory allocation succeeds, the driver zero- initializes the wnode structure and then fills it in the usual way for WMI. To supply the WMI provider ID, the driver calls IoWmiDevice- ObjectToProviderId, passing as a parameter the WDM device object returned by WdfDeviceWdmGetDeviceObject. After the wnode structure is filled, the driver calls the WDF_ WMI_BUFFER_APPEND_STRING function once to append the instance name to the WNODE_SINGLE_INSTANCE structure and a second time to append the model name. 264 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg Finally, the driver fires the event by calling IoWMIWriteEvent. WMI records the data and frees the memory allocated for the WNODE_SIN- GLE_INSTANCE structure. 11.7 Troubleshooting Specific WMI Problems The following paragraphs cover some of the common problems found in setting up and using WMI. 11.7.1 Driver’s WMI Classes Do Not Appear in the \root\wmi Namespace The following steps cover how we would approach the troubleshooting of this particular problem. 1. Use wmimofck driver.bmf to check if the binary MOF file for- mat is correct. Additional error messages may be found in mofcomp.log. 2. Check the system event log to see if the driver is returning a mal- formed WMIREGINFO data structure in response to the regis- tration request. 3. Check that the driver is returning the correct values for RegistryPath and MofResourceName within the WMIREG- INFO structure. 4. If the driver provides its MOF data in a separate file, check that the MofImagePath registry value for the driver is set correctly. 5. Check the WMI WDM provider log for errors. 6. Use Mofcomp to recompile and reload your MOF text file. For example, the command mofcomp –N:root/wmi driver.mof tries to recompile and reload any MOF data in the driver.mof file. Check to see what error messages Mofcomp generates in mofcomp.log. Note that if your MOF file uses preprocessor directives such as #define, you need to use the already pre- processed MOF file, and not the original source file. If the opera- tion succeeds, it actually registers the new WMI class data with the system. You need to delete these classes (by using Wbemtest, for example) to test if your driver’s MOF data is being read correctly. 11.7 Troubleshooting Specific WMI Problems 265 Wow! eBook ptg If this step succeeds, the most likely problem is that the mem- bers of WMIREGINFO, such as MofResourceName, are speci- fied incorrectly. Alternatively, the problem could be that your MOF file specifies a class derived from a base class that doesn’t exist. 7. If the driver is using dynamic MOF data, check that the driver is receiving WMI IRP requests for the MSWmi_MofData_GUID GUID and that is completing the IRP successfully and with no error logged. 11.7.2 Driver’s WMI Properties or Methods Cannot Be Accessed Use the following steps if you cannot access the driver’s WMI properties or methods: 1. Use wmimofck driver.bmf to check if the binary MOF file for- mat is correct. 2. Check the system event log for errors. 3. Check the WMI WDM Provider log for errors. 4. Make sure the driver receives a WMI IRP whenever you use Wbemtest to query the driver’s classes. If not, check that the spec- ified GUID in the MOF file matches the GUID the driver is expecting. Also check that the driver is receiving the WMI regis- tration request, it is succeeding, and the driver is registering the right GUIDs. 5. If the driver receives the IRP, ensure that the IRP is completed successfully, and that the driver is returning the right type of WNOFE_XXX structure. 6. If Wbemtest returns an error, click the More Information button and check the Description property for a description of the error. 7. For methods, check that your driver supports handling the IRP_ MN_QUERY_ALL_DATA and IRP_MN_QUERY_SIGLE_ INSTANCE requests for the method’s GUID. WMI always per- forms one of those two requests before executing a method. 266 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg 11.7.3 Driver’s WMI Events Are Not Being Received Use the following steps if the driver’s WMI events are not being received: 1. Check the system event log for errors. For example, if the driver specifies a static event name when calling IoWMIWriteEvent but the driver did not register any static event names, this would pro- duce an entry in the system event log. 2. Check the WMI WDM provider log for errors. Note: If the driver is sending an event reference, the driver should receive an IRP_MN_QUERY_SINGLE_INSTANCE request immediately after sending the event reference. If the driver does not receive the IRP, the WNODE_EVENT_REFERENCE structure may have been malformed. If the driver receives the IRP, it should be completing it with status STATUS_SUCCESS. 3. If the driver uses IoWMIWriteEvent to send the event or event reference, make sure the event structure (either WNODE_ SINGLE_INSTANCE or WNODE_EVENT_REFERENCE) is filled out correctly. In particular, if the event GUID is registered for static instance names, make sure that the correct instance index and provider ID are provided. If the event GUID is registered for dynamic instance names, make sure the instance name is included when the event is sent. If using the WNODE_EVENT_REFER- ENCE structure to specify the event, check that Wnode.Guid matches TargetGuid. 4. If the driver uses WmiFireEvent to send the event, make sure the correct value is passed for the Guid and InstanceIndex parameters. 11.7.4 Changes in Security Settings for WMI Requests Do Not Take Effect If the changes we made in security settings for WMI Request do not take effect, you should do the following. Unload and reload the WMI WDM Provider. For WMI data blocks registered with the WMIREG_FLAG_EXPENSIVE flag, the provider keeps a handle open to the data blocks as long as there are consumers for that block. The new security settings will not take effect until the provider closes the handle. Unloading and reloading the provider makes sure the handle has been closed. 11.7 Troubleshooting Specific WMI Problems 267 Wow! eBook ptg 11.8 Techniques for Testing WMI Driver Support There are several tools you can use to test WMI support in your driver: ■ Wbemtest—The operating system includes the Wbemtest tool, which provides a GUI you can use to query for WMI classes and class instances, change property values, execute methods, and receive event notifications. Connect to the root\wmi namespace to test your driver support. ■ Wmic—Microsoft Windows 7 operating system includes the Wmic, which provides a command shell you can use to issue WMI-related commands to test your driver. ■ Wmimofck—The wmimofck command can be used to check the syntax of your binary MOF files. You can also use the wmimofck –t command to generate a VBScript file. You can use this script to test your driver’s handling of WMI class instance queries. The wmi- mofck –w command generates Web pages that can test querying and setting classes, executing methods, and receiving events. Note that the Web pages do not support executing methods that use com- plex parameters or return values (such as an array of embedded classes). In such cases, you can use Wbemtest instead. You can also test your driver’s WMI support by writing a custom WMI client application, using the WMI user mode API. For more information about this user mode API, which allows applications to provide or consume WMI information, refer to the Windows Management Instrumentation information in the Microsoft Windows SDK documents. A WMI client application performs the following tasks to test a driver: 1. It connects to WMI. To connect to WMI, the application calls the Component Object Model (COM) function, CoCreateInstance, to retrieve a pointer to the IWbemLocator interface. The appli- cation then calls the IWbemLocator::ConnectServer method to connect to WMI. From this call, the application receives a pointer to the IWbemServices interface. 2. It accesses information in the driver. To access information and to register for events, the application uses the methods of the IWbemServices interface. 268 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg 11.8.1 WMI IRPs and the System Event Log WMI errors that occur strictly in kernel mode are logged to the system event log. You can use the Event Viewer to examine the system event log. The two main sources of such errors are malformed replies to WMI requests and incorrect parameters to event notifications. For example, if the driver returns a malformed WMIREGINFO data structure in response to an IRP_MN_REGINFO or IRP_MN_REGINFO_EX request, the system will log that to the system event log. The system would also log an invalid call to IoWMIWriteEvent and WmiFireEvent to issue a WMI event notification. 11.8.2 WMI WDM Provider Log WMI errors that occur while being handled by the WMI WDM provider (wmiprov.dll) are logged to the log file for the WMI WDM Provider, wmiprov.log. This is a text file that can be found in %windir%\ system32\wbem\logs\wmiprov.log. Errors, such as a bad or missing MOF resource for the driver, are logged here. In the case of a bad MOF resource, the file %windir%\system32\mofcomp.log might have addi- tional information related to the error. You can change the logging settings for all WMI providers by using the Wmimgmt.msc application. You can disable or reenable logging, change the directory where WMI log files are kept, as well as set the maximum size for such files. 11.9 WMI Event Tracing This discussion describes the WMI extensions to WDM that Kernel Mode Drivers, as information providers, can use to provide information to infor- mation consumers. Drivers typically provide information that a consumer uses to determine the driver’s configuration and resource usage. In addi- tion to the WMI extensions to WDM, a user mode API supports providers or consumers of WMI event information. The event tracing logger supports up to 32 instances. One of the instances is reserved for tracing the kernel. The logger supports tracing a high event rate. 11.9 WMI Event Tracing 269 Wow! eBook ptg Trace events are defined in the same manner as other WMI events. WMI events are described in the MOF file. The process by which Kernel Mode Drivers log information is inte- grated into the existing WMI infrastructure. To log trace events, a driver does the following: 1. Register as a WMI provider by calling IoWMIRegistration Control. 2. Mark events as traceable by setting WMIREG_FLAG_TRACED_ GUID in the Flags member of the WMIREGGUID structure that is passed when the driver registers events with WMI. 3. Specify one event as the control event for overall enabling/dis- abling of a set of trace events by setting WMIREG_FLAG_ TRACE_CONTROL_GUID in the Flags member of the WMIREGGUID structure that is passed when the driver regis- ters events with WMI. 4. Upon receiving a request from WMI to enable events where the GUID matches the trace control GUID, the driver should store the handle to the logger. The value will be needed when writing an event. For information about how to use this handle, see step 6. The logger handle value is contained in the HistoricalContext member of the WNODE_HEADER portion of the WMI buffer that is part of the parameters in the enable events request. 5. Decide whether the trace event will be sent to WMI event con- sumers or is targeted for the WMI event logger only. This deter- mines where the memory for the EVENT_TRACE_HEADER structure should come from. This memory eventually is passed to IoWMIWriteEvent. If the event is a log event only, the memory is not deleted by WMI. In this case, the driver should pass in a buffer on the stack or should be reusing an allocated buffer for this purpose. For per- formance reasons, the driver should minimize any unnecessary calls to allocate or free memory. Failure to comply with this rec- ommendation compromises the integrity of the timing information contained in the log file. If the event is to be sent to both the logger and to WMI event consumers, the memory must be allocated from a nonpaged pool. In this case, the event is sent to the logger and then forwarded to WMI to be sent to WMI event consumers who have requested 270 Chapter 11 Programming WMI Support Wow! eBook ptg notification of the event. The memory for the event is then freed by WMI according to the behavior of IoWMIWriteEvent. 6. After the memory for the EVENT_TRACE_HEADER and any driver event data, if any, has been secured, the following informa- tion should be set: ■ Set the Size member to the size of (EVENT_TRACE _HEADER) plus the size of any additional driver event data that will be appended on to the end of EVENT_TRACE _HEADER. ■ Set the Flags member to WNODE_FLAG_TRACED_GUID to have the event sent to the logger. If the event is to be sent to WMI event consumers as well, set the WNODE_FLAG_LOG _WNODE. Note, it is not necessary to set WNODE_FLAG_ TRACED_GUID if setting WNODE_FLAG_LOG_ WNODE. If both are set, WNODE_FLAG_TRACED_ GUID takes precedence and the event is not sent to WMI event consumers. ■ Set the Guid or the GuidPtr member. If using GuidPtr, set WNODE_FLAG_USE_GUID_PTR in the Flags member. Optionally, specify a value for TimeStamp. If the driver does not specify a TimeStamp value, the logger fills this in. If the driver does not want the logger to set the time stamp, it should set WNODE_FLAG_USE_TIMESTAMP in the Flags member. ■ Set any of the following EVENT_TRACE_HEADER mem- bers that have meaning to the driver—that is, Class.Type, Class.Level, and Class.Version. ■ Finally, cast the EVENT_TRACE_HEADER to a WNODE_ HEADER and set the HistoricalContext value of the Wnode to the logger handle that was saved in the preceding step 4. 7. Call IoWMIWriteEvent with the pointer to the EVENT_ TRACE_HEADER structure. The driver should continue logging trace events associated with the control GUID until the driver receives notification to disable event logging via an IRP_MN_DISABLE_EVENTS request. 11.9 WMI Event Tracing 271 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 273 CHAPTER 12 PROGRAMMING KMDF HARDWARE DRIVER This chapter will cover the sample PCIDRV sample driver, and how to use it to create a KMDF hardware driver. The sample PCIDRV driver is a fully functional KMDF driver for the Intel 82557/82558 based-PCI Ethernet Adapter (10/100) and Intel com- patibles. This device can use either port or memory resources to control the device. It can be stopped and started at run time and supports a low- power state. The driver supports multiple concurrent read and write requests for the device. The PCIDRV sample is installed in the samples directory at pcidrv\sys. The sample supports the following features in addition to those previously described for the Toaster samples: ■ Handling Plug and Play and power events ■ Supporting DMA interfaces ■ Performing event tracing ■ Handling interrupts ■ Mapping resources ■ Using multiple I/O queues and performing device I/O ■ Reading and writing to the registry ■ Using self-managed I/O to implement a watchdog timer The PCIDRV sample supports physical hardware and contains many lines of device-specific code, so it is significantly more complicated than the Toaster drivers. The sample also uses event tracing for Windows to record driver data for debugging and logging purposes. Event tracing is supported for all Windows drivers. Wow! eBook ptg 12.1 Support Device Interrupts To support interrupt handling for its device, a KMDF driver must ■ Create an interrupt object. ■ Enable and disable the interrupt. ■ Optionally perform pre-enable and post-disable processing that is related to the interrupt. ■ Handle interrupts as they occur. 12.1.1 Creating an Interrupt Object A driver typically creates its interrupt objects (WDFINTERRUPT) in its EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback. The driver must have an interrupt object for each interrupt vector or message-signaled interrupt (MSI) that each of its devices support. Each interrupt object must include pointers to EvtInterruptIsr and EvtInterruptDpc event callback functions and may also include additional information. The framework calls EvtInterruptIsr when an interrupt occurs. This callback runs at device interrupt request level (DIRQL) for the device and is the equivalent of the WDM InterruptService function. The EvtInterruptIsr callback queues a DPC to perform additional interrupt- related processing. The framework calls the driver’s EvtInterruptDpc callback when the DPC is ready to run. The EvtInterruptDpc callback runs at DISPATCH_LEVEL and is equivalent of the WDM DpcForisr function. Creating an interrupt object, like creating any other WDF object, involves filling in a configuration structure and calling a creation method. The driver calls the WDF_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_INIT function to initialize the WDF_INTERRUPT_CONFIG structure with pointers to the EvtInterruptIsr and EvtInterruptDpc callbacks. After initializing the structure, the driver can set additional information in it, including a pointer to a spin lock and pointers to the EvtInterruptEnable and EvtInterruptDisable callbacks, which enable and disable interrupts for the device. KMDF calls these functions at DIRQL while holding the interrupt spin lock during device power state transitions and when the driver calls WdfEnableInterrupt or WdfDisableInterrupt. If the driver must perform additional tasks immediately after the interrupt is enabled and before it is disabled, it should also register 274 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg the EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled and EvtDevice- DOExitPreInterruptsDisabled callbacks. KMDF calls both of these functions at PASSIVE_LEVEL without holding the interrupt spin lock. To create the interrupt object, the driver calls the WdfInterrupt- Create method and passes a handle to the device object, a pointer to the interrupt configuration structure, a pointer to an attribute configuration block, and a pointer to a variable that receives the handle to the interrupt object. Drivers typically specify WDF_NO_ATTRIBUTES when creating an interrupt object. 12.1.2 Code to Create an Interrupt Object The PCIDRV sample creates its interrupt object in the NICAllocate- SoftwareResources function, which is called by PciDrvEvtDeviceAdd (the driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback). The following code shows how the PCIDRV sample creates its interrupt object: WDF_INTERRUPT_CONFIG_INIT(&interruptConfig, NICEvtInterruptIsr, NICEvtInterruptDpc); interruptConfig.EvtInterruptEnable = NICEvtInterruptEnable; interruptConfig.EvtInterruptDisable = NICEvtInterruptDisable; status = WdfInterruptCreate(FdoData->WdfDevice, &interruptConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &FdoData->WdfInterrupt); If(!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } The PCIDRV sample configures the interrupt object by specifying pointers to NICEvtInterruptIsr and NICEvtInterruptDpc, which are called to handle interrupts and to perform deferred interrupt processing at IRQ DISPATCH_LEVEL, respectively. The driver also sets pointers to NICEvtInterruptEnable and NICEvtInterruptDisable, which enable and disable interrupts in the hardware. The call to WdfInterruptCreate returns a handle to the interrupt object, which the driver stores in the con- text area of its device object. 12.1 Support Device Interrupts 275 Wow! eBook ptg 12.1.3 Enabling and Disabling Interrupts A KMDF driver’s EvtInterruptEnable callback enables interrupts for its device. KMDF calls this function during a device transition to DO, after EvtDeviceDOEntry has returned. The callback is called at DIRQL for the device with the interrupt spin lock held; therefore, the callback should quickly enable the interrupt and return. If the driver requires additional processing after enabling its interrupt, it should set an EvtDeviceDO- EntryPostInterruptsEnable callback, which KMDF calls at PASSIVE_ LEVEL. EvtInterruptEnable is called with two parameters: a handle to the interrupt object and a handle to the device object that is associated with the interrupt object. The driver passes the device object handle to the accessor function for its device context area, where it has stored informa- tion about its device registers. With the returned pointer, the driver can access the hardware registers as required to enable the interrupt. A KMDF driver’s EvtInterruptDisable callback disables interrupts for its device. KMDF calls this function during a device transition out of the DO state, but before it calls EvtDeviceDOExit. Like EvtInterrupt- Enable, EvtInterruptDisable is called at DIRQL for the device and with the interrupt spin lock held; therefore, it should quickly disable the interrupt and return. If the driver requires additional processing before disabling its interrupt, it should set an EvtDeviceDOExit- PreInterruptsDisabled callback, which KMDF calls at PASSIVE_ LEVEL. The EvtInterruptDisable callback is passed the same two parame- ters as the EvtInterruptEnable callback and proceeds to undo the actions that were performed in that callback. 12.1.4 Code to Enable Interrupts In the PCIDRV sample, the EvtInterruptEnable callback appears in isrdpc.c. The required code is quite simple, as the following shows: NTSTATUS NICEvtInterruptEnable( IN WDFINTERRUPT Interrupt, IN WDFDEVICE AssociateDevice ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData; 276 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg fdoData = FdoGetData(AssociateDevice); NICEnalbeInterrupt(Interrupt, fdoData); return STATUS_SUCCESS; } NICEnableInterupt is simply a macro that sets the PCI device register to enable interrupts. 12.1.5 Code to Disable Interrupts In the PCIDRV sample, the EvtInterruptDisable callback (also in isrdpc.c) simply calls the internal NICDisableInterrupt macro to set the PCI device register to disable interrupts. The following is the code: NTSTATUS NICEvtInterruptDisable( IN WDFINTERRUPT Interrupt, IN WDFDEVICE AssociatedDevice ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData; fdoData = FdoGetData(AssociatedDevice); NICDisableInterrupt(fdoData); return STATUS_SUCCESS; } 12.1.6 Post-Interrupt Enable and Pre-Interrupt Disable Processing Some devices cause interrupt storms if they are initialized after their inter- rupts are enabled. The driver for such a device must therefore be able to perform initialization after the device enters DO but before its interrupt is enabled. Other devices, however, cannot be initialized until the interrupt is enabled. To enable correct operation of both types of devices, KMDF supplies post-interrupt enable and pre-interrupt disable events for which drivers can register. When powering up a device, KMDF invokes a driver’s callbacks in the following order: 1. EvtDeviceDOEntry 2. EvtInterruptEnable 3. EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled 12.1 Support Device Interrupts 277 Wow! eBook ptg KMDF calls EvtDeviceDOEntry first. Drivers that must initialize their devices before the interrupt is connected (for example, to prevent inter- rupt storms) should do so in this callback. Next, KMDF calls EvtInterruptEnable. Drivers should enable their interrupts and do little or nothing else in this function because it is called at DIRQL. Finally, KMDF calls EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled at PASSIVE_ LEVEL. Drivers that must initialize their devices after the interrupt is connected should do so in this callback. At power-down, KMDF calls the corresponding paired functions in the opposite order: 1. EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled 2. EvtInterruptDisable 3. EvtDeviceDOEXit To undo work done by the EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterrupts- Enabled, a driver registers an EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterrupts- Disabled function. Like the post-enable function, the pre-disable function does work at PASSIVE_LEVEL in preparation for disabling the interrupt. A driver must register the post-interrupt enable and pre-interrupt dis- able callbacks in the WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS struc- ture before creating the device object. The PCIDRV sample fills this structure in its EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback, as follows: pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled = NICEvtDeviceDOEntryPostInterruptsEnabled; pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled = NICEvtDeviceDOExitPreInterruptsDisabled; In the current version of the PCIDRV sample, both of these functions are stubs. 12.2 Handling Interrupts When a device interrupts, Windows calls the driver to service the interrupt. However, more than one device can be connected to a single interrupt vec- tor. Internally, the operating system keeps a list of the InterruptService routines of the drivers for devices that interrupt at the same level. When an interrupt signal arrives, Windows traverses the list and calls the drivers in sequence until one of them acknowledges and services the interrupt. 278 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg KMDF intercepts the call from the operating system and, in turn, calls the EvtInterruptIsr callback that the driver registered. Like traditional InterruptService functions, this callback runs at DIRQL. Because EvtInterruptIsr runs at such a high IRQL, it should do its work quickly and then return. Remember that it cannot take any action that would cause a page fault (or wait on any dispatcher objects) because it runs at an IRQL greater than APC_LEVEL. The EvtInterruptIsr callback should perform the following tasks, and nothing more: ■ Determine whether its device is interrupting, and if not, return FALSE immediately. ■ Stop the device from interrupting. ■ Queue a DPC to perform any work related to the interrupt. The EvtInterruptIsr function is called with a handle to the interrupt object for the driver’s device and a ULONG value that specifies the mes- sage ID if the device is configured for MSIs and zero otherwise. 12.2.1 Code for EvtInterruptIsr Callback The following is the PCIDRV sample’s EvtInterruptIsr callback (which is defined in pcidrv\sys\hw\isrdpc.c): BOOLEAN NICEvtInterruptIsr( IN WDFINTERRUPT Interrupt, IN ULONG MessageID ) { BOOLEAN InterruptRecognized = FALSE; PFDO_DATA FdoData = NULL; USHORT IntStatus; UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER (MessageID); FdoData = FdoGetData (WdfInterruptGetDevice (Interrupt)); // // Process the interrupt if it is enabled // and active. // 12.2 Handling Interrupts 279 Wow! eBook ptg If (!NIC_INTERRUPT_DISABLED (FdoData) && NIC_INTERRUPT_ACTIVE (FdoData)) { InterruptRecognized = TRUE; // // Disable the interrupt. It will be reenabled in // NICEvtInterruptDpc. // NICDisableInterrupt (FdoData); // // Acknowledge the interrupt (s) and get status // NIC_ACK_INTERRUPT (FdoData, IntStatus); WdfInterruptQueueDpcForIsr (Interrupt); } return InterruptRecognized; } The PCIDRV sample’s first step is to determine whether its device is interrupting. To do so, it must check its device registers. It gets a han- dle to the device object that is associated with the interrupt object by calling the WdfInterruptGetDevice method and then passes that handle to FdoGetData to get a pointer to the device context area. In the context area, the driver stored a pointer to its mapped hardware registers. The NIC_INTERRUPT_DISABLED and NIC_INTERRUPT_ ACTIVE macros (defined in pcidrv\sys\Hw\Nic_def.h) check the hard- ware registers to determine whether interrupts have been disabled for the device and whether they are currently active. If interrupts have been dis- abled, the device cannot possibly have generated the interrupt. The same is true if the device’s interrupt is enabled but not currently active. In either case, the driver returns with InterruptRecognized set to FALSE. (For most drivers, checking whether device interrupts have been disabled is unnecessary.) However, if interrupts have not been disabled and an interrupt is cur- rently active, the device must have generated the interrupts. In this case, the driver sets InterruptRecognized to TRUE. 280 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg To stop the device from interrupting, the driver calls NICDisable- Interrupt and then uses the driver-defined NIC_ACK_INTERRUPT macro to acknowledge the interrupt in the hardware. Finally, it queues a DPC by calling WdfInterruptQueueDpcForIsr and then returns. 12.2.2 Deferred Processing for Interrupts When the DPC runs, KMDF calls the driver’s EvtInterruptDpc call- back. This function performs device-specific interrupt processing and reenables the interrupt for the device. It runs at DISPATCH_LEVEL and therefore must not attempt any operations that might cause a page fault (or wait on any dispatcher objects). 12.2.2.1 Code for EvtInterruptDpc Callback The following is the PCIDRV sample’s EvtInterruptDpc callback: VOID NICEvtInterruptDpc( IN WDFINTERRUPT WdfInterrupt, IN WDFOBJECT WdfDevice ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData = NULL; fdoData = FdoGetData (WdfDevice); WdfSpinLockAcquire (fdoData->RcvLock); NICHandleRecvInterrupt (fdoData); WdfSpinLockRelease (fdoData->RcvLock); // // Handle send interrupt. // WdfSpinLockAcquire (fdoData->SendLock); NICHandleSendInterrupt (fdoData); WdfSpinLockRelease (fdoData->SendLock); // // Check if any queued sends need to be reprocessed. // 12.2 Handling Interrupts 281 Wow! eBook ptg NICCheckForQueuedSends (fdoData); // // Start the receive unit if it was stopped // WdfSpinLockAcquire (fdoData->RcvLock); NICStartRecv (fdoData); WdfSpinLockRelease (fdoData->RcvLock); // // Reenable the interrupt. // WdfInterruptSynchronize ( WdfInterrupt, NICEnableInterrupt, fdoData); return; } Most of the code in this callback is device specific. However, its use of spin locks is worth noting. When the driver created its I/O queues, it also created two spin locks and stored their handles in its device context area. One (RcvLock) pro- tects read-related buffers and operations, and the (SendLock) protects write-related buffers and operations. In this function, it uses these spin locks to protect against preemption and concurrent users while it processes the results of the I/O operation. The driver calls WdfSpinLockAcquire and WdfSpinLockRelease to acquire and release the locks. When the driver has completed all device-specific processing, it reen- ables the interrupt. The function that reenables the interrupt (NICEnableInterrupt) must run at DIRQL, so the driver calls WdfInterruptSynchronize to run it. WdfInterruptSynchronize takes a handle to the interrupt object, a pointer to the function to be run (NICEnableInterrupt), and a pointer to the device context area, which it passed as an argument to NICEnableInterrupt. WdfInterrupt- Synchronize raises IRQL to DIRQL and calls NICEnableInterrupt. When NICEnableInterrupt completes, KMDF lowers the IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL and returns. 282 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg 12.3 Mapping Resources A KMDF driver maps resources for its hardware as part of its EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback and unmaps them in its EvtDeviceReleaseHardware callback. These callbacks provide a way for a driver to prepare its device hardware immediately before the device enters and after the device leaves the operational (DO) state. These two routines are always called in pairs—that is, after KMDF calls EvtDevicePrepareHardware, it always calls EvtDeviceRelease- Hardware before calling EvtDevicePrepareHardware again. KMDF calls a driver’s EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback before calling EvtDeviceDOEntry whenever resources are assigned to the device—specifically, during initial device enumeration and during power-up after resource rebalancing. EvtDevicePrepareHardware should map device resources but should not load firmware or perform other device initialization tasks. Drivers for USB devices might also get device and configuration descriptors and select configurations in this call- back. Drivers should not attempt to access their device hardware in this callback. EvtDeviceReleaseHardware undoes any work that was done by EvtDevicePrepareHardware. For example, if EvtDevicePrepare- Hardware maps resources, EvtDeviceReleaseHardware releases them. Within its EvtDevicePrepareHardware function, a driver calls WdfCmResourceListGetCount to get the number of resources that the system has assigned to its device and then calls WdfCmResourceList- GetDescriptor to get details about a particular resource from the list. The chipset on an individual machine can map hardware resources into either I/O or memory space, regardless of how the device itself is designed. To be platform independent, all drivers should support both types of mapping, just as the PCIDRV sample does. For I/O and memory- mapped resources, a KMDF driver takes steps that are similar to those a WDM driver would take: ■ For an I/O-mapped resource (CmResourceTypePort), the driver saves the base address and range at which the resource is mapped and saves a pointer to the HAL’s *_PORT_* functions that it will use to access the resource. 12.3 Mapping Resources 283 Wow! eBook ptg ■ For a memory-mapped resource (CmResourceTypeMemory), the driver checks that the allocated size is adequate. If so, it maps the returned physical address to a virtual address by calling MmMapIoSpace and saves pointers to the HAL’s *_REGISTER_* functions that it will use to access the resource. For interrupt resources, a KMDF driver simply creates an interrupt object as part of EvtDriverDeviceAdd processing, as described in the previous discussion. The object itself picks up its resources with no required driver intervention. 12.3.1 Code to Map Resources The PCI device supported by the sample driver has three base address registers (BARs): BAR 0 is memory mapped, BAR 1 is I/O mapped, and BAR 3 is flash-memory mapped. The driver determines whether to use the I/O-mapped BAR or the memory-mapped BAR to access the control and status registers. The sample driver checks for registers in both memory and I/O space. On some platforms, the I/O registers can be mapped into memory space; every driver should be coded to handle this. In the PDIDRV sample, the code to map resources is isolated in the NICMapHwResources function, which is called by PciDrvEvtDevice- PrepareHardware. NICMapHwResources has two parameters: a pointer to the device context area (FdoData) and a handle to the list of translated resources (ResourcesTranslated) that was passed to PciDrvEvtDevicePrepareHardware. The driver must use the trans- lated resources to map device registers into port and memory space. The following sample code is excerpted from the pcidrv\sys\Hw\ Nic_init.c file. It shows how the PCIDRV sample maps hardware resources. NTSTATUS NICMapHwResources ( IN OUT PFDO_DATA FdoData, WDFCMRESLIST ResourcesTranslated ) { PCM_PARTIAL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR descriptor; ULONG i; NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS; BOOLEAN bResPort = FALSE; 284 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg BOOLEAN bResInterrupt = FALSE; BOOLEAN bResMemory = FALSE; ULONG numberOfBARSs = 0; PAGED_CODE (); for (i = 0; iType) { case CmResosurceTypePort: // // We will increment the BAR count only for valid // resources. Do not count the private device types // added by the PCI bus driver. // numberOfBars++; // // The resources are listed in the same order as the // BARSs in the configuration space, so this should // be the second one. // if (numberOfBars != 2) { status = STATUS_DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_ERROR; return status; } // // The port is in I/O space on this machine. // We should use READ_PORT_Xxx // and WRITE_PORT_Xxx functions to read or // write to the port. // 12.3 Mapping Resources 285 Wow! eBook ptg FdoData->IoBaseAddress = ULongToPtr (descriptor->u.Port.Start.LowPart); FdoData->IoRange = descriptor->u.Port.Length; // // Since all our accesses are USHORT wide, we will // create an accessor table just for these two // functions. // FdoData->ReadPort = NICReadPortUShort; FdoData->WritePort = NICWritePortUShort; bResPort = TRUE; FdoData->MappedPorts = FALSE; break; case CmResourceTypeMemory: numberOfBARs++; if (numberOfBARs == 1) { // // Our CSR memory space should be 0x1000 in // size. // ASSERT (descriptor->u.Memory.Length == 0x1000); FdoData->MemPhysAddress = descriptor->u.Memory.Start; FdoData->CSRAddress = MmMapIoSpace ( descriptor->u.Memory.Start, NIC_MAP_IOSPACE_LEGTH, MmNonCached); bResMemory = TRUE; } else if (numberOfBARs == 2) { // // The port is in memory space on this machine. // Call MmMapIoSpace to map the // physical to virtual address, and use the // READ/WRITE_REGISTER_xxx function // to read or write to the port. // FdoData->IoBaseAddress = MmMapIoSpace ( descriptor->u.Memory.Start, descriptor->u.Memory.Length, MmNonCached); 286 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg FdoData->ReadPort = NICReadRegisterUShort; FdoData->WritePort = NICWriteRegisterUShort; FdoData->MappedPorts = TRUE; bResPort = TRUE; } else if (numberOfBARs == 3) { // // Our flash memory should be 1MB in size. We // don’t access it, so do not bother mapping it. // // ASSERT (descriptor->u.Memory.Length == // 0x100000); } else { status = STATUS_DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_ERROR; return status; } break; case CmResourceTypeInterrupt: ASSERT (!bResInterrupt); bResInterrupt = TRUE; break; default: // // This could be a device-private type added by // the PCI bus driver. We shouldn’t filter this // or change the information contained in it. // break; } } // Make sure we got all the resources to work with. // if (! (bResPort && bResInterrupt && bResMemory)) { status = STATUS_DEVICE_CONFIGURATION_ERROR; } return status; } 12.3 Mapping Resources 287 Wow! eBook ptg The driver parses the list of translated resources in a loop that starts at zero and ends when it has reached the last resource in the list. The driver determines the number of resources in the list by calling the WdfCmResourceListGetCount function. For each resource in the list, the driver calls WdfCmResource- ListGetDescriptor to get a pointer to the resource descriptor. The resource descriptor is an enumerator that indicates the type of the resource. (If you are familiar with WDM drivers, you will notice that the resource types are the same as those for WDM.) For the CmResourceTypePort resources, the driver saves the start- ing address and range in the device context area and then sets the addresses of the functions that it uses to access the port resources. For CmResourceTypeMemory resources, the driver also saves the starting address and range in the device context area, but then uses MmMapIoSpace to map the resources and get a virtual address through which it can access them. For CmResourceTypeInterrupt resources, the driver is not required to save the resource information because KMDF handles this transparently for the driver when the driver creates the WDFINTER- RUPT object. The sample driver merely checks this resource for com- pleteness. 12.3.2 Code to Unmap Resources When the device is removed or when the system rebalances resources, the driver must release its mapped resources in an EvtDeviceRelease- Hardware callback. KMDF calls this function after calling the driver EvtDeviceDOExit function. The PCIDRV sample does so in the internal function NICUnmap- HwResources, which is called by its EvtDeviceReleaseHardware. NICUnmapHwResources appears in the pcidrv\sys\hw\nic_init.c source file and releases the resources as follows: if (FdoData->CSRAddress) { MmUnmapIoSpace (FdoData->CSRAddress, NIC_MAP_IOSPACE_LENGTH); 288 Chapter 12 Programming KMDF Hardware Driver Wow! eBook ptg FdoData->CSRAddress = NULL; } if (FdoData->MappedPorts) { MmUnMapIoSpace (FdoData->IoBaseAddress, FdoData->IoRange); FdoData->IoBaseAddress = NULL; } 12.3 Mapping Resources 289 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 291 CHAPTER 13 PROGRAMMING MULTIPLE I/O QUEUES AND PROGRAMMING I/O This chapter covers the important aspect of device driver development involving the handling of I/O queues. 13.1 Introduction to Programming I/O Queues Drivers have several options when creating and configuring I/O queues. The most important are which I/O requests to queue, what type of dis- patching to use, and whether to let KMDF manage the queue. A device object can have any number of I/O queues, and each can be configured differently. One queue for each device object can be configured as a default queue, into which KMDF places requests for which the driver has not specifically configured any other queue. If the device object has a default queue and one or more other queues, KMDF queues specific requests to the correspondingly configured queues and queues all other requests to the default queue. If the device object does not have a default queue, KMDF queues only the specific request types to the configured queues and, for a function or bus driver, fails all other requests. (For a filter driver, it passes all other requests to the next lower driver.) A queue’s dispatch type determines when KMDF presents I/O requests from the queue to the driver. KMDF supports three dispatch types: ■ Sequential ■ Parallel ■ Manual Wow! eBook ptg KMDF presents requests from a sequential queue to the driver one at a time. When the first request arrives, KMDF calls the event callback that was specified for the request type and queue. After the driver completes the request, KMDF calls the event callback for another request if the queue is not empty. A sequential queue is thus used for synchronous I/O. By default, queues are configured as sequential (WdfIoQueueDispatch- Sequential). For a parallel queue, KMDF presents requests to the driver as soon as they arrive. KMDF does not wait for any “inflight” requests to complete before sending another request. An inflight request is an I/O request that is currently active—that is, it is not in a queue and has not been completed. A parallel queue can thus be used for asynchronous I/O. For a manual queue, KMDF does not present requests to the driver. Instead, the driver must call WdfIoQueueRetrieveRequest when it is ready to handle a request. A driver can thus use manual queuing for either synchronous or asynchronous I/O. A driver can temporarily stop the delivery of requests from a sequen- tial or parallel queue by calling WdfIoQueueStop or WdfIoQueue- StopSynchronously, depending on the type of queue and the reasons for pausing delivery. To restart the queue, the driver calls WdfIoQueueStart. By default, KMDF handles I/O cancellation for queued I/O requests. Consequently, if the user cancels an I/O request after KMDF has queued it but before KMDF has delivered it to the driver, KMDF removes it from the queue and completes it with STATUS_CANCELED. The driver can request notification by registering an EvtIoCanceledOnQueue callback for the queue; otherwise, KMDF cancels the request without notifying the driver. After a request has been dispatched to the driver, it cannot be canceled unless the driver specifically marks it as cancelable and registers an EvtRequestCancel callback. If the driver forwards the request to another queue, it immediately becomes cancelable again. Also by default, KMDF handles power management for I/O queues, and each I/O queue inherits the power state of its associated device. During Plug and Play or power state transitions and any time the device is not in the working state, KMDF queues incoming I/O requests but does not dispatch them to the driver. Therefore, if the driver creates its queues before the device enters DO, the queues are in the WDF_IO_ QUEUE_STOPPED state, and KMDF queues any I/O requests targeted at the device. When the device enters the working state, KMDF resumes 292 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg presenting requests. A driver can change this default when it configures each queue by setting the PowerManaged field of the configuration structure to FALSE. A driver can also specify whether a queue accepts I/O requests that have a zero-length buffer. By default, KMDF does not dispatch such requests to the driver; instead, it completes them with STATUS_ SUCCESS. 13.2 Creating and Configuring the Queues To create and configure a queue, a driver takes the following steps: 1. Defines a WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG structure to hold con- figuration settings for the queue. 2. Initializes the configuration structure by calling the WDF_IO_ QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT or WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_ INIT_DEFAULT_QUEUE function (for a default queue). These functions take a pointer to the configuration structure and an enu- merator that defines the dispatching type for the queue. 3. Sets the event callbacks for this queue in the WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG structure, if the queue uses sequential or parallel dispatching. A driver can set callbacks for one or more of the following I/O events: EvtIoRead, EvtIoWrite, EvtIoDeviceIoControl, EvtIoInternalDeviceIo- Control, EvtIoDefault, EvtIoStop, EvtIoResume, and EvtIoCanceledOnQueue. 4. Sets Boolean values for the PowerManaged and AllowZero- LengthRequests fields in the queue configuration structure if the default values are not suitable. 5. Creates the queue by calling WdfIoQueueCreate, passing a han- dle to the WDFDEVICE object, a pointer to the filled-in WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG structure, a pointer to a WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure, and a pointer to receive a handle to the created queue instance. 6. Specifies which I/O requests KMDF should direct to the queue by calling WdfDeviceConfigureRequestDispatching. 13.2 Creating and Configuring the Queues 293 Wow! eBook ptg The PCIDRV sample creates two parallel queues and three manual queues, which are used as follows: ■ For write requests, the driver creates a parallel queue. If a write request cannot be satisfied immediately, the driver puts the request into an internal manual queue. (The queue is considered internal because only the driver, and not KMDF, adds requests to it.) ■ For read requests, the driver creates a manual queue. ■ For IOCTL requests, the driver creates a parallel queue. If the IOCTL cannot be satisfied immediately, the driver puts the request into an internal manual queue. In this driver, each I/O queue is configured for a particular type of I/O request. Therefore, the driver does not create a default queue. The code to create all the queues is excerpted from the NICAllocateSoftwareResources function (in the file cidrv\sys\ hw\Nic_init.c), which is called from the driver’s EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback. 13.2.1 Code to Create Queues for Write Requests The following excerpt shows how the PCIDRV sample creates a parallel queue for incoming write requests. While requests are in this queue, KMDF handles cancellation without notifying the driver. NTSTATUS status; WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG ioQueueConfig; WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES attributes; …… WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT ( &ioQueueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchParallel ); ioQueueConfig.EvtIoWrite = PciDrvEvtIoWrite; status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( FdoData->WdfDevice, &ioQueueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, 294 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg &FdoData->WriteQueue // queue handle ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } status = WdfDeviceconfigureRequestDispatching ( FdoData->WdfDevice, FdoData->WriteQueue, WdfRequestTypeWrite ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { ASSERT (NT_SUCCESS (status)); return status; } The driver calls WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT to initialize the queue as a parallel queue. The queue holds only write requests, so the driver sets only an EvtIoWrite callback in the ioQueueConfig structure. It cre- ates the queue, and then calls WdfDeviceConfigureRequest- Dispatching to configure the queue for requests of type WdfRequestTypeWrite only. All other I/O requests are directed to a queue that is configured for them or, if the driver has not configured a queue for them, are handled by the framework without being sent to the driver. The PCIDRV sample also creates a manual queue into which to place pending write requests. The driver’s EvtIoWrite callback places an I/O request in this internal queue when it cannot handle the request immediately. The driver creates this queue as follows: WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT ( &ioQueueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchManual ); status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( FdoData->WdfDevice, &ioQueueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &FdoData->PndingWriteQueue ); 13.2 Creating and Configuring the Queues 295 Wow! eBook ptg if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } To create the manual internal queue for its pending write requests, the driver configures a WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG structure, this time setting the queue type to WdfIoDispatchManual, which indicates that the driver requests items from the queue when it is ready. It then creates the queue by calling WdfIoQueueCreate. The driver does not configure the queue for any particular type of I/O request because the driver itself determines which request to queue. KMDF does not put any request in this queue because the driver did not call WdfDevice- configureRequestDispatching. However, KMDF handles power man- agement and request cancellation. 13.2.2 Code to Create Queues for Read Requests The driver creates a manual queue for read requests in the same way that it did for write requests. The only difference is that it configures the queue for request dispatching, so that KMDF places read requests directly into the queue. The driver creates the queue as follows: WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT ( &ioQueueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchManual ); status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( FdoData->WdfDevice, &ioQueueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &FdoData->PendingReadQueue ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } Status = WdfDeviceConfigureRequestDispatching ( FdoData->WdfDevice, FdoData->PendingReadQueue, WdfRequesttypeRead ); 296 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { ASSERT (NT_SUCCESS (status)); return status; } 13.2.3 Code to Create Queues for Device I/O Control Requests The driver creates a second pair of parallel and internal manual queues for IRP_MJ_DEVICE_IO_CONTROL requests, just as it did for write requests, as follows: WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT ( &ioQueueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchParallel ); ioQueueConfig.EvtIoDeviceControl = PciDrvEvtIoDeviceControl; status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( FdoData->WdfDevice, &ioQueueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &FdoData->IoctlQueue ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } status = WdfDeviceConfigureRequestDispatching ( FdoData->WdfDevice, FdoData->IoctlQueue, WdfRequestTypeDeviceControl ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) 13.2 Creating and Configuring the Queues 297 Wow! eBook ptg { ASSERT (NT_SUCCESS (status)); return status; } // Create internal queue for pending IOCTL requests. WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG_INIT ( &ioQueueConfig, WdfIoQueueDispatchManual ); status = WdfIoQueueCreate ( FdoData->WdfDevice, &ioQueueConfig, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &FdoData-PendingIoctlQueue ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { return status; } The driver configures these two queues exactly as it did the parallel and manual queues for write requests. The only difference is that it set a callback for EvtDeviceIoControl instead of EvtIoWrite and configures request dispatching for WdfRequestTypeDeviceControl instead of WdfRequestTypeWrite. 13.3 Handling Requests from a Parallel Queue KMDF delivers I/O requests from a parallel queue by calling the appro- priate callback function that the driver registered for the queue. For exam- ple, the PCIDRV sample configures its parallel device I/O control queue, which accepts only WdfRequestTypeDeviceControl requests, with an EvtIoDeviceControl callback. The driver’s actions in the callback depend on the type of I/O that is required to satisfy the request. If the request required DMA, the driver should retrieve a pointer to the device context area and then set up the DMA transaction. 298 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg For I/O requests that do not involve DMA, a driver takes the follow- ing steps: 1. Gets the parameters for the I/O request. 2. Parses the parameters. 3. Performs the requested I/O or manually requeues the request for later processing. 13.3.1 Code to Handle I/O Requests The following code shows how the PCIDRV sample handles certain device I/O control requests. The PciDrvEvtIoControl function is the dri- ver’s EvtIoDeviceControl callback for one of its parallel queues and appears in the pcidrv\sys\Pcidrv.c source file. VOID PciDrvEvtIoDeviceControl ( IN WDFQUEUE Queue, IN WDFREQUEST Request, IN size_t OutputBufferLength, IN size_t InputBufferLength, IN ULONG IoControlCode ) { NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS; PFDO_DATA fdoData = NULL; WDFDEVICE hDevice; WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS params; UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER (OutputBufferLength); UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER (InputBufferLength); hDevice = WdfIoQueueGetDevice (Queue); fdoData = FdoGetData (hDevice); WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS_INIT (¶ms); WdfRequestGetParameters ( Request, ¶ms ); 13.3 Handling Requests from a Parallel Queue 299 Wow! eBook ptg switch (IoControlCode) { case IOCTL_NDISPROT_QUERY_OID_VALUE: ASSERT ((IoControlCode * 0x3) == METHOD_BUFFERED); NICHandleQueryOldRequest ( Queue, Request, ¶ms ); break; // code omitted // ….. // case IOCTL_NDISPROT_INDICATE_STAUS: status = WdfRequestForwardToIoQueue (Request, fdoData->PendingIoctlQueue); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { WdfRequestcomplete (Request, status); break; } break; default: ASSERTMSG (FALSE, “Invalid IOCTL request\n”); WdfRequestComplete (Request, STATUS_INVALID_DEVICE_REQUEST); break; } return; } The driver requires access to its device object context area, so it starts by calling WdfIoQueueGetDevice, which returns a handle to the device object that is associated with the I/O queue. It then passes the returned handle to FdoGetData, the accessor function for its device context area, which returns a pointer to the context area. Next, the driver retrieves the parameters that were passed with the I/O request. KMDF defines the WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS struc- ture for this purpose. The driver initializes the structure by calling WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS_INIT and then passes it to the WdfRequestParameters method. This method fills in the requested 300 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg parameters. The driver must retrieve the parameters from the request structure before it performs the I/O. The driver’s action depends on the I/O control code that was specified in the request. For most control codes, the driver calls a device-specific function to handle the request. If the control code is valid, the driver per- forms the requested action. If the control code is not valid, the driver com- pletes the request by calling WdfRequestComplete with the handle to the request and the status STATUS_INVALID_DEVICE_REQUEST. In response to the two control codes shown in the code, the driver takes two different actions. If the control code is IOCTL_NDISPROT_ QUERY_OID_VALUE, the driver performs buffered I/O. If the control code is IOCTL_NDISPROT_INDICATE_STATUS, the driver forwards the request to a different I/O queue. The next two sections describe these actions. 13.3.2 Performing Buffered I/O The WDFREQUEST object contains pointers to the input and output buffers for the I/O request. The driver can obtain these pointers by calling WdfRequestRetrieveOutputBuffer and WdfRequestRetrieveInput- Buffer. For METHOD_BUFFERED requests, however, the input and out- put buffers are the same, so both of these methods return the same pointer. Therefore, when performing buffered I/O, a driver must read all input data from the buffer before writing any output data to the buffer. The NICHandleQueryOidRequest function, defined in the pcidrv\sys\hw\Nic_req.c file, gets the input and output buffers from the WDFREQUEST object and retrieves the requested information. Most of this function performs device-specific tasks, so this section describes only the KMDF-specific actions. The sample retrieves the buffer by calling WdfRequestRetrieve- OutputBuffer, as follows: status = WdfRequestRetrieveOutputBuffer (Request, sizeof (NDISPROT_QUERY_OID), &DataBuffer, &BufferLength ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) 13.3 Handling Requests from a Parallel Queue 301 Wow! eBook ptg { WdfRequestcomplete (Request, status); return; } The input parameters to WdfRequestRetrieveOutputBuffer are the handle to the request object and the minimum required size for the buffer. The method returns a pointer to the buffer and a pointer to its length. If the length is smaller than the minimum required or if some other error occurs, WdfRequestRetrieveOutputBuffer returns a failure sta- tus and the driver immediately completes the request with that status. The driver then performs device-specific queries for the requested information and writes the returned data into the output buffer. If the buffer is too small to hold the data, the driver sets status to STATUS_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL. Next, the driver updates the buffer length to include the number of bytes of data, the size of the structure that holds it, and any padding bytes that are required to align the structure correctly. The driver performs this calculation even if the buffer is too small, so that it can return the buffer length that would be required to successfully complete the request. Finally, the driver completes the request by calling WdfRequest- CompleteWithInformation with the handle to the request, the previ- ously set status value, and the calculated buffer length, as follows: // // Adjust the size to include the structure. // ulInfoLen += FIELD_OFFSET (NDISPROT_QUERY_OID, Data); WdfRequestCompleteWithInformation (Request, Status, ulInfoLen); 13.4 Forwarding Requests to a Queue In some situations, a driver must requeue requests on its own, after it has received them from KMDF. For example, a driver might be able to respond to some device I/O control requests immediately, but might have to handle others at a later time. Because the requests are all of the same type (WdfRequestTypeDeviceControl), KMDF cannot deliver some to 302 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg one queue and some to another. Instead, the driver must sort the requests as KMDF delivers them and place any that it cannot satisfy immediately into a manual, internal queue to handle later. To forward a request to a queue, a KMDF driver calls WdfRequest- ForwardToIoQueue, passing as parameters the handle to the request and the handle to the queue. If the request is added successfully, KMDF returns the status STATUS_SUCCESS. A driver cannot return a request to the queue from which the driver most recently received it. The PCIDRV sample uses this technique to delay processing IOCTL_NDISPROT_INDICATE_STATUS requests, as the following excerpt from its EvtIoDeviceControl callback (in pcidrv.c) shows: case IOCTL_NDISPROT_INDICATE_STATUS: status = WdfRequestForwardToIoQueue (Request, fdoData->PendingIoctlQueue); ASSERT (status == STATUS_WDF_FORWARDED); break; 13.5 Retrieving Requests from a Manual Queue When the driver is ready to handle a request from a manual queue, it calls a method on the queue object to retrieve one. A KMDF driver can ■ Retrieve the next request from the queue. ■ Retrieve the oldest request in the queue that pertains to a particu- lar file object. ■ Search the queue until it finds a particular request and then retrieve that request. To remove the next item from a manual queue, a driver calls WdfIo- QueueRetrieveNextRequest with a handle to the queue and a pointer to a location to receive the handle to the request. To remove the oldest request that specifies a particular file object, a driver calls WdfIoQueueRetrieveRequestByFileObject. The driver passes a handle to the file object along with the handle to the queue and a pointer to a location to receive the handle to the request. This method updates an internal queue pointer, so that the next time the driver calls it, it returns the next-oldest item, and so forth. 13.5 Retrieving Requests from a Manual Queue 303 Wow! eBook ptg To search the queue for a particular request, the driver calls WdfIoQueueFindRequest. This method returns a handle to the request but does not remove the request from the queue. The driver can inspect the request to determine whether it is the one that the driver was seeking. If not, the request stays in the queue and the driver can search again. If so, the driver can dequeue the request by calling WdfIoQueue- RetrieveFoundRequest. After the driver has removed a request from the queue, the driver “owns” that request. The driver must complete the request, forward it to another driver, or forward it to a different queue. 13.5.1 Code to Find a Request The following function shows how the PCIDRV sample searches its man- ual device I/O control queue for a request with a particular function code and then retrieves that request. (The code is from the source file pcidrv\sys\hw\nic_req.c, and it has been slightly abridged.) NICGETIoctlRequest ( IN WDFQUEUE Queue, IN ULONG FunctionCode, OUT WDFREQUEST* Request ) { NTSTATUS status = STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS params; WDFREQUEST tagRequest; WDFREQUEST prevTagRequest; WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETER_INIT (¶ms); *Request = NULL; prevTagRequest = tagRequest = NULL; do { WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS_INIT (¶ms); status = WdfIoQueueFindRequest (Queue, prevTagRequest, NULL, ¶ms, &tagRequest); 304 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg // WdfIoQueueFindRequest takes an extra reference on // the returned tagRequest to prevent the memory // being freed. However, the tagRequest is still // in the queue and can be canceled or removed by // another thread and completed. // if (prevTagRequest) { WdfObjectDereference (prevTagRequest); } if (status == STATUS_NO_MORE_ENTRIES) { status = STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL; break; } if (status == STATUS_NOT_FOUND) { // // The prevTagRequest disappeared from the // queue for some reason – either it was // canceled or dispatched to the driver. There // might be other requests that match our // criteria so restart the search. // prevTagRequest = tagRequest = NULL; continue; } if (!NT_SUCCESS (status )) { status = STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL; break; } if (FunctionCode == params.Parameters.DeviceIoControl.IoControlCode) { status = WdfIoQueueRetrieveFoundRequest ( Queue, tagRequest, // TagRequest Request ); 13.5 Retrieving Requests from a Manual Queue 305 Wow! eBook ptg WdfObjectDereference (tagRequest); if (status == STATUS_NOT_FOUND) { // // The TagRequest disappeared // for some reason – either it was // canceled or dispatched to the driver. // Other requests might match our // criteria so restart the search. // prevTagRequest = tagRequest = NULL; continue; } if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { status = STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL; break; } // // Found a request. Drop the extra reference // before returning. // ASSERT (*Request == tagRequest); status = STATUS_SUCCESS; break; } else { // // This is not the request we need. Drop the // reference on the tagRequest after looking for // the next request. prevTagRequest = tagRequest; continue; } } WHILE (TRUE); return status; } The sample driver starts by calling WDF_REQUEST_ PARAMETERS_INIT to initialize a WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS structure. Later, when the driver calls WdfIoQueueFindRequest, KMDF returns the parameters for the request in this structure. 306 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg Next, the driver initializes the variables that it uses to keep track of the requests it has searched through. The variable prevTagRequest holds a handle to the previous request that the driver inspected, and tagRequest holds a handle to the current request. The driver initializes both values to NULL before it starts searching. The search is conducted in a loop. Each time NICGetIoctlRequest calls WdfIoQueueFindRequest, it passes prevTagRequest to indicate where KMDF should start searching and passes a pointer to tagRequest to receive the handle to the current request. WdfIoQueueFindRequest also takes a handle to the queue, a handle to the related file object, and a pointer to the initialized WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS structure. The PCIDRV sample does not use file objects, so it passes NULL for the file object handle. Note that the driver reinitializes the WDF_REQUEST_PARAMETERS structure before each call, thus ensuring that it does not receive old data. On the first iteration of the loop, preTagRequest is NULL. Therefore, the search starts at the beginning of the queue. WdfIo- QueueFindRequest searches the queue and returns the request’s param- eters (in the Params variable) and a handle to the request (in tagRequest). To prevent another component from deleting the request while the driver inspects it, WdfIoQueueFindRequest takes out a refer- ence on request. NICGetIoctlRequest compares the function code value that was returned in the request’s parameters structure with the function code that the caller passed in. If the codes match, the driver calls WdfIo- QueueRetrieveFoundRequest to dequeue the request. WdfIoQueue- RetrieveFoundRequest takes three parameters: the handle to the queue, the handle returned by WdfIoQueueFindRequest that indicates which request to dequeue, and pointer to a location that will receive a han- dle to the dequeued request. When WdfIoQueueRetrieveFoundRequest returns successfully, the driver “owns” the retrieved request. It deletes extra reference previ- ously taken on the request by calling WdfObjectDeference. It then exits from the loop, and the NICGetIoctlRequest function returns a handle to the retrieved request. The caller can then perform the I/O operations that are required to satisfy the request. If the function codes do not match, the driver sets prevTagRequest to tagRequest so that the search starts at the current location in the queue. However, the driver does not yet dereference the request object 13.5 Retrieving Requests from a Manual Queue 307 Wow! eBook ptg that prevTagRequest represents. It must maintain this reference until WdfIoQueueFindRequest has returned on the next iteration of the loop. The loop then executes again. This time, if WdfIoQueueFindRequest successfully finds a request, the driver deletes the reference that WdfIoQueueFindRequest acquired for the prevTagRequest and then compares the function codes as it did in the previous iteration. If the request is no longer in the queue, WdfIoQueueFindRequest returns STATUS_NOT_FOUND. For example, the request might not be in the queue if it was canceled or was already retrieved by another thread. WdfIoQueueRetrieveFoundRequest can also return this same status if the handle passed in tagRequest is not valid. If either of these errors occurs, the driver restarts the search at the beginning. If either of these methods fails for any other reason, such as exhausting the queue, the driver exits from the loop. 13.6 Reading and Writing the Registry KMDF includes numerous methods with which a driver can read and write the registry. These methods enable the driver to create, open, and close a registry key, and to query, change, and delete the values of keys and individual data items within them. To read the value of a registry key, a driver opens the registry key and then calls a method that queries the registry for data. A driver can read the registry either before or after creating its device object. To read the registry before creating the device object, a driver calls the WdfFdoInitOpenRegistryKey method with the following parameters: ■ A handle to the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure that was passed to its EvtDriverDeviceAdd function. ■ A ULONG value that identifies the key to open. ■ A bit mask that indicates the type of required access. ■ An optional attribute structure. ■ A location to receive a handle to a WDFKEY object. The WDFDEVICE_INIT structure contains settings that the framework requires before the device object has been created. WdfFdoInit- OpenRegisterKey requires some of this information so that it can find the requested key. 308 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg To read the registry after creating the device object, a driver calls WdfDeviceOpenRegistryKey with a handle to the device object instead of the WDFDEVICE_INIT structure. To get the value of a single setting within the key, the driver must query the key. KMDF provides several query methods, each of which returns a different type of value. For example, if the information is stored as a ULONG, the driver calls WdfRegisteryQueryUlong with the han- dle to the keys, a pointer to the name of the value, and a pointer to a ULONG variable to receive the value. After completing its query, the driver closes the registry key by calling WdfRegistryClose. 13.6.1 Code to Read and Write the Registry The PCIDRV sample provides functions that ■ Read a REG_DWORD registry value that was written by another user mode or kernel mode component. ■ Read a REG_DWORD registry value that was stored under the device key. ■ Write a REG_DWORD registry value that was stored under the device key. These functions are in the pcidrv.c source file. The PCIDRV sample driver’s PciDrvReadFdoRegistryKeyValue function is called from the EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback, before the driver creates the device object. It reads a key that the driver’s INF wrote at installation, which indicates whether the driver was installed as an NDIS upper-edge miniport driver. This information is important because it determines whether the driver registers certain power policy and I/O event callbacks. If the driver was installed as an upper-edge miniport driver, it is not the power policy manager for its device; NDIS manages power policy. The following is the source code for this function: BOOLEAN PciDrvReadFdoRegistryKeyValue ( __in PWDFDEVICE_INIT DeviceInit, __in PWCHAR Name, __out PULONG Value ) { WDFKEY hKey = NULL; 13.6 Reading and Writing the Registry 309 Wow! eBook ptg NTSTATUS status; BOOLEAN retValue = FALSE; UNICODE_STRING valueName; PAGED_CODE(); *Value = 0; status = WdfFdoInitOpenRegistryKey (DeviceInit, PLUGPLAY_REGKEY_DEVICE, STANDARD_RIGHTS_ALL, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &hKey ); if (NT_SUCCESS (status)) { RtlInitUnicodeString (&valueName, Name); status = WdfRegistryQueryULong (hKey, &valueName, Value ); if (NT_SUCCESS (status)) { retValue = TRUE; } WdfRegistryClose (hKey); } return retValue; } First, the driver initializes the Value parameter that will receive the requested key value. Next, it opens the registry key by calling WdfFdoInitOpenRegistryKey. The WDF_DEVICEINIT object pro- vides information that is required to identify the driver-specific key. The next parameter is a ULONG that contains flags that identify the key to open; the constant PLUGPLAY_REGKEY_DEVICE indicates the device’s hardware key. Although the sample requests all access rights to the registry (STANDARD_RIGHTS_ALL), the driver only reads the key and does not write it, so STANDARD_RIGHTS_READ would also work. Finally, the driver specifies WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES to indi- cate that it is not passing an attribute structure for the key object. The out- put parameter hKey receives a handle to the returned WDFKEY object. If the driver successfully opens the hardware key, it can query the key for the requested value. The name of the value is passed into the current function as a pointer to a string. However, the KMDF query method 310 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg requires the name in a counted Unicode string. Therefore, before query- ing for the value, the driver calls RtInitUnicodeString to copy the input string into a string of the correct format. The driver then queries for the value by calling WdfRegistry- QueryUlong, which returns the ULONG value of the key in the Value parameter. The driver then closes the key by calling WdfRegisterClose and the function returns. The driver’s other function to read the registry is similar. The only dif- ference is that PciDrvReadRegistryValue is always called after the WDFDEVICE object has been created and therefore uses a handle to the WDFDEVICE object instead of a handle to the WDFDEVICE_INIT object. The following is the code for this function: BOOLEAN PciDrvReadRegistryValue ( __in PFDO_DATA FdoData, __in PWCHAR Name, __out PULONG Value ) { WDFKEY hKey = NULL; NTSTATUS status; BOOLEAN retValue = FALSE; UNICODE_STRING valueName; PAGED_CODE (); *Value = 0; status = WdfDeviceOpenRegistryKey (FdoData->WdfDevice, PLUGPLAY_REGKEY_DEVICE, STANDARD_RIGHTS_ALL, WDF_NO_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, &hKey ); if (NT_SUCCESS (status)) { RtlInitUnicodeString (&valueName, Name); status = WdfRegistryQueryULong (hKey, &valueName, Value ); if (NT_SUCCESS (status)) { retValue = TRUE; } 13.6 Reading and Writing the Registry 311 Wow! eBook ptg WdfRegistryClost (hKey); } return retValue; } This function is passed a pointer to the device context area (FdoData), where the driver keeps a handle to the device object. It passes the device object handle to the WdfDeviceOpenRegistryKey method. The driver then proceeds in exactly the same way as the previously discussed PciDrvReadFdoRegisterKeyValue function: It calls RtlUnicode- StringCopyString to build a Unicode string that holds the requested value name, calls WdfRegistryQueryUlong to get the ULONG value of the key, and calls WdfRegistryClose when it is finished. The third registry function in the driver is PciDrvWriteRegistry- Value, which writes a ULONG value to the registry. This function differs from PciDrvReadRegistryValue in only two aspects: ■ The value of the key is an input parameter to PciDrvWrite- RegistryValue but an output parameter to PciDrvReadRegistry- Value. ■ PciDrvWriteRegistryValue calls WdfRegistryAssignULong to write a new value for the key, whereas PciDrvReadRegistryValue calls WdfRegistryQueryULong to read the current value of the key. Otherwise, the functions are identical. The following statement shows how the driver writes the new value for the key: status = WdfREgistryAssignULong (hKey, &valueName, Value); Currently, the PCIDRV sample driver does not call PciDrv- WriteRegistryValue; this function is included only for demonstration. 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O Some drivers perform I/O activities that are not related to queued I/O requests or must be synchronized with activities of WDM drivers in the same device stack. For example, a driver might maintain a timer that 312 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg monitors the status of its device. Similarly, a driver might be required to communicate with its device or another driver at a particular point during the device’s start-up or shut-down sequence. KMDF provides self-man- aged I/O to accommodate such requirements. The self-managed I/O call- backs correspond more closely to the underlying WDM Plug and Play and power management IRPs than do other WDF Plug and Play and power management callbacks. To use self-managed I/O, a driver implements the self-managed I/O event callbacks. KMDF calls these callbacks during Plug and Play and power state transitions when the device is added to or removed from the system, when the device is stopped to rebalance resources, when the idle device transitions to a low-power state, and when the device returns to the working state from a low-power idle state. The following are the self-managed I/O callbacks: ■ EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit ■ EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend ■ EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoFlush ■ EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup ■ EvtDEviceSelfManagedIoRestart 13.7.1 Self-Managed I/O Device Startup and Restart When the system is booted or the user plugs in the device, KMDF calls the driver’s EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit callback after the driver’s EvtDeviceDOEntry function has returned but before KMDF completes the underlying Plug and Play or power IRP. KMDF calls this function only during the initial start-up sequence; it does not call this function when the device returns to the working state from a low-power state. The EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit callback should perform what- ever tasks are required to initiate the I/O that the framework doesn’t man- age. For example, a driver that must monitor the state of its device might initialize and start a timer. When the device returns to the working state from a low-power state, such as occurs when the device has been idle or has been stopped to rebal- ance resources, KMDF calls the EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart callback. Like the self-managed I/O initialization callback, this function is the last one that is called after the device returns to the working state, but before 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O 313 Wow! eBook ptg WDF completes the underlying IRP. EvtDeviceSelfManaged- IoRestart should resume any I/O activities that EvtDeviceSelfManaged- IoInit initialized and that were later suspended when the device exited from the working state. Typically, this means that it reverses the actions of EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend. EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart is called only after EvtDevice- SelfManagedIoSuspend has previously been called. This function is called only when the device has been in a low-power state or its resources have been rebalanced; it is not called when the user initially plugs in the device. 13.7.2 Self-Managed I/O During Device Power-Down and Removal When the device is powered down or removed, KMDF calls one or more of the self-managed I/O callbacks so that the driver can stop and clean up after its self-managed I/O operations. Every time the device goes through the power-down sequence— whether because it is idle, it is being removed, or system resources are being rebalanced—KMDF calls the EvtDeviceSelfManagedIo- Suspend callback. This function should stop any self-managed I/O activi- ties that are in progress and must be handled while the device is present. During rebalance, power-down, and orderly removal, it is called while the device is still operational, before EvtDeviceDOExit. During surprise removal, it is called before EvtDeviceSurpriseRemoval if the device was in a low-power state and afterward if the device was in the DO state. If the device is being removed, KMDF calls EvtDevice- SelfManagedIoFlush after the device has been stopped. This function should fail any I/O requests that the driver did not complete before the device was removed. It is called after the driver’s EvtDEvice- SelfManagedIoSuspend and EvtDeviceDOExit functions have returned. Finally, KMDF calls EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup after device removal is complete. This function should ensure that all self- managed I/O has stopped completely and should release any resources that EvtDEviceSelfManagedIoInit allocated for self-managed I/O. The clean-up function is called only once. 314 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg 13.7.3 Implementing a Watchdog Timer The PCIDRV sample uses self-managed I/O to implement a watchdog timer, which is used during hardware link detection to check for hangs. Implementing the watchdog timer involves the following driver tasks: ■ Setting callbacks for the self-managed I/O events. ■ Initializing the timer in EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit. ■ Stopping the timer in EvtDeviceSelf-ManagedIoSuspend. ■ Restarting the timer in EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart. ■ Deleting the timer and resources in EvtDeviceSelfManaged- IoCleanup. The PCIDRV sample does not implement the EvtDeviceSelf- ManagedIoFlush callback because no I/O requests are involved in its self-managed I/O. The suspend and clean-up callbacks are sufficient. A driver registers its self-managed I/O callbacks by setting their entry points in the WDF_PNP_POWER_CALLBACKS structure along with the other Plug and Play and power event callbacks (such as EvtDEviceDOEntry and EvtDeviceDOExit, among others). The driver sets these in the EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback, before it creates the WDFDEVICE object. 13.7.3.1 Code to Set Self-Managed I/O Callbacks The PCIDRV sample registers these callbacks in the PciDrvEvtDevice- Add function in pcidrv.c: WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACKS pnpPowerCallbacks; // // Initialize the PnpPowerCallbacks structure. // WDF_PNPPOWER_EVENT_CALLBACK_INIT (&pnpPowerCallbacks); // // Set entry points for self-managed I/O callbacks. // pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceSElfManagedIoInit = PciDrvEvtDEvicesSelfManagedIoInit; pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup = PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup; 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O 315 Wow! eBook ptg pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend = PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend; pnpPowerCallbacks.EvtDeviceSelfManageIoRestart = PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart; // // Register the PnP and power callbacks. // WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks (DeviceInit, &pnpPowerCallbacks); As the example shows, the PCIDRV sample sets callbacks for EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup, EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend, and EvtDeviceSelfManagedIo- Restart. 13.7.3.2 Code to Create and Initialize the Timer The PCIDRV sample creates, initializes, and starts the watchdog timer in its EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit callback. The watchdog timer is a WDF time object (WDFTIMER). When the timer expires, KMDF queues a DPC, which calls the driver’s EvtTimerFunc. The following code is the sample’s EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit callback, which appears in the pcidrv.c source file: NTSTATUS PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit ( IN WDFDEVICE Device ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData = NULL; WDF_TIMER_CONFIG wdfTimerconfig; NTSTATUS status; WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES timerAttributes; PAGED_CODE (); TraceEvents (TRACE_LEVEL_INFORMATION, DBG_PNP, “--> PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit\n”); fdoData = FdoGetData (Device); // // To minimize init-time, create a timer DPC to do link // detection. The DPC will also be used to check for hardware // hang. 316 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg WDF_TIMER_CONFIG_INIT (&wdfTimerconfig, NICWatchDogEvtTimerFunc); WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT (&timerAttributes); timerAttributes.ParentObject = fdoData->WdfDevice; status = WdfTimerCreate ( &wdfTimerConfig, &timerAttributes, &fdoData->WatchDogTimer ); if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { TraceEvents (TRACE_LEVEL_ERROR, DBG_PNP, “Error: WdfTimerCreate create failed 0x%x\n”, Status); return status; } NICStartWatchDogTimer (fdoData); TraceEvents (TRACE_LEVEL_INFORMATION, DBG_PNP, “<-PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoInit\n”); return status; } The driver declares two structures for use in creating the timer: a WDF_TIMER_CONFIG structure named wdfTimerConfig and a WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure named timerAttributes. To initialize the WdfTimerConfig structure, the driver uses the WDF_TIMER_CONFIG_INIT function, passing as parameters the WdfTimerConfig structure and a pointer to NICWatchdogEvtTimer- Func, which is the driver’s EvtTimerFunc callback. Next, the driver initializes the attribute’s structure by using the WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT function. By default, a timer object has no parent, so the driver sets the ParentObject field to the device object (WdfDevice) so that KMDF deletes the timer when it deletes the device object. Finally, the driver calls WdfTimerCreate to create the timer, passing as parameters the configuration structure, the attribute’s structure, and a location to receive the handle to the timer. If KMDF successfully creates the timer, PCIDRV calls the internal function NICStartWatchDog- Timer to start the timer. 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O 317 Wow! eBook ptg 13.7.3.3 Code to Start the Timer The NICStartWatchDogTimer function appears in the sys/HW/ isrdpc.c source file, as follows: VOID NICStartWatchDogTimer ( IN PFDO_DATA FdoData ) { LARGE_INTEGER dueTime; if (!FdoData->CheckForHang) { // // Set the link detection flag to indicate that // NICWatchDogEvtTimerFunc // is first doing link detection. // MP_SET_FLAG (FdoData, fMP_ADAPTER_LINK_DETECTION); FdoData->CheckforHang = FALSE; FdoData->bLinkDetectionWait = FALSE; FdoData->bLookForLink = FALSE; dueTime.QuadPart = NIC_LINK_DETECTION_DELAY; } else { dueTime.QuadPart = NIC_CHECK_FOR_HANG_DELAY; } WdfTimerStart (FdoData->WatchDogTimer, dueTime.QuadPart ); return; } This function sets the expiration time for the timer to a hardware- dependent value, depending on whether the driver is attempting to detect a link or check for a device hang. It then starts the timer by calling WdfTimerStart. When the timer expires, KMDF queues a DPC that invokes the driver’s timer function, NICWatchDogEvtTimerFunc. The timer function performs the required task (link detection or check for hang) and then restarts the timer by calling WdfTimerStart in the same way shown in the preceding example. 318 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg 13.7.3.4 Code to Stop the Timer When the device leaves the working state or is removed from the system, KMDF calls the EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend callback. In the PCIDRV sample, this callback stops the timer, as the following code from pcidrv.c shows: NTSTATUS PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoSuspend ( IN WDFDEVICE Device ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData = NULL; PAGED_CODE (); fdoData = FdoGetData (Device); // // Stop the watchdog timer and wait for DPC to run // to completion // if it has already fired. // WdfTimerStop (fdoData->WatchDogTimer, TRUE); return STATUS_SUCCESS; } To stop the timer, the driver simply calls WdfTimerStop, passing as parameters the handle to the timer and a Boolean value. The PCIDRV sample passes TRUE to specify that if the driver has any DPCs in the DPC queue (including the NICWatchDogEvtTimerFunc timer DPC function), KMDF should wait until all of those functions have returned before stopping the timer. Specifying FALSE means that KMDF should stop the timer immediately without waiting for any DPCs to complete. WdfTimerStop is defined as a Boolean function, which returns TRUE if the timer object was in the system’s timer queue. However, the PCIDRV sample does not check the return value because it waits for all the driver’s DPCs to complete, so whether the timer was already set is not important. 13.7.3.5 Code to Restart the Timer When the device returns to the working state after being in low-power state, KMDF calls the EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart callback. 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O 319 Wow! eBook ptg In the PCIDRV driver, this callback restarts the timer as follows, from the pcidrv.c source file: NTSTATUS PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoRestart ( IN WDFDEVICE Device ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData; PAGED_CODE (); fdoData = FdoGetData (Device); // // Restart the watchdog timer. // NICStartWatchDogTimer (fdoData); return STATUS_SUCCESS; } Restarting the timer simply requires a call to the internal NICStartWatchDogTimer, as previously discussed. Because the device object and the timer (a child of the device object) were not deleted when the device transitioned out of the working state, the driver is not required to reinitialize or recreate the timer object. 13.7.5.6 Code to Delete the Timer When the device is removed, the driver deletes the timer in its EvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup function, as follows: VOID PciDrvEvtDeviceSelfManagedIoCleanup ( IN WDFDEVICE Device ) { PFDO_DATA fdoData = NULL; PAGED_CODE (); fdoData = FdoGetData (Device); if (fdoData->WatchDogTimer) { 320 Chapter 13 Programming Multiple I/O Queues Wow! eBook ptg WdfObjectDelete (fdoData->WatchDogTimer); } return; } To delete the timer, the driver simply calls WdfObjectDelete, pass- ing a handle to the timer object. If the driver had allocated any additional resources related to the timer, it would release those resources in this function. 13.7 WatchDog Timer: Self-Managed I/O 321 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg 323 APPENDIX DRIVER INFORMATION WEB SITES This appendix contains a list of relevant topics available on the Internet. These were accurate and active at the time this book was written; however, URLs change and some may no longer be active. 1. Using WinUSB for User-Mode to USB Device Communication http://www.osronline.com/article.cfm?article=532 2. Getting Started with Windows Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79284 3. Kernel-Mode Driver Architecture http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79288 4. Device and Driver Installation http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79294 5. Driver Developer Tools http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79298 6. Using Checked Builds of Windows http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79304 7. Download Windows Symbol Packages http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79331 8. Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79335 9. About WDK and Developer Tools http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79337 10. Getting Started with Driver Development http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79338 11. Managing Hardware Priorities http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79339 12. User-Mode Driver Framework Design Guide http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79341 Wow! eBook ptg 13. Kernel-Mode Driver Framework Design Guide http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79342 14. Installing UMDF Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79345 15. Building and Loading a Framework-Based Driver http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79347 16. Building Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79348 17. Build Utility Reference http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79349 18. Utilizing a Sources File Template http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79350 19. Roadmaps http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79351 20. Installing a Framework-Based Driver http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79352 21. Installation and Driver Signing—Papers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79354 22. Framework Library Versions http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79355 23. Driver Signing Requirements for Windows http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79358 24. Windows Logo Program—Overview http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79359 25. Creating a Catalog file for a PnP Driver Package http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79360 26. Code-Signing Best Practices http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79361 27. Distributing Drivers on Windows Update http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79362 28. Kernel-Mode Code Signing Walkthrough http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79363 29. How Setup Selects Drivers—PnP Manager http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79364 30. Driver Installation Rules http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79365 31. Using Driver Install Frameworks (DIFx) http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79366 324 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites Wow! eBook ptg 32. Writing a Device Installation Application http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79367 33. Troubleshooting Device and Driver Installation http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79370 34. Guidelines for Using SetAPI http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79371 35. Hardware and Driver Developer Blogs http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79579 36. Hardware and Driver Developer Community http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79580 37. UMDF Objects and Interfaces http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79583 38. Kernel-Mode Driver Framework Objects http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79584 39. Driver Verifier http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79588 40. Microsoft Application Verifier http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79601 41. How do I keep my driver from running out of kernel-mode stack? http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79604 42. Component Object Model http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79770 43. Inside COM http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79771 44. ATL (Active Template Library) http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79772 45. Installing Just the Checked Operating System and HAL http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79774 46. ChkIN—INF Syntax Checker http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79776 47. DevCon WDK Command-Line Tool http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79777 48. Device Path Exerciser http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79778 49. KrView—The Kernrate Viewer http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79779 50. Plug and Play Driver Test http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79780 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites 325 Wow! eBook ptg 51. PNPCPU http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79781 52. PoolMon http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79782 53. PwrTest http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79783 54. Windows Device Testing Framework http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79785 55. Verifier Command Line http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79788 56. Driver Verifier Manager http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79789 57. Debugging a Framework-Based Driver http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79790 58. Windows Error Reporting: Getting Started http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79792 59. Handing Driver Failures—UMDF drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=79794 60. Scanning the Driver http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80057 61. Adding the Reflector http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80058 62. Build Utility Limitations and Rules http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80059 63. C++ for Kernel Mode Drivers: Pros and Cons http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80060 64. Can I customize DoTraceMessage? http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80061 65. Creating Reliable and Secure Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80063 66. Debugging Tools for Windows—Overview http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80065 67. Defect Viewer http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80066 68. Device Manager Error Messages http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80068 69. DllMain Callback Function http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80069 326 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites Wow! eBook ptg 70. DMA Verification http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80070 71. Waits and APCs http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80071 72. Handling DMA Operations in Framework-Based Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80073 73. Interface Definition Language (IDL) File http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80074 74. Library Processing in Static Driver Verifier http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80077 75. PREfast for Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80079 76. Results Pane in the Static Driver Verifier Report http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80081 77. Static Driver Verifier—WHDC Web Site http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80082 78. Static Driver Verifier—WDK Documentation http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80084 79. Static Driver Verifier Commands http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80085 80. Static Driver Verifier Limitations http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80086 81. Uninstalling Drivers and Devices http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80089 82. WPP Software Tracing http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80090 83. Preparing to Run Static Driver Verifier http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80606 84. Build (Build Utility) http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80609 85. Thorough Static Analysis of Device Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80612 86. Handling I/O Requests in Framework-Based Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80613 87. Object Names http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80615 88. ACCESS_MASK http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80616 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites 327 Wow! eBook ptg 89. Boot Options for Driver Testing and Debugging http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80622 90. Trace Message Prefix http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80623 91. Securing Device Objects http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80624 92. Creating Secure Device Installations http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80625 93. SDDL for Device Objects http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80626 94. Synchronization http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80899 95. How to: Specify Additional Code Information http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80906 96. Using a Pragma Warning Directive http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80908 97. Developing Drivers with WDF http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80911 98. Boot Configuration Data http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=80914 99. Device Interface Classes http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81577 100. Using Device Interfaces http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81578 101. Controlling Device Access in Framework-Based Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81579 102. Implementing WMI http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81581 103. Specifying Priority Boosts When Completing I/O Requests http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81582 104. Writing a Bug Check Callback Routine http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81587 105. KeRegisterNmiCallback http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81588 106. HAL Library Routines http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=81591 107. Using Device Installation Functions http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82107 328 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites Wow! eBook ptg 108. Using GUIDs in Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82109 109. PnP and Power Management in Framework-Based Drivers http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82110 110. USB Power Management http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82114 111. Plug and Play—Architecture and Driver Support http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82116 112. Managing Kernel Objects http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82272 113. Device Management http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82273 114. Introduction to UMDF http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82316 115. Getting Started with Kernel-Mode Driver Framework http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82317 116. Service User Accounts http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82318 117. WDM to KMDF Porting Guide http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82319 118. Interpreting Bug Check Codes http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82820 119. I/O Completion/Cancellation Guidelines http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82321 120. Introduction to WMI http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82322 121. ExAllocatePoolWithTag http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82323 122. Locks, Deadlocks, and Synchronization http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82717 123. Operating Systems, Stallings http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82718 124. Locking Pageable Code or Data http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82719 125. Microsoft Windows Internals Fourth Edition http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82721 126. PAGED_CODE http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82722 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites 329 Wow! eBook ptg 127. PAGED_CODE_LOCKED http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82723 128. SECURITY_IMPERSONATE_LEVEL Enumeration http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82952 129. Specifying WDF Directives in INF Files http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82953 130. WINUSB_SETUP_PACKET http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83355 131. Event Tracing http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=84477 132. Engineering Windows 7 Blog http://blogs.msdn.com/e7 133. Microsoft Developer Network http://msdn.microsoft.com 134. Microsoft Hardware Newsletter http://www.microsoft.com/whdc 135. Microsoft Research: SLAM—Automatically Checks C-Based Programs http://research.microsoft.com/slam 136. Obtain the WDK version 7.0.0 http://www.microsoft.com/whdc 137. Using WinUSB for User-Mode to USB Device Communication http://www.osronline.com/article.cfm?article=532 138. The Windows Blog http://windowsteamblog.com/blogs/developers/default.aspx 139. The Windows 7 Team Blog http://windowsteamblog.com/blogs/windows7/default.aspx 140. Windows 7 Device Drivers Available for Download www.blogsdna.com/2462/official_windows_7_device_drivers_ available_for_download.htm 141. Windows 7 Sensor Windows Driver Kit www.pctipsbox.com/windows_7_sensor_windows.driver_kit 142. Windows 7 WDK—New for Device and Driver Installation msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd835060.aspx 330 Appendix Driver Information Web Sites Wow! eBook ptg 331 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Don. Universal Serial Bus System Architecture, Second Edition. Addison-Wesley, 2001. ISBN 0-201-30975-0 Booch, Grady. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, Third Edition. Addison-Wesley, 2007. ISBN 0-201-89551-X Deitel, Paul J., and Harvey M. Deitel. C++ How to Program, Seventh Edition. Prentice Hall, 2009. ISBN 0-13-611726-0 Deitel, Paul J., and Harvey M. Deitel. C How to Program, Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall, 2009. ISBN 0-13-612356-2 Gamma, Erich, and Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison- Wesley, 1994. ISBN 0-201-63361-2 Hewardt, Mario, and Daniel Pravat. Advanced Windows Debugging. Addison-Wesley, 2007. ISBN 0-321-37446-0 Oney, Walter. Programming the Microsoft Windows Driver Model, Second Edition. Microsoft Press, 2002. ISBN 0-73-561803-8 Rogerson, Dale. Inside COM: Microsoft’s Component Object Model. Microsoft Press, 1997. ISBN 1-57-231349-8 Russinovich, Mark E., and David A. Solomon. Windows Internals, Fifth Edition. Microsoft Press, 2009. ISBN 0-73-562530-1 Shanley, Tom, and Don Anderson. PCI System Architecture, Fourth Edition. Addison-Wesley, 1999. ISBN 0-201-30974-2 Wow! eBook ptg This page intentionally left blank Wow! eBook ptg A abstract data types data types vs., 8–9 objects (components) based on, 10 ACLs (access control lists), in KMDF, 180 AcquireLock method, IWDFObject, 70 Active Template Library (ATL), UMDF, 85, 112 adaptive time-outs, I/O requests, 66–67 AddRef method, IUnknown defined, 82, 95 implementing, 125 rules for reference counting, 120 UMDF object model, 45 Administrators, privileges of, 180 algorithms, 8–9 Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs (Wirth), 8 The Annotated C++ Reference Manual (Stroustrup), 8 applications, UMDF driver architecture, 44, 83 architecture device driver objects, 7–12 UMDF, 82–84 WDF. See WDF (Windows Driver Foundation) Windows I/O layered, 79–81 WMI, 253–254 Aristotle, on characteristics of objects and concepts, 7 ATL (Active Template Library), UMDF, 85, 112 attributes initializing for KMDF objects, 220–221 initializing for WDFDEVICE, 229–231 of KMDF objects, 144–145 setting, 237, 240–241 automatic forwarding, UMDF drivers config- uring, 54–55 automobiles, functionality of control interfaces in, 11–12 B base classes, WMI, 257–260 behaviors, defining abstract data type, 9 Brooch, Grady, 7 buffers creating for I/O requests, 63–64, 157–158 performing buffered I/O, 301–302 retrieving from I/O requests, 61, 155–156 build.exe, WDK build utility, 183 builds, KMDF building a project, 186–187 building Toaster example, 187–190 types of, 185–186 WDK build tools, 183–185 builds, UMDF, 75–77 bus drivers, in KMDF creating, 29 overview of, 135, 137–138 C C programming language DDIs (device-driver interfaces), 129 driver development and, 183 C# programming language, abstract data type behaviors in, 9 C++ How to Program, Seventh Edition (Deitel 2009), 112 C++ programming language development of, 8 driver development and, 183 object-oriented software development and, 10 supplying notation for writing OOP, 10 INDEX 333 Wow! eBook ptg C++ template libraries, UMDF drivers using, 112 callbacks code for registering, 245–248 code for setting self-managed I/O, 315–316 creating and deleting objects, 53–55, 147, 239–240 device callback object, 100–106 driver callback object, 96–100 EvtInterruptDpc callback, 281–282 EvtInterruptIsr callback, 279–281 interfaces for UMDF driver, 47–49 I/O request suspension, 65 Plug and Play support and, 227 power management notification, 71 for power-up/power-down, 250–251 registering for Plug and Play and power management, 243–245 retrieving buffers from I/O requests, 62 self-managed I/O, 67–68, 161 surprise removal sequence, 75 UMDF driver implementation and, 122–125 wake signal support, 251–252 cancellation guidelines for I/O requests, 66–67 integrated I/O queuing and, 22–26 of I/O request, 64–65 CAs (certificate authorities), obtaining signed catalog file from, 194 catalog files (.cat) in KMDF driver package, 190 obtaining for driver package, 193–194 certificate authorities (CAs), obtaining signed catalog file from, 194 checked builds, types of builds, 185 class factories, implementing UMDF drivers with, 122 class IDs (CLSIDs), used by COM, 112 class member variables, defining abstract data type representations as, 9 classes definition of, 8 implementing objects as, 10 Skeleton driver, 89–90 troubleshooting WMI, 265 WMI class name, 257–260 cleanup requests deleting objects, 147, 239–240 device callback, 105 driver callback, 48 in filter driver, 55 I/O requests in KMDF, 149–150 UMDF drivers handling, 53–55 client-server model, COM based on, 82 close requests devices, 105 files, 48, 235–237 in filter driver, 55 UMDF drivers handling, 53–55 CLSIDs (class IDs), used by COM, 112 CMyDriver object, Skeleton driver, 91 CMyDriver::CreateInstance method, 96–98 co-install DLL, WDF, 191 co-installer section, INF file, 76 COM (component object model) UMDF driver development and, 81–82 UMDF interfaces based on, 45 UMDF objects based on, 19–20, 45 User Mode Driver host process, 44–45 COM (component object model), creating UMDF drivers basic infrastructure implementation, 120–126 COM fundamentals and, 112–114 getting started, 111–112 HRESULT, 114–116 overview of, 111 using COM objects, 116–120 COM (component object model), UMDF support for device callback object, 100–106 driver callback object, 96–100 IClassFactory methods, 96 IUnknown methods, 95 overview of, 95 COM clients, 116 Complete or CompleteWithInformation method, IWDFIoRequest, 65–66 components defined, 7 KMDF, 131–132 software components, 11–12 334 Index Wow! eBook ptg WDF, 13–14 WMI exporting information from drivers to other components, 172–173 Comsup.cpp source file, 95, 108 Comsup.h source file, 95 concurrency managing in Windows drivers, 22–23 UMDF and, 69 Configure method, device callback objects, 105–106 context. See object context control device drivers, for legacy (NT 4.0-style) devices, 29 control device objects in KMDF, 138–139 overview of, 135 in UMDF, 52 counted UNICODE strings, KMDF security and, 181 create requests CreateRequest method, IWDFDevice, 62 driver callback, 47–48 files, 235–237 filter drivers, 55 flow of I/O control requests, 56–57 UMDF drivers handling, 53–55 CreateInstance method, IClassFactory creating driver callback object, 96 defined, 82, 96 implementing, 122 UMDF driver functionality, 87 CreateInstance method, of device callback object, 101–102 CreateIOQueue method, IWdfDevice, 109 CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory method, IWdfDriver, 61, 63–64 CreateRequest method, IWDFDevice, 62 CreateWdfMemory method, IWdfDriver, 63–64 CUnknown class, 123 CUnknown method, IUnknown, 95 D data providers, registering drivers as WMI data provider, 254–255 data types, abstract data types vs., 8–9 Data Types (Cleaveland), 8 DDIs (device-driver interfaces) C-language, 129 driver frameworks, 28 in KMDF drivers, 183 in WDM drivers, 14–15 debugger extensions for KMDF drivers, 204–205 for UMDF drivers, 75 for WDF drivers, 37 in WinDbg, 201 debugging driver verification, 198 drivers, 198–200 kernel mode drivers, 200–201 macros and routines for, 203 PREfast tool for, 196–197 registry settings and, 201–203 SDV (Static Driver Verifier) tool, 197 symbols file and, 203 trace logging and, 198 WinDbg applied to Toaster example, 205–208 WinDbg commands, 200–201 WPP tracing and, 205 defaults configuring default I/O queue, 232–233 execution level in KMDF, 177 safe defaults in KMDF security, 180 synchronization scope in KMDF, 238 design WDF component functions for, 13 WDF goals, 14–15 Design Patterns (Gamma), 9 DestinationDirs section, INF file, 76 device callback object overview of, 100–106 Skeleton driver, UMDF, 96–100 device driver architecture overview objects, 7–12 WDF. See WDF (Windows Driver Foundation) device I/O requests code for creating queues for device I/O control requests, 297–298 code for finding manual requests, 304–308 code for handling, 299–301 Index 335 Wow! eBook ptg device I/O requests (contd.) KMDF, 150 UMDF drivers, 56–57 WDF architecture, 25–26 device objects (DOs), KMDF bus drivers and PDOs, 135, 137–138 filter drivers and FDO, 135–136 function drivers and functional device objects, 135–137 legacy drivers and control device objects, 138–139 overview of, 135–136 power-down and removal of FDOs, 168–169 power-down and removal of PDOs, 169–170 startup sequence for FDOs, 165–166 startup sequence for PDOs, 166–167 device property store, UMDF, 50–51 device scope KMDF synchronization, 175, 238 UMDF synchronization, 69–70 WDF architecture, 23 device usage model, KMD driver samples listed by, 213–215 Device.cpp, adding device-specific code to, 109 device-driver interfaces. See DDIs (device-driver interfaces) devices control device objects in. See control device objects creating device interface, 231–232 enumeration and startup in KMDF, 164 enumeration and startup in UMDF, 71–72 filters. See filter DOs (filter device objects) functional device objects. See FDOs (functional device objects) initializing device context area, 229–231 KMDF supported, 129–131 physical device objects. See PDOs (physical device objects) power-down and removal in KMDF, 168–170 power-down and removal in UMDF, 72–75 safe naming techniques, 181 setting attributes, 237, 240–241 startup sequence for, 165–167 support for device interrupts, 274 support in WDF, 15–16 supported in User Mode, 42 surprise removal sequence in KMDF, 170–172 DIFx (Driver Install Frameworks), 14 digital signatures, 193–194 direct memory access (DMA), 42 Dirs, optional files in builds, 184 dispatch execution level, KMDF synchronization, 178 dispatch types handling WMI requests, 255–256 I/O queues, 58–59, 153–154 KMDF supported, 291–292 DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH, 91–92 DLL_PROCESS_DETACH, 91–92 DllGetClassObject function, UMDF defined, 49 driver functionality, 84–86 implementing UMDF driver infrastructure, 121–122 overview of, 93–95 DllMain export as driver entry main point, 91–92 implementing UMDF driver infrastructure, 121 UMDF driver functionality and, 84–86 DLLs (dynamic-link libraries) in KMDF driver package, 190 UMDF as, 33, 82–83 UMDF driver functionality and, 84–85 WDF debugger extensions in, 37 WMI providers and, 253 DMA (direct memory access), 42 DMDF. See KMDF (Kernel Mode Driver Framework) DOs. See device objects (DOs) down device object, I/O requests, 52 DPC, deferred processing of interrupts, 281 driver callback object creating, 98–100 implementing UMDF driver with class factory, 122 UMDF functions supporting COM, 96–100 driver frameworks, WDF, 28–32 driver host process, in Windows kernel, 32 driver information, web sites for, 323–330 Driver Install Frameworks (DIFx), 14 336 Index Wow! eBook ptg driver manager in UMDF driver architecture, 43–44, 83–84 in Windows kernel, 33 driver model, KMDF, 129–131 driver model, UMDF, 43–45 driver model, WDF functions of, 13–14 overview of, 16–17 support for Windows 7, 15–16 driver roles, KMDF, 135–136 driver signing, WDF, 14 driver.cpp file adding device-specific code to, 109 creating driver callback object, 98 DriverEntry object creating, 225–227 in KMDF drivers, 132 dynamic binding, in KMDF, 208 dynamic testing, in KMDF, 196 dynamic-link libraries. See DLLs (dynamic-link libraries) E Echo driver, UMDF, 42, 88 enumeration KMDF devices, 164 UMDF devices, 71–72 ERROR_CANCELLED, I/O requests, 65 errors, detecting with PREfast utility, 34–35 ETW (Event Tracing for Windows) defined, 14 Kernel Mode Drivers using, 36–37 UMDF drivers using, 75 events drivers implementing callback interfaces for important, 47–49 driver’s WMI events are not being received, 267 firing WMI events, 260–265 KMDF object model, 139–141 trace events, 269–271 WDF object model, 18 WMI system event log, 269 EvtCleanupCallback routine, 147, 239–240 EvtDestroyCallback routine, 147 EvtDevicePrepareHardware, 283 EvtDeviceReleaseHardware, 283 EvtDriverDeviceAdd callback managing power policy, 248–249 Plug and Play support and, 227 registering callbacks, 243 EvtInterruptDisable callback, 277 EvtInterruptDpc callback, 281–282 EvtInterruptEnable callback, 276–277 EvtInterruptlsr callback, 279–281 EvtIo* callback, 132 execution levels, KMDF interaction with synchronization scope, 179–180 overview of, 177–178 setting, 239 Exports.def file, 107 extensions. See debugger extensions F Facility field, HRESULT, 114–115 FAILED macro, HRESULT, 115–117 FDOs (functional device objects) overview of, 135–137 power-down and removal, 168–169, 250 startup sequence for, 165–166 features KMDF driver, 215–216 UMDF driver, 49–51 fields, HRESULT, 114–115 file close request, I/O requests in KMDF, 235–237 file create request, I/O requests in KMDF, 235–237 filter DOs (filter device objects) overview of, 135–136 power managed queues and, 152–153 filter drivers create, cleanup, and close in, 55 KMDF supporting creation of, 29 UMDF drivers identifying themselves as, 55 flags, WDK, 186 frameworks, WDF component functions for, 13–14 verifier, 36 free builds, types of builds, 185 Index 337 Wow! eBook ptg functional device objects. See FDOs (functional device objects) function drivers KMDF, 29, 135–137 UMDF, 55 FxDeviceInit, 102–105 FxWdfDriver, 118 G GetDefaultIoTarget method, IWDFDevice, 61–62 globally unique identifiers. See GUIDs (globally unique identifiers) GUIDs (globally unique identifiers) guidgen.exe, 258 used by COM, 112–113 WMI and, 172 H HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer), 2 hardware resources code for mapping, 284–288 code for unmapping, 288–289 mapping, 283–284 hierarchical arrangement of KMDF objects, 141–144 of objects, 18 host process, UMDF driver architecture, 43–45, 82–84 HRESULT overview of, 114–116 testing for simple success or failure, 117 I IClassFactory interface, UMDF defined, 82 driver support for, 49, 85–87 implementing UMDF driver infrastructure, 122 methods, 96 IDeviceInitialize interface, 109 IDriverEntry interface, UMDF device enumeration and startup, 72 driver support for, 48–50, 85–87 methods, 98 Skeleton driver, 90–91 IDWFxx interfacesUMDF, 46–47 IFileCallbackCleanup interface, UMDF defined, 48 device callback object, 105 handling cleanup and close in function drivers, 55 handling cleanup request, 53–55 IFileCallbackClose interface, UMDF defined, 48 device callback object, 105 handling cleanup and close in function drivers, 55 handling cleanup request, 53–55 IFR (in-flight recorder), 36 IIDs (interface IDs) implementing QueryInterface, 125 used by COM, 112–113 IImpersonateCallback interface, UMDF, 50 Impersonate method, IWDFIoRequest, 50 impersonation, UMDF driver, 50 INF files creating device interface, 231 for KMDF drivers, 190–193 specifying maximum impersonation level of UMDF driver, 50 for UMDF drivers, 76–77 using Skeleton driver as basis for development, 108 for WDF drivers, 14 in-flight recorder (IFR), 36 in-flight requests, suspending, 160 inheritance, software using, 10–11 Initialize method adding device-specific code to Device.cpp, 109 device callback object, 102–105 installation KMDF drivers, 190–193 in Toaster example, 194–196 UMDF drivers, 76–77 WDF drivers, 14 integrated I/O queuing and cancellation, WDF, 22–26, 117 interface IDs (IIDs) implementing QueryInterface, 125 used by COM, 112–113 338 Index Wow! eBook ptg interface pointers, COM obtaining interface on UMDF object with, 117–118 overview of, 113–114 reference counting and, 120 interfaces COM, 82, 113 creating device interface for Simple Toaster example, 231–232 obtaining on UMDF objects, 117–119 Skeleton driver, 90–91 UMDF, 45–47 ways to create device interfaces, 231–232 internal device I/O request, KMDF, 150 internal trace logging, 36–37 interrupt request level (IRLQ), 23 interrupts code for creating, 275–276 code for enabling, 276–277 code for EvtInterruptDpc callback, 281–282 creating, 274–275 deferred processing of, 281 enabling/disabling, 276 handling, 278–279 overview of, 273 post- interrupt enable and pre-interrupt disable processing, 277–278 support for, 274 writing Kernel Mode Drivers for handling, 42 InterruptService routines, 278 INX files optional files in builds, 184 using Skeleton driver as basis for development, 108 I/O manager defined, 1–2 in Windows kernel, 32–33 I/O mapped resources, 283–284 I/O model, KMDF accessing IRPs and WDM structures, 161–162 cancelling/suspending requests, 158–160 completing requests, 160–161 creating buffers for requests, 157–158 integrated queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 111 overview of, 147–149 queues, 152–154 request handler, 149–151 request objects, 154 retrieving buffers from requests, 155–156 self-managed callbacks, 161 targets, 156–157 Windows layered architecture for, 79–81 I/O queues adding device-specific code to Device.cpp, 109 configuring, 293–294 integrated I/O queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 47–49 programming. See programming I/O queues I/O queues, KMDF configuring, 222–223 dispatch types and, 153–154 power management and, 152–153 WDFQUEUE object, 152 I/O queues, UMDF callback interfaces, 47 dispatch types, 58–59 dispatching I/O request to UMDF driver, 53 overview of, 56–58 power management and, 59–60 I/O queues, WDF integrated queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 279–281 interfaces for UMDF object types, 20 I/O request packets. See IRPs (I/O request packets) I/O requests code for finding, 304–308 code for handling device I/O requests, 299–301 forwarding requests to queues, 302–303 retrieving requests from manual queues, 303–304 WMI, 255–256 I/O requests, KMDF cancelling/suspending, 158–160 completing, 160–161 configuring, 224 creating, cleaning up, and closing, 149–150 file create and close requests, 235–237 flow of requests through request handler, 151 handling in Simple Toaster example, 233–235 reading, writing, device I/O control, and internal device I/O control, 150 Index 339 Wow! eBook ptg I/O requests, KMDF (contd.) request handler, 149–151 request objects, 154 retrieving buffers from, 155–156 I/O requests, UMDF adaptive time-outs, 66–67 canceled and suspended, 64–66 completing, 66 creating buffers for, 63–64 I/O queues and, 56–60 overview of, 51–56, 60–61 retrieving buffers from, 61 self-managed I/O, 67–68 sending to I/O target, 61–63 I/O requests, WDF driver frameworks, 28–30 driver model, 16 integrated queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 232–233 overview of, 24–25 I/O target creating buffers for I/O requests, 63–64 in KMDF, 156–157 sending I/O requests to, 61–63 IObjectCleanup interface, 48 IOCTL requests, parameter validation and, 180–181 IPnpCallback interface, UMDF adding device-specific code to Device.cpp, 109 driver callback, 47–48 power management notification, 71 surprise removal sequence, 74–75 IPnpCallbackHardware interface, UMDF driver callback, 47–48 power management notification, 71 surprise removal sequence, 75 IPnpCallbackSelfManagedIo interface, UMDF driver callback, 47–48 self-managed I/O callbacks, 67–68 IQueueCallbackCreate interface create, cleanup, and close in filter drivers, 55 create request in function drivers, 55 driver callback, 47–48 handling create requests, 53–55 IQueueCallbackDefaultIoHandler interface, 48 IQueueCallbackDeviceIoControl interface, 49 IQueueCallbackIoResume interface, 49 IQueueCallbackIoStop interface, UMDF defined, 49 I/O request suspension, 65 power-managed queues, 59 IQueueCallbackRead interface, UMDF, 47–49 IQueueCallbackWrite interface, UMDF, 49 IRequestCallbackCancel interface, UMDF defined, 49 I/O request cancellation, 65 retrieving buffers from I/O requests, 62 IRequestCallbackCompletion interface, UMDF, 62 IRequestCallbackRequestCompletion interface, UMDF, 49 IRLQ (interrupt request level), 23 IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL requests, 172–173, 255–256 IRPs (I/O request packets) accessing from KMDF, 161–162 creating in Windows kernel, 32–33 handling WMI requests, 255–256 I/O request flow to UMDF driver and, 52–53 overview of, 23–24 Windows I/O architecture and, 81 WMI IRPs and system event log, 269 IsEqualID function, comparing IIDs, 125–126 IUnknown interface, COM as core COM interface, 112 defined, 82 device callback objects and, 105 implementing UMDF callback objects, 123–125 method names, 95 IWDFDevice interface, UMDF creating targets, 62 device callback object, 105 self-managed I/O callbacks, 67–68 sending I/O requests to I/O target, 61–62 Skeleton driver, 91 IWDFDeviceInitialize interface, UMDF configuring automatic forwarding, 54–55 create, cleanup, and close in filter drivers, 55 device callback object and, 102–105 driver callback object and, 98 Skeleton driver, 91 UMDF driver creating property store, 50–51 340 Index Wow! eBook ptg IWdfDriver interface, UMDF creating buffers for I/O requests, 63–64 creating driver callback object, 98 retrieving buffers from I/O requests, 61 Skeleton driver, 91 IWDFFileHandleTargetFactory interface, 62 IWdfIoQueue interface, UMDF device callback object, 105 overview of, 56–58 Start method, 60 Stop method, 60 StopSynchronously method, 60 IWDFIoRequest interface, UMDF impersonation requests, 50 I/O request cancellation, 65 UMDF driver impersonation requests, 66 IWDFIoTarget interface, UMDF, 61–62 IWDFIoTargetStateManagement interface, UMDF, 63 IWDFloRequest interface, UMDF, 60–61 IWDFMemory interface, UMDF, 61 IWDFNamedPropertyStore interface, UMDF, 50–51 IWDFObject interface, drivers, 70 IWDFoRequest interface, UMDF, 62 IWDFUsbTargetFactory interface, UMDF, 62 K Kant, Immanuel, 7 KD, for kernel debugging, 199 Kernel Mode Driver Framework. See KMDF (Kernel Mode Driver Framework) kernel mode drivers debugging, 200–201 internal trace logging for, 36–37 UMDF driver architecture and, 43, 45, 82–84 WDF component functions for, 13–14 WMI requests for, 27 writing, 42 KMDF (Kernel Mode Driver Framework) bus drivers and physical device objects, 135, 137–138 comparing KMDF drivers with WDM drivers, 132–135 components of, 131–132 design goals for WDF, 15 device and driver support in WDF, 15–16 device objects and driver roles, 135–136 driver structure, 132 filter drivers and filter device objects, 135–136 function drivers and functional device objects, 135–137 internal trace logging for, 36–37 I/O model. See I/O model, KMDF legacy drivers and control device objects, 138–139 object model. See object model, KMDF overview of, 129 plug and play and power management support. See Plug and Play and power management programming drivers for. See programming KMDF drivers programming hardware drivers. See program- ming KMDF hardware drivers supported devices and driver types, 129–131 understanding, 28–30 WDF component functions for, 14 WDF driver model, 16–17 KMDF installation and build building a project, 186–187 building Toaster example, 187–190 catalog files and digital signatures, 193–194 debugger extensions, 204–205 debugging drivers, 198–200 debugging kernel mode drivers, 200–201 driver verification, 198 installing drivers, 190–193 installing Toaster example, 194–196 macros and routines for debugging, 203 overview of, 183 PREfast debugging tool, 196–197 registry settings and debugging features, 201–203 SDV (Static Driver Verifier) tool, 197 symbols file and debugging features, 203 testing approaches, 196 trace logging, 198 types of builds, 185–186 versioning and dynamic binding and, 208–209 WDK build tools, 183–185 WinDbg applied to Toaster example, 205–208 WPP tracing and, 205 KMDF Verifier, 198 Index 341 Wow! eBook ptg L legacy drivers, in KMDF, 138–139 lines of code, comparing KMDF drivers with WDM drivers, 134 LocalService security context, UMDF drivers, 50 locking constraint, UMDF, 23, 69 locks comparing KMDF drivers with WDM drivers, 134 KMDF drivers, 178–179 UMDF drivers, 70 LockServer method, IClassFactory, 96, 122 logs system event log, 269 trace logging. See trace logging WMI WDM provider log, 269 M macros for debugging in KMDF, 203 for declaring object context, 221–222 initializing context area and attributes for device objects, 230–231 used in KMDF samples, 218–219 using HRESULT, 115–117 makefile required files in builds, 184 in Toaster sample, 187–188 Makefile.inc optional files in builds, 184 in Toaster sample, 187–188 managed object format (.mof) resource files, 184 manual dispatch type code for finding manual requests, 304–308 creating manual queues, 294 I/O queues and, 59 KMDF and, 154, 291–292 retrieving requests from manual queues, 303–304 mapping hardware resources code for, 284–288 overview of, 283–284 MarkCancelable method, IWDFIoRequest, 65 member functions, abstract data type algorithms as, 9 memory creating buffers for I/O requests, 63–64 retrieving buffers from I/O requests, 61 memory-mapped resources, 284 methods COM, 113 KMDF objects, 139–141 return from COM, 114–116 unable to access driver’s WMI method, 266 WDF objects, 18 .mof (managed object format) resource files, 184 morphology, of objects, 12 N names KMD driver samples listed by, 211–212 security of KMDF names, 181 simplifying GUID, 112–113 network-connected devices, UMDF support for, 42 no scope KMDF, 175, 238 UMDF, 70 WDF, 23 nonpaged pools, writing kernel mode drivers for, 42 nonpower-managed queues, UMDF, 60 notations, Object Oriented Design, 10 NT_SUCCESS macro, 115 NTSTATUS, converting into HRESULT, 116–117 NTTARGETFILES statement, 107 O OBG (Object Management Group), 8 object context initializing device context area, 229–231 in KMDF object model, 145–146 programming KMDF drivers and, 221–222 Object Management Group (OBG), 8 object model classes incorporating attributes of, 10 defined, 10 inheritance as attribute of, 10–11 software components, 11–12 UMDF, 45 WDF, 17–20 342 Index Wow! eBook ptg object model, KMDF creating objects, 146–147, 220–221 deleting objects, 146–147, 239–240 driver structure and concepts and, 219 hierarchical structure of, 141–144 methods, properties, and events, 139–141 object attributes, 144–145 object context, 145–146, 221–222 object types, 18–19 overview of, 139 setting object attributes, 144–145, 237, 240–241 types of objects, 142–144 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, Third Edition (Booch), 9, 10 Object Oriented Programming (OOP) evolution into object model, 10 software techniques, 7 objects COM, 112–113 creating driver objects, 225–227 defining software, 8–9 driver callback, 47–49 nature of, 7–8 Skeleton driver, 90–91 software components, 11–12 UMDF driver, 45–47 understanding, 10–11 OnCancel method, IRequestCallbackCancel, 62, 65 OnCompletion method, IRequestCallbackCompletion, 62 OnCreateFile method, IQueueCallbackCreate, UMDF create request in function drivers, 55 OnDeInitialize method, IDriverEntry, 85, 98 OnDeviceAdd method, IDriverEntry adding device-specific code to Driver.cpp, 109 creating driver callback object, 98–100 device enumeration and startup, 72 UMDF driver functionality, 85–87 OnImpersonation method, UMDF drivers, 50 OnInitialize method, IDriverEntry, 85–87, 98 OnIoStop method, IQueueCallbackIoStop, 59, 65 OnReleaseHardware method, IPnpCallbackHardware, 75 OnSurpriseRemoval method, IPnpCallback, 47, 74–75 OOP (Object Oriented Programming) evolution into object model, 10 software techniques, 7 Operation, in KMDF object model, 139 P PAGED_CODE macro, 218 parallel dispatch type creating parallel queues, 294 handling requests from parallel queues, 298–299 I/O queues and, 58 KMDF supported, 154, 291–292 parameter validation, KMDF security, 180–181 parent/child relationships, in KMDF object model, 141–144 passive execution level, KMDF synchronization, 177 PCIDRV driver. See also programming KMDF hardware drivers, 273 PDOs (physical device objects) in KMDF, 137–138 overview of, 135 power-down and removal, 169–170 power managed queues and, 152–153 power-up/power-down, 251 startup sequence for, 166–167 performance goals, impacting device driver authors, 2–3 persistence, implementing in software object, 12 PFD (PREFAST for Drivers). See PREfast debugging tool physical device objects. See PDOs (physical device objects) Plato, on characteristics of objects and concepts, 7 Plug and Play and power management flow of I/O control requests, 56–57 integrated I/O queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 55 I/O queues and, 59–60 overview of, 20–22 programming. See Programming Plug and Play and power management Index 343 Wow! eBook ptg Plug and Play and power management (contd.) UMDF notification, 70–71 UMDF support for, 31 WDF driver model including, 16 WDF support for, 20–22 Plug and Play and power management, in KMDF counted UNICODE strings, 181 device enumeration and startup, 164 execution levels, 177–178 interactions of synchronization mechanisms, 179–180 I/O queues and, 152–153 locks, 178–179 overview of, 163–164 parameter validation, 180–181 power down and removal of filter DOs, 168–169 power down and removal of physical DOs, 169–170 safe defaults, 180 safe device naming techniques, 181 security, 180 startup sequence for function and filter DOs, 165–166 startup sequence for physical DOs, 166–167 support for, 29–30 surprise removal sequence, 170–172 synchronization issues, 173–175 synchronization scope, 175–177 WMI request handler, 172–173 Plug and Play callback interface, 47–48 policies power management and, 244–245, 248–249 sample code for setting power policy, 249–250 polymorphic behavior, implementing in software object, 12 power down callbacks for, 250–251 of filter DOs, 168–169 overview of, 167 of physical DOs, 169–170 self-managed I/O during device power down and removal, 314 surprise removal sequence, 170–172 UMDF device, 72–74 power management. See Plug and Play and power management power up, callbacks for, 250–251 power-managed queues, UMDF, 59 PREfast debugging tool source code analysis with, 196–197 UMDF drivers using, 76 WDF testing tool, 34–35 privileges, administrators, 180 programming I/O queues buffered I/O and, 301–302 code for creating and initializing watchdog timer, 316–317 code for creating queues for device I/O control requests, 297–298 code for creating queues for read requests, 296–297 code for creating queues for write requests, 294–296 code for deleting watchdog timer, 320–321 code for finding requests, 304–308 code for handling device I/O requests, 299–301 code for reading/writing the registry, 309–312 code for restarting watchdog timer, 319–320 code for setting self-managed I/O callbacks, 315–316 code for starting watchdog timer, 317 code for stopping watchdog timer, 318 creating and configuring, 293–294 forwarding requests to queues, 302–303 handling requests from parallel queues, 298–299 implementing watchdog timers, 315 overview of, 291–293 reading/writing the registry, 308–309 retrieving requests from manual queues, 303–304 self-managed I/O device startup and restart, 313–314 self-managed I/O during device power down and removal, 314 watchdog timer for self-managed I/O, 312–313 programming KMDF drivers creating objects, 220–221 344 Index Wow! eBook ptg driver structure and concepts and, 219 I/O queues, 222–223 I/O requests, 224 macros used in KMDF samples, 218–219 object context areas, 221–222 overview of, 211 samples listed by device usage model, 213–215 samples listed by features supported, 215–216 samples listed by name, 211–212 WDM samples compared with KMDF samples, 216–218 programming KMDF drivers, in Featured Toaster example deleting objects, 239–240 file create and close requests, 235–237 overview of, 235 setting device object attributes, 237, 240–241 setting execution levels, 239 setting synchronization scope, 238 programming KMDF drivers, in Simple Toaster example configuring default I/O queue, 232–233 creating device interface, 231–232 creating DriverEntry object, 225–227 initializing device context area, 229–231 I/O request handler, 233–235 overview of, 224 programming KMDF hardware drivers code for creating interrupts, 275–276 code for enabling interrupts, 276–277 code for EvtInterruptDpc callback, 281–282 code for EvtInterruptIsr callback, 279–281 code for mapping resources, 284–288 code for unmapping resources, 288–289 creating interrupts, 274–275 deferred processing for interrupts, 281 enabling/disabling interrupts, 276 handling interrupts, 278–279 mapping resources, 283–284 overview of, 273 post-interrupt enable and pre-interrupt disable processing, 277–278 supporting device interrupts, 274 programming Plug and Play and power management callback for wake signal support, 251–252 callbacks for power-up/power-down, 250–251 managing power policy, 248–249 overview of, 243 registering callbacks, 243–245 sample code for callbacks, 245–248 sample code for setting power policy, 249–250 programming UMDF drivers brief COM information, 81–82 driver DDL and exports, 91–95 functions for COM support. See COM (component object model), UMDF support for overview of, 79 required driver functionality, 84–87 sample drivers, 87–91 UMDF architecture, 82–84 using Skeleton driver as basis for development, 106–110 Windows I/O, 79–81 programming WMI support class names and base classes, 257–260 event tracing, 269–271 firing events, 260–265 handling WMI requests, 255–256 overview of, 253 registering driver as WMI data provider, 254–255 requirements for WDM drivers, 256–257 testing driver support, 268–269 troubleshooting, 265–268 WMI architecture and, 253–254 properties KMDF object model, 139–141 unable to access driver’s WMI properties, 266 WDF object model, 18 Q QI (query-interface), COM, 82 QueryIClassFactory method, IClassFactory, 96 query-interface (QI), COM, 82 QueryInterface method, IClassFactory, 96 QueryInterface method, IUnknown defined, 82, 95 device callback object, 106 Index 345 Wow! eBook ptg QueryInterface method, IUnknown (contd.) implementing, 125–126 obtaining interface on UMDF object, 117, 119 obtaining interface pointer in COM, 113 UMDF object model, 45 QueryIUnknown method, IUnknown defined, 95 device callback object, 105 queue scope KMDF, 175, 238 WDF, 23 queues, I/O. See I/O queues R .rc (resource files), optional files in builds, 184 read requests code for creating queues for, 296–297 creating manual queues, 294 flow of I/O control requests, 56–57 KMDF I/O requests, 150 reference counting implementing UMDF callback objects, 125 overview of, 119–120 reflector I/O request flow to UMDF driver, 52, 83–84 in UMDF driver architecture, 43–44 in Windows kernel, 32 registry code for reading/writing, 309–312 KMDF debugging features and, 201–203 reading/writing, 308–309 Release method, IUnknown defined, 82, 95 implementing, 125 rules for reference counting, 120 UMDF object model, 45 ReleaseLock method, IWDFObject, 70 removal, KMDF devices filter DOs, 168–169 overview of, 167 physical DOs, 169–170 surprise removal sequence, 170–172 removal, of devices, 314 removal, UMDF device overview of, 72–74 surprise removal sequence, 74–75 representations, abstract data type, 8–9 requests. See I/O requests resource files (.rc), optional files in builds, 184 RetrieveDevicePropertyStore method, IWDFDeviceInitialize, 50–51 Return code field, HRESULT, 114–115 \root\wmi class, 265–266 ROSE tool, 10 routines, for debugging in KMDF, 203 run-time environment UMDF driver architecture, 43 using UMDF COM objects in, 116–120 S S_FALSE return value, HRESULT, 115–116 S_OK return value, HRESULT, 55, 115–116 SDDL (security description definition language), 181 SDV (Static Driver Verifier) tool compile-time unit-testing with, 197 overview of, 35–36 PFD helping to prepare for, 35 security, KMDF counted UNICODE strings, 181 overview of, 180 parameter validation, 180–181 safe defaults, 180 safe device naming techniques, 181 security, WMI, 267 security description definition language (SDDL), 181 self-managed I/O callbacks in KMDF, 161 callbacks in UMDF, 67–68 code for creating and initializing watchdog timer, 316–317 code for deleting watchdog timer, 320–321 code for restarting watchdog timer, 319–320 code for setting self-managed I/O callbacks, 315–316 code for starting watchdog timer, 317 code for stopping watchdog timer, 318 during device power-down and removal, 314 device startup and restart, 313–314 implementing watchdog timers, 315 watchdog timer for, 312–313 346 Index Wow! eBook ptg semantics, abstract data type, 8–9 sequential dispatch type I/O queues and, 58 KMDF support for, 154, 291–292 service control manager, 1–2 Service Processes, 1–2 serviceability, WDF support for, 37–38 SetFilter method IDeviceInitialize, 109 IWDFDeviceInitialize, 55 SetLockingConstraint method, IWdfDeviceInitialize, 105 Severity field, HRESULT, 114–115 Skeleton driver, UMDF as basis for development, 106–110 classes, objects and interfaces, 89–90 component source files, 89 defined, 42, 88 device callback object, 96–106 overview of, 88 small-scale integration (SSI) in software, 11 software defining objects, 8–9 gaining understanding, 10–11 on nature of objects, 7–8 software-only drivers, UMDF supporting, 42 source code files analysis with PREfast tool, 196–197 required files in builds, 184 sources files required files in builds, 184 in Toaster sample, 188–189 using Skeleton driver as basis for development, 107 SOURCES statement, customizing Sources file, 107 spin locks, in KMDF synchronization, 179–180 SSI (small-scale integration) in software, 11 Standard Template Library (STL), UMDF drivers, 112 Start method, IWDFIoQueue, 60 startup for functions and filter DOs, 165–166 KMDF devices, 164 for physical DOs, 166–167 self-managed I/O for, 313–314 UMDF devices, 71–72 state machine, 21–22 state variables, 134 static analysis, 14 Static Driver Verifier. See SDV (Static Driver Verifier) static testing, KMDF approaches to testing, 196 STL (Standard Template Library), UMDF drivers, 112 Stop method, IWDFIoQueue, 60 StopSynchronously method, IWDFIoQueue, 60 strict timing loops, kernel mode drivers for, 42 strings, preventing string handling errors in KMDF, 181 SUCCEEDED macro, HRESULT, 115–117 Support Processes, 1–2 surprise removal sequence KMDF devices, 170–172 UMDF devices, 74–75 suspension, of I/O requests, 65–67 symbols file, KMDF debugging and, 203 synchronization, KMDF comparing KMDF drivers with WDM drivers, 134 execution levels, 177–178, 239 interactions of synchronization mechanisms, 179–180 issues, 173–175 locks, 178–179 scope, 175–177 scope options, 238 setting synchronization scope for Featured Toaster example, 238 synchronization, UMDF issues, 68–70 overview of, 69 synchronization scope KMDF and, 175–177 options for, 238 WDF and, 23 syntax, abstract data type, 8–9 system event log, 269 Index 347 Wow! eBook ptg T TARGETNAME statement, customizing sources file, 107 targets, I/O creating buffers for I/O requests, 63–64 KMDF, 156–157 sending I/O requests to, 61–63 template libraries, UMDF drivers using C++, 112 testing. See also debugging KMDF approaches to, 196 UMDF drivers, 75–77 WDF component functions for, 14 WDF tools for, 33–38 WMI driver support, 268–269 timers. See watchdog timer Toaster sample building, 190 installing, 194–196 makefile and Makefile.inc, 187–188 sources files in, 188–189 WinDbg applied to, 205–208 trace logging KMDF, 198 WDF component functions for, 14 WDF support for, 36–37 WMI, 269–271 WPP, 205 troubleshooting WMI changes in WMI security settings not taking effects, 267 driver’s WMI events are not being received, 267 overview of, 265–268 unable to access driver’s WMI properties and methods, 266 U UMDF (User Mode Driver Framework) build, test and debug, 75–77 COM support. See COM (component object model), UMDF support for design goals for WDF, 15 developing drivers with COM. See COM (component object model), creating UMDF drivers device and driver support in WDF, 15–16 device enumeration and startup, 71–72 device power-down and removal, 72–75 devices supported, 42 driver callback interfaces, 47–49 driver features, 49–51 driver model, 43–45 integrated I/O queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 179–180 interfaces for object types, 19–20 internal trace logging for, 36–37 I/O queues, 56–60 I/O request flow, 51–56 I/O request objects, 60–67 KMDF vs., 41 locking constraint, 23 locks, 70 object model, 45 objects, 45–47 overview of, 28, 41 Plug and Play and power management notification, 70–71 Plug and Play and power management support, 20–22 programming drivers for. See programming UMDF drivers self-managed I/O, 67–68 synchronization issues, 68–70 understanding, 31–32 WDF component functions for, 14 WDF driver model, 16–17 when to use User Mode Drivers, 129 in Windows kernel, 32–33 UML (Universal Modeling Language), 10 UNICODE, counted UNICODE strings, 181 unit testing, with SDV (Static Driver Verifier), 197 Universal Modeling Language (UML), 10 Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices, 42 UnmarkCancelable method, IWDFIoRequest, 65 UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER macro, 218–219 up device object, 52 updates, UMDF drivers, 77 USB (Universal Serial Bus) devices, 42 USB/Echo Driver, UMDF, 42 USB/Filter driver, UMDF, 42, 88 348 Index Wow! eBook ptg USB/FX2_Driver, UMDF, 42 User Mode DDI, 33 User Mode Driver Framework. See UMDF (User Mode Driver Framework) user mode drivers host process, 44–45 when to use User Mode Drivers, 129 uuidgen.exe, 258 V values, of data types vs. abstract data types, 8 VB.NET programming language, 9 verification, using Static Driver Verifier for, 35–36 Verifier, KMDF, 198 versioning KMDF drivers and, 208–209 UMDF drivers and, 77 WDF driver model including, 16 WDF support for, 14, 37–38 VTable pointers, COM, 114 W wait locks, in KMDF synchronization, 179 wake signal support, 251–252 watchdog timer code for deleting watchdog timer, 320–321 code for restarting watchdog timer, 319–320 code for setting self-managed I/O callbacks, 315–316 code for starting watchdog timer, 317 code for stopping watchdog timer, 318 implementing watchdog timers, 315 for self-managed I/O, 312–313 self-managed I/O device startup and restart, 313–314 self-managed I/O during device power down and removal, 314 Wbemtest, testing WMI support, 268 WDF (Windows Driver Foundation) co-install DLL, 191 component functions, 13–14 defined, 3 design goals for, 14–15 device and driver support in, 15–16 driver frameworks, 28–32 driver model, 16–17 execution levels, 177–178 installation package, 190 integrated I/O queuing and cancellation, 22–26, 88 KMD driver samples listed by device usage, 213–214 KMD driver samples listed by features supported, 215–216 KMD driver samples listed by name, 211–212 locks, 178–179 object model, 17–20 obtaining interface on UMDF object, 117–118 Plug and Play and power management support, 20–22, 163 synchronization scope, 175–177 Windows kernel, 32–33 WMI requests for kernel mode drivers only, 27 WDF (Windows Driver Foundation), develop- ment and testing tools debugger extensions, 37 defined, 13 frameworks verifier, 36 overview of, 33–34 PREfast debugging tool, 34–35 serviceability and versioning, 37–38 Static Driver Verifier (SDV), 35–36 trace logging, 36–37 Wdf section, INF file, 76 WDF_IO_QUEUE_CONFIG, 223 WdfDefault, 54–55 WDFDEVICE creating and initializing, 227, 316–317 initializing context area and attributes for, 229–231 KMDF driver structure and concepts, 219 WDFDRIVER creating, 226 KMDF driver structure and concepts, 219 as root object of KMDF object model, 141 WDFINTERRUPT, 274 WDFIOTARGET object, 156–157 WdfKd.dll, 37 WDFMEMORY object, 155–158 WDFQUEUE object, 152, 219 WDFREQUEST object, 154, 224 WdfTrue, 54–55 Index 349 Wow! eBook ptg WDFWMIINSTANCE, 173 WDK (Windows Driver Kit) building UMDF drivers with, 75 flags, 186 functions, 13–14 KMDF distributed via, 131 PFD tool in, 34–35 WDM (Windows Driver Model) accessing WDM structures from KMDF, 161–162 comparing KMDF drivers with WDM drivers, 132–135 complexity and limitations of, 14–15 defined, 3 KMDF and, 183 KMDF as replacement for, 129–130 power state changes and, 163 signing WDF drivers same way as drivers in, 14 WDM samples compared with KMDF samples, 216–218 WMI requirements for WDM drivers, 256–257 WMI WDM provider log, 269 web sites, for driver information, 323–330 WinDbg applied to Toaster example, 205–208 kernel debugging, 199–200 symbols files and, 203 types of commands, 200–201 WindDbg, 199 Windows Driver Foundation. See WDF (Windows Driver Foundation) Windows Driver Kit. See WDK (Windows Driver Kit) Windows Driver Model. See WDM (Windows Driver Model) Windows Internals, Fifth Edition (Russinovich and Solomon), 79 Windows I/O architecture, 79–81 Windows kernel UMDF, 43–44, 83 WDF, 32–33 Windows Management Instrumentation. See WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation) Windows Software Trace Preprocessor. See WPP (Windows Software Trace Preprocessor) WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation) architecture data flow, 54–55, 253–254 class names and base classes, 257–260 event tracing, 269–271 exporting information from drivers to other components, 172–173 firing events, 260–265 for Kernel Mode Drivers only, 27 programming support for. See programming WMI support registering driver as WMI data provider, 254–255 request handling, 255–256 requirements for WDM drivers, 256–257 testing driver support, 268–269 troubleshooting, 265–268 Wmic, testing WMI support in driver, 268 WmiEvent class, 258, 260 Wmimofck, testing WMI support in driver, 268 wmiprov.log, 269 WPP (Windows Software Trace Preprocessor) applying to KMDF drivers, 205 kernel mode drivers using, 36–37 KMDF trace logging based on, 198 write requests code for creating queues for, 294–296 creating parallel queues, 294 flow of I/O control requests, 56–57 KMDF I/O requests, 150 options for, 234 wudfdd.h, 123 WudfExt.dll, 37 350 Index Wow! eBook
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