nrf24l01芯片资料英文


PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 1 of 38 November 2005 Single chip 2.4 GHz Transceiver FEATURES APPLICATIONS • True single chip GFSK transceiver • Wireless mouse, keyboard, joystick • Complete OSI Link Layer in hardware • Keyless entry • Enhanced ShockBurst™ • Wireless data communication • Auto ACK & retransmit • Alarm and security systems • Address and CRC computation • Home automation • On the air data rate 1 or 2Mbps • Surveillance • Digital interface (SPI) speed 0-10 Mbps • Automotive • 125 RF channel operation • Telemetry • Short switching time enable frequency hopping • Intelligent sports equipment • Fully RF compatible with nRF24XX • Industrial sensors • 5V tolerant signal input pads • Toys • 20-pin package (QFN20 4x4mm) • Uses ultra low cost +/- 60 ppm crystal • Uses low cost chip inductors and 2-layer PCB • Power supply range: 1.9 to 3.6 V GENERAL DESCRIPTION nRF24L01 is a single chip radio transceiver for the world wide 2.4 - 2.5 GHz ISM band. The transceiver consists of a fully integrated frequency synthesizer, a power amplifier, a crystal oscillator, a demodulator, modulator and Enhanced ShockBurst™ protocol engine. Output power, frequency channels, and protocol setup are easily programmable through a SPI interface. Current consumption is very low, only 9.0mA at an output power of -6dBm and 12.3mA in RX mode. Built-in Power Down and Standby modes makes power saving easily realizable. QUICK REFERENCE DATA Parameter Value Unit Minimum supply voltage 1.9 V Maximum output power 0 dBm Maximum data rate 2000 kbps Supply current in TX mode @ 0dBm output power 11.3 mA Supply current in RX mode @ 2000 kbps 12.3 mA Temperature range -40 to +85 °C Sensitivity @ 1000 kbps -85 dBm Supply current in Power Down mode 900 nA Table 1 nRF24L01 quick reference data nRF24L01 PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 2 of 38 November 2005 Type Number Description Version nRF24L01 20 pin QFN 4x4, lead free (green) A nRF24L01 IC Bare Dice A nRF24L01-EVKIT Evaluation kit (2 test PCB, 2 configuration PCB, SW) 1.0 Table 2 nRF24L01 ordering information BLOCK DIAGRAM DVDD VDDVDD XC1 XC2 100+j175 Ω IREF VDD_PA=1.8V ANT1 ANT2 22k Ω VSS=0V VDD VSS=0VVSS=0V Frequency Synthesiser PA LNA IF BPF DEMOD Clock Recovery, DataSlicer ADDR Decode FIFO In/Out CRC Code/Decode Enhanced ShockBurst TM GFSK Filter CSN MOSI SCK VSS=0V CE IRQ MISO Figure 1 nRF24L01 with external components. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 3 of 38 November 2005 PIN FUNCTIONS Pin Name Pin function Description 1 CE Digital Input Chip Enable Activates RX or TX mode 2 CSN Digital Input SPI Chip Select 3 SCK Digital Input SPI Clock 4 MOSI Digital Input SPI Slave Data Input 5 MISO Digital Output SPI Slave Data Output, with tri-state option 6 IRQ Digital Output Maskable interrupt pin 7 VDD Power Power Supply (+3V DC) 8 VSS Power Ground (0V) 9 XC2 Analog Output Crystal Pin 2 10 XC1 Analog Input Crystal Pin 1 11 VDD_PA Power Output Power Supply (+1.8V) to Power Amplifier 12 ANT1 RF Antenna interface 1 13 ANT2 RF Antenna interface 2 14 VSS Power Ground (0V) 15 VDD Power Power Supply (+3V DC) 16 IREF Analog Input Reference current 17 VSS Power Ground (0V) 18 VDD Power Power Supply (+3V DC) 19 DVDD Power Output Positive Digital Supply output for de-coupling purposes 20 VSS Power Ground (0V) Table 3 nRF24L01 pin function PIN ASSIGNMENT nRF24L01 QFN20 4x4 VDD VSS ANT2 VSS CE 1920 4 3 2 1 15 14 5 VDD_PA ANT112 11 13 CSN MISO MOSI VDD 18 IREFVSS 17 16 IRQ DVDD VSS 76 9 108 XC2 XC1VDD SCK Figure 2 nRF24L01 pin assignment (top view) for a QFN20 4x4 package. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 4 of 38 November 2005 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Conditions: VDD = +3V, VSS = 0V, T A = - 40ºC to + 85ºC Symbol Parameter (condition) Notes Min. Typ. Max. Units Operating conditions VDD Supply voltage 1.9 3.0 3.6 V TEMP Operating Temperature -40 +27 +85 ºC Digital input pin VIH HIGH level input voltage 1 0.7VDD 5.25 V VIL LOW level input voltage VSS 0.3VDD V Digital output pin VOH HIGH level output voltage (I OH =-0.5mA) VDD- 0.3 VDD V VOL LOW level output voltage (I OL =0.5mA) VSS 0.3 V General RF conditions fOP Operating frequency 2 2400 2525 MHz fXTAL Crystal frequency 16 MHz ∆f1M Frequency deviation @ 1000kbps ±160 kHz ∆f2M Frequency deviation @ 2000kbps ±320 kHz RGFSK Data rate ShockBurst™ >0 2000 kbps FCHANNEL Channel spacing @ 1000kbps 1 MHz FCHANNEL Channel spacing @ 2000kbps 2 MHz Transmitter operation PRF Maximum Output Power 3 0 +4 dBm PRFC RF Power Control Range 16 18 20 dB PRFCR RF Power Accuracy ±4 dB PBW 20dB Bandwidth for Modulated Carrier (2000kbps) 2000 kHz PRF1 1st Adjacent Channel Transmit Power 2MHz -20 dBm PRF2 2nd Adjacent Channel Transmit Power 4MHz -50 dBm IVDD Supply current @ 0dBm output power 4 11.3 mA IVDD Supply current @ -18dBm output power 7.0 mA IVDD Average Supply current @ -6dBm output power, Enhanced ShockBurst™ 5 0.05 mA IVDD Supply current in Standby-I mode 32 µA IVDD Supply current in power down 900 nA 1 All digital inputs handle up to 5.25V signal inputs. Keep in mind that the VDD of the nRF24L01 must match the VIH of the driving device for output pins. 2 Usable band is determined by local regulations 3 Antenna load impedance = 100 Ω+j175 Ω 4 Antenna load impedance = 100 Ω+j175 Ω. Effective data rate 1000kbps or 2000 kbps 5 Antenna load impedance = 100 Ω+j175 Ω. Effective data rate 10kbps and full packets PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 5 of 38 November 2005 Receiver operation IVDD Supply current one channel 2000kbps 12.3 mA IVDD Supply current one channel 1000kbps 11.8 mA RXSENS Sensitivity at 0.1%BER (@2000kbps) -82 dBm RXSENS Sensitivity at 0.1%BER (@1000kbps) -85 dBm C/ICO C/I Co-channel 6 57/128 dB C/I 1ST 1st Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 2MHz 0/5 dB C/I 2ND 2nd Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 4MHz -21/-19 dB C/I 3RD 3rd Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 6MHz -27/-27 dB C/ICO C/I Co-channel 9 710 /1411 dB C/I 1ST 1st Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 1MHz 6/10 dB C/I 2ND 2nd Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 2MHz -22/-20 dB C/I 3RD 3rd Adjacent Channel Selectivity C/I 3MHz -30/-25 dB Table 4 nRF24L01 RF specifications 6 Data rate is 2000kbps for the following C/I measurements 7 According to ETSI EN 300 220-1 V1.3.1 (2000-09) page 36 8 nRF24L01 equal modulation on interfering signal 9 Data rate is 1000kbps for the following C/I measurements 10 According to ETSI EN 300 220-1 V1.3.1 (2000-09) page 36 11 nRF24L01 equal modulation on interfering signal PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 6 of 38 November 2005 PACKAGE OUTLINE nRF24L01 uses the QFN20 4x4 package, with matt tin plating. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 7 of 38 November 2005 Package Type A A1 A3 K D/E e D2/E2 L L1 b Saw QFN20 (4x4 mm) Min Typ. Max 0.80 0.85 0.95 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.20 REF. 0.20 min 4.0 BSC 12 0.5 BSC 2.50 2.60 2.70 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.15 max 0.18 0.25 0.30 Figure 3 nRF24L01 Package Outline. 12 BSC: Basic Spacing between Centers, ref. JEDEC standard 95, page 4.17-11/A PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 8 of 38 November 2005 Package marking: Abbreviations: DDDDDD – Product number, e.g. 24L01 B – Build Code, i.e. unique code for production sites, package type and test platform X – “X“ grade, i.e. Engineering Samples (optional) YY – 2 digit Year number WW – 2 digit Week number LL – 2 letter wafer lot number code Absolute Maximum Ratings Supply voltages VDD............................- 0.3V to + 3.6V VSS .................................................. 0V Input voltage VI.................................. - 0.3V to 5.25V Output voltage VO..................................... VSS to VDD Total Power Dissipation PD (T A=85 °C) ............................. 60mW Temperatures Operating Temperature…. - 40 °C to + 85 °C Storage Temperature….… - 40 °C to + 125 °C Note: Stress exceeding one or more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. ATTENTION! Electrostatic Sensitive Device Observe Precaution for handling. n R F B X D D D D D D Y Y W W L L PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 9 of 38 November 2005 Glossary of Terms Term Description ACK Acknowledgement ART Auto Re-Transmit CE Chip Enable CLK Clock CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check CSN Chip Select NOT ESB Enhanced ShockBurst™ GFSK Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying IRQ Interrupt Request ISM Industrial-Scientific-Medical LNA Low Noise Amplifier LSB Least Significant Bit LSByte Least Significant Byte Mbps Megabit per second MCU Micro Controller Unit MISO Master In Slave Out MOSI Master Out Slave In MSB Most Significant Bit MSByte Most Significant Byte PCB Printed Circuit Board PER Packet Error Rate PID Packet Identity Bits PLD Payload PRX Primary RX PTX Primary TX PWR_DWN Power Down PWR_UP Power Up RX Receive RX_DR Receive Data Ready SPI Serial Peripheral Interface TX Transmit TX_DS Transmit Data Sent Table 5 Glossary PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 10 of 38 November 2005 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Modes of operation The nRF24L01 can be set in the following main modes depending on the level of the following primary I/Os and configuration registers: Mode PWR_UP register PRIM_RX register CE FIFO state RX mode 1 1 1 - TX mode 1 0 1 Data in TX FIFO TX mode 1 0 10 Stays in TX mode until packet transmission is finished Standby-II 1 0 1 TX FIFO empty Standby-I 1 - 0 No ongoing packet transmission Power Down 0 - - - Table 6 nRF24L01 main modes An overview of the nRF24L01 I/O pins in different modes is given in Table 7. Pin functions in the different modes of nRF24L01 Pin Name Direction TX Mode RX Mode Standby Modes Power Down CE Input High Pulse > 10 µs High Low - CSN Input SPI Chip Select, active low SCK Input SPI Clock MOSI Input SPI Serial Input MISO Tri-state Output SPI Serial Output IRQ Output Interrupt, active low Table 7 Pin functions of the nRF24L01 Standby Modes Standby-I mode is used to minimize average current consumption while maintaining short start up times. In this mode, part of the crystal oscillator is active. In Standby-II mode some clock buffers are active. Standby-II occurs when CE is held high on a PTX device with empty TX FIFO. The configuration word content is maintained during Standby modes. SPI interface may be activated. For start up time see Table 13. Power Down Mode In power down nRF24L01 is disabled with minimal current consumption. When entering this mode the device is not active, but all registers values available from the SPI interface are maintained during power down and the SPI interface may be activated (CSN=0). For start up time see Table 13. The power down is controlled by the PWR_UP bit in the CONFIG register. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 11 of 38 November 2005 Packet Handling Methods nRF24L01 has the following Packet Handling Methods: • ShockBurst™ (compatible with nRF2401, nRF24E1, nRF2402 and nRF24E2 with 1Mbps data rate, see page 24) • Enhanced ShockBurst™ ShockBurst™ ShockBurst™ makes it possible to use the high data rate offered by nRF24L01 without the need of a costly, high-speed microcontroller (MCU) for data processing/clock recovery. By placing all high speed signal processing related to RF protocol on-chip, nRF24L01 offers the application microcontroller a simple SPI compatible interface, the data rate is decided by the interface-speed the micro controller itself sets up. By allowing the digital part of the application to run at low speed, while maximizing the data rate on the RF link, ShockBurst™ reduces the average current consumption in applications. In ShockBurst™ RX, IRQ notifies the MCU when a valid address and payload is received respectively. The MCU can then clock out the received payload from an nRF24L01 RX FIFO. In ShockBurst™ TX, nRF24L01 automatically generates preamble and CRC, see Table 12. IRQ notifies the MCU that the transmission is completed. All together, this means reduced memory demand in the MCU resulting in a low cost MCU, as well as reduced software development time. nRF24L01 has a three level deep RX FIFO (shared between 6 pipes) and a three level deep TX FIFO. The MCU can access the FIFOs at any time, in power down mode, in standby modes, and during RF packet transmission. This allows the slowest possible SPI interface compared to the average datarate, and may enable usage of an MCU without hardware SPI. Enhanced ShockBurst™ Enhanced ShockBurst™ is a packet handling method with functionality that makes bi- directional link protocol implementation easier and more efficient. In a typical bi- directional link, one will let the terminating part acknowledge received packets from the originating part in order to make it possible to detect data loss. Data loss can then be recovered by retransmission. The idea with Enhanced ShockBurst™ is to let nRF24L01 handle both acknowledgement of received packets and retransmissions of lost packets, without involvement from the microcontroller. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 12 of 38 November 2005 RX TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4 TX5 TX6 Data Pipe 1 D ata P ipe 2 D a t a Pi p e 3 D a t a P i p e 4 Data Pipe 5 Data Pipe 0 Frequency Channel N Figure 4: nRF24L01 in a star network configuration An nRF24L01 configured as primary RX (PRX) will be able to receive data trough 6 different data pipes, see Figure 4. A data pipe will have a unique address but share the same frequency channel. This means that up to 6 different nRF24L01 configured as primary TX (PTX) can communicate with one nRF24L01 configured as PRX, and the nRF24L01 configured as PRX will be able to distinguish between them. Data pipe 0 has a unique 40 bit configurable address. Each of data pipe 1-5 has an 8 bit unique address and shares the 32 most significant address bits. All data pipes can perform full Enhanced ShockBurst™ functionality. nRF24L01 will use the data pipe address when acknowledging a received packet. This means that nRF24L01 will transmit ACK with the same address as it receives payload at. In the PTX device data pipe 0 is used to received the acknowledge, and therefore the receive address for data pipe 0 has to be equal to the transmit address to be able to receive the acknowledge. See Figure 5 for addressing example. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 13 of 38 November 2005 D ata P ipe 2 D ata Pipe 5 T X _ A D D R : 0 x B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 0 F R X _ A D D R _ P 0 : 0 x B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 0 F T X _ A D D R : 0 x B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 A 3 R X _ A D D R _ P 0 : 0 x B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 A 3 Figure 5: Example on how the acknowledgement addressing is done An nRF24L01 configured as PTX with Enhanced ShockBurst™ enabled, will use the ShockBurst™ feature to send a packet whenever the microcontroller wants to. After the packet has been transmitted, nRF24L01 will switch on its receiver and expect an acknowledgement to arrive from the terminating part. If this acknowledgement fails to arrive, nRF24L01 will retransmit the same packet until it receives an acknowledgement or the number of retries exceeds the number of allowed retries given in the SETUP_RETR_ARC register. If the number of retries exceeds the number of allowed retries, this will show in the STATUS register bit MAX_RT and gives an interrupt. Whenever an acknowledgement is received by an nRF24L01 it will consider the last transmitted packet as delivered. It will then be cleared from the TX FIFO, and the TX_DS IRQ source will be set high. With Enhanced ShockBurst™ nRF24L01 offers the following benefits: • Highly reduced current consumption due to short time on air and sharp timing when operating with acknowledgement traffic • Lower system cost. Since the nRF24L01 handles all the high-speed link layer operations, like re-transmission of lost packet and generating acknowledgement to received packets, it is no need for hardware SPI on the system microcontroller to interface the nRF24L01. The interface can be done by using general purpose IO pins on a low cost microcontroller where the SPI is emulated in firmware. With the nRF24L01 this will be sufficient speed even when running a bi-directional link. • Greatly reduced risk of “on-air” collisions due to short time on air • Easier firmware development since the link layer is integrated on chip PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 14 of 38 November 2005 Enhanced ShockBurst™ Transmitting Payload: 1. The configuration bit PRIM_RX has to be low. 2. When the application MCU has data to send, the address for receiving node (TX_ADDR) and payload data (TX_PLD) has to be clocked into nRF24L01 via the SPI interface. The width of TX-payload is counted from number of bytes written into the TX FIFO from the MCU. TX_PLD must be written continuously while holding CSN low. TX_ADDR does not have to be rewritten if it is unchanged from last transmit. If the PTX device shall receive acknowledge, data pipe 0 has to be configured to receive the acknowledge. The receive address for data pipe 0 (RX_ADDR_P0) has to be equal to the transmit address (TX_ADDR) in the PTX device. For the example in Figure 5 the following address settings have to be performed for the TX5 device and the RX device: TX5 device: TX_ADDR = 0xB3B4B5B605 TX5 device: RX_ADDR_P0 = 0xB3B4B5B605 RX device: RX_ADDR_P5 = 0xB3B4B5B605 3. A high pulse on CE starts the transmission. The minimum pulse width on CE is 10 µs. 4. nRF24L01 ShockBurst™: • Radio is powered up • 16 MHz internal clock is started. • RF packet is completed (see the packet description) • Data is transmitted at high speed (1 Mbps or 2 Mbps configured by MCU). 5. If auto acknowledgement is activated (Auto retransmit counter not equal zero, ENAA_P0=1) the radio goes into RX mode immediately. If a valid packet has been received in the valid acknowledgement time window, the transmission is considered a success. The TX_DS bit in the status register is set high and the payload is removed from TX FIFO. If a valid acknowledgement is not received in the specified time window, the payload is resent (if auto retransmit is enabled). If the auto retransmit counter (ARC_CNT) exceeds the programmed maximum limit (ARC), the MAX_RT bit in the status register is set high. The payload in TX FIFO is NOT removed. The IRQ pin will be active when MAX_RT or TX_DS is high. To turn off the IRQ pin, the interrupt source must be reset by writing to the status register (see Interrupt chapter). If no acknowledgement is received for a packet after the maximum number of retries, no further packets can be sent before the MAX_RX interrupt is cleared. The packet loss counter (PLOS_CNT) is incremented at each MAX_RT interrupt. I.e. ARC_CNT counts the number of retries that was required to get a single packet through. PLOS_CNT counts the number of packets that did not get through even after maximum number of retries. 6. The device goes into Standby-I mode if CE is low. Otherwise next payload in TX FIFO will be sent. If TX FIFO is empty and CE is still high, the device will enter Standby-II mode. 7. If the device is in Standby-II mode, it will go to Standby-I mode immediately if CE is set low. Enhanced ShockBurst TM Receive Payload: 1. RX is selected by setting the PRIM_RX bit in the configuration register to high, and then setting CE high. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 15 of 38 November 2005 2. After 130µs nRF24L01 is monitoring the air for incoming communication. 3. When a valid packet has been received (matching address and correct CRC), the payload is stored in the RX-FIFO, and the RX_DR bit in status register is set high. The IRQ pin will be active when RX_DR is high. RX_P_NO in status register will indicate what data pipe the payload has been received in. 4. If auto acknowledgement is enabled, an acknowledgement is sent back. 5. MCU sets the CE pin low to enter Standby-I mode (low current mode). 6. MCU can clock out the payload data at a suitable rate via the SPI interface. 7. The device is now ready for entering TX or RX mode or power down mode. Auto Acknowledgement (RX) The auto acknowledgement function reduces the load of the external microcontroller, and may remove the need for dedicated SPI hardware in a mouse/keyboard or comparable systems, and hence reduce cost and average current consumption. Auto acknowledgement can be configured individually for each data pipe via the SPI interface. If auto acknowledgement is enabled and a valid packet (correct data pipe address and CRC) is received, the device will enter TX mode and send an acknowledgement packet. After the device has sent the acknowledgement packet, normal operation resumes, and the mode is determined by the PRIM_RX register and CE pin. Auto Re-Transmission (ART) (TX) An auto retransmission function is available. It will be used at the TX side in an auto acknowledgement system. In the SETUP_RETR register it will be possible to state how many times the data in the data register will be resent if data is not acknowledged. After each sending, the device will enter RX mode and wait a specified time period for acknowledgement. When the acknowledgement packet is received, the device will return to normal transmit function. If there is no more unsent data in the TX FIFO and the CE pin is low, the device will go into Standby-I mode. If the acknowledgement is not received, the device will go back to TX mode and resend the data. This will continue until acknowledgment is received, or a time out occurs (i.e. the maximum number of sending is reached). The only way to reset this is to set the PWR_UP bit low or let the auto retransmission finish. A packet loss counter will be incremented each time a packet does not succeed to reach the destination before time out. (Time out is indicated by the MAX_RT interrupt.) The packet loss counter is reset when writing to the RF channel register. Packet Identity (PID) and CRC used by Enhanced ShockBurst TM Each packet contains a two bit wide PID field to detect if the received packet is new or resent. The PID will prevent that the PRX device presents the same payload more than once to the microcontroller. This PID field is incremented at the TX side for each new packet received via the SPI interface. The PID and CRC field is used by the PRX device to determine whether a packet is resent or new. When several data is lost on the link, the PID fields may in some cases become equal to last received PID. If a packet has the same PID as the previous packet, nRF24L01 will compare the CRC sums from both packets. If they also are equal, the last received packet is considered as a copy of the previous and is discarded. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 16 of 38 November 2005 1: PRX device: The PRX device compares the received PID with the last PID. If the PID fields are different, the packet is considered to be new. If the PID is equal to last received PID, the received packet might be the same as last time. The receiver must check if the CRC is equal to the previous CRC. If the CRC is equal to the previous one, the packet is probably the same, and will be discarded. 2: PTX device: The transmitter increments the PID field each time it sends a new packet. Start New packet from MCU? Yes increment PID End Start PID equal last PID? Yes CRC equal last CRC? New packet is valid for MCU End No Discard packet as a copy No Yes TX side functionality RX side functionality No Figure 6 PID generation/detection The length of the CRC is configurable through the SPI interface. It is important to notice that the CRC is calculated over the whole packet including address, PID and payload. No packet is accepted as correct if the CRC fails. This is an extra requirement for packet acceptance that is not illustrated in the figure above. Stationary Disturbance Detection – CD Carrier Detect (CD) is set high when an in-band RF signal is detected in RX mode, otherwise CD is low. The internal CD signal is filtered before presented to CD register. The internal CD signal must be high for at least 128 µs. In Enhanced ShockBurst™ it is recommended to use the Carrier Detect functionality only when the PTX device does not succeed to get packets through, as indicated by the MAX_RT interrupt for single packets and by the packet loss counter (PLOS_CNT) if several packets are lost. If the PLOS_CNT in the PTX device indicates too high rate of packet losses, the device can be configured to a PRX device for a short time (Tstbt2a + CD-filter delay = 130 µs+128 µs = 258 µs) to check CD. If CD was high (jam situation), the frequency channel should be changed. If CD was low PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 17 of 38 November 2005 (out of range), it may continue on the same frequency channel, but perform other adjustments. (A dummy write to the RF_CH will clear the PLOS_CNT.) Data Pipes nRF24L01 configured as PRX can receive data addressed to 6 different data pipes in one physical frequency channel. Each data pipe has its own unique address and can be configured to have individual behavior. The data pipes are enabled with the bits in the EN_RXADDR register. By default only data pipe 0 and 1 are enabled. The address for each data pipe is configured in the RX_ADDR_Px registers. Always ensure that none of the data pipes have the exact same address. Data pipe 0 has a unique 40 bit configurable address. Data pipes 1-5 share the 32 most significant address bits and have only the LSByte unique for each data pipe. Figure 7 shows an example of how data pipes 0-5 are addressed. All pipes can have up to 40 bit address, but for pipe 1-5 only the LSByte is different. 0xC2 0xC20xC20xC2 0xC2 0xC20xC20xC2 0xC2 0xC20xC20xC2 0xC2 0xC20xC20xC2 Byte 4 Byte 0Byte 1Byte 2Byte 3 0xC2 0xC20xC20xC20xC2 0xC3 0xC4 0xC5 0xC6 Data pipe 1 (RX_ADDR_P1) Data pipe 2 (RX_ADDR_P2) Data pipe 3 (RX_ADDR_P3) Data pipe 4 (RX_ADDR_P4) Data pipe 5 (RX_ADDR_P5) 0xE7 0x770x350xF00xD3Data pipe 0 (RX_ADDR_P0) Figure 7: Addressing data pipes 0-5 When a packet has been received at one of the data pipes and the data pipe is setup to generate acknowledgement, nRF24L01 will generate an acknowledgement with an address that equals the data pipe address where the packet was received. Some configuration settings are common to all data pipes and some are individual. The following settings are common to all data pipes: • CRC enabled/disabled (CRC always enabled when ESB is enabled) • CRC encoding scheme • RX address width • Frequency channel • RF data rate • LNA gain • RF output power PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 18 of 38 November 2005 DEVICE CONFIGURATION All configuration of nRF24L01 is defined by values in some configuration registers. All these registers are writable via the SPI interface. SPI Interface The SPI interface is a standard SPI interface with a maximum data rate of 10Mbps. Most registers are readable. SPI Instruction Set The available commands to be used on the SPI interface are shown below. Whenever CSN is set low the interface expects an instruction. Every new instruction must be started by a high to low transition on CSN. In parallel to the SPI instruction word applied on the MOSI pin, the STATUS register is shifted serially out on the MISO pin. The serial shifting SPI commands is on the format: See Figure 8 and Figure 9. Instruction Name Instruction Format [binary] # Data Bytes Operation R_REGISTER 000A AAAA 1 to 5 LSByte first Read registers. AAAAA = 5 bit Memory Map Address W_REGISTER 001A AAAA 1 to 5 LSByte first Write registers. AAAAA = 5 bit Memory Map Address Executable in power down or standby modes only. R_RX_PAYLOAD 0110 0001 1 to 32 LSByte first Read RX-payload: 1 – 32 bytes. A read operation will always start at byte 0. Payload will be deleted from FIFO after it is read. Used in RX mode. W_TX_PAYLOAD 1010 0000 1 to 32 LSByte first Used in TX mode. Write TX-payload: 1 – 32 bytes. A write operation will always start at byte 0. FLUSH_TX 1110 0001 0 Flush TX FIFO, used in TX mode FLUSH_RX 1110 0010 0 Flush RX FIFO, used in RX mode Should not be executed during transmission of acknowledge, i.e. acknowledge package will not be completed. REUSE_TX_PL 1110 0011 0 Used for a PTX device Reuse last sent payload. Packets will be repeatedly resent as long as CE is high. TX payload reuse is active until W_TX_PAYLOAD or FLUSH TX is executed. TX payload reuse must not be activated or deactivated during package transmission NOP 1111 1111 0 No Operation. Might be used to read the STATUS register Table 8 Instruction set for the nRF24L01 SPI interface. The W_REGISTER and R_REGISTER may operate on single or multi-byte registers. When accessing multi-byte registers one will read or write MSBit of LSByte first. The PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 19 of 38 November 2005 writing can be terminated before all bytes in a multi-byte register has been written. In this case the unwritten MSByte(s) will remain unchanged. E.g. the LSByte of RX_ADDR_P0 can be modified by writing only one byte to the RX_ADDR_P0 register. The content of the status register will always be read to MISO after a high to low transition on CSN. Interrupt The nRF24L01 has an active low interrupt pin (IRQ). The interrupt pin is activated when TX_DS, RX_DR or MAX_RT is set high in status register. When MCU writes '1' to the interrupt source, the IRQ pin will go inactive. The interrupt mask part of the CONFIG register is used to mask out the interrupt sources that are allowed to set the IRQ pin low. By setting one of the MASK bits high, the corresponding interrupt source will be disabled. By default all interrupt sources are enabled. SPI Timing The interface supports SPI. SPI operation and timing is given in Figure 8 to Figure 10 and in Table 9 and Table 10. The device must be in one of the standby modes or power down mode before writing to the configuration registers. In Figure 8 to Figure 10 the following notations are used: Cn – SPI Instruction Bit Sn – Status Register Bit Dn – Data Bit (note: LSByte to MSByte, MSBit in each byte first) C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0 S7 S6 S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 S0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 CSN SCK MOSI MISO Figure 8 SPI read operation. C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 S7 S6 S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 S0 CSN SCK MOSI MISO Figure 9 SPI write operation. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 20 of 38 November 2005 C7 C6 C0 S7 S0 TcdzTcdTcsd Tdh Tdc TcchTclTclTchTcc Tch TcwhTcwh CSN SCK MOSI MISO Figure 10 SPI NOP timing diagram. PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN MAX UNITS Data to SCK Setup Tdc 2 ns SCK to Data Hold Tdh 2 ns CSN to Data Valid Tcsd 33 ns SCK to Data Valid Tcd 52 ns SCK Low Time Tcl 40 ns SCK High Time Tch 40 ns SCK Frequency Fsck 0 10 MHz SCK Rise and Fall Tr,Tf tbd ns CSN to SCK Setup Tcc 2 ns SCK to CSN Hold Tcch 2 ns CSN Inactive time Tcwh 50 ns CSN to Output High Z Tcdz 33 ns Table 9 SPI timing parameters (C load = 5pF). PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN MAX UNITS Data to SCK Setup Tdc 2 ns SCK to Data Hold Tdh 2 ns CSN to Data Valid Tcsd 38 ns SCK to Data Valid Tcd 54 ns SCK Low Time Tcl 40 ns SCK High Time Tch 40 ns SCK Frequency Fsck 0 10 MHz SCK Rise and Fall Tr,Tf tbd ns CSN to SCK Setup Tcc 2 ns SCK to CSN Hold Tcch 2 ns CSN Inactive time Tcwh 50 ns CSN to Output High Z Tcdz 38 ns Table 10 SPI timing parameters (C load = 10pF). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 21 of 38 November 2005 Memory Map All undefined bits in the table below are redundant. They will be read out as '0'. Address (Hex) Mnemonic Bit Reset Value Type Description 00 CONFIG Configuration Register Reserved 7 0 R/W Only '0' allowed MASK_RX_DR 6 0 R/W Mask interrupt caused by RX_RD 1: Interrupt not reflected on the IRQ pin 0: Reflect RX_DR as active low interrupt on the IRQ pin MASK_TX_DS 5 0 R/W Mask interrupt caused by TX_DS 1: Interrupt not reflected on the IRQ pin 0: Reflect TX_DS as active low interrupt on the IRQ pin MASK_MAX_RT 4 0 R/W Mask interrupt caused by MAX_RT 1: Interrupt not reflected on the IRQ pin 0: Reflect MAX_RT as active low interrupt on the IRQ pin EN_CRC 3 1 R/W Enable CRC. Forced high if one of the bits in the EN_AA is high CRCO 2 0 R/W CRC encoding scheme '0' - 1 byte '1' – 2 bytes PWR_UP 1 0 R/W 1: POWER UP, 0:POWER DOWN PRIM_RX 0 0 R/W 1: PRX, 0: PTX 01 EN_AA Enhanced ShockBurst™ Enable ‘Auto Acknowledgment’ Function Disable this functionality to be compatible with nRF2401, see page 25 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed ENAA_P5 5 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 5 ENAA_P4 4 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 4 ENAA_P3 3 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 3 ENAA_P2 2 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 2 ENAA_P1 1 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 1 ENAA_P0 0 1 R/W Enable auto ack. data pipe 0 02 EN_RXADDR Enabled RX Addresses Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed ERX _P5 5 0 R/W Enable data pipe 5. ERX _P4 4 0 R/W Enable data pipe 4. ERX _P3 3 0 R/W Enable data pipe 3. ERX _P2 2 0 R/W Enable data pipe 2. ERX _P1 1 1 R/W Enable data pipe 1. ERX _P0 0 1 R/W Enable data pipe 0. 03 SETUP_AW Setup of Address Widths (common for all data pipes) Reserved 7:2 000000 R/W Only '000000' allowed AW 1:0 11 R/W RX/TX Address field width '00' - Illegal '01' - 3 bytes '10' - 4 bytes '11' – 5 bytes LSByte will be used if address width below 5 bytes 04 SETUP_RETR Setup of Automatic Retransmission ARD 7:4 0000 R/W Auto Re-transmit Delay PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 22 of 38 November 2005 Address (Hex) Mnemonic Bit Reset Value Type Description ‘0000’ – Wait 250+86uS ‘0001’ – Wait 500+86uS ‘0010’ – Wait 750+86uS …….. ‘1111’ – Wait 4000+86uS (Delay defined from end of transmission to start of next transmission) ARC 3:0 0011 R/W Auto Retransmit Count ‘0000’ –Re-Transmit disabled ‘0001’ – Up to 1 Re-Transmit on fail of AA …… ‘1111’ – Up to 15 Re-Transmit on fail of AA 05 RF_CH RF Channel Reserved 7 0 R/W Only '0' allowed RF_CH 6:0 0000010 R/W Sets the frequency channel nRF24L01 operates on 06 RF_SETUP RF Setup Register Reserved 7:5 000 R/W Only '000' allowed PLL_LOCK 4 0 R/W Force PLL lock signal RF_DR 3 1 R/W Data Rate ‘0’ – 1 Mbps ‘1’ – 2 Mbps RF_PWR 2:1 11 R/W Set RF output power in TX mode '00' – -18 dBm '01' – -12 dBm '10' – -6 dBm '11' – 0 dBm LNA_HCURR 0 1 R/W Setup LNA gain 07 STATUS Status Register (In parallel to the SPI instruction word applied on the MOSI pin, the STATUS register is shifted serially out on the MISO pin) Reserved 7 0 R/W Only '0' allowed RX_DR 6 0 R/W Data Ready RX FIFO interrupt. Set high when new data arrives RX FIFO 13 . Write 1 to clear bit. TX_DS 5 0 R/W Data Sent TX FIFO interrupt. Set high when packet sent on TX. If AUTO_ACK is activated, this bit will be set high only when ACK is received. Write 1 to clear bit. MAX_RT 4 0 R/W Maximum number of TX retries interrupt Write 1 to clear bit. If MAX_RT is set it must be cleared to enable further communication. RX_P_NO 3:1 111 R Data pipe number for the payload available for reading from RX_FIFO 000-101: Data Pipe Number 110: Not Used 111: RX FIFO Empty TX_FULL 0 0 R TX FIFO full flag. 1: TX FIFO full. 0: 13 The Data Ready interrupt is set by a new packet arrival event. The procedure for handling this interrupt should be: 1) read payload via SPI, 2) clear RX_DR interrupt, 3) read FIFO_STATUS to check if there are more payloads available in RX FIFO, 4) if there are more data in RX FIFO, repeat from 1). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 23 of 38 November 2005 Address (Hex) Mnemonic Bit Reset Value Type Description Available locations in TX FIFO. 08 OBSERVE_TX Transmit observe register PLOS_CNT 7:4 0 R Packet Loss Counter. The register is reset by writing to RF_CH. The counter restarts after 15 lost packets. See page 14 and 16. ARC_CNT 3:0 0 R Current value on resent counter. The counter is reset when transmission of a new packet starts. See page 14. 09 CD Reserved 7:1 000000 R CD 0 0 R Carrier Detect. See page 16. 0A RX_ADDR_P0 39:0 0xE7E7E7E7E7 R/W Receive address data pipe 0. 5 Bytes maximum length. (LSByte is written first) 0B RX_ADDR_P1 39:0 0xC2C2C2C2C2 R/W Receive address data pipe 1. 5 Bytes maximum length. (LSByte is written first) 0C RX_ADDR_P2 7:0 0xC3 R/W Receive address data pipe 2. Only LSB. MSBytes will be equal to RX_ADDR_P1[39:8] 0D RX_ADDR_P3 7:0 0xC4 R/W Receive address data pipe 3. Only LSB. MSBytes will be equal to RX_ADDR_P1[39:8] 0E RX_ADDR_P4 7:0 0xC5 R/W Receive address data pipe 4. Only LSB. MSBytes will be equal to RX_ADDR_P1[39:8] 0F RX_ADDR_P5 7:0 0xC6 R/W Receive address data pipe 5. Only LSB. MSBytes will be equal to RX_ADDR_P1[39:8] 10 TX_ADDR 39:0 0xE7E7E7E7E7 R/W Transmit address. Used for a PTX device only. (LSByte is written first) Set RX_ADDR_P0 equal to this address to handle automatic acknowledge if this is a PTX device with Enhanced ShockBurst™ enabled. See page 14. 11 RX_PW_P0 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P0 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 0 (1 to 32 bytes). 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 12 RX_PW_P1 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P1 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 1 (1 to 32 bytes). 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 13 RX_PW_P2 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P2 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 2 (1 to 32 bytes). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 24 of 38 November 2005 Address (Hex) Mnemonic Bit Reset Value Type Description 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 14 RX_PW_P3 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P3 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 3 (1 to 32 bytes). 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 15 RX_PW_P4 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P4 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 4 (1 to 32 bytes). 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 16 RX_PW_P5 Reserved 7:6 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_PW_P5 5:0 0 R/W Number of bytes in RX payload in data pipe 5 (1 to 32 bytes). 0 Not Legal 1 = 1 byte … 32 = 32 bytes 17 FIFO_STATUS FIFO Status Register Reserved 7 0 R/W Only '0' allowed TX_REUSE 6 0 R Reuse last sent data packet if set high. The packet will be repeatedly resent as long as CE is high. TX_REUSE is set by the SPI instruction REUSE_TX_PL, and is reset by the SPI instructions W_TX_PAYLOAD or FLUSH TX TX_FULL 5 0 R TX FIFO full flag. 1: TX FIFO full. 0: Available locations in TX FIFO. TX_EMPTY 4 1 R TX FIFO empty flag. 1: TX FIFO empty. 0: Data in TX FIFO. Reserved 3:2 00 R/W Only '00' allowed RX_FULL 1 0 R RX FIFO full flag. 1: RX FIFO full. 0: Available locations in RX FIFO. RX_EMPTY 0 1 R RX FIFO full flag. 1: RX FIFO empty. 0: Data in RX FIFO. N/A TX_PLD 255:0 X W Written by separate SPI command TX data payload register 1 - 32 bytes. This register is implemented as a FIFO with 3 levels. Used in TX mode only N/A RX_PLD 255:0 X R Written by separate SPI command RX data payload register. 1 - 32 bytes. This register is implemented as a FIFO with 3 levels. All receive channels share the same FIFO Table 11 Memory map of nRF24L01 PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 25 of 38 November 2005 Configuration for compatibility with nRF24XX How to setup nRF24L01 to receive from an nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2: • Use same CRC configuration as the nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 uses • Set the PRIM_RX bit to 1 • Disable auto acknowledgement on the data pipe that will be addressed • Use the same address width as the PTX device • Use the same frequency channel as the PTX device • Select data rate 1Mbit/s on both nRF24L01 and nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 • Set correct payload width on the data pipe that will be addressed • Set PWR_UP and CE high How to setup nRF24L01 to transmit to an nRF2401/nRF24E1: • Use same CRC configuration as the nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 uses • Set the PRIM_RX bit to 0 • Set the Auto Retransmit Count to 0 to disable the auto retransmit functionality • Use the same address width as the nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 uses • Use the same frequency channel as the nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 uses • Select data rate 1Mbit/s on both nRF24L01 and nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 • Set PWR_UP high • Clock in a payload that has the same length as the nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 is configured to receive • Pulse CE to send the packet PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 26 of 38 November 2005 PACKET DESCRIPTION An Enhanced ShockBurst™ packet with payload (1-32 bytes). Preamble 1 byte Address 3-5 byte 9 bit Payload 1 - 32 byte CRC 0/1/2 byte flag bits. A ShockBurst™ packet compatible to nRF2401/nRF2402/nRF24E1/nRF24E2 devices. Preamble 1 byte Address 3-5 byte Payload 1 - 32 byte CRC 0/1/2 byte Preamble • Preamble is used to detect 0 and 1 levels. It is stripped off (RX) and added (TX) by nRF24L01. The preamble is 8 bits long. Address • The address field contains the receiver address. • The address can be 3, 4 or 5 bytes wide • The address fields can be individually configured for all RX channels and the TX channel • Address is automatically removed from received packets. 14 Flags • PID: Packet Identification. 2 bits that is incremented for each new payload • 7 bits reserved for packet compatibility with future products • Not used when compatible to nRF2401/nRF24E1 Payload • 1 - 32 bytes wide. CRC • The CRC is optional. • 0-2 bytes wide CRC • The polynomial for 8 bits CRC check is X 8 + X 2 + X + 1 • The polynomial for 16 bits CRC check is X 16 + X 12 + X 5 + 1. Table 12 Data packet description 14 Suggested use of addresses. In general more bits in the address gives less false detection, which in the end may give lower data Packet-Error-Rate (PER). A. The address made by (5, 4, or 3) equal bytes are not recommended because it in general will make the packet-error-rate increase. B. Addresses where the level shift only one time (i.e. 000FFFFFFF) could often be detected in noise that may give a false detection, which again may give raised packet-error-rate. C. Addresses as a continuation of the preamble (hi-low toggling) will raise the Packet-Error-Rate (PER). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 27 of 38 November 2005 IMPORTANT TIMING DATA The following timing applies for operation of nRF24L01. nRF24L01 Timing Information nRF24L01 timing Max. Min. Name Power Down  Standby mode 1.5ms Tpd2stby Standby modes  TX/RX mode 130 µs Tstby2a Minimum CE high 10 µs Thce Delay from CE pos. edge to CSN low 4µs Tpece2csn Table 13 Operational timing of nRF24L01 When the nRF24L01 is in power down it must always settle in Standby for 1.5ms before it can enter one of the TX or RX modes. Note that the configuration word will be lost if VDD is turned off and that the device then must be configured before going to one of the TX or RX mode. Enhanced ShockBurst™ timing 1 2 ACK (33 us) Payload (33 us + 4 us/byte) 2 us 1 byte payload with ACK (339 us) 128 us 6 us 6 us 128 us Packet: Address: 5 bytes CRC: 1 byte Payload: 1 byte SPI: IRQ Clear CE high minimum 10 us TX TX STBY I RXSTBY I 1 0 RX RX TX 0us 250us ESB cycle PTX: CE PTX: IRQ (TX_DS) PTX: Mode Antenna PRX: CE PRX: IRQ (RX_DR) PRX: Mode Figure 11 Timing of Enhanced ShockBurst™ for one packet upload (2Mbps). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 28 of 38 November 2005 In Figure 11 the sending of one packet and the acknowledgement of this packet is shown. The loading of payload to the PTX device is not shown in the figure. The PRX device is turned into RX mode (CE=1), and the PTX device is set into TX mode (CE=1 for minimum 10 µs). After 130 µs the transmission starts and is finished after another 37 µs (1 byte payload). The transmission ends, and the PTX device is automatically turned around to RX mode to wait for the acknowledgement from the PRX device. After the PTX device has received the acknowledgement it gives an interrupt to the MCU (IRQ (TX_DS) =>TX-data sent). After the PRX device has received the packet it gives an interrupt to the MCU (IRQ (RX_DR) =>RX-data ready). PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 29 of 38 November 2005 PERIPHERAL RF INFORMATION Antenna output The ANT1 & ANT2 output pins provide a balanced RF output to the antenna. The pins must have a DC path to VDD, either via a RF choke or via the center point in a dipole antenna. A load of 100 Ω+j175 Ω is recommended for maximum output power (0dBm). Lower load impedance (for instance 50 Ω) can be obtained by fitting a simple matching network. Output Power adjustment SPI RF_SETUP (RF_PWR) RF output power DC current consumption 11 0 dBm 11.3 mA 10 -6 dBm 9.0 mA 01 -12 dBm 7.5 mA 00 -18 dBm 7.0 mA Conditions: VDD = 3.0V, VSS = 0V, T A = 27ºC, Load impedance = 100 Ω+j175 Ω. Table 14 RF output power setting for the nRF24L01. Crystal Specification Frequency accuracy includes initial accuracy (tolerance) and stability over temperature and aging. Frequency CL ESR max C0max Frequency accuracy 16MHz 12pF 100 Ω 7.0pF ±60ppm Table 15 Crystal specification of the nRF24L01 To achieve a crystal oscillator solution with low power consumption and fast start-up time, it is recommended to specify the crystal with a low value of crystal load capacitance. Specifying C L=12pF is OK, but it is possible to use up to 16pF. Specifying a lower value of crystal parallel equivalent capacitance, C 0 will also work, but this can increase the price of the crystal itself. Typically C 0=1.5pF at a crystal specified for C 0max =7.0pF. nRF24L01 sharing crystal with a micro controller. When using a micro controller to drive the crystal reference input XC1 of the nRF24L01 transceiver some rules must be followed. Crystal parameters: When the micro controller drives the nRF24L01 clock input, the requirement of load capacitance C L is set by the micro controller only. The frequency accuracy of ±60 ppm is still required to get a functional radio link. The nRF24L01 will load the crystal by 0.5pF at XC1 in addition to the PBC routing. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 30 of 38 November 2005 Input crystal amplitude & Current consumption The input signal should not have amplitudes exceeding any rail voltage, but any DC- voltage within this is OK. Exceeding rail voltage will excite the ESD structure and the radio performance is degraded below specification. If testing the nRF24L01 with a RF source with no DC offset as the reference source, the input signal will go below the ground level, which is not acceptable. XC1 XO_OUT Amplitude controlled current source Buffer: Sine to full swing Current starved inverter: XOSC core XC2 Vdd Vss Vdd Vss ESDESD Figure 12 Principle of crystal oscillator The nRF24L01 crystal oscillator is amplitude regulated. To achieve low current consumption and also good signal-to-noise ratio when using an external clock, it is recommended to use an input signal larger than 0.4 V-peak. When clocked externally, XC2 is not used and can be left as an open pin. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 31 of 38 November 2005 PCB layout and de-coupling guidelines A well-designed PCB is necessary to achieve good RF performance. Keep in mind that a poor layout may lead to loss of performance, or even functionality, if due care is not taken. A fully qualified RF-layout for the nRF24L01 and its surrounding components, including matching networks, can be downloaded from www.nordicsemi.no . A PCB with a minimum of two layers including a ground plane is recommended for optimum performance. The nRF24L01 DC supply voltage should be de-coupled as close as possible to the VDD pins with high performance RF capacitors, see Table 16. It is preferable to mount a large surface mount capacitor (e.g. 4.7 µF tantalum) in parallel with the smaller value capacitors. The nRF24L01 supply voltage should be filtered and routed separately from the supply voltages of any digital circuitry. Long power supply lines on the PCB should be avoided. All device grounds, VDD connections and VDD bypass capacitors must be connected as close as possible to the nRF24L01 IC. For a PCB with a topside RF ground plane, the VSS pins should be connected directly to the ground plane. For a PCB with a bottom ground plane, the best technique is to have via holes as close as possible to the VSS pads. At least one via hole should be used for each VSS pin. Full swing digital data or control signals should not be routed close to the crystal or the power supply lines. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 32 of 38 November 2005 APPLICATION EXAMPLE nRF24L01 with single ended matching network crystal, bias resistor, and decoupling capacitors. C2 22pF 0402 C9 10nF 0402 C8 1nF 0402 R2 22K 0402VDD C1 22pF 0402 R1 1M X1 16 MHz C7 33nF 0402 L1 6,8nH 0402 C3 2.2nF 0402 C4 4.7pF 0402 L3 3,9nH 0402 L2 3.3nH 0402 C5 1,5pF 0402 C6 1,5pF 0402 CE1 CSN2 SCK3 MOSI4 MISO5 IRQ 6 VDD 7 VSS 8 XC2 9 XC1 10 VDD_PA 11ANT1 12ANT2 13VSS 14VDD 15 IREF 16 VSS 17 VDD 18 DVDD 19 VSS 20 nRF24L01 U1 NRF24L01 CE CSN SCK MOSI MISO IRQ 50ohm, RF I/O Figure 13 nRF24L01 schematic for RF layouts with single ended 50 Ω RF output. Part Designator Footprint Description 22pF 15 C1 0402 NPO, +/- 2%, 50V 22pF 15 C2 0402 NPO, +/- 2%, 50V 2.2nF C3 0402 X7R, +/- 10%, 50V 4.7pF C4 0402 NPO, +/- 0.25 pF, 50V 1.5pF C5 0402 NPO, +/- 0.1 pF, 50V 1,5pF C6 0402 NPO, +/- 0.1 pF, 50V 33nF C7 0402 X7R, +/- 10%, 50V 1nF C8 0402 X7R, +/- 10%, 50V 10nF C9 0402 X7R, +/- 10%, 50V 6,8nH L1 0402 chip inductor +/- 5% 3.3nH L2 0402 chip inductor +/- 5% 3,9nH L3 0402 chip inductor +/- 5% 1M R1 0402 +/-10% 22K R2 0402 +/- 1 % nRF24L01 U1 QFN20 4x4 16MHz X1 +/-60ppm, Cl=12pF 15 Table 16 Recommended components (BOM) in nRF24L01 with antenna matching network 15 C1 and C2 must have values that match the crystals load capacitance, Cl. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 33 of 38 November 2005 PCB layout examples Figure 14 shows a PCB layout example for the application schematic in Figure 13. A double-sided FR-4 board of 1.6mm thickness is used. This PCB has a ground plane on the bottom layer. Additionally, there are ground areas on the component side of the board to ensure sufficient grounding of critical components. A large number of via holes connect the top layer ground areas to the bottom layer ground plane. Top overlay Top layer PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 34 of 38 November 2005 Bottom layer Figure 14 nRF24L01 RF layout with single ended connection to PCB antenna and 0603 size passive components The nest figure (Figure 15) is for the SMA output to have a board for direct measurements at a 50 Ω SMA connector. Top Overlay PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 35 of 38 November 2005 Top Layer Bottom Layer Figure 15 Module with OFM crystal and SMA connector PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 36 of 38 November 2005 DEFINITIONS Data sheet status Objective product specification This data sheet contains target specifications for product development. Preliminary product specification This data sheet contains preliminary data; supplementary data may be published from Nordic Semiconductor ASA later. Product specification This data sheet contains final product specifications. Nordic Semiconductor ASA reserves the right to make changes at any time without notice in order to improve design and supply the best possible product. Limiting values Stress above one or more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and operation of the device at these or at any other conditions above those given in the Specifications sections of the specification is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability. Application information Where application information is given, it is advisory and does not form part of the specification. Table 17. Definitions Nordic Semiconductor ASA reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the product to improve reliability, function or design. Nordic Semiconductor ASA does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuits described herein. LIFE SUPPORT APPLICATIONS These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Nordic Semiconductor ASA customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Nordic Semiconductor ASA for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale. Preliminary Product Specification: Revision Date: 11.11.2005. Data sheet order code: 111105-nRF24L01 All rights reserved ®. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 37 of 38 November 2005 YOUR NOTES PRELIMINARY PRODUCT SPECIFICATION nRF24L01 Single Chip 2.4 GHz Radio Transceiver Nordic Semiconductor ASA - Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway - Phone +4772898900 - Fax +4772898989 Revision: 1.1 Page 38 of 38 November 2005 Nordic Semiconductor ASA – World Wide Distributors For Your nearest dealer, please see http://www.nordicsemi.no Main Office: Vestre Rosten 81, N-7075 Tiller, Norway Phone: +47 72 89 89 00, Fax: +47 72 89 89 89 Visit the Nordic Semiconductor ASA website at http://www.nordicsemi.no
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